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Sample records for agronomic traits including

  1. Association of green stem disorder with agronomic traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green stem disorder (GSD) of soybean is the occurrence of non-senescent, fleshy green stems of plants with normal, fully mature pods and seeds. The main focus of this study was to determine the relationship between GSD incidence and agronomic traits and to determine if GSD incidence was associated w...

  2. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-02-26

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.

  3. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    PubMed Central

    Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

  4. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  5. Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits Dissected by Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.; Stich, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P < 1.28e-05 (Bonferroni correction of α = 0.05) for the inbreds of the spring and winter trial. For the seed quality traits, a single SNP-sulfur concentration in seeds (SUL) association explained up to 67.3% of the phenotypic variance, whereas for the agronomic traits, a single SNP-blossom color (BLC) association explained up to 30.2% of the phenotypic variance. In a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search within a distance of 2.5 Mbp around these SNP-trait associations, 62 hits of potential candidate genes with a BLAST-score of ≥100 and a sequence identity of ≥70% to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036

  6. Detection of QTL for metabolic and agronomic traits in wheat with adjustments for variation at genetic loci that affect plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Langridge, Peter; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with levels of individual metabolites (mQTL) was combined with the mapping of agronomic traits to investigate the genetic basis of variation and co-variation in metabolites, agronomic traits, and plant phenology in a field-grown bread wheat population. Metabolome analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry resulting in identification of mainly polar compounds, including secondary metabolites. A total of 558 metabolic features were obtained from the flag leaves of 179 doubled haploid lines, of which 197 features were putatively identified, mostly as alkaloids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Coordinated genetic control was observed for several groups of metabolites, such as organic acids influenced by two loci on chromosome 7A. Five major phenology-related loci, which were introduced as cofactors in the analyses, differed in their impact upon metabolic and agronomic traits with QZad-aww-7A having more impact on the expression of both metabolite and agronomic QTL than Ppd-B1, Vrn-A1, Eps, and QZad-aww-7D. This QTL study validates the utility of combining agronomic and metabolomic traits as an approach to identify potential trait enhancement targets for breeding selection and reinforces previous results that demonstrate the importance of including plant phenology in the assessment of useful traits in this wheat mapping population.

  7. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms.

  8. Genome-wide association study of 12 agronomic traits in peach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ke; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Qi; Guo, Jian; Zhao, Pei; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Tian, Zhixi; Wang, Lirong

    2016-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is a highly valuable crop species and is recognized by molecular researchers as a model fruit for the Rosaceae family. Using whole-genome sequencing data generated from 129 peach accessions, here we perform a comprehensive genome-wide association study for 12 key agronomic traits. We show that among the 10 qualitative traits investigated, nine exhibit consistent and more precise association signals than previously identified by linkage analysis. For two of the qualitative traits, we describe candidate genes, one potentially involved in cell death and another predicted to encode an auxin-efflux carrier, that are highly associated with fruit shape and non-acidity, respectively. Furthermore, we find that several genomic regions harbouring association signals for fruit weight and soluble solid content overlapped with predicted selective sweeps that occurred during peach domestication and improvement. Our findings contribute to the large-scale characterization of genes controlling agronomic traits in peach. PMID:27824331

  9. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  10. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut disease evaluations of advanced breeding lines are conducted annually to compare the agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and disease resistance of cultivars that are currently available or close to being released for the Southwest. In 2016, a total of 21 com...

  11. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 20 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2015 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics). Environmental conditions in 2015 were not favorable for Sclerotinia blight, southern bl...

  12. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 23 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2014 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to soilborne diseases. Among the 16 runner entries evaluated, Tamrun OL11...

  13. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 21 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2013 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to diseases (Sclerotinia blight, southern blight, and Pythium and Rhizoctonia pod rot). Among th...

  14. Genome-wide association study of agronomic traits in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a global Andean diversity panel (ADP) of 237 genotypes of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris was conducted to gain insight into the genetic architecture of several agronomic traits controlling phenology, biomass, yield components and seed yield. The panel wa...

  15. Genetic and Association Mapping Study of Wheat Agronomic Traits Under Contrasting Water Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Dodig, Dejan; Zoric, Miroslav; Kobiljski, Borislav; Savic, Jasna; Kandic, Vesna; Quarrie, Steve; Barnes, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic analyses and association mapping were performed on a winter wheat core collection of 96 accessions sampled from a variety of geographic origins. Twenty-four agronomic traits were evaluated over 3 years under fully irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments. Grain yield was the most sensitive trait to water deficit and was highly correlated with above-ground biomass per plant and number of kernels per m2. The germplasm was structured into four subpopulations. The association of 46 SSR loci distributed throughout the wheat genome with yield and agronomic traits was analyzed using a general linear model, where subpopulation information was used to control false-positive or spurious marker-trait associations (MTAs). A total of 26, 21 and 29 significant (P < 0.001) MTAs were identified in irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments, respectively. The marker effects ranged from 14.0 to 50.8%. Combined across all treatments, 34 significant (P < 0.001) MTAs were identified with nine markers, and R2 ranged from 14.5 to 50.2%. Marker psp3200 (6DS) and particularly gwm484 (2DS) were associated with many significant MTAs in each treatment and explained the greatest proportion of phenotypic variation. Although we were not able to recognize any marker related to grain yield under drought stress, a number of MTAs associated with developmental and agronomic traits highly correlated with grain yield under drought were identified. PMID:22754357

  16. Effects of Delaying Transplanting on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Rice under Mechanical Transplantation Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qihua; Wu, Xiu; Ma, Jiaqing; Chen, Bocong; Xin, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT) of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT). The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT. PMID:25875607

  17. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-03

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  18. Association Mapping Reveals Genetic Loci Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Lentinula edodes, Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuang; Gong, Wenbing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhiquan; Nong, Wenyan; Bian, Yinbing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L. edodes cultivars (FST = 0.247). Using the mixed linear model, a total of 43 markers were detected to be significantly associated with four traits. The number of markers associated with traits ranged from 9 to 26, and the phenotypic variations explained by each marker varied from 12.07% to 31.32%. Apart from five previously reported markers, the remaining 38 markers were newly reported here. Twenty-one markers were identified as simultaneously linked to two to four traits, and five markers were associated with the same traits in cultivation tests performed in two consecutive years. The 43 traits-associated markers were related to 97 genes, and 24 of them were related to 10 traits-associated markers detected in both years or identified previously, 13 of which had a >2-fold expression change between the mycelium and primordium stages. Our study has provided candidate markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and useful clues for understanding the genetic architecture of agronomic traits in the shiitake mushroom. PMID:28261189

  19. [Numerical taxonomy of agronomic trait in cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-three morphological traits from 743 specimens of the 41 taxa within the cultivated Lonicera japonica were observed and measured, such as the height of plants, the length of leaf, the width of leaf, the length of anther, the alabastrum's number of one branch, the color of alabastrum and so on. A numerical taxonomy is presented by using the cluster analysis, principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis. Sixteen of 63 characters were screened by means of PCA and used for cluster analysis of 41 taxa with the method of Ward linkage and average euclidean distance. The cluster analysis showed that the 41 taxa could be divided into 5 groups when the Euclidean distance coefficient was 11.84. The factor analysis indicated that the shape of leaf, color of alabastrum, the pilosity and color of twiggery were of significance for the cultivated L. japonica classification. The results of this study will be a base for the core collection and breeding of L. japonica.

  20. RiceATM: a platform for identifying the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chia-Chun; Chen, Rong-Kuen; Jwo, Woei-Shyuan; Wu, Chih-Wen; Ting, Wen-Yen; Shung, Dah-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Chi; Chen, Jeremy J.W.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant development and stress-response regulation, and they frequently display multi-targeting characteristics. The control of defined rice phenotypes occurs through multiple genes; however, evidence demonstrating the relationship between agronomic traits and miRNA expression profiles is lacking. In this study, we investigated eight yield-related traits in 187 local rice cultivars and profiled the expression levels of 193 miRNAs in these cultivars using microarray analyses. By integrating the miRBase database, the rice annotation project database, and the miRanda and psRNATarget web servers, we constructed a database (RiceATM) that can be employed to investigate the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression. The functions of this platform include phenotype selection, sample grouping, microarray data pretreatment, statistical analysis and target gene predictions. To demonstrate the utility of RiceATM, we used the database to identify four miRNAs associated with the heading date and validated their expression trends in the cultivars with early or late heading date by real-time PCR. RiceATM is a useful tool for researchers seeking to characterize the role of certain miRNAs for a specific phenotype and discover potential biomarkers for breeding or functional studies. Database URL: http://syslab3.nchu.edu.tw/rice/ PMID:28025342

  1. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  2. Cultivar x binary mixture interaction effect on agronomic traits in orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the agronomic value, including dry matter yield and forage quality of 25 orchardgrass cultivars grown in monoculture and binary mixtures with alfalfa under supplemental irrigation from 2009 to 2012 at a Millville, UT, field site. Orchardgrass monoc...

  3. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  4. Whole-Genome Mapping of Agronomic and Metabolic Traits to Identify Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Bread Wheat Grown in a Water-Limited Environment1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Camilla B.; Taylor, Julian D.; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  5. Genes associated with agronomic traits in non-heading Chinese cabbage identified by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genomes of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis), heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and their close relative Arabidopsis thaliana have provided important resources for studying the evolution and genetic improvement of cruciferous plants. Natural growing conditions present these plants with a variety of physiological challenges for which they have a repertoire of genes that ensure adaptability and normal growth. We investigated the differential expressions of genes that control adaptability and development in plants growing in the natural environment to study underlying mechanisms of their expression. Results Using digital gene expression tag profiling, we constructed an expression profile to identify genes related to important agronomic traits under natural growing conditions. Among three non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars, we found thousands of genes that exhibited significant differences in expression levels at five developmental stages. Through comparative analysis and previous reports, we identified several candidate genes associated with late flowering, cold tolerance, self-incompatibility, and leaf color. Two genes related to cold tolerance were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We identified a large number of genes associated with important agronomic traits of non-heading Chinese cabbage. This analysis will provide a wealth of resources for molecular-assisted breeding of cabbage. The raw data and detailed results of this analysis are available at the website http://nhccdata.njau.edu.cn. PMID:24655567

  6. Agronomic traits and gene containment capability of cleistogamous rice lines with the superwoman1-cleistogamy mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Shinnosuke; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Yatou, Osamu; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pollen-mediated transgene flow is a major concern for the production of genetically modified (GM) rice. Cleistogamy is a useful tool for preventing this form of gene flow. We previously identified the cleistogamous rice mutant superwoman1-cleistogamy (spw1-cls) and determined its molecular genetic mechanism. In the present study, we cultivated spw1-cls over five years to examine effects of cleistogamy on agronomic traits. Simultaneously, we cultivated cleistogamous backcross lines created by continuous backcrossing with “Yumeaoba” (a japonica cultivar) as the recurrent parent and by application of a DNA marker. In these experimental cultivations, spw1-cls and its backcross lines showed almost equal or slightly lower, but acceptable, agronomic traits compared with each control line. We also conducted natural crossing tests in paddy fields to assess the gene containment capability of spw1-cls. In a series of field experiments, there was no natural crossing between spw1-cls (pollen donor) and pollen recipient lines, but the wild-type donor and recipient lines were crossed. Thus, the cleistogamy of the spw1-cls mutation is able to inhibit natural crossing effectively, without significant loss of commercial benefits, such as yield. We conclude that spw1-cls cleistogamy is a practical tool for gene containment in GM rice cultivation. PMID:23136523

  7. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  8. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910–2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method. PMID:27441835

  9. Genome-wide indel/SSR scanning reveals significant loci associated with excellent agronomic traits of a cabbage (Brassica oleracea) elite parental line ‘01–20’

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Han, Fengqing; Liu, Xing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2017-01-01

    Elite parental lines are of great significance to crop breeding. To discover unique genomic loci associated with excellent economic traits in the elite cabbage inbred-line ‘01–20’, we performed comparisons of phenotypes as well as whole-genome insertion-deletion/simple sequence repeat loci between ‘01–20’ and each of its five sister lines. ‘01–20’ has a range of excellent agronomic traits, including early-maturing, and improvements in plant type and leaf colour. Eight unique loci were discovered for ‘01–20’ and ‘01-07-258’, another elite line similar to ‘01–20’ at the whole-genome level. In addition, two excellent double-haploid lines derived from a cross of ‘01–20’ also inherited these loci. Based on the quantitative trait locus association results, five of these loci were found to be associated with important agronomic traits, which could explain why the elite parent ‘01–20’ possesses greener outer leaves, a more compact and upright plant-type, rounder head, shorter core length, and better taste. Additionally, some of these loci have clustering effects for quantitative trait loci associated with different traits; therefore, important genes in these regions were analysed. The obtained results should enable marker-assisted multi-trait selection at the whole-genome level in cabbage breeding and provide insights into significant genome loci and their breeding effects. PMID:28164997

  10. Genetic analyses of agronomic traits in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhua; Kobayashi, Kiwa; Yoshida, Yasuko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of products made from Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) has increased in recent years in Japan. Increased consumer demand has led to recognition of the need for early varieties of this crop with high and stable yields. In order to accomplish this, more information is needed on the genetic mechanisms affecting earliness and yield. We conducted genetic analysis of 3 agronomic traits (days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight per plant) to segregate F(2) and F(3) populations derived from a cross between Tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokuriku No. 4' and 'Ishisoba'. Broad-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight were 0.70, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively, in F(3) population. Narrow-sense heritability for total seed weight (0.51) was highest, followed by heritability for days to flowering (0.37), with heritability for plant height (0.26) lowest. Later flowering was associated with increased plant height and higher yields. From the F(4) generation, we identified twelve candidate plants with earlier maturity and reduced plant height compared to 'Hokuriku No. 4', but almost the same total seed weight. These results suggest that hybridization breeding using the single seed descent (SSD) method is an effective approach for improving agronomic characteristics of Tartary buckwheat.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis for non agronomic traits in maize under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the most serious environmental stress facing maize production, and strongly threatens crop yields. Changes in agronomic traits in response to this stress have been extensively studied using biparental mapping populations and inbred lines, but little is known about the related genes and un...

  12. Diversity characterization and association analysis of agronomic traits in a Chinese peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huifang; Huang, Li; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Youlin; Huang, Jiaquan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Liao, Boshou

    2014-02-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular basis of phenotypic variations in plants. A peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection in China comprising 298 accessions was genotyped using 109 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which identified 554 SSR alleles and phenotyped for 15 agronomic traits in three different environments, exhibiting abundant genetic and phenotypic diversity within the panel. A model-based structure analysis assigned all accessions to three groups. Most of the accessions had the relative kinship of less than 0.05, indicating that there were no or weak relationships between accessions of the mini-core collection. For 15 agronomic traits in the peanut panel, generally the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives compared to the Q model and the general linear model-simple model. In total, 89 SSR alleles were identified to be associated with 15 agronomic traits of three environments by the Q + K model-based association analysis. Of these, eight alleles were repeatedly detected in two or three environments, and 15 alleles were commonly detected to be associated with multiple agronomic traits. Simple sequence repeat allelic effects confirmed significant differences between different genotypes of these repeatedly detected markers. Our results demonstrate the great potential of integrating the association analysis and marker-assisted breeding by utilizing the peanut mini-core collection.

  13. Multivariate diallel analysis allows multiple gains in segregating populations for agronomic traits in Jatropha.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Peixoto, L A; Silva, L A; Laviola, B G; Bhering, L L

    2017-03-22

    Jatropha is research target worldwide aimed at large-scale oil production for biodiesel and bio-kerosene. Its production potential is among 1200 and 1500 kg/ha of oil after the 4th year. This study aimed to estimate combining ability of Jatropha genotypes by multivariate diallel analysis to select parents and crosses that allow gains in important agronomic traits. We performed crosses in diallel complete genetic design (3 x 3) arranged in blocks with five replications and three plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, canopy projection between rows, canopy projection on the line, number of branches, mass of hundred grains, and grain yield. Data were submitted to univariate and multivariate diallel analysis. Genotypes 107 and 190 can be used in crosses for establishing a base population of Jatropha, since it has favorable alleles for increasing the mass of hundred grains and grain yield and reducing the plant height. The cross 190 x 107 is the most promising to perform the selection of superior genotypes for the simultaneous breeding of these traits.

  14. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci across recombinant inbred lines and testcross populations for traits of agronomic importance in rice.

    PubMed

    You, Aiqing; Lu, Xinggui; Jin, Huajun; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Yang, Haiyuan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling traits of agronomic importance detected in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are also expressed in testcross (TC) hybrids of rice. A genetic map was constructed using an RIL population derived from a cross between B5 and Minghui 63, a parent of the most widely grown hybrid rice cultivar in China. Four TC hybrid populations were produced by crossing the RILs with three maintaining lines for the widely used cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines and the genic male-sterile line Peiai64s. The mean values of the RILs for the seven traits investigated were significantly correlated to those of the F1 hybrids in the four TC populations. Twenty-seven main-effect QTL were identified in the RILs. Of these, the QTL that had the strongest effect on each of the seven traits in the RILs was detected in two or more of the TC populations, and six other QTL were detected in one TC population. Epistatic analysis revealed that the effect of epistatic QTL was relatively weak and cross combination specific. Searching publicly available QTL data in rice revealed the positional convergence of the QTL with the strongest effect in a wide range of populations and under different environments. Since the main-effect QTL is expressed across different testers, and in different genetic backgrounds and environments, it is a valuable target for gene manipulation and for further application in rice breeding. When a restorer line that expresses main-effect QTL is bred, it could be used in a number of cross combinations.

  16. Chromosomal Localization of Genes Conferring Desirable Agronomic Traits from Wheat-Agropyron cristatum Disomic Addition Line 5113.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfeng; Lu, Yuqing; Pan, Cuili; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Xi, Yajun; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Creation of wheat-alien disomic addition lines and localization of desirable genes on alien chromosomes are important for utilization of these genes in genetic improvement of common wheat. In this study, wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivative line 5113 was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and was demonstrated to be a novel wheat-A. cristatum disomic 6P addition line. Compared with its parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), 5113 displayed multiple elite agronomic traits, including higher uppermost internode/plant height ratio, larger flag leaf, longer spike length, elevated grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike, more kernel number in the middle spikelet, more fertile tiller number per plant, and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Genes conferring these elite traits were localized on the A. cristatum 6P chromosome by using SLAF-seq markers and biparental populations (F1, BC1F1 and BC1F2 populations) produced from the crosses between Fukuho and 5113. Taken together, chromosomal localization of these desirable genes will facilitate transferring of high-yield and high-resistance genes from A. cristatum into common wheat, and serve as the foundation for the utilization of 5113 in wheat breeding.

  17. Chromosomal Localization of Genes Conferring Desirable Agronomic Traits from Wheat-Agropyron cristatum Disomic Addition Line 5113

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cuili; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Xi, Yajun; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Creation of wheat-alien disomic addition lines and localization of desirable genes on alien chromosomes are important for utilization of these genes in genetic improvement of common wheat. In this study, wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivative line 5113 was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and was demonstrated to be a novel wheat-A. cristatum disomic 6P addition line. Compared with its parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), 5113 displayed multiple elite agronomic traits, including higher uppermost internode/plant height ratio, larger flag leaf, longer spike length, elevated grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike, more kernel number in the middle spikelet, more fertile tiller number per plant, and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Genes conferring these elite traits were localized on the A. cristatum 6P chromosome by using SLAF-seq markers and biparental populations (F1, BC1F1 and BC1F2 populations) produced from the crosses between Fukuho and 5113. Taken together, chromosomal localization of these desirable genes will facilitate transferring of high-yield and high-resistance genes from A. cristatum into common wheat, and serve as the foundation for the utilization of 5113 in wheat breeding. PMID:27824906

  18. A multiparental cross population for mapping QTL for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Milner, Sara Giulia; Maccaferri, Marco; Huang, Bevan Emma; Mantovani, Paola; Massi, Andrea; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Tuberosa, Roberto; Salvi, Silvio

    2016-02-01

    Multiparental cross designs for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) provide an efficient alternative to biparental populations because of their broader genetic basis and potentially higher mapping resolution. We describe the development and deployment of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) obtained by crossing four elite cultivars. A linkage map spanning 2664 cM and including 7594 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was produced by genotyping 338 RILs. QTL analysis was carried out by both interval mapping on founder haplotype probabilities and SNP bi-allelic tests for heading date and maturity date, plant height and grain yield from four field experiments. Sixteen QTL were identified across environments and detection methods, including two yield QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 7AS, with the former mapped independently from the photoperiod response gene Ppd-B1, while the latter overlapped with the vernalization locus VRN-A3. Additionally, 21 QTL with environment-specific effects were found. Our results indicated a prevalence of environment-specific QTL with relatively small effect on the control of grain yield. For all traits, functionally different QTL alleles in terms of direction and size of genetic effect were distributed among parents. We showed that QTL results based on founder haplotypes closely matched functional alleles at known heading date loci. Despite the four founders, only 2.1 different functional haplotypes were estimated per QTL, on average. This durum wheat population provides a mapping resource for detailed genetic dissection of agronomic traits in an elite background typical of breeding programmes.

  19. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    PubMed

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding.

  20. Combining abilities for agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection for Potato virus X and Potato virus Y resistance.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M L; Pinto, C A B P; Ribeiro, G H M R; Lyra, D H; Carneiro, O L G

    2016-09-16

    Disease-resistant potato cultivars with good tuber appearance and desirable agronomic traits are essential for meeting the demands of producers and the market. Attaining these cultivars is the focus of potato breeding programs whose aim is to benefit the productive chain. The purpose of this study was to estimate combining abilities and evaluate potato clones based on tuber appearance, yield, and resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses. Crosses between four commercial cultivars of potato with good tuber appearance were performed, using eight clones with proven resistance to PVY and PVX from the breeding program of UFLA. The clones obtained were evaluated for agronomic traits, tuber appearance, and the presence of both Ryadg and Rx1 alleles, which confer extreme resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses, respectively. The independent culling level method was used to select genotypes of commercial interest, as well as to estimate the combining abilities of the parents. We identified clones carrying the Ryadg and Rx1 alleles with agronomic traits suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The BRS Ana cultivar and CMA-399 and CMA-385 clones showed positive effects on general combining ability (GCA) for tuber yield, while the Monalisa cultivar showed positive effects on GCA for general tuber appearance.

  1. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  2. Agronomic Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines agronomic weed problems and control. Contents include a listing of the characteristics of weeds, a section on herbicides, and a section on the important weeds of agronomic crops in Pennsylvania. The herbicide section discusses systemic herbicides, contact…

  3. Combining Ability of Different Agronomic Traits and Yield Components in Hybrid Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Guo, Baojian; Xu, Rugen

    2015-01-01

    Selection of parents based on their combining ability is an effective approach in hybrid breeding. In this study, eight maintainer lines and nine restorer lines were used to obtain 72 crosses for analyzing the general combining ability (GCA) and special combining ability (SCA) for seven agronomic and yield characters including plant height (PH), spike length excluding awns (SL), inter-node length (IL), spikes per plant (SP), thousand kernel weight (TKW), kernel weight per plant (KWP) and dry matter weight per plant (DWP). The results showed that GCA was significantly different among parents and SCA was also significantly different among crosses. The performance of hybrid was significantly correlated with the sum of female and male GCA (TGCA), SCA and heterosis. Hu1154 A, Mian684 A, 86F098 A, 8036 R and 8041 R were excellent parents with greater general combining ability. Five crosses, Hu1154 A×8032 R, Humai10 A×8040 R, Mian684 A×8037 R, Mian684 A×8041 R and 86F098 A×8037 R, showed superior heterosis for most characters. PMID:26061000

  4. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.

  5. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

    2014-01-01

    Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding. PMID:25360796

  6. Association mapping for important agronomic traits in core collection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

    2014-01-01

    Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding.

  7. Genome wide association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits of maize hybrids in the sub-tropics.

    PubMed

    Farfan, Ivan D Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N; Murray, Seth C; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.

  8. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  9. Marker-assisted backcross approach for important agronomic traits of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing technologies are useful for identification of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cost effective manner. QTL mapping, association mapping and Mutmap approaches provide opportunities for use of such SNPs to associate and identify genes that control important agronomic ...

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Agronomic Traits in Soybean Using SNP Markers and SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marco Antônio Rott; Higashi, Wilson; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; Schuster, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci through the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in populations of unrelated individuals provides a valuable approach for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in soybean (Glycine max). The haplotype-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) has now been proposed as a complementary approach to intensify benefits from LD, which enable to assess the genetic determinants of agronomic traits. In this study a GWAS was undertaken to identify genomic regions that control 100-seed weight (SW), plant height (PH) and seed yield (SY) in a soybean association mapping panel using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and haplotype information. The soybean cultivars (N = 169) were field-evaluated across four locations of southern Brazil. The genome-wide haplotype association analysis (941 haplotypes) identified eleven, seventeen and fifty-nine SNP-based haplotypes significantly associated with SY, SW and PH, respectively. Although most marker-trait associations were environment and trait specific, stable haplotype associations were identified for SY and SW across environments (i.e., haplotypes Gm12_Hap12). The haplotype block 42 on Chr19 (Gm19_Hap42) was confirmed to be associated with PH in two environments. These findings enable us to refine the breeding strategy for tropical soybean, which confirm that haplotype-based GWAS can provide new insights on the genetic determinants that are not captured by the single-marker approach. PMID:28152092

  11. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    PubMed

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  12. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    PubMed

    Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  13. Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

  14. Photo-biotechnology as a tool to improve agronomic traits in crops.

    PubMed

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Ganesan, Markkandan; Song, Pill-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are photosensory phosphoproteins with crucial roles in plant developmental responses to light. Functional studies of individual phytochromes have revealed their distinct roles in the plant's life cycle. Given the importance of phytochromes in key plant developmental processes, genetically manipulating phytochrome expression offers a promising approach to crop improvement. Photo-biotechnology refers to the transgenic expression of phytochrome transgenes or variants of such transgenes. Several studies have indicated that crop cultivars can be improved by modulating the expression of phytochrome genes. The improved traits include enhanced yield, improved grass quality, shade-tolerance, and stress resistance. In this review, we discuss the transgenic expression of phytochrome A and its hyperactive mutant (Ser599Ala-PhyA) in selected crops, such as Zoysia japonica (Japanese lawn grass), Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass), Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Ipomea batatas (sweet potato). The transgenic expression of PhyA and its mutant in various plant species imparts biotechnologically useful traits. Here, we highlight recent advances in the field of photo-biotechnology and review the results of studies in which phytochromes or variants of phytochromes were transgenically expressed in various plant species. We conclude that photo-biotechnology offers an excellent platform for developing crops with improved properties.

  15. Population structure and genetic basis of the agronomic traits of upland cotton in China revealed by a genome-wide association study using high-density SNPs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Nie, Xinhui; Shen, Chao; You, Chunyuan; Li, Wu; Zhao, Wenxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Lin, Zhongxu

    2017-03-16

    Gossypium hirsutum L. represents the largest source of textile fibre, and China is one of the largest cotton producing and consuming countries in the world. To investigate the genetic architecture of the agronomic traits of upland cotton in China, a diverse and nation-wide population containing 503 G. hirsutum accessions was collected for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 16 agronomic traits. The accessions were planted in four places from 2012 to 2013 for phenotyping. The CottonSNP63K array and a published high-density map based on this array were used for genotyping. The 503 G. hirsutum accessions were divided into 3 subpopulations based on 11,975 quantified polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By comparing the genetic structure and phenotypic variation among 3 genetic subpopulations, 7 geographic distributions and 4 breeding periods, we found that geographic distribution and breeding period were not the determinants of genetic structure. In addition, no obvious phenotypic differentiations were found among the 3 subpopulations, even though they had different genetic backgrounds. A total of 324 SNPs and 160 candidate quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified as significantly associated with the 16 agronomic traits. A network was established for multi-effects in QTLs and inter-associations among traits. Thirty-eight associated regions had pleiotropic effects controlling more than one trait. One candidate gene, Gh_D08G2376, was speculated to control the lint percentage (LP). This GWAS is the first report using high-resolution SNPs in upland cotton in China to comprehensively investigate agronomic traits, and it provides a fundamental resource for cotton genetic research and breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide association analysis of agronomic traits in wheat under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Rees, D. Jasper G.; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association of agronomic traits of wheat for drought-tolerance breeding. Ninety-three diverse bread wheat genotypes were genotyped using the Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArTseq) protocol. The number of days-to-heading (DTH), number of days-to-maturity (DTM), plant height (PHT), spike length (SPL), number of kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GYLD), assessed under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions, were considered for the study. Population structure analysis and genome-wide association mapping were undertaken based on 16,383 silico DArTs loci with < 10% missing data. The population evaluated was grouped into nine distinct genetic structures. Inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium showed the existence of linkage decay as physical distance increased. A total of 62 significant (P < 0.001) marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected explaining more than 20% of the phenotypic variation observed under both drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions. Significant (P < 0.001) MTA event(s) were observed for DTH, PHT, SPL, SPS, and KPS; under both stressed and non-stressed conditions, while additional significant (P < 0.05) associations were observed for TKW, DTM and GYLD under non-stressed condition. The MTAs reported in this population could be useful to initiate marker-assisted selection (MAS) and targeted trait introgression of wheat under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions, and for fine mapping and cloning of the underlying genes and QTL. PMID:28234945

  17. Genetic control of agronomically important traits of pepper fruits analyzed by Hayman's partial diallel cross scheme.

    PubMed

    Schuelter, A R; Pereira, G M; Amaral, A T; Casali, V W D; Scapim, C A; Barros, W S; Finger, F L

    2010-01-01

    Pepper species of the genus Capsicum have been cultivated over centuries, producing both pungent and sweet fruit; the pungency is caused by alkaloids called capsaicinoids. Among the five cultivated species, Capsicum chinense is one of the most popular, being native to the Amazon basin. This species is characterized by a wide variety of fruit sizes, shapes and colors, with different capsaicinoid content. In addition, fruits are rich in vitamins A and C. Despite the importance of this plant as a spice and its medicinal uses, research on its genetic variability and potential for breeding programs is still incipient. We investigated the genetic control of some traits through diallel analysis with the objective of introgressing these traits into cultivated varieties. For the diallel analysis, the progeny of crosses between peppers with pungent and sweet fruits, together with the parents, were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The fruits were harvested and analyzed for the traits total fresh fruit mass, total dry fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, vitamin C content, fruit pungency, and number of seeds per fruit. Genetic variability was detected for all traits. In the diallel analysis, the additive-dominant model was considered to be adequate for total fresh fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, and vitamin C content. Additive genetic effects and dominance were found for all traits; consequently, breeding for improvement of these fruit traits would be viable.

  18. Comparative and parallel genome-wide association studies for metabolic and agronomic traits in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Peng, Meng; Gong, Liang; Gao, Yanqiang; Wan, Jian; Wang, Shouchuang; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bin; Li, Zongmei; Peng, Xiaoxi; Yang, Chenkun; Qu, Lianghuan; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The plant metabolome is characterized by extensive diversity and is often regarded as a bridge between genome and phenome. Here we report metabolic and phenotypic genome-wide studies (mGWAS and pGWAS) in rice grain that, in addition to previous metabolic GWAS in rice leaf and maize kernel, show both distinct and overlapping aspects of genetic control of metabolism within and between species. We identify new candidate genes potentially influencing important metabolic and/or morphological traits. We show that the differential genetic architecture of rice metabolism between different tissues is in part determined by tissue specific expression. Using parallel mGWAS and pGWAS we identify new candidate genes potentially responsible for variation in traits such as grain colour and size, and provide evidence of metabotype-phenotype linkage. Our study demonstrates a powerful strategy for interactive functional genomics and metabolomics in plants, especially the cloning of minor QTLs for complex phenotypic traits. PMID:27698483

  19. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  20. Inheritance of the physiological traits for drought reistance under terminal drought conditions and genotypic correlations with agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for terminal drought resistance in peanut can increase their productivity in drought-prone environments and reduce aflatoxin contamination. To improve selection efficiency for superior drought-resistant genotypes, a study of inheritance of traits is worthy, and provides useful information ...

  1. Genetic diversity of Capsicum chinensis (Solanaceae) accessions based on molecular markers and morphological and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Finger, F L; Lannes, S D; Schuelter, A R; Doege, J; Comerlato, A P; Gonçalves, L S A; Ferreira, F R A; Clovis, L R; Scapim, C A

    2010-09-21

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 49 accessions of the hot pepper species Capsicum chinensis through analyses of 12 physicochemical traits of the fruit, eight multi-categorical variables, and with 32 RAPD primers. Data from the physicochemical traits were submitted to analysis of variance to estimate the genetic parameters, and their means were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. The matrices from the individual and combined distance were estimated by multivariate analyses before applying Tocher's optimization method. All physicochemical traits were examined for genetic variability by analysis of variance. The responses of these traits showed more contribution from genetic than from environmental factors, except the percentage of dry biomass, content of soluble solids and vitamin C level. Total capsaicin had the greatest genetic divergence. Nine clusters were formed from the quantitative data based on the generalized distance of Mahalanobis, using Tocher's method; four were formed from the multi-categorical data using the Cole-Rodgers coefficient, and eight were formed from the molecular data using the Nei and Li coefficient. The accessions were distributed into 14 groups using Tocher's method, and no significant correlation between pungency and origin was detected. Uni- and multivariate analyses permitted the identification of marked genetic diversity and fruit attributes capable of being improved through breeding programs.

  2. Agronomic and kernel compositional traits of blue maize landraces from the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple races of maize have been cultivated for centuries in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. These landraces, used primarily for human food consumption, display considerable genetic variation for traits such as kernel color and texture. Traditional cultivation of these landraces has decli...

  3. Combining ability of S3 progenies for key agronomic traits in popcorn: comparison of testers in top-crosses.

    PubMed

    de Lima, V J; do Amaral Junior, A T; Kamphorst, S H; Pena, G F; Leite, J T; Schmitt, K F M; Vittorazzi, C; de Almeida Filho, J E; Mora, F

    2016-12-02

    The successful development of hybrid cultivars depends on the reliability of estimated combining ability of the parent lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the combining ability of partially inbred S3 families of popcorn derived from the open-pollinated variety UENF 14, via top-crosses with four testers, and to compare the testers for their ability to discriminate the S3 progenies. The experiment was conducted in the 2015/2016 crop season, in an incomplete-block (Lattice) design with three replications. The following agronomic traits were evaluated: average plant height, grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), and expanded popcorn volume per hectare. The top-cross hybrid, originating from the BRS-Angela vs S3 progeny 10 combination, was indicated as promising, showing high values for specific combining ability for GY and PE. For the S3 progenies that showed high and positive GCA values for GY and PE, the continuity of the breeding program is recommended, with the advance of self-pollination generations. Fasoulas' differentiation index discriminated the BRS-Angela tester as the most suitable for identifying the superior progenies.

  4. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2016-08-26

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. PMID:27567261

  6. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval

  7. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Semagn, Kassa; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N'Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM), 4B (80-82 cM) and 5A (296-297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  8. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids’ plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs. PMID:26907211

  9. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-02-24

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids' plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs.

  10. Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two testcross populations.

    PubMed

    Mei, H W; Luo, L J; Ying, C S; Wang, Y P; Yu, X Q; Guo, L B; Paterson, A H; Li, Z K

    2003-06-01

    To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, QTL mapping was performed to dissect the main effect (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of "Lemont/Teqing", and two testcross (TC) F(1) populations derived from these RILs. The correlation analyses reveal a general pattern, i.e. trait heritability in the RILs was negatively correlated to trait heterosis in the TC hybrids. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs affecting seven traits, including heading date (HD), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), panicle length (PL), spikelet number per panicle (SN) and spikelet fertility (SF), were identified and could be classified into two predominant groups, additive QTLs detected primarily in the RILs, and overdominant QTLs identified exclusively in the TC populations. There is little overlap between QTLs identified in the RILs and in the TC populations. This result implied that additive gene action is largely independent from non-additive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits of rice. The detected E-QTLs collectively explained a much greater portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs, supporting prior findings that epistasis has played an important role in the genetic control of quantitative traits in rice. The implications of these results to the development of inbred and hybrid cultivars were discussed.

  11. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  12. Assessment of anthocyanin and agronomic trait variation in some commonly used medicinal legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several legumes including Canavalia ensiformis, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera suffruticosa, Senna covesii, and S. occidentalis are currently used as medicinal plants. These species contain anthocyanins as well with potential to be used in the pharmaceutical markets. The USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic R...

  13. Genetic and agronomic assessment of cob traits in corn under low and normal nitrogen management conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rising energy demands and costs for fossil fuels, alternative energy from renewable sources such as maize cobs will become competitive. Maize cobs have beneficial characteristics for utilization as feedstock including compact tissue, high cellulose content, and low ash and nitrogen content. Nit...

  14. QTL mapping of ten agronomic traits on the soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) genetic map and their association with EST markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W-K; Wang, Y-J; Luo, G-Z; Zhang, J-S; He, C-Y; Wu, X-L; Gai, J-Y; Chen, S-Y

    2004-04-01

    A set of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from soybean vars. Kefeng No.1 x Nannong 1138-2 was used to construct a genetic linkage map. The two parents exhibit contrasting characteristics for most of the traits that were mapped. Using restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we mapped 452 markers onto 21 linkage groups and covered 3595.9 cM of the soybean genome. All of the linkage groups except linkage group F were consistent with those of the consensus map of Cregan et al. (1999). Linkage group F was divided into two linkage groups, F1 and F2. The map consisted of 189 RFLPs, 219 SSRs, 40 ESTs, three R gene loci and one phenotype marker. Ten agronomic traits-days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of nodes on main stem, lodging, number of pods per node, protein content, oil content, 100-seed weight, and plot yield-were studied. Using winqtlcart, we detected 63 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that had LOD>3 for nine of the agronomic traits (only exception being seed oil content) and mapped these on 12 linkage groups. Most of the QTLs were clustered, especially on groups B1 and C2. Some QTLs were mapped to the same loci. This pleiotropism was common for most of the QTLs, and one QTL could influence at most five traits. Seven EST markers were found to be linked closely with or located at the same loci as the QTLs. EST marker GmKF059a, encoding a repressor protein and mapped on group C2, accounted for about 20% of the total variation of days to flowering, plant height, lodging and nodes on the main stem, respectively.

  15. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  16. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  17. Transcriptome landscape of perennial wild Cicer microphyllum uncovers functionally relevant molecular tags regulating agronomic traits in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Malik, Ayushi; Singh, Mohar; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea. The transcript-derived 5698 including 282 in-silico polymorphic SSR and 127038 SNP markers annotated at a genome-wide scale exhibited high amplification and polymorphic potential among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild accessions suggesting their utility in chickpea genomics-assisted breeding applications. The functional significance of markers was assessed based on their localization in non-synonymous coding and regulatory regions of microphyllum root-specific genes differentially expressed predominantly in ICC 4958 roots under drought stress. A high-density 490 genic SSR- and SNP markers-anchored genetic linkage map identified six major QTLs regulating drought tolerance-related traits, yield per plant and harvest-index in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with comparative transcriptome profiling delineated five microphyllum root-specific genes with non-synonymous and regulatory SNPs governing drought-responsive yield traits. Multiple potential key regulators and functionally relevant molecular tags delineated can drive translational research and drought tolerance-mediated chickpea genetic enhancement. PMID:27680662

  18. Genome wide association studies using a new nonparametric model reveal the genetic architecture of 17 agronomic traits in an enlarged maize association panel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Lu, Yanli; Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Juan; Zhou, Yang; Ali, Farhan; Wen, Weiwei; Liu, Jie; Li, Jiansheng; Yan, Jianbing

    2014-09-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits using high-density SNP markers in maize. Here, we expanded our association panel size from 368 to 513 inbred lines with 0.5 million high quality SNPs using a two-step data-imputation method which combines identity by descent (IBD) based projection and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out for 17 agronomic traits with a panel of 513 inbred lines applying both mixed linear model (MLM) and a new method, the Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Ten loci for five traits were identified using the MLM method at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >5.74 (α=1). Many loci ranging from one to 34 loci (107 loci for plant height) were identified for 17 traits using the A-D test at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >7.05 (α=0.05) using 556809 SNPs. Many known loci and new candidate loci were only observed by the A-D test, a few of which were also detected in independent linkage analysis. This study indicates that combining IBD based projection and KNN algorithm is an efficient imputation method for inferring large missing genotype segments. In addition, we showed that the A-D test is a useful complement for GWAS analysis of complex quantitative traits. Especially for traits with abnormal phenotype distribution, controlled by moderate effect loci or rare variations, the A-D test balances false positives and statistical power. The candidate SNPs and associated genes also provide a rich resource for maize genetics and breeding.

  19. The pangenome of an agronomically important crop plant Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Golicz, Agnieszka A.; Bayer, Philipp E.; Barker, Guy C.; Edger, Patrick P.; Kim, HyeRan; Martinez, Paula A.; Chan, Chon Kit Kenneth; Severn-Ellis, Anita; McCombie, W. Richard; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Pires, J. Chris; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Tang, Haibao; Teakle, Graham R.; Town, Christopher D.; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis. PMID:27834372

  20. QTLs Associated with Agronomic Traits in the Cutler × AC Barrie Spring Wheat Mapping Population Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lara, Enid; Semagn, Kassa; Chen, Hua; Iqbal, Muhammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Kamran, Atif; Navabi, Alireza; Pozniak, Curtis; Spaner, Dean

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported three earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with flowering and maturity in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Cutler’ and ‘AC Barrie’ using 488 microsatellite and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Here, we present QTLs associated with flowering time, maturity, plant height, and grain yield using high density single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers in the same population. A mapping population of 158 RILs and the two parents were evaluated at five environments for flowering, maturity, plant height and grain yield under field conditions, at two greenhouse environments for flowering, and genotyped with a subset of 1809 SNPs out of the 90K SNP array and 2 functional markers (Ppd-D1 and Rht-D1). Using composite interval mapping on the combined phenotype data across all environments, we identified a total of 19 QTLs associated with flowering time in greenhouse (5), and field (6) conditions, maturity (5), grain yield (2) and plant height (1). We mapped these QTLs on 8 chromosomes and they individually explained between 6.3 and 37.8% of the phenotypic variation. Four of the 19 QTLs were associated with multiple traits, including a QTL on 2D associated with flowering, maturity and grain yield; two QTLs on 4A and 7A associated with flowering and maturity, and another QTL on 4D associated with maturity and plant height. However, only the QTLs on both 2D and 4D had major effects, and they mapped adjacent to well-known photoperiod response Ppd-D1 and height reducing Rht-D1 genes, respectively. The QTL on 2D reduced flowering and maturity time up to 5 days with a yield penalty of 436 kg ha-1, while the QTL on 4D reduced plant height by 13 cm, but increased maturity by 2 days. The high density SNPs allowed us to map eight moderate effect, two major effect, and nine minor effect QTLs that were not identified in our previous study

  1. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M S; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M V C; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H L; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81-90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components.

  2. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic

  5. Evaluation of agronomic traits and spectral reflectance in Pacific Northwest winter wheat under rain-fed and irrigated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a major winter wheat mega-environment characterized by a high latitude and a Mediterranean-like climate. Wheat production is predominantly rain-fed and often subject to low soil moisture. As result, discovery and introgression of drought-adaptive traits in modern cu...

  6. Confirmation of Molecular Markers and Agronomic Traits Associated with Seed Phytate Content in Two Soybean RIL Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of phytate is an important consideration when analyzing grain for livestock feed rations. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers Satt237 and Satt561 were recently found to be linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytate concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The ...

  7. EcoTILLING-Based Association Mapping Efficiently Delineates Functionally Relevant Natural Allelic Variants of Candidate Genes Governing Agronomic Traits in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Srivastava, Rishi; Nath, Manoj; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale mining and high-throughput genotyping of novel gene-based allelic variants in natural mapping population are essential for association mapping to identify functionally relevant molecular tags governing useful agronomic traits in chickpea. The present study employs an alternative time-saving, non-laborious and economical pool-based EcoTILLING approach coupled with agarose gel detection assay to discover 1133 novel SNP allelic variants from diverse coding and regulatory sequence components of 1133 transcription factor (TF) genes by genotyping in 192 diverse desi and kabuli chickpea accessions constituting a seed weight association panel. Integrating these SNP genotyping data with seed weight field phenotypic information of 192 structured association panel identified eight SNP alleles in the eight TF genes regulating seed weight of chickpea. The associated individual and combination of all SNPs explained 10–15 and 31% phenotypic variation for seed weight, respectively. The EcoTILLING-based large-scale allele mining and genotyping strategy implemented for association mapping is found much effective for a diploid genome crop species like chickpea with narrow genetic base and low genetic polymorphism. This optimized approach thus can be deployed for various genomics-assisted breeding applications with optimal expense of resources in domesticated chickpea. The seed weight-associated natural allelic variants and candidate TF genes delineated have potential to accelerate marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:27148286

  8. Mapping QTLs associated with agronomic and physiological traits under terminal drought and heat stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Sirous; Heidari, Bahram; Pakniyat, Hassan; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Wheat crops frequently experience a combination of abiotic stresses in the field, but most quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have focused on the identification of QTLs for traits under single stress field conditions. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from SeriM82 × Babax was used to map QTLs under well-irrigated, heat, drought, and a combination of heat and drought stress conditions in two years. A total of 477 DNA markers were used to construct linkage groups that covered 1619.6 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.39 cM between adjacent markers. Moderate to relatively high heritability estimates (0.60-0.70) were observed for plant height (PHE), grain yield (YLD), and grain per square meter (GM2). The most important QTLs for days to heading (DHE), thousand grain weight (TGW), and YLD were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D-a, and 7D-b. The prominent QTLs related to canopy temperature were on 3B. Results showed that common QTLs for DHE, YLD, and TGW on 7D-b were validated in heat and drought trials. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content in SPAD unit (on 1A/6B), leaf rolling (ROL) (on 3B/4A), and GM2 (on 1B/7D-b) showed significant epistasis × environment interaction. Six heat- or drought-specific QTLs (linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, 1B-agc/cta-9, 1A-aag/cta-8, 4A-acg/cta-3, 1B-aca/caa-3, and 1B-agc/cta-9 for day to maturity (DMA), SPAD, spikelet compactness (SCOM), TGW, GM2, and GM2, respectively) were stable and validated over two years. The major DHE QTL linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, with no QTL × environment (QE) interaction increased TGW and YLD. This QTL (5.68 ≤ LOD ≤ 10.5) explained up to 19.6% variation in YLD in drought, heat, and combined stress trials. This marker as a candidate could be used for verification in other populations and identifying superior allelic variations in wheat cultivars or its wild progenitors to increase the efficiency of selection of high yielding lines adapted to end-season heat and drought stress conditions.

  9. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    PubMed

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  10. The Genetic Basis of Heterosis: Multiparental Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Reveals Contrasted Levels of Apparent Overdominance Among Traits of Agronomical Interest in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Larièpe, A.; Mangin, B.; Jasson, S.; Combes, V.; Dumas, F.; Jamin, P.; Lariagon, C.; Jolivot, D.; Madur, D.; Fiévet, J.; Gallais, A.; Dubreuil, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases underlying heterosis is a major issue in maize (Zea mays L.). We extended the North Carolina design III (NCIII) by using three populations of recombinant inbred lines derived from three parental lines belonging to different heterotic pools, crossed with each parental line to obtain nine families of hybrids. A total of 1253 hybrids were evaluated for grain moisture, silking date, plant height, and grain yield. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was carried out on the six families obtained from crosses to parental lines following the “classical” NCIII method and with a multiparental connected model on the global design, adding the three families obtained from crosses to the nonparental line. Results of the QTL detection highlighted that most of the QTL detected for grain yield displayed apparent overdominance effects and limited differences between heterozygous genotypes, whereas for grain moisture predominance of additive effects was observed. For plant height and silking date results were intermediate. Except for grain yield, most of the QTL identified showed significant additive-by-additive epistatic interactions. High correlation observed between heterosis and the heterozygosity of hybrids at markers confirms the complex genetic basis and the role of dominance in heterosis. An important proportion of QTL detected were located close to the centromeres. We hypothesized that the lower recombination in these regions favors the detection of (i) linked QTL in repulsion phase, leading to apparent overdominance for heterotic traits and (ii) linked QTL in coupling phase, reinforcing apparent additive effects of linked QTL for the other traits. PMID:22135356

  11. The miR156/SPL Module, a Regulatory Hub and Versatile Toolbox, Gears up Crops for Enhanced Agronomic Traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-05-01

    In the past two decades, members of the SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family of transcription factors, first identified in Antirrhinum majus, have emerged as pivotal regulators of diverse biological processes in plants, including the timing of vegetative and reproductive phase change, leaf development, tillering/branching, plastochron, panicle/tassel architecture, fruit ripening, fertility, and response to stresses. Transcripts of a subset of SPLs are targeted for cleavage and/or translational repression by microRNA156s (miR156s). The levels of miR156s are regulated by both endogenous developmental cues and various external stimuli. Accumulating evidence shows that the regulatory circuit around the miR156/SPL module is highly conserved among phylogenetically distinct plant species, and plays important roles in regulating plant fitness, biomass, and yield. With the expanding knowledge and a mechanistic understanding of their roles and regulatory relationship, we can now harness the miR156/SPL module as a plethora of tools to genetically manipulate crops for optimal parameters in growth and development, and ultimately to maximize yield by intelligent design of crops.

  12. Including trait-based early warning signals helps predict population collapse.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Ozgul, Arpat

    2016-03-24

    Foreseeing population collapse is an on-going target in ecology, and this has led to the development of early warning signals based on expected changes in leading indicators before a bifurcation. Such signals have been sought for in abundance time-series data on a population of interest, with varying degrees of success. Here we move beyond these established methods by including parallel time-series data of abundance and fitness-related trait dynamics. Using data from a microcosm experiment, we show that including information on the dynamics of phenotypic traits such as body size into composite early warning indices can produce more accurate inferences of whether a population is approaching a critical transition than using abundance time-series alone. By including fitness-related trait information alongside traditional abundance-based early warning signals in a single metric of risk, our generalizable approach provides a powerful new way to assess what populations may be on the verge of collapse.

  13. Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2014-08-01

    A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P ≤ 0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies.

  14. Heritability and correlations among agronomic traits associated with reduced stink-bug damage in an F2:3 soybean population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Brazil, the most important insect pest causing economic damage to soybean are stink bugs. The objective of the current research was to evaluate genetic parameters and correlations among different traits associated with plant development and yield traits, in an F2:3 soybean population. A populatio...

  15. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  16. Including trait-based early warning signals helps predict population collapse

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Christopher F.; Ozgul, Arpat

    2016-01-01

    Foreseeing population collapse is an on-going target in ecology, and this has led to the development of early warning signals based on expected changes in leading indicators before a bifurcation. Such signals have been sought for in abundance time-series data on a population of interest, with varying degrees of success. Here we move beyond these established methods by including parallel time-series data of abundance and fitness-related trait dynamics. Using data from a microcosm experiment, we show that including information on the dynamics of phenotypic traits such as body size into composite early warning indices can produce more accurate inferences of whether a population is approaching a critical transition than using abundance time-series alone. By including fitness-related trait information alongside traditional abundance-based early warning signals in a single metric of risk, our generalizable approach provides a powerful new way to assess what populations may be on the verge of collapse. PMID:27009968

  17. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  18. Association analysis of genes involved in maize (Zea mays L.) root development with seedling and agronomic traits under contrasting nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Kumar, Bharath; Pace, Jordon; Jansen, Constantin; Gonzalez-Portilla, Pedro J; Reyes-Matamoros, Jenaro; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Lee, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding of the genetic control of root development might allow one to develop lines with root systems with the potential to adapt to soils with limited nutrient availability. For this purpose, an association study (AS) panel consisting of 74 diverse set of inbred maize lines were screened for seedling root traits and adult plant root traits under two contrasting nitrogen (N) levels (low and high N). Allele re-sequencing of RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1 genes related to root development was carried out for AS panel lines. Association analysis was carried out between individual polymorphisms, and both seedling and adult plant traits, while controlling for spurious associations due to population structure and kinship relations. Based on the SNPs identified in RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1, lines within the AS panel were grouped into 16, 9, 22, and 7 haplotypes, respectively. Association analysis revealed several polymorphisms within root genes putatively associated with the variability in seedling root and adult plant traits development under contrasting N levels. The highest number of significantly associated SNPs with seedling root traits were found in RTCL (19 SNPs) followed by RUM1 (4 SNPs) and in case of RTH3 and RUL1, two and three SNPs, respectively, were significantly associated with root traits. RTCL and RTH3 were also found to be associated with grain yield. Thus considerable allelic diversity is present within the candidate genes studied and can be utilized to develop functional markers that allow identification of maize lines with improved root architecture and yield under N stress conditions.

  19. Genome-wide mapping of spike-related and agronomic traits in a common wheat population derived from a supernumerary parent and an elite parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  20. Autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis from a degraded Mediterranean area can be used to improve physiological traits and performance of a plant of agronomic interest under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Azcón, Rosario; López-Castillo, Olga M; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that some microorganisms autochthonous from stressful environments are beneficial when used with autochthonous plants, but these microorganisms rarely have been tested with allochthonous plants of agronomic interest. This study investigates the effectiveness of drought-adapted autochthonous microorganisms [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] from a degraded Mediterranean area to improve plant growth and physiology in Zea mays under drought stress. Maize plants were inoculated or not with B. thuringiensis, a consortium of AM fungi or a combination of both microorganisms. Plants were cultivated under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress. Several physiological parameters were measured, including among others, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients content, oxidative damage to lipids, accumulation of proline and antioxidant compounds, root hydraulic conductivity and the expression of plant aquaporin genes. Under drought conditions, the inoculation of Bt increased significantly the accumulation of nutrients. The combined inoculation of both microorganisms decreased the oxidative damage to lipids and accumulation of proline induced by drought. Several maize aquaporins able to transport water, CO2 and other compounds were regulated by the microbial inoculants. The impact of these microorganisms on plant drought tolerance was complementary, since Bt increased mainly plant nutrition and AM fungi were more active improving stress tolerance/homeostatic mechanisms, including regulation of plant aquaporins with several putative physiological functions. Thus, the use of autochthonous beneficial microorganisms from a degraded Mediterranean area is useful to protect not only native plants against drought, but also an agronomically important plant such as maize.

  1. Rapid multipoint linkage analysis of recessive traits in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Daly, M.J.; Lander, E.S. |

    1995-02-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a powerful strategy for mapping rare recessive traits in children of consanguineous marriages. Practical applications of this strategy are currently limited by the inability of conventional linkage analysis software to compute, in reasonable time, multipoint LOD scores for pedigrees with inbreeding loops. We have developed a new algorithm for rapid multipoint likelihood calculations in small pedigrees, including those with inbreeding loops. The running time of the algorithm grows, at most, linearly with the number of loci considered simultaneously. The running time is not sensitive to the presence of inbreeding loops, missing genotype information, and highly polymorphic loci. We have incorporated this algorithm into a software package, MAPMAKER/HOMOZ, that allows very rapid multipoint mapping of disease genes in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping. Multipoint analysis with dozens of markers can be carried out in minutes on a personal workstation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A unifying comparative phylogenetic framework including traits coevolving across interacting lineages.

    PubMed

    Manceau, Marc; Lambert, Amaury; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-12-20

    - Models of phenotypic evolution fit to phylogenetic comparative data are widely used to make inferences regarding the tempo and mode of trait evolution. A wide range of models is already available for this type of analysis, and the field is still under active development. One of the most needed developments concerns models that better account for the effect of within- and between-clade interspecific interactions on trait evolution, that can result from processes as diverse as competition, predation, parasitism, or mutualism. Here, we begin by developing a very general comparative phylogenetic framework for (multi)-trait evolution that can be applied to both ultrametric and non-ultrametric trees. This framework not only encapsulates many previous models of continuous univariate and multivariate phenotypic evolution, but also paves the way for the consideration of a much broader series of models in which lineages co-evolve, meaning that trait changes in one lineage are influenced by the value of traits in other, interacting lineages. Next, we provide a standard way for deriving the probabilistic distribution of traits at tip branches under our framework. We 25 show that a multivariate normal distribution remains the expected distribution for a broad class of models accounting for interspecific interactions. Our derivations allow us to fit various models efficiently, and in particular greatly reduce the computation time needed to fit the recently proposed phenotype matching model. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our framework by developing a toy model for mutualistic coevolution. Our framework should foster a new era in the study of coevolution from comparative data.

  3. Domestication footprints anchor genomic regions of agronomic importance in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Dongyuan; Li, Yinghui; Lightfoot, David A; Yang, Zhijiang; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhikun; Huang, Long; Zhang, Zhiwu; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Present-day soybeans consist of elite cultivars and landraces (Glycine max, fully domesticated (FD)), annual wild type (Glycine soja, nondomesticated (ND)), and semi-wild type (semi-domesticated (SD)). FD soybean originated in China, although the details of its domestication history remain obscure. More than 500 diverse soybean accessions were sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) to address fundamental questions regarding soybean domestication. In total, 64,141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 0.05 were found among the 512 tested accessions. The results indicated that the SD group is not a hybrid between the FD and ND groups. The initial domestication region was pinpointed to central China (demarcated by the Great Wall to the north and the Qinling Mountains to the south). A total of 800 highly differentiated genetic regions and > 140 selective sweeps were identified, and these were three- and twofold more likely, respectively, to encompass a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) than the rest of the soybean genome. Forty-three potential quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs; including 15 distinct traits) were identified by genome-wide association mapping. The results of the present study should be beneficial for soybean improvement and provide insight into the genetic architecture of traits of agronomic importance.

  4. Breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important crops

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi; Dufourmantel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment by maternal inheritance, as well as a lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. More than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed using the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer desired agronomic traits or express high levels of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Despite such significant progress, this technology has not been extended to major crops. However, highly efficient soybean, carrot and cotton plastid transformation has recently been accomplished through somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors. This review focuses on recent exciting developments in this field and offers directions for further research and development. PMID:15866001

  5. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats.

    PubMed

    Solberg Woods, Leah C; Holl, Katie L; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J Alex; Murray, Seth C; Pugh, N Ace; Rooney, William L; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L S; Neely, Haly L; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F; Baltensperger, David D; Avant, Robert V; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1-the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons-of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project's goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first and

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Murray, Seth C.; Pugh, N. Ace; Rooney, William L.; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Neely, Haly L.; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V.; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P.; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B.; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F.; Baltensperger, David D.; Avant, Robert V.; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1—the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons–of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project’s goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first

  8. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used.

  9. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  10. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K.; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010–11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  11. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  12. Fine-tuning tomato agronomic properties by computational genome redesign.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández Del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites.

  13. Fine-Tuning Tomato Agronomic Properties by Computational Genome Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F.; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites. PMID:22685389

  14. Genetic Diversity and Association Mapping for Agromorphological and Grain Quality Traits of a Structured Collection of Durum Wheat Landraces Including subsp. durum, turgidum and diccocon

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Patricia; Royo, Conxita; González, Mirvana; Carrillo, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping was performed for 18 agromorphological and grain quality traits in a set of 183 Spanish landraces, including subspecies durum, turgidum and dicoccon, genotyped with 749 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers. Large genetic and phenotypic variability was detected, being the level of diversity among the chromosomes and genomes heterogeneous, and sometimes complementary, among subspecies. Overall, 356 were monomorphic in at least one subspecies, mainly in dicoccon, and some of them coincidental between subspecies, especially between turgidum and dicoccon. Several of those fixed markers were associated to plant responses to environmental stresses or linked to genes subjected to selection during tetraploid wheat domestication process. A total of 85 stable MTAs (marker–trait associations) have been identified for the agromorphological and quality parameters, some of them common among subspecies and others subspecies-specific. For all the traits, we have found MTAs explaining more than 10% of the phenotypic variation in any of the three subspecies. The number of MTAs on the B genome exceeded that on the A genome in subsp. durum, equalled in turgidum and was below in dicoccon. The validation of several adaptive and quality trait MTAs by combining the association mapping with an analysis of the signature of selection, identifying the putative gene function of the marker, or by coincidences with previous reports, showed that our approach was successful for the detection of MTAs and the high potential of the collection to identify marker–trait associations. Novel MTAs not previously reported, some of them subspecies specific, have been described and provide new information about the genetic control of complex traits. PMID:27846306

  15. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  16. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  17. Association of green stem disorder with agronomic traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green stem disorder of soybean (GSD) is the occurrence of non-senescent, fleshy green stems of plants with normal, fully mature pods and seeds. Data on GSD incidence based on a percentage of plants in plots showing symptoms were collected for soybean cultivars in 86 trials from 2009 to 2012 at seven...

  18. Functional Roles of microRNAs in Agronomically Important Plants—Potential as Targets for Crop Improvement and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T.; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Dubery, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production. Manipulation of mRNA transcript abundance via miRNA control provides a unique strategy for modulating differential plant gene expression and miRNAs are thus emerging as the next generation targets for genetic engineering for improvement of the agronomic properties of crops. However, a deeper understanding of its potential and the mechanisms involved will facilitate the design of suitable strategies to obtain the desirable traits with minimum trade-offs in the modified crops. In this regard, this review highlights the diverse roles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs in various food and industrial crops and recent advances made in the uses of miRNAs to improve plants of agronomically importance so as to significantly enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to various environmental stress agents of biotic—or abiotic origin. PMID:28382044

  19. Functional Roles of microRNAs in Agronomically Important Plants-Potential as Targets for Crop Improvement and Protection.

    PubMed

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Dubery, Ian A

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production. Manipulation of mRNA transcript abundance via miRNA control provides a unique strategy for modulating differential plant gene expression and miRNAs are thus emerging as the next generation targets for genetic engineering for improvement of the agronomic properties of crops. However, a deeper understanding of its potential and the mechanisms involved will facilitate the design of suitable strategies to obtain the desirable traits with minimum trade-offs in the modified crops. In this regard, this review highlights the diverse roles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs in various food and industrial crops and recent advances made in the uses of miRNAs to improve plants of agronomically importance so as to significantly enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to various environmental stress agents of biotic-or abiotic origin.

  20. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  1. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    PubMed

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    2013-06-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  2. Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides) has been a useful source of genes for high grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Prior studies have found other useful genes for agronomic and quality traits in Langdon durum - T. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) disomic sub...

  3. An Environmental Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O145 Clonal Population Exhibits High-Level Phenotypic Variation That Includes Virulence Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Beatriz; He, Xiaohua; Zhong, Wayne; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Lee, Bertram G.; Yambao, Jaszemyn C.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Cooley, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of environmental O145 strains recovered from a major produce production region in California. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that sequence type 78 (ST-78), a common ST in clinical strains, was the predominant genotype among the environmental strains. Similarly, all California environmental strains belonged to H28, a common H serotype in clinical strains. Although most environmental strains carried an intact fliC gene, only one strain retained swimming motility. Diverse stx subtypes were identified, including stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2e. Although no correlation was detected between the stx genotype and Stx1 production, high Stx2 production was detected mainly in strains carrying stx2a only and was correlated positively with the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin. All environmental strains were capable of producing enterohemolysin, whereas only 10 strains were positive for anaerobic hemolytic activity. Multidrug resistance appeared to be common, as nearly half of the tested O145 strains displayed resistance to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The core virulence determinants of enterohemorrhagic E. coli were conserved in the environmental STEC O145 strains; however, there was large variation in the expression of virulence traits among the strains that were highly related genotypically, implying a trend of clonal divergence. Several cattle isolates exhibited key virulence traits comparable to those of the STEC O145 outbreak strains, emphasizing the emergence of hypervirulent strains in agricultural environments. PMID:26637597

  4. On the Content and Structure of the Gender Role Self-Concept: Including Gender-Stereotypical Behaviors in Addition to Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athenstaedt, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    The present study introduces a conceptualization of gender role self-concept that implies not only the commonly measured socially desirable expressive and instrumental traits (F+ and M+) but also feminine and masculine behaviors (FBehav and MBehav), and socially undesirable gender traits (F- and M-). Three different models were tested using…

  5. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

  6. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Alan; Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2010-08-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes.

  7. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits.

  8. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  9. A carotenogenic mini-pathway introduced into white corn does not affect development or agronomic performance

    PubMed Central

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Christou, Paul; Savin, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait. We found that Carolight® was indistinguishable from its near isogenic line in terms of agronomic performance, particularly grain yield and its main components. We also established experimentally that the functionality of the introduced trait was indistinguishable when plants were grown in a controlled environment or in the field. Such thorough characterization under different agronomic conditions is rarely performed even for first-generation traits such as herbicide tolerance and pest resistance, and certainly not for complex second-generation traits such as the metabolic remodeling in the Carolight® variety. Our results therefore indicate that Carolight® can now be incorporated into breeding lines to generate hybrids with locally adapted varieties for further product development and assessment. PMID:27922071

  10. Placing Intelligence into an Evolutionary Framework or How "g" Fits into the "r-K" Matrix of Life-History Traits Including Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    First, I describe why intelligence (Spearman's "g") can only be fully understood through "r-K" theory, which places it into an evolutionary framework along with brain size, longevity, maturation speed, and several other life-history traits. The "r-K" formulation explains why IQ predicts longevity and also why the gap in mortality rates between…

  11. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Potter, Philip A.; Ramankutty, Navin

    2011-01-01

    Increased phosphorus (P) fertilizer use and livestock production has fundamentally altered the global P cycle. We calculated spatially explicit P balances for cropland soils at 0.5° resolution based on the principal agronomic P inputs and outputs associated with production of 123 crops globally for the year 2000. Although agronomic inputs of P fertilizer (14.2 Tg of P·y−1) and manure (9.6 Tg of P·y−1) collectively exceeded P removal by harvested crops (12.3 Tg of P·y−1) at the global scale, P deficits covered almost 30% of the global cropland area. There was massive variation in the magnitudes of these P imbalances across most regions, particularly Europe and South America. High P fertilizer application relative to crop P use resulted in a greater proportion of the intense P surpluses (>13 kg of P·ha−1·y−1) globally than manure P application. High P fertilizer application was also typically associated with areas of relatively low P-use efficiency. Although manure was an important driver of P surpluses in some locations with high livestock densities, P deficits were common in areas producing forage crops used as livestock feed. Resolving agronomic P imbalances may be possible with more efficient use of P fertilizers and more effective recycling of manure P. Such reforms are needed to increase global agricultural productivity while maintaining or improving freshwater quality. PMID:21282605

  12. Analysis of health trait data from on-farm computer systems in the U.S. II: Comparison of genomic analyses including two-stage and single-step methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of genomic selection methodology, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Many methods for genomic analysis have now been developed, including the “Bayesian Al...

  13. Morpho-physiolological and qualitative traits of a bread wheat collection spanning a century of breeding in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laino, Paolo; Limonta, Margherita; Gerna, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation and characterization are crucial steps in the exploitation of germplasm collections. The Sant’Angelo Lodigiano unit of the Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA) maintains a broad collection of Triticum spp, including more than 4000 genotypes of T. aestivum. Such collection represents a wide source of genetic variability for many agronomic and qualitative traits, extremely useful in modern breeding programs. The collection size, however, makes very difficult its management as a whole. A reduced subset, representing the process of wheat breeding in Italy during the last hundred years, was hence identified for an in-depth characterization. The lines were cropped in two locations over two growing seasons, and analyzed using 16 morpho-agronomic and qualitative descriptors. Most of the analysed characters showed a broad variation throughout the collection, allowing to follow the plant ideotype changes across the breeding progress in Italy during the 20th century. PMID:26379457

  14. Identifying genes of agronomic importance in maize by screening microsatellites for evidence of selection during domestication.

    PubMed

    Vigouroux, Y; McMullen, M; Hittinger, C T; Houchins, K; Schulz, L; Kresovich, S; Matsuoka, Y; Doebley, J

    2002-07-23

    Crop species experienced strong selective pressure directed at genes controlling traits of agronomic importance during their domestication and subsequent episodes of selective breeding. Consequently, these genes are expected to exhibit the signature of selection. We screened 501 maize genes for the signature of selection using microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We applied the Ewens-Watterson test, which can reveal deviations from a neutral-equilibrium model, as well as two nonequilibrium tests that incorporate the domestication bottleneck. We investigated two classes of SSRs: those known to be polymorphic in maize (Class I) and those previously classified as monomorphic in maize (Class II). Fifteen SSRs exhibited some evidence for selection in maize and 10 showed evidence under stringent criteria. The genes containing nonneutral SSRs are candidates for agronomically important genes. Because demographic factors can bias our tests, further independent tests of these candidates are necessary. We applied such an additional test to one candidate, which encodes a MADS box transcriptional regulator, and confirmed that this gene experienced a selective sweep during maize domestication. Genomic scans for the signature of selection offer a means of identifying new genes of agronomic importance even when gene function and the phenotype of interest are unknown.

  15. Spectral-agronomic relationships of corn, soybean and wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the past six years several thousand reflectance spectra of corn, soybean, and wheat canopies were acquired and analyzed. The relationships of biophysical variables, including leaf area index, percent soil cover, chlorophyll and water content, to the visible and infrared reflectance of canopies are described. The effects on reflectance of cultural, environmental, and stress factors such as planting data, seeding rate, row spacing, cultivar, soil type and nitrogen fertilization are also examined. The conclusions are that several key agronomic variables including leaf area index, development stage and degree of stress are strongly related to spectral reflectance and that it should be possible to estimate these descriptions of crop condition from satellite acquired multispectral data.

  16. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf metabolic profiles for dissecting complex traits in maize

    PubMed Central

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Lisec, Jan; Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Sulpice, Ronan; Flis, Anna; Grieder, Christoph; Altmann, Thomas; Stitt, Mark; Willmitzer, Lothar; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of metabolites found in plants is by far greater than in most other organisms. Metabolic profiling techniques, which measure many of these compounds simultaneously, enabled investigating the regulation of metabolic networks and proved to be useful for predicting important agronomic traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of metabolites in crops such as maize. Here, a set of 289 diverse maize inbred lines was genotyped with 56,110 SNPs and assayed for 118 biochemical compounds in the leaves of young plants, as well as for agronomic traits of mature plants in field trials. Metabolite concentrations had on average a repeatability of 0.73 and showed a correlation pattern that largely reflected their functional grouping. Genome-wide association mapping with correction for population structure and cryptic relatedness identified for 26 distinct metabolites strong associations with SNPs, explaining up to 32.0% of the observed genetic variance. On nine chromosomes, we detected 15 distinct SNP–metabolite associations, each of which explained more then 15% of the genetic variance. For lignin precursors, including p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, we found strong associations (P values to ) with a region on chromosome 9 harboring cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in monolignol synthesis and a target for improving the quality of lignocellulosic biomass by genetic engineering approaches. Moreover, lignin precursors correlated significantly with lignin content, plant height, and dry matter yield, suggesting that metabolites represent promising connecting links for narrowing the genotype–phenotype gap of complex agronomic traits. PMID:22615396

  17. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  18. Know your community - Biochar: agronomic and environmental uses community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Biochar: Agronomic and Environmental Uses” Community was formed in November 2010 (https://www.agronomy.org/membership/communities/biochar-agronomic-and-environmental-uses). The community’s initial function has been providing a forum at the tri-society’s national meetings to fill the need for a ...

  19. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  20. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Whole Trait Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  2. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, the Fundamental Attribution Error, and Moral Blame

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1–3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4–6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles—perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ—will be

  3. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  4. Soybean genetic transformation: A valuable tool for the functional study of genes and the production of agronomically improved plants

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Milena Schenkel; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an invaluable tool for molecular, genetic, biochemical and physiological studies by gene overexpression or silencing, transposon-based mutagenesis, protein sub-cellular localization and/or promoter characterization as well as a breakthrough for breeding programs, allowing the production of novel and genetically diverse genotypes. However, the stable transformation of soybean cannot yet be considered to be routine because it depends on the ability to combine efficient transformation and regeneration techniques. Two methods have been used with relative success to produce completely and stably transformed plants: particle bombardment and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. In addition, transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been used as a powerful tool for functional studies. Most available information on gene function is based on heterologous expression systems. However, as the activity of many promoters or proteins frequently depends on specific interactions that only occur in homologous backgrounds, a final confirmation based on a homologous expression system is desirable. With respect to soybean biotech improvement, transgenic lines with agronomical, nutritional and pharmaceutical traits have been obtained, including herbicide-tolerant soybeans, which represented the principal biotech crop in 2011, occupying 47% of the global biotech area. PMID:23412849

  5. Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Song, Chi; Saxena, Rachit K; Azam, Sarwar; Yu, Sheng; Sharpe, Andrew G; Cannon, Steven; Baek, Jongmin; Rosen, Benjamin D; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Millan, Teresa; Zhang, Xudong; Ramsay, Larissa D; Iwata, Aiko; Wang, Ying; Nelson, William; Farmer, Andrew D; Gaur, Pooran M; Soderlund, Carol; Penmetsa, R Varma; Xu, Chunyan; Bharti, Arvind K; He, Weiming; Winter, Peter; Zhao, Shancen; Hane, James K; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Condie, Janet A; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Thudi, Mahendar; Gowda, C L L; Singh, Narendra P; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gali, Krishna K; Rubio, Josefa; Nadarajan, N; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bansal, Kailash C; Xu, Xun; Edwards, David; Zhang, Gengyun; Kahl, Guenter; Gil, Juan; Singh, Karam B; Datta, Swapan K; Jackson, Scott A; Wang, Jun; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume crop after soybean, accounting for a substantial proportion of human dietary nitrogen intake and playing a crucial role in food security in developing countries. We report the ∼738-Mb draft whole genome shotgun sequence of CDC Frontier, a kabuli chickpea variety, which contains an estimated 28,269 genes. Resequencing and analysis of 90 cultivated and wild genotypes from ten countries identifies targets of both breeding-associated genetic sweeps and breeding-associated balancing selection. Candidate genes for disease resistance and agronomic traits are highlighted, including traits that distinguish the two main market classes of cultivated chickpea--desi and kabuli. These data comprise a resource for chickpea improvement through molecular breeding and provide insights into both genome diversity and domestication.

  6. Integrated translational genomics for analysis of complex traits in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We will report on the integration of sequencing and genotype data from natural variation (by whole genome resequencing [wgs] or genotype by sequencing [gbs]), transcriptome (RNA-seq) and mutant analysis (also by wgs) with the goal of identifying genes controlling important agronomic traits and tran...

  7. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are −0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area. PMID:27905483

  8. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are ‑0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  9. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are -0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  10. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  11. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  12. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  13. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  14. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  15. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  16. Agronomical parameters, sugar profile and antioxidant compounds of "Catherine" peach cultivar influenced by different plum rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-02-03

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of "Catherine" peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  17. EVALUATING THE ROLE OF HABITAT QUALITY ON ESTABLISHMENT OF GM AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA PLANTS IN NON-AGRONOMIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared soil chemistry and plant community data at non-agronomic mesic locations that either did or did not contain genetically modified (GM) Agrostis stolonifera. The best two-variable logistic regression model included soil Mn content and A. stolonifera cover and explained...

  18. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers: A multi-site comparison of the effects on nitrous oxide emissions and agronomic performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to understand the effects of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEF) for their effect on nitrous oxide emissions and agronomic performance was the motivation underpinning this multi-location study across North America. Research locations participating in this study included Ames, IA; Auburn, ...

  19. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

    PubMed

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate.

  20. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  1. Genetic gains from selection for fiber traits in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    de Faria, G M P; Sanchez, C F B; de Carvalho, L P; da Silva Oliveira, M; Cruz, C D

    2016-11-21

    Brazil is among the five largest producers of cotton in the world, cultivating the species Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. The cultivars should have good fiber quality as well as yield. Genetic improvement of fiber traits requires the study of the genetic structure of the populations under improvement, leading to the identification of promising parent plants. To this end, it is important to acquire some information, such as estimates of genetic variance components and heritability coefficients, which will support the appropriate choice of the breeding strategy to be employed as well as enable the estimation of gains from selection. This study aimed to evaluate some agronomic characteristics, such as fiber quality and yield, estimating genetic parameters for the purpose of predicting earnings. Twelve cultivars of cotton, including four male progenitors (CNPA 01-42, BRS Verde, Glandless, and Okra leaf) and eight female progenitors (Delta opal, CNPA 7H, Aroeira, Antares, Sucupira, Facual, Precoce 3, and CNPA 8H), were used in performing crosses according to design I, proposed by Comstock and Robinson (1948). The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. We observed genetic variability among all traits as well as higher efficiency of selection for the gains related to traits. Our results showed that the combined selection presented the highest genetic gains for all traits. For fiber length, the female/male selection and the combined selection resulted in the highest genetic gain.

  2. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  3. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  4. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  5. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  6. Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits.

  7. Statistical analysis of agronomical factors and weather conditions influencing deoxynivalenol levels in oats in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, M; Börjesson, T; Hietaniemi, V; Elen, O

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between weather data and agronomical factors and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in oats was examined with the aim of developing a predictive model. Data were collected from a total of 674 fields during periods of up to 10 years in Finland, Norway and Sweden, and included DON levels in the harvested oats crop, agronomical factors and weather data. The results show that there was a large regional variation in DON levels, with higher levels in one region in Norway compared with other regions in Norway, Finland and Sweden. In this region the median DON level was 1000 ng g⁻¹ and the regulatory limit for human consumption (1750 ng g⁻¹) was exceeded in 28% of the samples. In other regions the median DON levels ranged from 75 to 270 ng g⁻¹, and DON levels exceeded 1750 ng g⁻¹ in 3-8% of the samples. Including more variables than region in a multiple regression model only increased the adjusted coefficient of determination from 0.17 to 0.24, indicating that very little of the variation in DON levels could be explained by weather data or agronomical factors. Thus, it was not possible to predict DON levels based on the variables included in this study. Further studies are needed to solve this problem. Apparently the infection and/or growth of DON producing Fusarium species are promoted in certain regions. One possibility may be to study the species distribution of fungal communities and their changes during the oats cultivation period in more detail.

  8. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  9. Agronomic Challenges and Opportunities for Smallholder Terrace Agriculture in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Raizada, Manish N.

    2017-01-01

    Improving land productivity is essential to meet increasing food and forage demands in hillside and mountain communities. Tens of millions of smallholder terrace farmers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America who earn $1–2 per day do not have access to peer-reviewed knowledge of best agronomic practices, though they have considerable traditional ecological knowledge. Terrace farmers also lack access to affordable farm tools and inputs required to increase crop yields. The objectives of this review are to highlight the agronomic challenges of terrace farming, and offer innovative, low-cost solutions to intensify terrace agriculture while improving local livelihoods. The article focuses on smallholder farmers in developing nations, with particular reference to Nepal. The challenges of terrace agriculture in these regions include lack of quality land area for agriculture, erosion and loss of soil fertility, low yield, poor access to agricultural inputs and services, lack of mechanization, labor shortages, poverty, and illiteracy. Agronomic strategies that could help address these concerns include intensification of terraces using agro-ecological approaches along with introduction of light-weight, low-cost, and purchasable tools and affordable inputs that enhance productivity and reduce female drudgery. To package, deliver, and share these technologies with remote hillside communities, effective scaling up models are required. One opportunity to enable distribution of these products could be to “piggy-back” onto pre-existing snackfood/cigarette/alcohol distribution networks that are prevalent even in the most remote mountainous regions of the world. Such strategies, practices, and tools could be supported by formalized government policies dedicated to the well-being of terrace farmers and ecosystems, to maintain resiliency at a time of alarming climate change. We hope this review will inform governments, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to draw

  10. Multifunctional crop trait ontology for breeders' data: field book, annotation, data discovery and semantic enrichment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rosemary; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Mauleon, Ramil; Senger, Martin; Davenport, Guy F.; Hancock, David; Morrison, Norman; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Agricultural crop databases maintained in gene banks of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are valuable sources of information for breeders. These databases provide comparative phenotypic and genotypic information that can help elucidate functional aspects of plant and agricultural biology. To facilitate data sharing within and between these databases and the retrieval of information, the crop ontology (CO) database was designed to provide controlled vocabulary sets for several economically important plant species. Methodology Existing public ontologies and equivalent catalogues of concepts covering the range of crop science information and descriptors for crops and crop-related traits were collected from breeders, physiologists, agronomists, and researchers in the CGIAR consortium. For each crop, relationships between terms were identified and crop-specific trait ontologies were constructed following the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) format standard using the OBO-Edit tool. All terms within an ontology were assigned a globally unique CO term identifier. Principal results The CO currently comprises crop-specific traits for chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.). Several plant-structure and anatomy-related terms for banana (Musa spp.), wheat and maize are also included. In addition, multi-crop passport terms are included as controlled vocabularies for sharing information on germplasm. Two web-based online resources were built to make these COs available to the scientific community: the ‘CO Lookup Service’ for browsing the CO; and the ‘Crops Terminizer’, an ontology text mark-up tool. Conclusions The controlled vocabularies of the CO are being used to curate several CGIAR centres' agronomic databases. The use of ontology terms to describe agronomic phenotypes and the accurate mapping of these

  11. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  12. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  13. Advancement of Latent Trait Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    latent trait theory further, and include more varieties of situations. I [51 Investigation of ways of bridging across mathematical psychology and...five years on various topics in Latent Trait Theory, including more general topics such as the method of moments as the least squares solution for...response theory." The address described as (3) in the above list was a one hour special lecture overviewing latent trait models. There were more than two

  14. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  15. Genomics Tools Available For Unravelling Mechanisms Underlying Agronomical Traits in Strawberry With More To Come

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  16. Genomics tools available for unravelling mechanisms underlying agronomical traits in strawberry with more to come

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  17. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 38 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2012 for yield, seed grade and size, and resistance to Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotium rolfsii. Among the 14 Spanish entries, the cultivar Tamnut 06 (3258 lbs/acre) and breeding line 140-1O...

  18. Screening of lettuce germplasm for agronomic traits under low water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After a preliminary screening of over 3,500 varieties, we selected 200 cultivars of butterhead, cos, crisphead, leaf, and stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) to test under high water (150% ET) and low water (50% ET) conditions in the field, and tracked com...

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identic...

  20. Field experimental design comparisons to detect field effects associated with agronomic traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field variation is one of the important factors that can have a significant impact on genetic data analysis. Ineffective control of field variation may result in an inflated residual variance and/or biased estimation of genetic variations and/or effects. In this study, we addressed this problem by m...

  1. Genetic analysis of some agronomic and fiber traits in Gossypium hirsutum L. grown in field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production is an essential component of the economy of Pakistan, and continuing to improve the yield and fiber quality of this crop will ensure the future stability of this industry. Combining ability describes the performance of genotypes when they are crossed together, and it is a common me...

  2. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  3. Assessment of inheritance pattern and agronomic performance of transgenic rapeseed having harpin Xooc-encoding hrf2 gene.

    PubMed

    Huo, Rong; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ling-Li; Qiao, Jun-Qing; Shao, Min; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2010-10-01

    hrf2 gene is a member of the harpin-encoding gene family of rice-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola. In our previous studies, we observed that harpin(Xooc) could elicit hypersensitive cell death in non-host plants, induce disease and insect resistance in plants, and enhance plant growth. In this study, the rapeseed cultivar, Yangyou 4, was genetically engineered via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to express the hrf2 gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analyses of T(1) generation of transgenic rapeseed revealed stable integration and expression of the inserted gene hrf2. In addition, the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was greatly enhanced. A comparison between agronomic characters of transgenic and control lines displayed significant differences in terms of plant height, stem width, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1,000-seed weight, and seed yield per plant. Among lines with resistance to S. sclerotiorum, T(1)1 had improved agronomic traits compared with controls with a 22.7% seed yield increase. These results suggest that the introduction of the hrf2 gene into rapeseed can be an effective strategy for enhancing resistance to S. sclerotiorum.

  4. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

  5. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    . Results showed that in France it was mainly syrphids that control aphid populations. The choice of flowers Families to include in flower strip is important. You have to avoid choosing the same plant family as the one of the crop you want to protect because you would risk to attract pests and diseases in the field. In fact, it's important to choose the optimal diversity of plant Family and not the greatest diversity.

  6. Shaping melons: agronomic and genetic characterization of QTLs that modify melon fruit morphology.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Moreno, Eduard; Essafi, Ali; Fergany, Mohamed; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Martín-Hernandez, Ana Montserrat; Alvarez, Jose María; Monforte, Antonio J

    2010-09-01

    The consistency of quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects among genetic backgrounds is a key factor for introgressing QTLs from initial mapping experiments into applied breeding programs. We have selected four QTLs (fs6.4, fw4.3, fw4.4 and fw8.1) involved in melon fruit morphology that had previously been detected in a collection of introgression lines derived from the cross between a Spanish cultivar, "Piel de Sapo," and the Korean accession PI161375 (Songwan Charmi). Introgression lines harboring these QTLs were crossed with an array of melon inbred lines representative of the most important cultivar types. Hybrids of the introgression and inbred lines, with the appropriate controls, were evaluated in replicated agronomic trials. The effects of the QTLs were consistent among the different genetic backgrounds, demonstrating the utility of these QTLs for applied breeding programs in modifying melon fruit morphology. Three QTLs, fw4.4, fs6.4 and fs12.1 were subjected to further study in order to map them more accurately by substitution mapping using a new set of introgression lines with recombination events within the QTL chromosome region. The position of the QTLs was narrowed down to 36-5 cM, depending on the QTL. The results presented in the current study set the basis for the use of these QTLs in applied breeding programs and for the molecular characterization of the genes underlying them.

  7. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection.

  8. Retention of agronomically important variation in germplasm core collections: implications for allele mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary targets of allele mining efforts are loci of agronomic importance. Agronomic loci typically exhibit patterns of allelic diversity consistent with a history of natural or artificial selection. Natural or artificial selection causes the distribution of genetic diversity at such loci to d...

  9. Plant- and microbial-based mechanisms to improve the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock: a review.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Melissa M; Schneider, Kim D

    2006-12-01

    Deficiency in plant-available phosphorus is considered to be a major limiting factor to food production in many agricultural soils. Mineral resources are necessary to restore soil phosphorus content. In regions where conventional fertilizers are not used due to cost limitations or to mitigate adverse environmental effects, local sources of phosphate rock are being increasingly recognized for potential use as alternative phosphorus fertilizers. The main obstacle associated with using directly applied ground phosphate rock is that the phosphate released is often unable to supply sufficient plant-available phosphorus for crop uptake. Plantand microbial-based mechanisms are low-cost, appropriate technologies to enhance the solubilization and increase the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock. Common mechanisms of phosphate rock dissolution including proton and organic acid production will be reviewed for both plants and microorganisms. This review will also address possibilities for future research directions and applications to agriculture, as well as highlight ongoing research at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

  10. Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most traits targeted in the genetic improvement of hop are quantitative in nature. Improvement based on selection of these traits requires a comprehensive understanding of their inheritance. This study estimated quantitative genetic parameters for 20 traits related to three key objectives for the genetic improvement of hop: cone chemistry, cone yield and agronomic characteristics. Results Significant heritable genetic variation was identified for α-acid and β-acid, as well as their components and relative proportions. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability for these traits (h 2  = 0.15 to 0.29) were lower than those reported in previous hop studies, but were based on a broader suite of families (108 from European, North American and hybrid origins). Narrow-sense heritabilities are reported for hop growth traits for the first time (h 2  = 0.04 to 0.20), relating to important agronomic characteristics such as emergence, height and lateral morphology. Cone chemistry and growth traits were significantly genetically correlated, such that families with more vigorous vegetative growth were associated with lower α-acid and β-acid levels. This trend may reflect the underlying population structure of founder genotypes (European and North American origins) as well as past selection in the Australian environment. Although male and female hop plants are thought to be indistinguishable until flowering, sex was found to influence variation in many growth traits, with male and female plants displaying differences in vegetative morphology from emergence to cone maturity. Conclusions This study reveals important insights into the genetic control of quantitative hop traits. The information gained will provide hop breeders with a greater understanding of the additive genetic factors which affect selection of cone chemistry, yield and agronomic characteristics in hop, aiding in the future development of improved cultivars. PMID:24524684

  11. Agronomic conditions and crop evolution in ancient Near East agriculture.

    PubMed

    Araus, José L; Ferrio, Juan P; Voltas, Jordi; Aguilera, Mònica; Buxó, Ramón

    2014-05-23

    The appearance of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent propelled the development of Western civilization. Here we investigate the evolution of agronomic conditions in this region by reconstructing cereal kernel weight and using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of kernels and charcoal from a set of 11 Upper Mesopotamia archaeological sites, with chronologies spanning from the onset of agriculture to the turn of the era. We show that water availability for crops, inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), was two- to fourfold higher in the past than at present, with a maximum between 10,000 and 8,000 cal BP. Nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) decreased over time, which suggests cultivation occurring under gradually less-fertile soil conditions. Domesticated cereals showed a progressive increase in kernel weight over several millennia following domestication. Our results provide a first comprehensive view of agricultural evolution in the Near East inferred directly from archaeobotanical remains.

  12. Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Muñoz-Ferreiro, N; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2010-03-01

    Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing. Composted sludge shows the best quality from a heavy metal point of view, but its low available nitrogen content increases the input of heavy metals when spread, as compared to digested or pelletised sludge. Pelletised sludge has higher heavy metal content than anaerobically digested sludge. Despite the good quality of the sludges, future regulations, especially with regard to Cd levels, will limit the use of this waste in agriculture.

  13. Agronomic conditions and crop evolution in ancient Near East agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Mònica; Buxó, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent has propelled the development of Western civilization. Here we investigate the evolution of agronomic conditions in this region by reconstructing cereal kernel weight and using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of kernels and charcoal from a set of 11 Upper Mesopotamia archaeological sites, with chronologies spanning from the onset of agriculture to the turn of the era. We show that water availability for crops, inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), was two- to fourfold higher in the past than at present, with a maximum between 10,000 and 8,000 cal BP. Nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) decreased over time, which suggests cultivation occurring under gradually less fertile soil conditions. Domesticated cereals showed a progressive increase in kernel weight over several millennia following domestication. Our results provide a first comprehensive view of agricultural evolution in the Near East inferred directly from archaeobotanical remains. PMID:24853475

  14. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    PubMed

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff.

  15. Agronomic performance of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Denise T Rezende de; Schafer, Ariane C; Fast, Brandon J; Herman, Rod A

    2017-03-31

    Agronomic characteristics of genetically modified (GM) MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 (PowerCore™ Enlist™), MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 (PowerCore™), and DAS-40278-9 (Enlist™) corn, a non-GM near-isogenic hybrid, and two commercial non-GM hybrids were assessed in a field study to determine if the agronomic performance of the GM corn hybrids is equivalent to that of non-transgenic hybrid corn. The MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 hybrid corn was developed through stacking of four individual transgenic events, MON 89034, TC1507, NK603, and DAS-40278-9 by traditional breeding and contains the cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 (MON 89034), cry1F and pat (TC1507), cp4 epsps (NK603) and aad-1 (DAS-40278-9) transgenes. These transgenes encode the proteins Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry1F, which confer insect resistance, PAT, CP4 EPSPS, and AAD-1, which confer herbicide tolerance. The following agronomic characteristics were assessed in the study: initial and final stand count, seedling vigor, time to silk, time to pollen shed, pollen viability, plant height, ear height, stalk lodging, root lodging, days to maturity, stay green, disease incidence, insect damage, herbicide injury, and yield. The agronomic assessment was conducted in two regions of Brazil (Indianopolis-MG; Cravinhos-SP). The agronomic attributes for all GM entries were statistically indistinguishable from the non-GM near-isogenic hybrid. In addition, most of the agronomic assessments fell within the range of the commercial varieties included in the study. Taken together, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603, and DAS-40278-9 were found to be agronomically equivalent to non-GM corn.

  16. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  17. An apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) F2 progeny linkage map based on SSR and AFLP markers, mapping plum pox virus resistance and self-incompatibility traits.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, S; Romero, C; Abbott, A G; Llácer, G; Badenes, M L

    2003-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers. The map is based on an F(2) population (76 individuals) derived from self-pollination of an F(1) individual ('Lito') originated from a cross between 'Stark Early Orange' and 'Tyrinthos'. This family, designated as 'Lito' x 'Lito', segregated for two important agronomical traits: plum pox virus resistance (PPV) and self-incompatibility. A total of 211 markers (180 AFLPs, 29 SSRs and two agronomic traits) were assigned to 11 linkage groups covering 602 cM of the apricot genome. The average distance (cM/marker) between adjacent markers is 3.84 cM. The PPV resistance trait was mapped on linkage group G1 and the self-incompatibility trait was mapped on linkage group G6. Twenty two loci held in common with other Prunus maps allowed us to compare and establish homologies among the respective linkage groups.

  18. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2015-05-01

    Development and application of new types of fertilizers using innovative nanotechnology are one of the potentially effective options of significantly enhancing the global agricultural productions needed to meet the future demands of the growing population. Indeed, the review of available literature indicates that some engineered nanomaterials can enhance plant-growth in certain concentration ranges and could be used as nanofertilizers in agriculture to increase agronomic yields of crops and/or minimize environmental pollution. This article summarizes this type of nanomaterials under four categories: macronutrient nanofertilizers, micronutrient nanofertilizers, nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers, and plant-growth-enhancing nanomaterials. Each category is discussed respectively with reference to nanomaterials' chemical composition, particle size, concentrations applied, benefited plant species, plant incubation methods, and plant-growth enhancement aspects and the rates. The importance, research directions, and research requirements of each nanofertilizer category for achieving sustainable agriculture are also specifically examined. Finally, this review suggests that development of N and P macronutrient nanofertilizers is a high research and development priority both for food production and environmental protection.

  19. Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krutz, L. J.; Dale L. Shaner,; Mark A. Weaver,; Webb, Richard M.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Reddy, Krishna N.; Huang, Y.; Thompson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. The genes responsible for s-triazine mineralization, i.e. atzABCDEF and trzNDF, occur in at least four bacterial phyla and are implicated in the development of enhanced degradation in agricultural soils from all continents except Antarctica. Enhanced degradation occurs in at least nine crops and six crop rotation systems that rely on s-triazine herbicides for weed control, and, with the exception of acidic soil conditions and s-triazine application frequency, adaptation of the microbial population is independent of soil physiochemical properties and cultural management practices. From an agronomic perspective, residual weed control could be reduced tenfold in s-triazine-adapted relative to non-adapted soils. From an environmental standpoint, the off-site loss of total s-triazine residues could be overestimated 13-fold in adapted soils if altered persistence estimates and metabolic pathways are not reflected in fate and transport models. Empirical models requiring soil pH and s-triazine use history as input parameters predict atrazine persistence more accurately than historical estimates, thereby allowing practitioners to adjust weed control strategies and model input values when warranted. 

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTLs) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTLs for these traits including protein content (GPC), test weight (TW), single kernel characteriz...

  1. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  2. Relation of agronomic and multispectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Ahlrichs, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between crop canopy variables such as leaf area index (LAI) and their multispectral reflectance properties were investigated along with the potential for estimating canopy variables from remotely sensed reflectance measurements. Reflectance spectra over the 0.4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range were acquired during each of the major development stages of spring wheat canopies at Williston, North Dakota, during three seasons. Treatments included planting date, N fertilization, cultivar, and soil moisture. Agronomic measurements included development stage, biomass, LAI, and percent soil cover. High correlations were found between reflectance and percent cover, LAI, and biomass. A near infrared wavelength band, 0.76 to 0.90 microns, was most important in explaining variation in LAI and percent cover, while a middle infrared band, 2.08 to 2.35 microns, explained the most variation in biomass and plant water content. Transformations, including the near infrared/red reflectance ratio and greenness index, were also highly correlated to canopy variables. The relationship of canopy variables to reflectance decreased as the crop began to ripen. the canopy variables could be accurately predicted using measurements from three to five wavelength bands. The wavelength bands proposed for the thematic mapper sensor were more strongly related to the canopy variables than the LANDSAT MSS bands.

  3. Field-Based High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping Reveals the Temporal Patterns of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Stress-Responsive Traits in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Duke; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro; Carmo-Silva, A. Elizabete; Gazave, Elodie; French, Andrew N.; Heun, John; Hunsaker, Douglas J.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Setter, Tim L.; Strand, Robert J.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Wang, Sam; White, Jeffrey W.; Gore, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The application of high-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) to continuously study plant populations under relevant growing conditions creates the possibility to more efficiently dissect the genetic basis of dynamic adaptive traits. Toward this end, we employed a field-based HTPP system that deployed sets of sensors to simultaneously measure canopy temperature, reflectance, and height on a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) recombinant inbred line mapping population. The evaluation trials were conducted under well-watered and water-limited conditions in a replicated field experiment at a hot, arid location in central Arizona, with trait measurements taken at different times on multiple days across 2010–2012. Canopy temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), height, and leaf area index (LAI) displayed moderate-to-high broad-sense heritabilities, as well as varied interactions among genotypes with water regime and time of day. Distinct temporal patterns of quantitative trait loci (QTL) expression were mostly observed for canopy temperature and NDVI, and varied across plant developmental stages. In addition, the strength of correlation between HTPP canopy traits and agronomic traits, such as lint yield, displayed a time-dependent relationship. We also found that the genomic position of some QTL controlling HTPP canopy traits were shared with those of QTL identified for agronomic and physiological traits. This work demonstrates the novel use of a field-based HTPP system to study the genetic basis of stress-adaptive traits in cotton, and these results have the potential to facilitate the development of stress-resilient cotton cultivars. PMID:26818078

  4. Applied Mathematics for agronomical engineers in Spain at UPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Mathematics, created or discovered, are a global human conceptual endowment, containing large systems of knowledge, and varied skills to use definite parts of them, in creation or discovery, or for applications, e.g. in Physics, or notably in engineering behaviour. When getting upper intellectual levels in the 19th century, the agronomical science and praxis was noticeably or mainly organised in Spain in agronomical engineering schools and also in institutes, together with technician schools, also with different lower lever centres, and they have evolved with progress and they are much changing at present to a EEES schema (Bolonia process). They work in different lines that need some basis or skills from mathematics. The vocation to start such careers, that have varied curriculums, contains only some mathematics, and the number of credits for mathematics is restrained because time is necessary for other initial sciences such as applied chemistry, biology, ecology and soil sciences, but some basis and skill of maths are needed, also with Physics, at least for electricity, machines, construction, economics at initial ground levels, and also for Statistics that are here considered part of Applied Mathematics. The ways of teaching mathematical basis and skills are especial, and are different from the practical ways needed e. g. for Soil Sciences, and they involve especial efforts from students, and especial controls or exams that guide much learning. The mathematics have a very large accepted content that uses mostly a standard logic, and that is remarkably stable and international, rather similar notation and expressions being used with different main languages. For engineering the logical basis is really often not taught, but the use of it is transferred, especially for calculus that requires both adapted somehow simplified schemas and the learning of a specific skill to use it, and also for linear algebra. The basic forms of differential calculus in several

  5. The biogeography of marine plankton traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew D; Pershing, Andrew J; Litchman, Elena; Record, Nicholas R; Edwards, Kyle F; Finkel, Zoe V; Kiørboe, Thomas; Ward, Ben A

    2013-04-01

    Changes in marine plankton communities driven by environmental variability impact the marine food web and global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other elements. To predict and assess these community shifts and their consequences, ecologists are increasingly investigating how the functional traits of plankton determine their relative fitness along environmental and biological gradients. Laboratory, field and modelling studies are adopting this trait-based approach to map the biogeography of plankton traits that underlies variations in plankton communities. Here, we review progress towards understanding the regulatory roles of several key plankton functional traits, including cell size, N2 -fixation and mixotrophy among phytoplankton, and body size, ontogeny and feeding behaviour for zooplankton. The trait biogeographical approach sheds light on what structures plankton communities in the current ocean, as well as under climate change scenarios, and also allows for finer resolution of community function because community trait composition determines the rates of significant processes, including carbon export. Although understanding of trait biogeography is growing, uncertainties remain that stem, in part, from the paucity of observations describing plankton functional traits. Thus, in addition to recommending widespread adoption of the trait-based approach, we advocate for enhanced collection, standardisation and dissemination of plankton functional trait data.

  6. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  7. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  8. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  9. Genome-Assisted Prediction of Quantitative Traits Using the R Package sommer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most traits of agronomic importance are quantitative in nature, and genetic markers have been used for decades to dissect such traits. Recently, genomic selection has earned attention as next generation sequencing technologies became feasible for major and minor crops. Mixed models have become a key tool for fitting genomic selection models, but most current genomic selection software can only include a single variance component other than the error, making hybrid prediction using additive, dominance and epistatic effects unfeasible for species displaying heterotic effects. Moreover, Likelihood-based software for fitting mixed models with multiple random effects that allows the user to specify the variance-covariance structure of random effects has not been fully exploited. A new open-source R package called sommer is presented to facilitate the use of mixed models for genomic selection and hybrid prediction purposes using more than one variance component and allowing specification of covariance structures. The use of sommer for genomic prediction is demonstrated through several examples using maize and wheat genotypic and phenotypic data. At its core, the program contains three algorithms for estimating variance components: Average information (AI), Expectation-Maximization (EM) and Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA). Kernels for calculating the additive, dominance and epistatic relationship matrices are included, along with other useful functions for genomic analysis. Results from sommer were comparable to other software, but the analysis was faster than Bayesian counterparts in the magnitude of hours to days. In addition, ability to deal with missing data, combined with greater flexibility and speed than other REML-based software was achieved by putting together some of the most efficient algorithms to fit models in a gentle environment such as R. PMID:27271781

  10. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  11. Contrasting agronomic response of biochar amendment to a Mediterranean Cambisol: Incubation vs. field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; De Celis, Reyes; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar to soil is being proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, biochars offer a simple, sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added value products. Numerous research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth by supplying and, more importantly, retaining nutrients and by providing other services such as improving soil physical and biological properties [1]. However, the effectiveness of biochar in enhancing plant fertility is a function of soil type, climate, and type of crop [2] but also of the biochar properties. The inherent variability of biochars due to different feedstock and production conditions implies a high variability of their effect on soil properties and productivity. Furthermore, due to the irreversibility of biochar application, it is necessary to perform detailed studies to achieve a high level of certainty that adding biochar to agricultural soils, for whatever reason, will not negatively affect soil health and productivity. The major goals of this research were: i) understanding how the properties of 5 different biochars produced by using different feedstock and pyrolysis conditions are related to their agronomic response, and ii) assessing the agronomic effect of biochar amendment under field conditions of a typical Mediterranean non-irrigated plantation. Four of the used biochars were produced by pyrolysis from wood (2), paper sludge (1) and sewage sludge (1), at temperatures up to 620 °C. The fifth biochar was produced from old grapevine wood by applying the traditional kiln method. Biochars were analysed for elemental composition (C, H, N), pH, WHC and ash contents. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of lignin residues in

  12. QTLs for Biomass and Developmental Traits in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and genomic resources have recently been developed for the bioenergy crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite these advances, little research has been focused on identifying genetic loci involved in natural variation of important bioenergy traits, including biomass. Quantitative trait l...

  13. A Simple Analysis of an Inherited Trait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Stanley; Keller, Elhannan

    1977-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity for analyzing an inherited human trait, the ability to tast phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Formulas for analyzing gene frequency are given for classroom and neighborhood samples. Additional tables include statistics on the ability to taste PTC and other easily sampled human traits. (MA)

  14. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  15. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  16. Software for quantitative trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Almasy, Laura; Warren, Diane M

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed.

  17. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F. G.; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo. PMID:25405741

  18. Bioactive peptides in cereals and legumes: agronomical, biochemical and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-11-14

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  19. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  20. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  1. Genetic variation for agronomic and fiber quality traits in a population derived from high-quality cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of fiber quality is necessary to meet the requirements of processors and users of cotton fiber. To foster genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, adequate genetic variation for the quantitatively inherited physical properties of cotton is required. Additionally, knowledge of...

  2. Registration of five soybean germplasm lines selected within the cultivar ‘Benning’ differing in seed and agronomic traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm lines were developed by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in 2005: G95-Ben335 (Reg. No. GP-332, PI 644042), G95-Ben1818 (Reg. No. GP-333, PI 644043), G95-Ben2403 (Reg. No. GP-334, PI 644044), G95-Ben2448 (Reg. No. GP-335, PI 644...

  3. Registration of seven soybean germplasm lines selected within the cultivar ‘Cook’ differing in seed and agronomic traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm lines were developed by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in 2005: G95-Cook319 (Reg. No. GP-337, PI 644047), G95-Cook1346 (Reg. No. GP-338, PI 644048), G95-Cook2014 (Reg. No. GP-339, PI 644049), G95-Cook2734 (Reg. No. GP-340, P...

  4. Registration of six soybean germplasm lines selected within the cultivar ‘Haskell’ differing in seed and agronomic traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm lines were developed by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in 2005: G95-Has339 (Reg. No. 344, PI 644054), G95-Has551 (Reg. No. 345, PI 644055), G95-Has1452 (Reg. No. 346, PI 644056), G95-Has1536 (Reg. No. 347, PI 644057), G95-Has2...

  5. ND 803 spring wheat germplasm combining resistance to scab and leaf diseases with good agronomic and quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of adapted wheat germplasm is essential so that breeding programs can develop superior cultivars, which was the objective of this research. ND 803 is hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) line that was developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the...

  6. Joint linkage QTL mapping for yield and agronomic traits in a composite map of three common bean RIL populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean production is challenged by many limitations with drought being among the top causes of crop failure worldwide. An estimated 60% of common bean production is affected by drought. In this study, we constructed three small red-seeded bean RIL populations (S48M, S94M and S95M) with a common parent...

  7. Allelic variations of a light harvesting chlorophyll A/B protein gene (Lhcb1) associated with agronomic traits in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP) is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. ...

  8. Quantitative trait loci associated with phenological development, low temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant m...

  9. A survey of the agronomic and end-use characteristics of low phytic acid soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With unique high protein and oil contents, soybean (Glycine max L. merr.) is one of the most widely grown agronomic crops in the United States. Around 98% of those soybeans are used in animal feeds ranging from swine and cattle to domestic animals and aquaculture. This chapter will introduce phytic ...

  10. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to Predict and Prevent Uptake by Crop Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciatio...

  11. Agronomic effects of mutations in two soybean Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil normally contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with higher levels of stearic acid is desired for use in the baking industry, for both its chemical properties and human health benefits. Several lines with increased stearic acid have been identified; however, the agronom...

  12. Unmanned aerial vehicles for high-throughput phenotyping and agronomic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants....

  13. Effects of Agronomic and Conservation Management Practices On Organic Matter and Associated Properties in Claypan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter plays several important roles in the biogeochemistry of soil and impacts the sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems. Retention and transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) are affected by agronomic and conservation management practices. The primary objective of this stu...

  14. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards.

  15. [Effects of stereoscopic cultivation on soil microorganism, enzyme activity and the agronomic characters of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-ran; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    Compartments of soil microorganism and enzymes between stereoscopic cultivation (three storeys) and field cultivation (CK) of Panax notoginseng were carried out, and the effects on P. notoginseng agronomic characters were also studied. Results show that concentration of soil microorganism of stereoscopic cultivation was lower than field cultivation; the activity of soil urea enzyme, saccharase and neutral phosphatase increased from lower storey to upper storey; the activity of soil urea enzyme and saccharase of lower and upper storeys were significantly lower than CK; agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginsengin were inferior to field cultivation, the middle storey with the best agronomic characters among the three storeys. The correlation analysis showed that fungi, actinomycetes and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with P. notoginseng agronomic characters; concentration of soil fungi and bacteria were significantly correlated with the soil relative water content; actinomycete and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with soil pH and relative water content, respectively; the activities of soil urea enzyme and saccharase were significantly correlated with the soil daily maximum temperature difference. Inconclusion, The current research shows that the imbalance of soil microorganism and the acutely changing of soil enzyme activity were the main reasons that caused the agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginseng were worse than field cultivation. Thus improves the concentration of soil microorganism and enzyme activity near to field soil by improving the structure of stereoscopic cultivation is very important. And it was the direction which we are endeavoring that built better soil ecological environment for P. notoginseng of stereoscopic cultivation.

  16. A High-Density Genetic Map with Array-Based Markers Facilitates Structural and Quantitative Trait Locus Analyses of the Common Wheat Genome

    PubMed Central

    Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Ohno, Ryoko; Kimura, Tatsuro; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Yuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    The large genome and allohexaploidy of common wheat have complicated construction of a high-density genetic map. Although improvements in the throughput of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made it possible to obtain a large amount of genotyping data for an entire mapping population by direct sequencing, including hexaploid wheat, a significant number of missing data points are often apparent due to the low coverage of sequencing. In the present study, a microarray-based polymorphism detection system was developed using NGS data obtained from complexity-reduced genomic DNA of two common wheat cultivars, Chinese Spring (CS) and Mironovskaya 808. After design and selection of polymorphic probes, 13,056 new markers were added to the linkage map of a recombinant inbred mapping population between CS and Mironovskaya 808. On average, 2.49 missing data points per marker were observed in the 201 recombinant inbred lines, with a maximum of 42. Around 40% of the new markers were derived from genic regions and 11% from repetitive regions. The low number of retroelements indicated that the new polymorphic markers were mainly derived from the less repetitive region of the wheat genome. Around 25% of the mapped sequences were useful for alignment with the physical map of barley. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of 14 agronomically important traits related to flowering, spikes, and seeds demonstrated that the new high-density map showed improved QTL detection, resolution, and accuracy over the original simple sequence repeat map. PMID:24972598

  17. An advanced reference genome of Trifolium subterraneum L. reveals genes related to agronomic performance.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parwinder; Bayer, Philipp E; Milec, Zbyněk; Vrána, Jan; Yuan, Yuxuan; Appels, Rudi; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline; Nichols, Phillip; Erskine, William; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-23

    Subterranean clover is an important annual forage legume, whose diploidy and inbreeding nature make it an ideal model for genomic analysis in Trifolium. We reported a draft genome assembly of the subterranean clover TSUd_r1.1. Here we evaluate genome mapping on nanochannel arrays and generation of a transcriptome atlas across tissues to advance the assembly and gene annotation. Using a BioNano-based assembly spanning 512 Mb (93% genome coverage), we validated the draft assembly, anchored unplaced contigs and resolved misassemblies. Multiple contigs (264) from the draft assembly coalesced into 97 super-scaffolds (43% of genome). Sequences longer than >1 Mb increased from 40 to 189 Mb giving 1.4-fold increase in N50 with total genome in pseudomolecules improved from 73 to 80%. The advanced assembly was re-annotated using transcriptome atlas data to contain 31,272 protein-coding genes capturing >96% of the gene content. Functional characterisation and GO enrichment confirmed gene expression for response to water deprivation, flavonoid biosynthesis, and embryo development ending in seed dormancy, reflecting adaptation to the harsh Mediterranean environment. Comparative analyses across Papilionoideae identified 24,893 Trifolium-specific and 6,325 subterranean-clover-specific genes that could be mined further for traits such as geocarpy and grazing tolerance. Eight key traits, including persistence, improved livestock health by isoflavonoid production in addition to important agro-morphological traits, were fine-mapped on the high density SNP linkage map anchored to the assembly. This new genomic information is crucial to identify loci governing traits allowing marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping and identification of tissue-specific gene promoters for biotechnological improvement of forage legumes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  19. Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops

    PubMed Central

    Milla, Rubén; Morente-López, Javier; Alonso-Rodrigo, J. Miguel; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Stuart Chapin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30 herbaceous crops and their wild progenitors. During crop evolution plants became larger, which enabled them to compete more effectively for light, but they had poorly integrated phenotypes. In a subset of six herbaceous crop species investigated in greater depth, competitiveness for light increased during early plant domestication, whereas diminished phenotypic integration occurred later during crop improvement. Mass-specific leaf and root traits relevant to resource-use strategies (e.g. specific leaf area or tissue density of fine roots) changed during crop evolution, but in diverse and contrasting directions and magnitudes, depending on the crop species. Reductions in phenotypic integration and overinvestment in traits involved in competition for light may affect the chances of upgrading modern herbaceous crops to face current climatic and food security challenges. PMID:25185998

  20. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Maize Leaf Physiological and Biochemical Traits Using Hyperspectral Reflectance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yendrek, Craig R.; Tomaz, Tiago; Montes, Christopher M.; Cao, Youyuan; Morse, Alison M.; Brown, Patrick J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput, noninvasive field phenotyping has revealed genetic variation in crop morphological, developmental, and agronomic traits, but rapid measurements of the underlying physiological and biochemical traits are needed to fully understand genetic variation in plant-environment interactions. This study tested the application of leaf hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 500–2,400 nm) as a high-throughput phenotyping approach for rapid and accurate assessment of leaf photosynthetic and biochemical traits in maize (Zea mays). Leaf traits were measured with standard wet-laboratory and gas-exchange approaches alongside measurements of leaf reflectance. Partial least-squares regression was used to develop a measure of leaf chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, sucrose content, specific leaf area, maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation, [CO2]-saturated rate of photosynthesis, and leaf oxygen radical absorbance capacity from leaf reflectance spectra. Partial least-squares regression models accurately predicted five out of seven traits and were more accurate than previously used simple spectral indices for leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen content, and specific leaf area. Correlations among leaf traits and statistical inferences about differences among genotypes and treatments were similar for measured and modeled data. The hyperspectral reflectance approach to phenotyping was dramatically faster than traditional measurements, enabling over 1,000 rows to be phenotyped during midday hours over just 2 to 4 d, and offers a nondestructive method to accurately assess physiological and biochemical trait responses to environmental stress. PMID:28049858

  1. Comparison of single-trait to multi-trait national evaluations for yield, health, and fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flexible software was designed to replace the current animal model programs used for national genetic evaluations. Model improvements included 1) multi-trait processing, 2) multiple fixed class and regression variables, 3) differing models for different traits, 4) random regressions, and 5) foreign ...

  2. Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank

  3. Biochar soil amendment for environmental and agronomic benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Char(coal), and a broader term black carbon (that includes soot) has long been recognized as a normal environmental (including soil) constituent resulting from fire and industrial activities. Biochar soil amendment has received global interests as a tool for carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  4. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci for expression abundance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Xu, Shizhong

    2007-05-01

    Mendelian loci that control the expression levels of transcripts are called expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). When mapping eQTL, we often deal with thousands of expression traits simultaneously, which complicates the statistical model and data analysis. Two simple approaches may be taken in eQTL analysis: (1) individual transcript analysis in which a single expression trait is mapped at a time and the entire eQTL mapping involves separate analysis of thousands of traits and (2) individual marker analysis where differentially expressed transcripts are detected on the basis of their association with the segregation pattern of an individual marker and the entire analysis requires scanning markers of the entire genome. Neither approach is optimal because data are not analyzed jointly. We develop a Bayesian clustering method that analyzes all expressed transcripts and markers jointly in a single model. A transcript may be simultaneously associated with multiple markers. Additionally, a marker may simultaneously alter the expression of multiple transcripts. This is a model-based method that combines a Gaussian mixture of expression data with segregation of multiple linked marker loci. Parameter estimation for each variable is obtained via the posterior mean drawn from a Markov chain Monte Carlo sample. The method allows a regular quantitative trait to be included as an expression trait and subject to the same clustering assignment. If an expression trait links to a locus where a quantitative trait also links, the expressed transcript is considered to be associated with the quantitative trait. The method is applied to a microarray experiment with 60 F(2) mice measured for 25 different obesity-related quantitative traits. In the experiment, approximately 40,000 transcripts and 145 codominant markers are investigated for their associations. A program written in SAS/IML is available from the authors on request.

  6. Trait values, not trait plasticity, best explain invasive species' performance in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se.

  7. Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  8. Bacteriocin production: a relatively unharnessed probiotic trait?

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, James W.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host”. A number of attributes are highly sought after among these microorganisms, including immunomodulation, epithelial barrier maintenance, competitive exclusion, production of short-chain fatty acids, and bile salt metabolism. Bacteriocin production is also generally regarded as a probiotic trait, but it can be argued that, in contrast to other traits, it is often considered a feature that is desirable, rather than a key probiotic trait. As such, the true potential of these antimicrobials has yet to be realised. PMID:27853525

  9. Inbreeding depression in Zebu cattle traits.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R J; Santana, M L; Ayres, D R; Bignardi, A B; Menezes, G R O; Silva, L O C; Machado, C H C; Josahkian, L A; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-12-01

    The productivity of herds may be negatively affected by inbreeding depression, and it is important to know how intense is this effect on the livestock performance. We performed a comprehensive analysis involving five Zebu breeds reared in Brazil to estimate inbreeding depression in productive and reproductive traits. Inbreeding depression was estimated for 13 traits by including the individual inbreeding rate as a linear covariate in the standard genetic evaluation models. For all breeds and for almost all traits (no effect was observed on gestation length), the performance of the animals was compromised by an increase in inbreeding. The average inbreeding depression was -0.222% and -0.859% per 1% of inbreeding for linear regression coefficients scaled on the percentage of mean (βm ) and standard deviation (βσ ), respectively. The means for βm (and βσ ) were -0.269% (-1.202%) for weight/growth traits and -0.174% (-0.546%) for reproductive traits. Hence, inbreeding depression is more pronounced in weight/growth traits than in reproductive traits. These findings highlight the need for the management of inbreeding in the respective breeding programmes of the breeds studied here.

  10. Productivity of sodic soils can be enhanced through the use of salt tolerant rice varieties and proper agronomic practices

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y.P.; Mishra, V.K.; Singh, Sudhanshu; Sharma, D.K.; Singh, D.; Singh, U.S.; Singh, R.K.; Haefele, S.M.; Ismail, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Regaining the agricultural potential of sodic soils in the Indo-Gangetic plains necessitates the development of suitable salt tolerant rice varieties to provide an entry for other affordable agronomic and soil manipulation measures. Thus selection of high yielding rice varieties across a range of sodic soils is central. Evaluation of breeding lines through on-station and on-farm farmers’ participatory varietal selection (FPVS) resulted in the identification of a short duration (110–115 days), high yielding and disease resistant salt-tolerant rice genotype ‘CSR-89IR-8’, which was later released as ‘CSR43’ in 2011. Several agronomic traits coupled with good grain quality and market value contributed to commercialization and quick adoption of this variety in the sodic areas of the Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern India. Management practices required for rice production in salt affected soils are evidently different from those in normal soils and practices for a short duration salt tolerant variety differ from those for medium to long duration varieties. Experiments were conducted at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR-CSSRI), Regional Research Station, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2011 and 2013 wet seasons, to test the hypothesis that combining matching management practices (Mmp) with an improved genotype would enhance productivity and profitability of rice in sodic soils. Mmp were developed on-station by optimizing existing best management practices (Bmp) recommended for the region to match the requirements of CSR43. The results revealed that transplanting 4 seedlings hill−1 at a spacing of 15 × 20 cm produced significantly higher yield over other treatments. The highest additional net gain was US$ 3.3 at 90 kg ha−1 N, and the lowest was US$ 0.4 at 150 kg ha−1 N. Above 150 kg ha−1, the additional net gain became negative, indicating decreasing returns from additional N

  11. Productivity of sodic soils can be enhanced through the use of salt tolerant rice varieties and proper agronomic practices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Singh, Sudhanshu; Sharma, D K; Singh, D; Singh, U S; Singh, R K; Haefele, S M; Ismail, A M

    2016-04-01

    Regaining the agricultural potential of sodic soils in the Indo-Gangetic plains necessitates the development of suitable salt tolerant rice varieties to provide an entry for other affordable agronomic and soil manipulation measures. Thus selection of high yielding rice varieties across a range of sodic soils is central. Evaluation of breeding lines through on-station and on-farm farmers' participatory varietal selection (FPVS) resulted in the identification of a short duration (110-115 days), high yielding and disease resistant salt-tolerant rice genotype 'CSR-89IR-8', which was later released as 'CSR43' in 2011. Several agronomic traits coupled with good grain quality and market value contributed to commercialization and quick adoption of this variety in the sodic areas of the Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern India. Management practices required for rice production in salt affected soils are evidently different from those in normal soils and practices for a short duration salt tolerant variety differ from those for medium to long duration varieties. Experiments were conducted at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR-CSSRI), Regional Research Station, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2011 and 2013 wet seasons, to test the hypothesis that combining matching management practices (Mmp) with an improved genotype would enhance productivity and profitability of rice in sodic soils. Mmp were developed on-station by optimizing existing best management practices (Bmp) recommended for the region to match the requirements of CSR43. The results revealed that transplanting 4 seedlings hill(-1) at a spacing of 15 × 20 cm produced significantly higher yield over other treatments. The highest additional net gain was US$ 3.3 at 90 kg ha(-1) N, and the lowest was US$ 0.4 at 150 kg ha(-1) N. Above 150 kg ha(-1), the additional net gain became negative, indicating decreasing returns from additional N. Hence, 150

  12. Assessing Wheat Traits by Spectral Reflectance: Do We Really Need to Focus on Predicted Trait-Values or Directly Identify the Elite Genotypes Group?

    PubMed

    Garriga, Miguel; Romero-Bravo, Sebastián; Estrada, Félix; Escobar, Alejandro; Matus, Iván A; Del Pozo, Alejandro; Astudillo, Cesar A; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping, via remote and proximal sensing techniques, of the agronomic and physiological traits associated with yield potential and drought adaptation could contribute to improvements in breeding programs. In the present study, 384 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were tested under fully irrigated (FI) and water stress (WS) conditions. The following traits were evaluated and assessed via spectral reflectance: Grain yield (GY), spikes per square meter (SM2), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), chlorophyll content (SPAD), stem water soluble carbohydrate concentration and content (WSC and WSCC, respectively), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), and leaf area index (LAI). The performances of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs), four regression algorithms (PCR, PLSR, ridge regression RR, and SVR), and three classification methods (PCA-LDA, PLS-DA, and kNN) were evaluated for the prediction of each trait. For the classification approaches, two classes were established for each trait: The lower 80% of the trait variability range (Class 1) and the remaining 20% (Class 2 or elite genotypes). Both the SRIs and regression methods performed better when data from FI and WS were combined. The traits that were best estimated by SRIs and regression methods were GY and Δ(13)C. For most traits and conditions, the estimations provided by RR and SVR were the same, or better than, those provided by the SRIs. PLS-DA showed the best performance among the categorical methods and, unlike the SRI and regression models, most traits were relatively well-classified within a specific hydric condition (FI or WS), proving that classification approach is an effective tool to be explored in future studies related to genotype selection.

  13. Assessing Wheat Traits by Spectral Reflectance: Do We Really Need to Focus on Predicted Trait-Values or Directly Identify the Elite Genotypes Group?

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Miguel; Romero-Bravo, Sebastián; Estrada, Félix; Escobar, Alejandro; Matus, Iván A.; del Pozo, Alejandro; Astudillo, Cesar A.; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping, via remote and proximal sensing techniques, of the agronomic and physiological traits associated with yield potential and drought adaptation could contribute to improvements in breeding programs. In the present study, 384 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were tested under fully irrigated (FI) and water stress (WS) conditions. The following traits were evaluated and assessed via spectral reflectance: Grain yield (GY), spikes per square meter (SM2), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), chlorophyll content (SPAD), stem water soluble carbohydrate concentration and content (WSC and WSCC, respectively), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and leaf area index (LAI). The performances of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs), four regression algorithms (PCR, PLSR, ridge regression RR, and SVR), and three classification methods (PCA-LDA, PLS-DA, and kNN) were evaluated for the prediction of each trait. For the classification approaches, two classes were established for each trait: The lower 80% of the trait variability range (Class 1) and the remaining 20% (Class 2 or elite genotypes). Both the SRIs and regression methods performed better when data from FI and WS were combined. The traits that were best estimated by SRIs and regression methods were GY and Δ13C. For most traits and conditions, the estimations provided by RR and SVR were the same, or better than, those provided by the SRIs. PLS-DA showed the best performance among the categorical methods and, unlike the SRI and regression models, most traits were relatively well-classified within a specific hydric condition (FI or WS), proving that classification approach is an effective tool to be explored in future studies related to genotype selection. PMID:28337210

  14. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia

    2012-08-01

    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results.

  15. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial

  16. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  17. Predictive modelling of complex agronomic and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Keurentjes, Joost J B; Molenaar, Jaap; Zwaan, Bas J

    2013-09-01

    Biological systems are tremendously complex in their functioning and regulation. Studying the multifaceted behaviour and describing the performance of such complexity has challenged the scientific community for years. The reduction of real-world intricacy into simple descriptive models has therefore convinced many researchers of the usefulness of introducing mathematics into biological sciences. Predictive modelling takes such an approach another step further in that it takes advantage of existing knowledge to project the performance of a system in alternating scenarios. The ever growing amounts of available data generated by assessing biological systems at increasingly higher detail provide unique opportunities for future modelling and experiment design. Here we aim to provide an overview of the progress made in modelling over time and the currently prevalent approaches for iterative modelling cycles in modern biology. We will further argue for the importance of versatility in modelling approaches, including parameter estimation, model reduction and network reconstruction. Finally, we will discuss the difficulties in overcoming the mathematical interpretation of in vivo complexity and address some of the future challenges lying ahead.

  18. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  19. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence.

  20. Genetic map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for nitrogen use efficiency and its relationship with productivity and quality of the biennial crop Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Cassan, Laurent; Moreau, Laurence; Segouin, Samuel; Bellamy, Annick; Falque, Mathieu; Limami, Anis M

    2010-10-15

    A genetic study of the biennial crop Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) was carried out to examine the effect of nitrogen nutrition during the vegetative phase in the control of the productivity and quality of the chicon (etiolated bud), a crop that grows during the second phase of development (forcing process). A population of 302 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was obtained from the cross between contrasting lines "NS1" and "NR2". A genetic map was constructed and QTLs of several physiological and agronomical traits were mapped under two levels of nitrogen fertilization during the vegetative phase (N- and N+). The agronomical traits showed high broad sense heritability, whereas the physiological traits were characterized by low broad sense heritability. Nitrogen reserves mobilization during the forcing process was negatively correlated with nitrogen reserves content of the tuberized root and common QTLs were detected for these traits. The chicon productivity and quality were not correlated, but showed one common QTL. This study revealed that chicon productivity and quality were genetically associated with nitrogen reserves mobilization that exerts opposite effects on both traits. Chicon productivity was positively correlated with N reserves mobilization under N- and N+ and a common QTL with the same additive effects was detected for both traits. Chicon quality was negatively correlated with N reserves mobilization under N- and N+ and a common QTL with opposite additive effects was detected for both traits. These results lead to the conclusion that N reserves mobilization is a more effective trait than N reserves content in predicting chicon productivity and quality. Finally, this study revealed agronomical and physiological QTLs utilizable by breeders via marker-assisted selection to aid the optimization of chicon quality under adapted N fertilization.

  1. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  2. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  3. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  4. Agronomic threshold of soil available phosphorus in grey desert soils in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, H.; Hao, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, J. S.; Li, J. M.; Ma, Y. B.

    2016-08-01

    Based on 23 years of data, yields of maize, wheat and cotton were modelled under different fertilizer management practices and at different levels of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) in soil. Three types of threshold models were used, namely linear-linear (LL), linear- plateau (LP), and Mitscherlich type exponential (Exp). The agronomic thresholds of available phosphorus were 25.4 mgkg-1 for cotton, 14.8 mgkg-1 for wheat, 13.1 mgkg-1 for maize and 25.4 mgkg-1 for the grey desert soil regions of Xinjiang in China as a whole.

  5. Genetic diversity among oat varieties of worldwide origin and associations of AFLP markers with quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, Andreas; Tinker, Nicholas A; Zechner, Elisabeth; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    One hundred and fourteen oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties of worldwide origin were evaluated for genetic diversity based on 77 molecular polymorphisms produced by eight selective AFLP primer combinations. Genetic similarity, calculated using the DICE coefficient, was used for cluster analysis and principal component analysis was applied. In addition population structure was explored to identify discrete subpopulations based on allele frequency. Although clustering and population structure showed relationships with region and country of origin, there was no obvious relationship to hull presence or hull colour. Oat varieties originating from European breeding programs showed less diversity than varieties originating from North and South America. Associations between AFLP markers and agronomic traits (grain yield, groat yield, panicle emergence, plant height, and lodging) as well as kernel quality traits (kernel weight, test weight, screening percent and groat percent) were also investigated. Marker-trait associations were tested using a naïve simple regression model and five additional models that account for population structure. Significant associations were found for 23 AFLP markers, with many of these affecting multiple traits. This study demonstrates that diversity can be significantly enhanced using a global collection, and provides evidence for marker-trait associations that can be validated in segregating populations and exploited through marker-assisted selection.

  6. Effects of genetic and environmental factors on trait network predictions from quantitative trait locus data.

    PubMed

    Remington, David L

    2009-03-01

    The use of high-throughput genomic techniques to map gene expression quantitative trait loci has spurred the development of path analysis approaches for predicting functional networks linking genes and natural trait variation. The goal of this study was to test whether potentially confounding factors, including effects of common environment and genes not included in path models, affect predictions of cause-effect relationships among traits generated by QTL path analyses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test simple QTL-trait networks under different regulatory scenarios involving direct and indirect effects. SEM identified the correct models under simple scenarios, but when common-environment effects were simulated in conjunction with direct QTL effects on traits, they were poorly distinguished from indirect effects, leading to false support for indirect models. Application of SEM to loblolly pine QTL data provided support for biologically plausible a priori hypotheses of QTL mechanisms affecting height and diameter growth. However, some biologically implausible models were also well supported. The results emphasize the need to include any available functional information, including predictions for genetic and environmental correlations, to develop plausible models if biologically useful trait network predictions are to be made.

  7. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    PubMed

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally.

  8. Identifying copepod functional groups from species functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Fabio; Gasparini, Stéphane; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    We gathered information on the functional traits of the most representative copepod species in the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species described by 7 traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Cluster analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be separated into groups with distinct ecological roles. PMID:26811565

  9. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  10. Waterfowl foraging in winter-flooded ricefields: Any agronomic benefits for farmers?

    PubMed

    Brogi, Anne; Pernollet, Claire A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Guillemain, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Winter-flooding of ricefields provides foraging habitat to waterfowl, which in return may bring agronomic benefits to farmers. Our study experimentally tested the effect of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) on the standing stalks and weed seed bank in the Camargue (France), both of which present major challenges for farmers. Three duck densities were tested: (D1) 5 ducks ha(-1) (historical nocturnal density), (D2) 23 ducks ha(-1) (present nocturnal density), and (D3) 300 ducks ha(-1) (Asian rice-duck farming density). The ducks reduced the stalks significantly: -27 % (D1), -52 % (D2), and -91 % (D3). Conversely, they decreased the number of seeds by only 3 % (D3) and the seed mass by about 21 % (D1 and D3), which was not significant. Besides they had no effect on seed species richness. This study clearly demonstrates that the winter-flooding effect on straw decomposition can be enhanced by waterfowl foraging, hence showing an agronomic benefit from ducks to farmers. However, there was no clear effect in terms of seed bank reduction.

  11. Integration of agronomic practices with herbicides for sustainable weed management in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Mohamed, M T M; Uddin, M K; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point.

  12. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha(-1) under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ(13)C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions.

  13. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A.; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha−1 under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ13C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions. PMID:27458470

  14. Genetic diversity and agronomic potential of cultivars within the U.S Cotton Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadening the range of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm to introduce genetic diversity would be useful in minimizing risks to production, introducing unique traits, or improving trait performance. Within the U.S. Cotton Germplasm Collection is a subset of improved cultivars, collected worl...

  15. Effect of advanced intercrossing on genome structure and on the power to detect linked quantitative trait loci in a multi-parent population: a simulation study in rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In genetic analysis of agronomic traits, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the same phenotype are often closely linked. Furthermore, many QTLs are localized in specific genomic regions (QTL clusters) that include naturally occurring allelic variations in different genes. Therefore, linkage among QTLs may complicate the detection of each individual QTL. This problem can be resolved by using populations that include many potential recombination sites. Recently, multi-parent populations have been developed and used for QTL analysis. However, their efficiency for detection of linked QTLs has not received attention. By using information on rice, we simulated the construction of a multi-parent population followed by cycles of recurrent crossing and inbreeding, and we investigated the resulting genome structure and its usefulness for detecting linked QTLs as a function of the number of cycles of recurrent crossing. Results The number of non-recombinant genome segments increased linearly with an increasing number of cycles. The mean and median lengths of the non-recombinant genome segments decreased dramatically during the first five to six cycles, then decreased more slowly during subsequent cycles. Without recurrent crossing, we found that there is a risk of missing QTLs that are linked in a repulsion phase, and a risk of identifying linked QTLs in a coupling phase as a single QTL, even when the population was derived from eight parental lines. In our simulation results, using fewer than two cycles of recurrent crossing produced results that differed little from the results with zero cycles, whereas using more than six cycles dramatically improved the power under most of the conditions that we simulated. Conclusion Our results indicated that even with a population derived from eight parental lines, fewer than two cycles of crossing does not improve the power to detect linked QTLs. However, using six cycles dramatically improved the power, suggesting

  16. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding

  17. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    PubMed

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  18. Personality Traits: Hierarchically Organized Systems.

    PubMed

    Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2017-03-13

    Personality science has always been and is still ready for new theorizing on traits. Accordingly, this paper presents the recently proposed Traits as Hierarchical Systems (THS) model, where personality traits are not only the emergent properties of the three-level hierarchy of the personality system, but are also hierarchical per se. As hierarchical systems, they are organized into three levels: mechanisms and processes, structures, and behavioral markers. In this approach trait denotes the underlying, recurrent mechanisms that pattern its structure and account for the stability/variability of individual characteristics. Here, traits might be described as processes with a slow rate of change that can be substituted for structure. The main function of personality traits, within the personality system, is stimulation processing. Three dominant functions of stimulation processing in traits are proposed: reactive, regulative, and self-regulative. Some important questions regarding the concept of trait remain, e.g. concerning trait stability, determinacy, measurement, their relation to overt behaviors, personality type or state, differentiation between temperament traits and other-than-temperament personality traits. All of these topics are discussed in this paper, as well as the compatible and distinctive features of this approach in relation to selected, modern trait theories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of DSM-5 traits.

    PubMed

    Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edi.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains a system for diagnosing personality disorder based in part on assessing 25 maladaptive traits. Initial research suggests that this aspect of the system improves the validity and clinical utility of the Section II Model. The Computer Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD; Simms et al., 2011) contains many similar traits as the DSM-5, as well as several additional traits seemingly not covered in the DSM-5. In this study we evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity between the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), and CAT-PD in an undergraduate sample, and test whether traits included in the CAT-PD but not the DSM-5 provide incremental validity in association with clinically relevant criterion variables. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 and CAT-PD scales in their assessment of 23 out of 25 DSM-5 traits. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with 11 criterion variables, despite our having intentionally selected clinically relevant criterion constructs not directly assessed by DSM-5 traits. However, the additional CAT-PD traits provided incremental information above and beyond the DSM-5 traits for all criterion variables examined. These findings support the validity of pathological trait models in general and the DSM-5 and CAT-PD models in particular, while also suggesting that the CAT-PD may include additional traits for consideration in future iterations of the DSM-5 system. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Haplotype diversity of VvTFL1A gene and association with cluster traits in grapevine (V. vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and LEAFY (LFY) seem to determine the inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis. In a parallel way, overexpression of VvTFL1A, a grapevine TFL1 homolog, causes delayed flowering and production of a ramose cluster in the reiterated reproductive meristem (RRM) somatic variant of cultivar Carignan. To analyze the possible contribution of this gene to cluster phenotypic variation in a diversity panel of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) its nucleotide diversity was characterized and association analyses among detected sequence polymorphisms and phenology and cluster traits was carried out. Results A total of 3.6 kb of the VvTFL1A gene, including its promoter, was sequenced in a core collection of 140 individuals designed to maximize phenotypic variation at agronomical relevant traits. Nucleotide variation for VvTFL1A within this collection was higher in the promoter and intron sequences than in the exon regions; where few polymorphisms were located in agreement with a high conservation of coding sequence. Characterization of the VvTFL1A haplotype network identified three major haplogroups, consistent with the geographic origins and the use of the cultivars that could correspond to three major ancestral alleles or evolutionary branches, based on the existence of mutations in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic association studies with cluster traits revealed the presence of major INDEL polymorphisms, explaining 16%, 13% and 25% of flowering time, cluster width and berry weight, respectively, and also structuring the three haplogroups. Conclusions At least three major VvTFL1A haplogroups are present in cultivated grapevines, which are defined by the presence of three main polymorphism LD blocks and associated to characteristic phenotypic values for flowering time, cluster width and berry size. Phenotypic differences between haplogroups are consistent with differences observed between Eastern and

  1. Ensemble learning of QTL models improves prediction of complex traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability, but are less useful for genetic prediction due to difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage ...

  2. Use of Genomics in Economically Important Traits in Ovine Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to summarize relevant results from the use of genomics in sheep. Genomics has been used to identify genes associated with production, reproduction, carcass traits, and disease-related traits in sheep. A brief discussion on the concept of genomics is included. Genome-w...

  3. Designing an Accompanying Ecosystem to Foster Entrepreneurship among Agronomic and Forestry Engineering Students. Opinion and Commitment of University Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Medina, L.; Fernández-Ahumada, E.; Lara-Vélez, P.; Taguas, E. V.; Gallardo-Cobos, R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero-Ginel, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a collective project conceived as an 'ecosystem to support and accompany entrepreneurs' has been proposed. The approach aims to spread and consolidate the entrepreneurial spirit and to respond to the demands of possible stakeholders involved in the whole…

  4. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-27

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops.

  5. Copper accumulation in vineyard soils: Rhizosphere processes and agronomic practices to limit its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Gustavo; Bastos de Melo, George Wellington; Terzano, Roberto; Del Buono, Daniele; Astolfi, Stefania; Tomasi, Nicola; Pii, Youry; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants. In particular, root exudates affecting the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the rhizosphere, might reduce the availability of Cu in the soil and hence its absorption. In addition, this review will aim at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of agronomic practices, such as liming, the use of pesticides, the application of organic matter, biochar and coal fly ashes, the inoculation with bacteria and/or mycorrhizal fungi and the intercropping, in alleviating Cu toxicity symptoms.

  6. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  7. Social personality trait and fitness.

    PubMed

    Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

    2008-12-22

    Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. 'Asocial' and 'social' lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

  8. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  9. Predicting soil fumigant air concentrations under regional and diverse agronomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    SOFEA (SOil Fumigant Exposure Assessment system; Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) is a new stochastic numerical modeling tool for evaluating and managing human inhalation exposure potential associated with the use of soil fumigants. SOFEA calculates fumigant concentrations in air arising from volatility losses from treated fields for large agricultural regions using multiple transient source terms (treated fields), geographical information systems (GIS) information, agronomic specific variables, user-specified buffer zones, and field reentry intervals. A modified version of the USEPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term model (ISCST3) is used for air dispersion calculations. Weather information, field size, application date, application rate, application type, soil incorporation depth, pesticide degradation rates in air, tarp presence, field retreatment, and other sensitive parameters are varied stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques to mimic region and crop specific agronomic practices. Regional land cover, elevation, and population information can be used to refine source placement (treated fields), dispersion calculations, and risk assessments. This paper describes the technical algorithms of SOFEA and offers comparisons of simulation predictions for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) to actual regional air monitoring measurements from Kern, California. Comparison of simulation results to daily air monitoring observations is remarkable over the entire concentration distribution (average percent deviation of 44% and model efficiency of 0.98), especially considering numerous inputs such as meteorological conditions for SOFEA were unavailable and approximated by neighboring regions. Both current and anticipated and/or forecasted fumigant scenarios can be simulated using SOFEA to provide risk managers and product stewards the necessary information to make sound regulatory decisions regarding the use of soil fumigants in agriculture.

  10. Automatic detection and agronomic characterization of olive groves using high-resolution imagery and LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, T.; Rühl, J.; Sciortino, R.; Marra, F. P.; La Scalia, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union grants subsidies for olive production. Areas of intensified olive farming will be of major importance for the increasing demand for oil production of the next decades, and countries with a high ratio of intensively and super-intensively managed olive groves will be more competitive than others, since they are able to reduce production costs. It can be estimated that about 25-40% of the Sicilian oliviculture must be defined as "marginal". Modern olive cultivation systems, which permit the mechanization of pruning and harvest operations, are limited. Agronomists, landscape planners, policy decision-makers and other professionals have a growing need for accurate and cost-effective information on land use in general and agronomic parameters in the particular. The availability of high spatial resolution imagery has enabled researchers to propose analysis tools on agricultural parcel and tree level. In our study, we test the performance of WorldView-2 imagery relative to the detection of olive groves and the delineation of olive tree crowns, using an object-oriented approach of image classification in combined use with LIDAR data. We selected two sites, which differ in their environmental conditions and in their agronomic parameters of olive grove cultivation. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is the low necessary quantity of data input and its automatibility. However, it should be applied in other study areas to test if the good results of accuracy assessment can be confirmed. Data extracted by the proposed methodology can be used as input data for decision-making support systems for olive grove management.

  11. Fate of atrazine in a soil under different agronomic management practices.

    PubMed

    Prado, B; Fuentes, M; Verhulst, N; Govaerts, B; De León, F; Zamora, O

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural management affects the movement of atrazine in soil and leaching to groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine atrazine adsorption in a soil after 20 years of atrazine application under agronomic management practices differing in tillage practice (conventional and zero tillage), residue management (with and without residue retention) and crop rotation (wheat-maize rotation and maize monoculture). Atrazine sorption was determined using batch and column experiments. In the batch experiment, the highest distribution coefficient Kd (1.1 L kg(-1)) at 0-10 cm soil depth was observed under zero tillage, crop rotation and residue retention (conservation agriculture). The key factor in adsorption was soil organic matter content and type. This was confirmed in the column experiment, in which the highest Kd values were observed in treatments with residue retention, under either zero or conventional tillage (0.81 and 0.68 L kg(-1), respectively). Under zero tillage, the fact that there was no soil movement helped to increase the Kd. The increased soil organic matter content with conservation agriculture may be more important than preferential flow due to higher pore connectivity in the same system. The soil's capacity to adsorb 2-hydroxyatrazine (HA), an important atrazine metabolite, was more important than its capacity to adsorb atrazine, and was similar under all four management practices (Kd ranged from 30 to 40 L kg(-1)). The HA adsorption was attributed to the type and amount of clay in the soil, which is unaffected by agronomic management. Soils under conservation agriculture had higher atrazine retention potential than soils under conventional tillage, the system that predominates in the study area.

  12. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  13. Controlled application rate of water treatment residual for agronomic and environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; O'Connor, George A; Sartain, Jerry B; Nair, Vimala D

    2007-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTR) are useful soil amendments to control excessive soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, but indiscriminate additions can result in inadequate control or excessive immobilization of soluble P, leading to crop deficiencies. We evaluated the influence of application rates of an Al-WTR and various P-sources on plant yields, tissue P concentrations, and P uptake and attempted to identify a basis for determining WTR application rates. Bahiagrass (paspalum notatum Fluggae) was grown in a P-deficient soil amended with four P-sources at two application levels (N- and P-based rates) and three WTR rates (0, 10, and 25 g kg(-1) oven dry basis) in a glasshouse pot experiment. The glasshouse results were compared with data from a 2-yr field experiment with similar treatments that were surface applied to an established bahiagrass. Soil P storage capacity (SPSC) values increased with application rate of WTR, and the increase varied with sources of P applied. Soil soluble P concentrations increased as SPSC was reduced, and a change point was identified at 0 mg kg(-1) SPSC in the glasshouse and the field studies. A change point was identified in the bahiagrass yields at a tissue P concentration of 2.0 g kg(-1), corresponding to zero SPSC. Zero SPSC was shown to be an agronomic threshold above which yields and P concentrations of plants declined and below which there is little or no yield response to increased plant P concentrations. Applying P-sources at N-based rates, along with WTR sufficient to give SPSC value of 0 mg kg(-1) SPSC, enhanced the environmental benefits (reduced P loss potential) without negative agronomic impacts.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Teosinte Alleles for Kernel Composition Traits in Maize.

    PubMed

    Karn, Avinash; Gillman, Jason D; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2017-02-10

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared to maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic lines (teosinte NILs) was previously developed to broaden the resources for genetic diversity of maize, and to discover novel alleles for agronomic and domestication traits. The 961 teosinte NILs were developed by backcrossing ten geographically diverse parviglumis accessions into the B73 (reference genome inbred) background. The NILs were grown in two replications in 2009 and 2010 in Columbia, Missouri and Aurora, New York, respectively, and Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) calibrations were developed and used to rapidly predict total kernel starch, protein and oil content on a dry matter basis in bulk whole grains of teosinte NILs. Our joint-linkage quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis identified two starch, three protein and six oil QTLs, which collectively explained 18%, 23% and 45% of the total variation, respectively. A range of strong additive allelic effects for kernel starch, protein and oil content were identified relative to the B73 allele. Our results support our hypothesis that teosinte harbors stronger alleles for kernel composition traits than maize, and that teosinte can be exploited for the improvement of kernel composition traits in modern maize germplasm.

  15. Two genomic regions associated with fiber quality traits in Chinese upland cotton under apparent breeding selection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Caixiang; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Hantao; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhang, Chi; Mao, Guangzhi; Huang, Long; Wang, Chengshe; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM). Most importantly, two major genomic regions (MGR1 and MGR2) on chromosome Dt7 and four potential candidate genes for FL were identified. Analyzing the geographical distribution of favorable haplotypes (FHs) among these lines revealed that two favorable haplotype frequencies (FHFs) were higher in accessions from low-latitude regions than in accessions from high-latitude regions. However, the genetic diversity of lines from the low-latitude regions was lower than the diversity of lines from the high-latitude regions in China. Furthermore, the FHFs differed among cultivars developed during different breeding periods. These results indicate that FHs have undergone artificial selection during upland cotton breeding in recent decades in China and provide a foundation for the further improvement of fiber quality traits. PMID:27924947

  16. Genetic Analysis of Teosinte Alleles for Kernel Composition Traits in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Avinash; Gillman, Jason D.; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) is the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Teosinte contains greater genetic diversity compared with maize inbreds and landraces, but its use is limited by insufficient genetic resources to evaluate its value. A population of teosinte near isogenic lines (NILs) was previously developed to broaden the resources for genetic diversity of maize, and to discover novel alleles for agronomic and domestication traits. The 961 teosinte NILs were developed by backcrossing 10 geographically diverse parviglumis accessions into the B73 (reference genome inbred) background. The NILs were grown in two replications in 2009 and 2010 in Columbia, MO and Aurora, NY, respectively, and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance calibrations were developed and used to rapidly predict total kernel starch, protein, and oil content on a dry matter basis in bulk whole grains of teosinte NILs. Our joint-linkage quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis identified two starch, three protein, and six oil QTL, which collectively explained 18, 23, and 45% of the total variation, respectively. A range of strong additive allelic effects for kernel starch, protein, and oil content were identified relative to the B73 allele. Our results support our hypothesis that teosinte harbors stronger alleles for kernel composition traits than maize, and that teosinte can be exploited for the improvement of kernel composition traits in modern maize germplasm. PMID:28188181

  17. Agronomic improvements can make future cereal systems in South Asia far more productive and result in a lower environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Raman, Anitha K; Padre, Agnes Tirol; Dobermann, Achim; Gathala, Mahesh; Kumar, Virender; Saharawat, Yashpal; Sharma, Sheetal; Piepho, Hans Peter; Alam, Md Mursedul; Liak, Ranjan; Rajendran, Ramasamy; Reddy, Chinnagangannagari Kesava; Parsad, Rajender; Sharma, Parbodh C; Singh, Sati Shankar; Saha, Abhijit; Noor, Shamsoon

    2016-03-01

    South Asian countries will have to double their food production by 2050 while using resources more efficiently and minimizing environmental problems. Transformative management approaches and technology solutions will be required in the major grain-producing areas that provide the basis for future food and nutrition security. This study was conducted in four locations representing major food production systems of densely populated regions of South Asia. Novel production-scale research platforms were established to assess and optimize three futuristic cropping systems and management scenarios (S2, S3, S4) in comparison with current management (S1). With best agronomic management practices (BMPs), including conservation agriculture (CA) and cropping system diversification, the productivity of rice- and wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia increased substantially, whereas the global warming potential intensity (GWPi) decreased. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were achieved. In comparison with S1, S4, in which BMPs, CA and crop diversification were implemented in the most integrated manner, achieved 54% higher grain energy yield with a 104% increase in economic returns, 35% lower total water input, and a 43% lower GWPi. Conservation agriculture practices were most suitable for intensifying as well as diversifying wheat-rice rotations, but less so for rice-rice systems. This finding also highlights the need for characterizing areas suitable for CA and subsequent technology targeting. A comprehensive baseline dataset generated in this study will allow the prediction of extending benefits to a larger scale.

  18. Adaptive nitrogen and integrated weed management in conservation agriculture: impacts on agronomic productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and herbicide residues.

    PubMed

    Oyeogbe, Anthony Imoudu; Das, T K; Bhatia, Arti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2017-04-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) immobilization and weed interference in the early phase of implementation of conservation agriculture (CA) affects crop yields. Yet, higher fertilizer and herbicide use to improve productivity influences greenhouse gase emissions and herbicide residues. These tradeoffs precipitated a need for adaptive N and integrated weed management in CA-based maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol] cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to optimize N availability and reduce weed proliferation. Adaptive N fertilization was based on soil test value and normalized difference vegetation index measurement (NDVM) by GreenSeeker™ technology, while integrated weed management included brown manuring (Sesbania aculeata L. co-culture, killed at 25 days after sowing), herbicide mixture, and weedy check (control, i.e., without weed management). Results indicated that the 'best-adaptive N rate' (i.e., 50% basal + 25% broadcast at 25 days after sowing + supplementary N guided by NDVM) increased maize and wheat grain yields by 20 and 14% (averaged for 2 years), respectively, compared with whole recommended N applied at sowing. Weed management by brown manuring (during maize) and herbicide mixture (during wheat) resulted in 10 and 21% higher grain yields (averaged for 2 years), respectively, over the weedy check. The NDVM in-season N fertilization and brown manuring affected N2O and CO2 emissions, but resulted in improved carbon storage efficiency, while herbicide residuals in soil were significantly lower in the maize season than in wheat cropping. This study concludes that adaptive N and integrated weed management enhance synergy between agronomic productivity, fertilizer and herbicide efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation.

  19. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingting; Ren, Wei; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Di; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE) responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns) in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC) during two periods, 1983-1999 and 2000-2010 (drier and warmer). Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax) in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin) in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6-11.0% and 19.5-92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping). Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming.

  20. Responses of He-Ne laser irradiation on agronomical characters and chlorogenic acid content of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) var. Mattu Gulla.

    PubMed

    Swathy, Surendrababu P; Kiran, Kodsara Ramachandra; Rao, Madhura S; Mahato, Krishna K; Rao, Mattu Radhakrishna; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Muthusamy, Annamalai

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to laser irradiation on seeds brings about the changes in agronomical characteristics of the plants. Solanum melongena L. var. Mattu Gulla, a variety of brinjal is of high economic value due to its unique colour and flavour. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on agronomical characters of Solanum melongena L. var. Mattu Gulla in the field conditions. Various growth characteristics including seed germination percentage, survival rate, plant height, number of branches, and flowers and fruits were estimated during different developmental stages of the brinjal. In addition, the chlorogenic acid content of fruits obtained from the laser irradiated seeds were quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC). The plants from the seeds irradiated with different doses (20, 25 and 30J/cm(2)) of He-Ne laser showed significant enhancement on the growth characteristics when compared to the non-irradiated control groups. He-Ne laser irradiation also improved the yield characteristics of the plants significantly in in vivo conditions in comparison with control group. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed using methanolic extract of matured fruit of Mattu Gulla on HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. The IC50 values of fruit extract from laser irradiated groups were found to be similar to non-irradiated control groups. Chlorogenic acid content was found to be higher in 20J/cm(2) and lower in 30J/cm(2) treated fruit tissue. The current study thus elucidates the role of He-Ne laser as a biostimulator on brinjal var. Mattu Gulla not only in the in vitro conditions but also in the in vivo field conditions.

  1. Joint linkage and segregation analysis under multiallelic trait inheritance: simplifying interpretations for complex traits.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2010-05-01

    Identification of the genetic basis of common traits may be hindered by underlying complex genetic architectures that are inadequately captured by existing models, including both multiallelic and multilocus modes of inheritance (MOI). One useful approach for localizing genes underlying continuous complex traits is the joint oligogenic linkage and segregation analysis implemented in the package Loki. The method uses reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo to eliminate the need to prespecify the number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the trait model, thus providing posterior distributions for the number of QTLs in a Bayesian framework. The current implementation assumes QTLs are diallelic, and therefore can overestimate the number of linked QTLs in the presence of a multiallelic QTL. To address the possibility of multiple alleles, we extended the QTL model to allow for a variable number of additive alleles at each locus. Application to simulated data shows that, under a diallelic MOI, the multiallelic and diallelic analysis models give similar results. Under a multiallelic MOI, the multiallelic analysis model provides better mixing and improved convergence, and leads to a more accurate estimate of the underlying trait MOI and model parameter values, than does the diallelic model. Application to real data shows the multiallelic model results in fewer estimated linked QTLs and that the predominant QTL model is similar to one of two predominant models estimated from the diallelic analysis. Our results indicate that use of a multiallelic analysis model can lead to better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits.

  2. Effect of different agronomic management practices on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling in a long-term field trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2015-04-01

    field to include weather effects. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions influenced by management practice events (i.a. fertilisation, crop incorporation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods) and the creation of impact studies comparing the farming systems (organic vs integrated) and the management practices (minimum tillage vs conventional tillage; high vs low fertilisation). Physical, chemical and biological soil properties (i.a. texture, mineral nitrogen, soil organic carbon and microbial biomass) have been examined in short time intervals to aggregate the parameters and processes influencing the greenhouse gas emissions and to build a linkage between soil organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, with the comparison of the investigated similar long-term field experiments and the collected agronomic data (harvest, tillage and fertilisation practices) the study could contribute to a contemporary set of "best management practices" and could provide a help to create decision tools for stakeholders such as farmers.

  3. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed.

  4. Genetic parameters among weight, prolificacy, and wool traits of Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Bromley, C M; Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D

    2000-04-01

    Genetic parameters for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep were estimated using REML with animal models for prolificacy, weight, and wool traits. All bivariate analyses included a covariance between additive genetic effects for the two traits plus appropriate additional covariances. Number of observations by breed ranged from 5,140 to 7,095 for prolificacy traits, from 7,750 to 9,530 for weight traits, and from 4,603 to 34,746 for wool traits. Heritability estimates ranged from .03 to .11 for prolificacy traits (litter size at birth and litter size at weaning), from .09 to .26 for weight traits (birth weight and average daily gain), and from .25 to .53 for wool traits (fleece weight, fleece grade and staple length). Estimates of direct genetic correlations among prolificacy and among weight traits were positive and ranged from .58 to 1.00 and .18 to 1.00, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between fleece weight and staple length were positive (.50 to .70) but were negative between fleece weight and fleece grade (-.60 to -.34) and between staple length and fleece grade (-.72 and -.40). Prolificacy and wool traits were essentially uncorrelated. Weight and prolificacy traits were slightly positively correlated. Weight traits had a moderate positive direct genetic correlation with fleece weight and staple length, but were uncorrelated with fleece grade. These estimates of genetic parameters between prolificacy, weight, and wool traits can be used to construct multiple-trait selection indexes for dual-purpose sheep.

  5. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  6. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

  7. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  8. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  9. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  10. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  11. Emotional norms for 524 French personality trait words.

    PubMed

    Ric, François; Alexopoulos, Theodore; Muller, Dominique; Aubé, Benoîte

    2013-06-01

    Newly measured rating norms provide a database of emotion-related dimensions for 524 French trait words. Measures include valence, approach/avoidance tendencies associated with the trait, possessor- and other-relevance of the trait, and discrete emotions conveyed by the trait (i.e., anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness). The normative data were obtained from 328 participants and were revealed to be stable across samples and gender. These data go beyond a dimensional structure and consider more fine-grained descriptions such as the categorical emotions, as well as the perspective of the evaluator conveyed by the traits. They should thus be particularly useful for researchers interested in emotion or in the emotional dimension of cognition, action, or personality. The database is available as supplementary material.

  12. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Yield-Related Components and Oligogenic Control of the Cap Color of the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Anne; Rousseau, Thierry; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    As in other crops, yield is an important trait to be selected for in edible mushrooms, but its inheritance is poorly understood. Therefore, we have investigated the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits in Agaricus bisporus through the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), using second-generation hybrid progeny derived from a cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar. Yield, average weight per mushroom, number of fruiting bodies per m2, earliness, and cap color were evaluated in two independent experiments. A total of 23 QTL were detected for 7 yield-related traits. These QTL together explained between 21% (two-flushes yield) and 59% (earliness) of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen QTL (65%) were consistent between the two experiments. Four regions underlying significant QTL controlling yield, average weight, and number were detected on linkage groups II, III, IV, and X, suggesting a pleiotropic effect or tight linkage. Up to six QTL were identified for earliness. The PPC1 locus, together with two additional genomic regions, explained up to 90% of the phenotypic variation of the cap color. Alleles from the wild parent showed beneficial effects for some yield traits, suggesting that the wild germ plasm is a valuable source of variation for several agronomic traits. Our results constitute a key step toward marker-assisted selection and provide a solid foundation to go further into the biological mechanisms controlling productive traits in the button mushroom. PMID:22267676

  13. A survey and evaluation of human genetic traits used in classroom laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Barnes, P; Mertens, T R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six selected introductory biology and genetics laboratory manuals were examined and were found to include 57 human "inherited" traits as examples for classroom study. Forty-three of these 57 traits are included in McKusick's catalog of human inherited characteristics, Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Of these 43 traits, 26 are annotated with an asterisk, indicating that their modes of inheritance are well documented, while 17 traits are not so annotated, suggesting uncertain mechanisms of inheritance. Fourteen of the 57 traits are not found in McKusick's catalog, implying that they may not be inherited traits at all or that their modes of inheritance may be polygenic. Current literature also suggest that certain traits included in the McKusick catalog may, in fact, not have a genetic basis. Notable examples of such questionable traits are handedness, hand clasping, and tongue rolling. Clearly, a need exists for reliable morphological and easily detected biochemical human genetic traits for use in classroom instruction. Authors preparing instructional manuals for introductory biology and genetics laboratory studies should carefully select the traits with which they illustrate human inheritance. A first requisite for selection of such characteristics must be conclusive evidence that the trait does, indeed, have an established genetic basis. Additional criteria for selection of such traits are also discussed.

  14. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  15. Molecular and agronomic analysis of intraspecific variability in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

    PubMed

    Leite, P S S; Rodrigues, R; Silva, R N O; Pimenta, S; Medeiros, A M; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A

    2016-10-05

    Capsicum baccatum is one of the most important chili peppers in South America, since this region is considered to be the center of origin and diversity of this species. In Brazil, C. baccatum has been widely explored by family farmers and there are different local names for each fruit phenotype, such as cambuci and dedo-de-moça (lady's finger). Although very popular among farmers and consumers, C. baccatum has been less extensively studied than other Capsicum species. This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic variability in C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions. Twenty-nine accessions from the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro gene bank, and one commercial genotype ('BRS-Mari') were evaluated for 53 morphoagronomic descriptors (31 qualitative and 22 quantitative traits). In addition, accessions were genotyped using 30 microsatellite primers. Three accessions from the C. annuum complex were included in the molecular characterization. Nine of 31 qualitative descriptors were monomorphic, while all quantitative descriptors were highly significant different between accessions (P < 0.01). Using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, four groups were obtained based on multicategoric variables and five groups were obtained based on quantitative variables. In the genotyping analysis, 12 polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers amplified in C. baccatum with dissimilarity between accessions ranging from 0.13 to 0.91, permitting the formation of two distinct groups for Bayesian analysis. These results indicate wide variability among the accessions comparing phenotypic and genotypic data and revealed distinct patterns of dissimilarity between matrices, indicating that both steps are valuable for the characterization of C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

  16. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  17. Agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge on an Alfisol.

    PubMed

    Gavalda, D; Scheiner, J D; Revel, J C; Merlina, G; Kaemmerer, M; Pinelli, E; Guiresse, M

    2005-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on Alfisols in South-West France to assess the agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge pellets at 11.1 Mg dry matter ha-1. The sludge pellets, with a moisture level of 9.5%, were spread on an irrigated crop of maize (Zea mays L.). This treatment was compared with inorganic fertilization (urea and diammonium phosphate mixed with KCl). Soil properties, yield and the composition of maize and the quality of drained water were monitored over 1 year to detect any changes resulting from sludge application. Amongst several determined soil properties, only two were significantly modified by the sludge application: The nitric nitrogen stock of the soil was higher in the inorganic fertilized plot, whereas Olsen-P soil content was higher in the sludge-amended plot. Agronomic recovery rates of N and P added by sludge were high: For the first crop following application, total amounts of N and P supplied by the sludge had the same efficiency as approximately 45% of the N and P amounts supplied by inorganic fertilizer. This ratio was 7% for the N uptake by the second maize crop. The quality and quantity of maize were equally good with both types of fertilization. During the 2 years following sludge spreading, N leaching remained as low in the sludged plot as in the inorganically fertilized one. The Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni composition of the drainage water was affected by neither of the types of amendment. From the heavy-metal contents of the soil, water and maize monitored over 1 year in the field experiment and from literature data for cow manure and atmospheric emissions, a theoretical balance between crop soil heavy-metal input and output over one century was drawn up. The long-term impact of cow manure on Zn, Ni and Cr in soil is higher than that of the studied heat-dried sludge. Obviously, sludge tended to cause a strong increase in soil Cu storage, valued for these soils, which are otherwise very Cu

  18. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwanney, Deaa; Chami, Ziad Al; Angelica De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, improving plant performance by providing growth promoters is a main concern of the organic agriculture. As a consequence of increased food demands, more efficient and alternatives of the current plant nutrition strategies are becoming urgent. Recently, a novel concept "bio-effectors" raised on to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance and do not belong to fertilizers or pesticides. Agro-Food processing residues are promising materials as bio-effector. Three plant-derived materials: brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as bio-effector candidates. Plant-derived materials were characterized in term of total macro and micronutrients content. Green extraction methodology and solvent choice (aqueous; ethanol; and aqueous: ethanol mixture 1:1) was based on the extraction yield as main factor. Optimum extracts, to be used on the tomato test plant, were determined using phytotoxicity test (seed germination test) as main constraint. Thereafter, selected extracts were characterized and secondary metabolites profiling were detected by NMR technique. Selected extracts were applied on tomato in a growth chamber at different doses in comparison to humic-like substances as positive control (Ctrl+) and to a Hoagland solution as negative control (Ctrl-). At the end of the experiment, agronomical parameters were determined and NMR-metabolomic profiling were conducted on tomato seedlings. Results are summarized as follow: (i) raw showed an interesting content, either at nutritional or biological level; (ii) aqueous extraction resulted higher yield than other used solvent; (iii) at high extraction ratio (1:25 for BSG; 1:100 for FPR; and 1:200 for LPR) aqueous extracts were not phytotoxic on the tomato test plant; (iv) all aqueous extract are differently rich in nutrients, aminoacids, sugars and low molecular weight molecules; (v) all extract exhibited a growth promotion at

  19. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  20. Genetic parameters and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with tibia traits in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ragognetti, B N N; Stafuzza, N B; Silva, T B R; Chud, T C S; Grupioni, N V; Cruz, V A R; Peixoto, J O; Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Munari, D P

    2015-12-21

    Selection among broilers for performance traits is resulting in locomotion problems and bone disorders, once skeletal structure is not strong enough to support body weight in broilers with high growth rates. In this study, genetic parameters were estimated for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42), and tibia traits (length, width, and weight) in a population of broiler chickens. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for tibia traits to expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of the broiler population. Genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 ± 0.18 (between tibia length and BW42) to 0.89 ± 0.06 (between tibia width and weight), suggesting that these traits are either controlled by pleiotropic genes or by genes that are in linkage disequilibrium. For QTL mapping, the genome was scanned with 127 microsatellites, representing a coverage of 2630 cM. Eight QTL were mapped on Gallus gallus chromosomes (GGA): GGA1, GGA4, GGA6, GGA13, and GGA24. The QTL regions for tibia length and weight were mapped on GGA1, between LEI0079 and MCW145 markers. The gene DACH1 is located in this region; this gene acts to form the apical ectodermal ridge, responsible for limb development. Body weight at 42 days of age was included in the model as a covariate for selection effect of bone traits. Two QTL were found for tibia weight on GGA2 and GGA4, and one for tibia width on GGA3. Information originating from these QTL will assist in the search for candidate genes for these bone traits in future studies.

  1. Genetic Structure of Modern Durum Wheat Cultivars and Mediterranean Landraces Matches with Their Agronomic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Dolors; Aranzana, Maria Jose; García del Moral, Luis F.; Royo, Conxita

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries and 20 modern cultivars were phenotyped in 6 environments for 14 traits including phenology, biomass, yield and yield components. The genetic structure of the collection was ascertained with 44 simple sequence repeat markers that identified 448 alleles, 226 of them with a frequency lower than 5%, and 10 alleles per locus on average. In the modern cultivars all the alleles were fixed in 59% of the markers. Total genetic diversity was HT = 0.7080 and the genetic differentiation value was GST = 0.1730. STRUCTURE software allocated 90.1% of the accessions in five subpopulations, one including all modern cultivars, and the four containing landrace related to their geographic origin: eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, western Balkans and Egypt, and western Mediterranean. Mean yield of subpopulations ranged from 2.6 t ha-1 for the western Balkan and Egyptian landraces to 4.0 t ha-1 for modern cultivars, with the remaining three subpopulations showing similar values of 3.1 t ha-1. Modern cultivars had the highest number of grains m-2 and harvest index, and the shortest cycle length. The diversity was lowest in modern cultivars (HT = 0.4835) and highest in landraces from the western Balkans and Egypt (HT = 0.6979). Genetic diversity and AMOVA indicated that variability between subpopulations was much lower (17%) than variability within them (83%), though all subpopulations had similar biomass values in all growth stages. A dendrogram based on simple sequence repeat data matched with the clusters obtained by STRUCTURE, improving this classification for some accessions that have a large admixture. landraces included in the subpopulation from the eastern Balkans and Turkey were separated into two branches in the dendrogram drawn with phenotypic data, suggesting a different origin for the landraces collected in Serbia and Macedonia. The current study shows a reliable relationship between

  2. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  3. Latent common genetic components of obesity traits

    PubMed Central

    Harders, R; Luke, A; Zhu, X; Cooper, RS

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity is rapidly becoming a global epidemic. Unlike many complex human diseases, obesity is defined not just by a single trait or phenotype, but jointly by measures of anthropometry and metabolic status. Methods We applied maximum likelihood factor analysis to identify common latent factors underlying observed covariance in multiple obesity-related measures. Both the genetic components and the mode of inheritance of the common factors were evaluated. A total of 1775 participants from 590 families for whom measures on obesity-related traits were available were included in this study. Results The average age of participants was 37 years, 39% of the participants were obese (body mass index ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and 26% were overweight (body mass index 25.0 - 29.9 kg/m2). Two latent common factors jointly accounting for over 99% of the correlations among obesity-related traits were identified. Complex segregation analysis of the age and sex-adjusted latent factors provide evidence for a Mendelian mode of inheritance of major genetic effect with heritability estimates of 40.4% and 47.5% for the first and second factors, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide a support for multivariate-based approach for investigating pleiotropic effects on obesity-related traits which can be applied in both genetic linkage and association mapping. PMID:18936762

  4. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  5. Relationships Between Spielberger Trait Anxiety and Lykken Social and Physical Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Kirk R.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Spielberger's measure of trait anxiety and social-interpersonal vs. physical danger trait anxiety, Ss were administered the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Lykken's Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ). (Editor)

  6. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  7. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  8. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  9. Evaluation of potential herbaceous biomass crops on marginal crop lands: 1, Agronomic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Kladivko, E.J.; Greene, D.K. . Dept. of Agronomy)

    1990-07-01

    Management of herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. Our objective was to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland. Soil organic matter and aggregate stability were not adversely affected by any of the management options. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass candidate. It has minimum fertilizer inputs, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive, but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Photoperiod-sensitive and hybrid sorghums able to utilize an entire growing season were very productive, with yields up to 39 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}. Two harvest per season resulted in low yields, such that lodging resistance must be incorporated into desirable genotypes through breeding, instead of using multiple harvests to prevent lodging. Plant composition was greatly affected by species, with a wide range in composition across sorghum genotypes. Of all species evaluated, switchgrass and sorghum have the greatest biomass potential, and both of these species can be improved to produce higher yields of a more desirable chemical composition through plant breeding. 13 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management. PMID:26284104

  11. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  12. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  13. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Islam, Aminul M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility. PMID:24971378

  14. Tropical legume crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on agronomic and nitrogen efficiency of rice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Motior M; Islam, Aminul M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m(-2) preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m(-2). No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13-23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m(-2). The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m(-2). The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  15. Reduction of the movement and persistence of pesticides in soil through common agronomic practices.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted in order to determine the leaching potential of eight pesticides commonly used during pepper cultivation by use of disturbed soil columns and field lysimeters, respectively. Two soils with different organic matter content (soils A and B) were used. Additionally, soil B was amended with compost (sheep manure). The tested compounds were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, endosulfan, malathion and tolclofos-methyl. In soil B (lower organic matter content), only endosulfan sulphate, malathion and tolclofos-methyl were found in leachates. For the soil A (higher organic matter content) and amended soil B, pesticide residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, this paper reports on the use of common agronomic practices (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance degradation of these pesticides from polluted soil A. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced the degradation rates of endosulfan, bifenthrin and tolclofos-methyl compared with the control. Most of the studied pesticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, chlorpyrifos was degraded to a greater extent in the solarization than in biosolarization treatment. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic amendment in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage and in the use of solarization and biosolarization in reducing the persistence of pesticides in soil.

  16. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-02-18

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously.

  17. Testing the trait-based community framework: Do functional traits predict competitive outcomes?

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Wolf, Amelia A

    2016-09-01

    Plant traits can be used to understand a range of ecological processes, including competition with invasive species. The extent to which native and invasive species are competing via limiting similarity or trait hierarchies has important implications for the management of invaded communities. We screened 47 native species that co-occur with Festuca perennis, a dominant invader in California serpentine grassland, for traits pertaining to resource use and acquisition. We then grew F. perennis with 10 species spanning a range of functional similarity in pairwise competition trials. Functionally similar species did not have a strong adverse effect on F. perennis performance as would be expected by limiting similarity theory. Phylogenetic relatedness, which may integrate a number of functional traits, was also a poor predictor of competitive outcome. Instead, species with high specific root length, low root-to-shoot biomass ratio, and low leaf nitrogen concentration were more effective at suppressing the growth of F. perennis. Our results suggest that fitness differences (i.e., trait hierarchies) may be more important than niche differences (i.e., limiting similarity) in structuring competitive outcomes in this system and may be a promising approach for the restoration of invaded systems.

  18. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values.

  19. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-07

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait.

  20. Mapping genetic determinants of viral traits with FST and quantitative trait locus (QTL) approaches.

    PubMed

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Thébaud, Gaël; Vuillaume, Florence; Peterschmitt, Michel; Urbino, Cica

    2015-10-01

    The genetic determinism of viral traits can generally be dissected using either forward or reverse genetics because the clonal reproduction of viruses does not require the use of approaches based on laboratory crosses. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that recombinant viruses could be analyzed as sexually reproducing organisms, using either a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach or a locus-by-locus fixation index (FST). Locus-by-locus FST analysis, and four different regressions and interval mapping algorithms of QTL analysis were applied to a phenotypic and genotypic dataset previously obtained from 47 artificial recombinant genomes generated between two begomovirus species. Both approaches assigned the determinant of within-host accumulation-previously identified using standard virology approaches-to a region including the 5׳ end of the replication-associated protein (Rep) gene and the upstream intergenic region. This study provides a proof of principle that QTL and population genetics tools can be extended to characterize the genetic determinants of viral traits.

  1. Neural signature of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ)-Trait.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Martin; Steigleder, Leon; Grön, Georg

    2016-12-01

    The Trait and State versions of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ) have been used in numerous behavioral and physiological eating studies. However, the neurobiological signature of the FCQ has not been reported yet. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants performed a food/non-food discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated where in the brain greater activation upon high-caloric minus low-caloric food cues correlated with participants' scores on the German version of the FCQ-Trait, with the FCQ-State total scores included as a covariate, and vice versa. It was also tested whether individual subscales would map onto distinguishable neural correlates. Significant positive correlations with total scores on the FCQ-Trait were evident in several bilateral loci of the striatum, and in the right middle/lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Correlations with scores on the FCQ-Trait subscales Reinforcement and Hunger were found for subsets of voxels within the ventral striatum, whereas the FCQ-Trait subscales Intentions/Lack of control and Thoughts/Guilt mapped onto right OFC. There were no significant correlations between calorie-sensitive brain activation and scores on the FCQ-State when including the total scores on the FCQ-Trait as a covariate. Present findings show that the trait version of the FCQ associates with neural correlates known to be involved in coding motivational salience, detecting and estimating reward value, and representing information of expected outcomes.

  2. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  3. The impact of the SSIIa null mutations on grain traits and composition in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Botticella, Ermelinda; Sestili, Francesco; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Mantovani, Paola; Cammerata, Alessandro; D’Egidio, Maria Grazia; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Starch represents a major nutrient in the human diet providing essentially a source of energy. More recently the modification of its composition has been associated with new functionalities both at the nutritional and technological level. Targeting the major starch biosynthetic enzymes has been shown to be a valuable strategy to manipulate the amylose-amylopectin ratio in reserve starch. In the present work a breeding strategy aiming to produce a set of SSIIa (starch synthases IIa) null durum wheat is described. We have characterized major traits such as seed weight, total starch, amylose, protein and β-glucan content in a set of mutant families derived from the introgression of the SSIIa null trait into Svevo, an elite Italian durum wheat cultivar. A large degree of variability was detected and used to select wheat lines with either improved quality traits or agronomic performances. Semolina of a set of two SSIIa null lines showed new rheological behavior and an increased content of all major dietary fiber components, namely arabinoxylans, β-glucans and resistant starch. Furthermore the investigation of gene expression highlighted important differences in some genes involved in starch and β-glucans biosynthesis. PMID:27795682

  4. Pitfalls of predicting complex traits from SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Naomi R.; Yang, Jian; Hayes, Ben J.; Price, Alkes L.; Goddard, Mike E.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The success of genome-wide association studies has led to increasing interest in making predictions of complex trait phenotypes including disease from genotype data. Rigorous assessment of the value of predictors is critical before implementation. Here we discuss some of the limitations and pitfalls of prediction analysis and show how naïve implementations can lead to severe bias and misinterpretation of results. PMID:23774735

  5. Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Galbraith, David R.; Baker, Timothy R.; Kruijt, Bart; Rowland, Lucy; Fisher, Rosie A.; Binks, Oliver J.; Sevanto, Sanna; Xu, Chonggang; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Mencuccini, Maurizio; McDowell, Nate G.; Meir, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Forest ecosystem models based on heuristic water stress functions poorly predict tropical forest response to drought partly because they do not capture the diversity of hydraulic traits (including variation in tree size) observed in tropical forests. We developed a continuous porous media approach to modeling plant hydraulics in which all parameters of the constitutive equations are biologically interpretable and measurable plant hydraulic traits (e.g., turgor loss point πtlp, bulk elastic modulus ɛ, hydraulic capacitance Cft, xylem hydraulic conductivity ks,max, water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity for both xylem (P50,x) and stomata (P50,gs), and the leaf : sapwood area ratio Al : As). We embedded this plant hydraulics model within a trait forest simulator (TFS) that models light environments of individual trees and their upper boundary conditions (transpiration), as well as providing a means for parameterizing variation in hydraulic traits among individuals. We synthesized literature and existing databases to parameterize all hydraulic traits as a function of stem and leaf traits, including wood density (WD), leaf mass per area (LMA), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), and evaluated the coupled model (called TFS v.1-Hydro) predictions, against observed diurnal and seasonal variability in stem and leaf water potential as well as stand-scaled sap flux. Our hydraulic trait synthesis revealed coordination among leaf and xylem hydraulic traits and statistically significant relationships of most hydraulic traits with more easily measured plant traits. Using the most informative empirical trait-trait relationships derived from this synthesis, TFS v.1-Hydro successfully captured individual variation in leaf and stem water potential due to increasing tree size and light environment, with model representation of hydraulic architecture and plant traits exerting primary and secondary controls, respectively, on the fidelity of model predictions. The plant

  6. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: Assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    selectable marker genes that are most commonly used in citrus transformation were substantially equivalent to the non-transformed controls with regard to their overall agronomic performance, as based on the use of robust and powerful assessment techniques. Therefore, future studies of the possible pleiotropic effects induced by the integration and expression of transgenes in field-grown GM citrus may focus on the newly inserted trait(s) of biotechnological interest. PMID:22794278

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  9. Multiple-trait estimates of genetic parameters for metabolic disease traits, fertility disorders, and their predictors in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, J; Koeck, A; Kistemaker, G J; Miglior, F

    2016-03-01

    Producer-recorded health data for metabolic disease traits and fertility disorders on 35,575 Canadian Holstein cows were jointly analyzed with selected indicator traits. Metabolic diseases included clinical ketosis (KET) and displaced abomasum (DA); fertility disorders were metritis (MET) and retained placenta (RP); and disease indicators were fat-to-protein ratio, milk β-hydroxybutyrate, and body condition score (BCS) in the first lactation. Traits in first and later (up to fifth) lactations were treated as correlated in the multiple-trait (13 traits in total) animal linear model. Bayesian methods with Gibbs sampling were implemented for the analysis. Estimates of heritability for disease incidence were low, up to 0.06 for DA in first lactation. Among disease traits, the environmental herd-year variance constituted 4% of the total variance for KET and less for other traits. First- and later-lactation disease traits were genetically correlated (from 0.66 to 0.72) across all traits, indicating different genetic backgrounds for first and later lactations. Genetic correlations between KET and DA were relatively strong and positive (up to 0.79) in both first- and later-lactation cows. Genetic correlations between fertility disorders were slightly lower. Metritis was strongly genetically correlated with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation only. All other genetic correlations between metabolic and fertility diseases were statistically nonsignificant. First-lactation KET and MET were strongly positively correlated with later-lactation performance for these traits due to the environmental herd-year effect. Indicator traits were moderately genetically correlated (from 0.30 to 0.63 in absolute values) with both metabolic disease traits in the first lactation. Smaller and mostly nonsignificant genetic correlations were among indicators and metabolic diseases in later lactations. The only significant genetic correlations between indicators and fertility

  10. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  11. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  12. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  13. Multicultural personality dispositions and trait emotional intelligence: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Ruckdeschel, Daniel E; Joseph, Alex C; Tennenbaum, Erica A; Bruno, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multicultural personality dispositions and trait emotional intelligence. The sample included 152 graduate education students enrolled at a university in a large northeastern city of the United States. The multicultural personality dispositions of Cultural Empathy and Social Initiative predicted variance in trait emotional intelligence above and beyond the variance accounted for by gender and potential socially desirable responding. Study limitations are highlighted, and suggestions for follow-up quantitative and qualitative research are presented.

  14. Exploring depressive personality traits in youth: origins, correlates, and developmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Klein, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that depressive personality (DP) disorder may represent a persistent, trait-based form of depression that lies along an affective spectrum ranging from personality traits to diagnosable clinical disorders. A significant gap in this area of research concerns the development of DP and its applicability to youth. The present research explored the construct of DP traits in youth. Specifically, this study examined the reliability, stability, and validity of the construct, potential origins of DP traits, and the developmental consequences of DP traits. A sample of 143 youth (mean age = 12.37 years, SD = 1.26) and their caregivers completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires on two occasions, separated by a 12-month interval. The measure of DP traits was reliable and moderately stable over time. Providing evidence of construct validity, DP traits were associated with a network of constructs, including a negative self-focus, high-negative and low-positive emotionality, and heightened stress reactivity. Moreover, several potential origins of DP traits were identified, including a history of family adversity, maternal DP traits, and maternal depression. Consistent with hypotheses regarding their developmental significance, DP traits predicted the generation of stress and the emergence of depression (but not nondepressive psychopathology) during the pubertal transition. Finally, depression predicted subsequent DP traits, suggesting a reciprocal process whereby DP traits heighten risk for depression, which then exacerbates these traits. These findings support the construct of DP traits in youth, and suggest that these traits may be a useful addition to developmental models of risk for youth depression.

  15. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity.

  16. Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides) and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length) to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction). We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits), alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data. PMID:24855438

  17. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  18. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution.

  19. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual’s trait creativity. PMID:24603022

  20. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower. PMID:28355304

  1. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Gui; Lv, Guang-de; Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying; Li, Si-Shen

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower.

  2. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  3. Elite Haplotypes of a Protein Kinase Gene TaSnRK2.3 Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lili; Mao, Xinguo; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Weiyu; Chang, Xiaoping; Reynolds, Matthew; Wang, Zhenhua; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2.3-1D. Three haplotypes for A genome, and two main haplotypes for B genome of TaSnRK2.3 were identified in 32 genotypes. Functional markers (2.3AM1, 2.3AM2, 2.3BM1, 2.3BM2) were successfully developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Association analysis was performed with the general linear model in TASSEL 2.1. The results showed that both TaSnRK2.3-1A and TaSnRK2.3-1B were significantly associated with plant height (PH), length of peduncle and penultimate node, as well as 1,000-grain weight (TGW) under different environments. Additionally, TaSnRK2.3-1B was significantly associated with stem water-soluble carbohydrates at flowering and mid-grain filling stages. Hap-1A-1 had higher TGW and lower PH; Hap-1B-1 had higher TGW and stem water-soluble carbohydrates, as well as lower PH, thus the two haplotypes were considered as elite haplotypes. Geographic distribution and allelic frequencies indicated that the two preferred haplotypes Hap-1A-1 and Hap-1B-1 were positively selected in the process of Chinese wheat breeding. These results could be valuable for genetic improvement and germplasm enhancement using molecular marker assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  4. Mapping the low palmitate fap1 mutation and validation of its effects on soybean oil and agronomic traits in three soybean populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil with reduced palmitic acid content is desirable to reduce the risks of coronary diseases and; breast, colon, and prostate cancer incidence associated with consumption of this fatty acid. The objectives of this study were: to identify the genomic location of the reduced palmitate fap1 mut...

  5. Genome-wide SNP discovery and identification of QTL associated with agronomic traits in oil palm using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Shearman, Jeremy R; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm has become one of the most important oil crops in the world. Marker-assisted selections have played a pivotal role in oil palm breeding programs. Here, we report the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for a large-scale SNP discovery and genotyping of a mapping population. Reduced representation libraries of 108 F2 progeny were sequenced and a total of 524 million reads were obtained. We detected 21,471 single nucleotide substitutions, most of which (62.6%) represented transition events. Of 3417 fully informative SNP markers, we were able to place 1085 on a linkage map, which spanned 1429.6 cM and had an average of one marker every 1.26 cM. Three QTL affecting trunk height were detected on LG 10, 14 and 15, whereas a single QTL associated with fruit bunch weight was identified on LG 3. The use of GBS approach proved to be rapid, cost-effective and highly reproducible in this species.

  6. Marker-assisted selection for elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of B-conglycinin and its influence on agronomic and seed traits of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars with elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of ß-conglycinin (BC) may provide health benefits to soy protein consumers. Two Monsanto single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to classify F2 plants in four segregating populations as having elevate...

  7. Comprehensive association analysis for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the "reference set" comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is an important source of nutrition and supports livelihood for millions of small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world. Newly developed peanut cultivars could not yield to its original potential due to several biotic and abiotic stress factors. Under such circumstances, the ...

  8. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate acceler...

  9. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  10. AFLP-Based Analysis of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationships with Agronomic Traits in Rice Germplasm from North Region of Iran and World Core Germplasm Set.

    PubMed

    Sorkheh, Karim; Masaeli, Mohammad; Chaleshtori, Maryam Hosseini; Adugna, Asfaw; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of crops is very important for use in breeding programs and for genetic resources conservation. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 47 rice genotypes from diverse origins using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological characters. The 47 genotypes, which were composed of four populations: Iranian native varieties, Iranian improved varieties, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) rice varieties, and world rice collections, were analyzed using ten primer combinations. A total of 221 scorable bands were produced with an average of 22.1 alleles per pair of primers, of which 120 (54.30%) were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values varied from 0.32 to 0.41 with an average of 0.35. The high percentage of polymorphic bands (%PB) was found to be 64.71 and the resolving power (R p) collections were 63.36. UPGMA clustering based on numerical data from AFLP patterns clustered all 47 genotypes into three large groups. The genetic similarity between individuals ranged from 0.54 to 0.94 with an average of 0.74. Population genetic tree showed that Iranian native cultivars formed far distant cluster from the other populations, which may indicate that these varieties had minimal genetic change over time. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of the variation (84%) to be within populations showing the inbreeding nature of rice. Therefore, Iranian native varieties (landraces) may have unique genes, which can be used for future breeding programs and there is a need to conserve this unique diversity. Furthermore, crossing of Iranian genotypes with the genetically distant genotypes in the other three populations may result in useful combinations, which can be used as varieties and/or lines for future rice breeding programs.

  11. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    PubMed

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  12. The Phosphorus Transfer From Soil To Water As Affected By The Agronomic Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borda, Teresa; Celi, Luisella; Buenemann, Else; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel; Barberis, Elisabetta

    2010-05-01

    Fertilizer management, in the long term, can affect the amount of P that can be in excess compared to the cultural needs and modify the soil P buffer capacity. These factors can led to P losses from soil to waters, especially via runoff and as particulate P (90% of TP). Soil texture and the amount of organic matter are the main key factors to estimate soil disperdibility but, in turn, the P amount and its forms can also have a dispersive effect and can influence P enrichment of particles potentially lost during runoff processes and its contribution to water eutrophication. The environmental impact due to the P transfer depends on P speciation, because only the inorganic and soluble P forms, or the most degradable organic P ones, are bioavailable. To evaluate the effect of agronomic practices on P losses and on its bioavailability in the long term, soil samples from a middle term experiment have been selected. The field experiment is based on maize cropping systems applying different fertilizers, mineral, as NPK and PK, and organic, as manure (M) and slurry (S) since 1992. To obtain the suspended sediment from soil, a simple water dispersion test was applied (Withers et al., 2007) and the different P forms were characterized. On soil and on suspended sediment the Hedley fractionation (Hedley et al., 1982) was used to determine the P forms, their potential lability and the effect on soil disperdibility. The adoption of isotopic techniques was considered to compare different methods and to estimate the risk of P losses in the long-term. Dispersion test, to simulate the rainy event and the irrigation practices effect on soil, showed that the amount of total suspended sediment lost (TSS) was lower in the organic fertilized plots, while the particulate P bounded to sediment (PP/TSS) was higher than in the mineral fertilized plots. Indeed the complexive effect of organic fertilization, increasing organic matter content and Olsen P, was reflected in a lower soil

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci for cold response of seedling vigor traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Longzhi; Qiao, Yongli; Zhang, Sanyuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Guilan; Kim, Jonghwan; Lee, Kyuseong; Koh, Heejong

    2007-03-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the seedling vigor traits under 12 degrees C cold water irrigation, such as the seedling height, the seedling fresh weight, the seedling dry weight, and their cold response index, were identified using an F(2/3) population including 200 individuals and lines derived from a cross of indica and japonica "Milyang 23/Jileng 1" with microsatellite markers. All seedling vigor traits exhibited a continuous distribution near normal in F3 lines; these traits were quantitative traits controlled by multiple genes. Twelve QTLs conferring the seedling vigor traits under cold water irrigation were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 8, and 12, which explained the observed phenotypic variance from 5.2% to 17.9%. Among them, qCSH2 and qCSH12 were located in RM262-RM263 on chromosome 2 and RM270-RM17 on chromosome 12, respectively, which were associated with the seedling height. qSDW12 and qCSDW1 were located in RM19-RM270 on chromosome 12 and RM129-RM9 on chromosome 1, respectively, which were correlated with the seedling dry weight and its cold response index, and the explained 16.6%, 17.9%, 15.9%, and 16.2% of the observed phenotypic variation, respectively. These QTLs alleles were derived from cold-tolerant parent Jileng 1; the gene actions of the two front genes showed their additive effect, and the two genes blind showed dominant and over dominant effects, respectively.

  14. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  16. Agro-potentiality of distillery effluent on soil and agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra).

    PubMed

    Chopra, A K; Srivastava, Sachin; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Chakresh

    2013-08-01

    The present study showed that irrigation of soil with different effluent concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of distillery effluent (DE) for 60 days resulted in significant (P < 0.001) changes in moisture content; electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chlorides (Cl(-)), total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable sodium (Na(+)), available potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), iron (Fe(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), available phosphorus (P), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) of soil. The non-significant (P > 0.05) changes were observed for water-holding capacity and bulk density of the soil. Among various concentrations of DE irrigation, irrigation with 100 % effluent concentration increased moisture content, (24.85 %), EC (77.88 %), Cl(-) (285.95 %), TOC (3,171.42 %), exchangeable Na(+) (241.04 %), available K(+) (52.49 %), Ca(2+) (990.37 %), Mg(2+) (1,751.72 %), TKN (1,417.00 %), available P (305.00 %), and SO4 (2-) (75.32 %) in the soil and decreased pH (-20.22 %). The more stimulation in agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and crop yield of A. esculentus were observed to be inversely proportional to the concentration of effluent water, with the best results being obtained at a dilution of 25 % of DE concentration.

  17. Wavelet transform to discriminate between crop and weed in agronomic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Jérémie; Gée, Christelle; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-09-01

    In precision agriculture, the reduction of herbicide applications requires an accurate detection of weed patches. From image detection, to quantify weed infestations, it would be necessary to identify crop rows from line detection algorithm and to discriminate weed from crop. Our laboratory developed several methods for line detection based on Hough Transform, double Hough Transform or Gabor filtering. The Hough Transform is well adapted to image affected by perspective deformations but the computation burden is heavy and on-line applications are hardly handled. To lighten this problem, we have used a Gabor filter to enhance the crop rows present into the image but, if this method is robust with parallel crop rows (without perspective distortions), it implies to deform image with an inverse projection matrix to be applied in the case of an embedded camera. We propose, in order to implement a filter in the scale / space domain, to use a discrete dyadic wavelet transform. Thus, we can extract the vertical details contained in various parts of the image from different levels of resolution. Each vertical detail level kept allows to enhance the crop rows in a specific part of the initial image. The combination of these details enable us to discriminate crop from weeds with a simple logical operation. This spatial method, thanks to the fast wavelet transform algorithm, can be easily implemented for a real time application and it leads to better results than those obtained from Gabor filtering. For this method, the weed infestation rate is estimated and the performance are compared to those given by other methods. A discussion concludes about the ability of this method to detect the crop rows in agronomic images. Finally we consider the ability of this spatial-only approach to classify weeds from crop.

  18. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1, the selection of

  19. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    PubMed

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  20. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  1. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  2. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters and environmental factors on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep using single trait animal model.

    PubMed

    Lavvaf, A; Noshary, A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep including birth weight, weaning weight and body weight at 6 months of age using 19960 records from 35 herds of Lorestan Jahad Agriculture Organization were studied in the cities of Aleshtar, Khorramabad and Poldokhtar from 1995 to 2003. The effect of herd, sex of lambs, dam age and birth year on all traits and birth type had significant effect only on weaning weight. Different single trait animal models estimated the components of direct additive genetic variance, maternal genetic variance and maternal permanent environment variance through restricted maximum likelihood using environmental factors as a fixe effect and different random effects. The results showed that direct additive genetic effect had additionally significant effect on all traits moreover maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment effects. Results also revealed that the maternal permanent environment variance for all traits is higher than maternal genetic variance. Also the direct heritability for all traits was higher than maternal heritability. Estimation of the direct heritability from the birth to 6 months of age showed a reducing trend that could arise from high dependence of birth and weaning weight on maternal environment conditions as compared with the age conditions afterward. The genetic assessment of growth traits in Lori breed sheep without inclusion of maternal effect in animal model causes decreased selection accuracy and incorrect genetic assessment of the lambs.

  4. 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture.

    PubMed

    Topp, Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Anderson, Jill T; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S; Benfey, Philip N

    2013-04-30

    Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r(2) = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops.

  5. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Yield Components, Plant Height and Yield-Related Physiological Traits in the Chinese Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengmei; Wen, Weie; Liu, Jindong; Rasheed, Awais; Yin, Guihong; Xia, Xianchun; Wu, Xiaoxia; He, Zhonghu

    2015-01-01

    Identification of genes for yield components, plant height (PH), and yield-related physiological traits and tightly linked molecular markers is of great importance in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. In the present study, 246 F8 RILs derived from the cross of Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring were genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Field trials were conducted at Zhengzhou and Zhoukou of Henan Province, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping season under irrigated conditions, providing data for four environments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of agronomic and physiological traits revealed significant differences (P < 0.01) among RILs, environments, and RILs × environments interactions. Broad-sense heritabilities of all traits including thousand kernel weight (TKW), PH, spike length (SL), kernel number per spike (KNS), spike number/m2 (SN), normalized difference in vegetation index at anthesis (NDVI-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (NDVI-10), SPAD value of chlorophyll content at anthesis (Chl-A) and at 10 days post-anthesis (Chl-10) ranged between 0.65 and 0.94. A linkage map spanning 3609.4 cM was constructed using 5636 polymorphic SNP markers, with an average chromosome length of 171.9 cM and marker density of 0.64 cM/marker. A total of 866 SNP markers were newly mapped to the hexaploid wheat linkage map. Eighty-six QTL for yield components, PH, and yield-related physiological traits were detected on 18 chromosomes except 1D, 5D, and 6D, explaining 2.3–33.2% of the phenotypic variance. Ten stable QTL were identified across four environments, viz. QTKW.caas-6A.1, QTKW.caas-7AL, QKNS.caas-4AL, QSN.caas-1AL.1, QPH.caas-4BS.2, QPH.caas-4DS.1, QSL.caas-4AS, QSL.caas-4AL.1, QChl-A.caas-5AL, and QChl-10.caas-5BL. Meanwhile, 10 QTL-rich regions were found on chromosome 1BS, 2AL (2), 3AL, 4AL (2), 4BS, 4DS, 5BL, and 7AL exhibiting pleiotropic effects. These QTL or QTL clusters are tightly

  6. Heterosis for horticultural traits in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Hale, Anna L; Farnham, Mark W; Nzaramba, M Ndambe; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2007-08-01

    Over the last three decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). An additional objective was to determine if PCR-based marker derived genetic similarities among the parents can be useful to predict heterosis in this crop. Thirty-six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design involving nine parents were evaluated for five horticultural characters including the head characteristics of head weight, head stem diameter, and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest), and the plant vigor characteristics of plant height, and plant width in four environments. A total of 409 polymorphic markers were generated by 24 AFLP, 23 SRAP and 17 SSR primer combinations. Euclidean distances between parents were determined based on phenotypic traits. About half of the hybrids exhibited highparent heterosis for head weight (1-30 g) and stem diameter (0.2-3.5 cm) when averaged across environments. Almost all hybrids showed highparent heterosis for plant height (1-10 cm) and width (2-13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. Genetic similarity estimates among the nine parental lines ranged from 0.43 to 0.71 and were significantly and negatively correlated with highparent heterosis for all traits except for stem diameter and days from transplant to harvest. Euclidean distances were not correlated with heterosis. With modern broccoli inbreds, less heterosis was observed for head characteristics than for traits that measured plant vigor. In addition, genetic similarity

  7. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  8. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  9. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training.

    PubMed

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel.

  10. Trait similarity patterns within grass and grasshopper communities: multitrophic community assembly at work.

    PubMed

    Van der Plas, F; Anderson, T M; Olff, H

    2012-04-01

    Trait-based community assembly theory suggests that trait variation among co-occurring species is shaped by two main processes: abiotic filtering, important in stressful environments and promoting similarity, and competition, more important in productive environments and promoting dissimilarity. Previous studies have indeed found trait similarity to decline along productivity gradients. However, these studies have always been done on single trophic levels. Here, we investigated how interactions between trophic levels affect trait similarity patterns along environmental gradients. We propose three hypotheses for the main drivers of trait similarity patterns of plants and herbivores along environmental gradients: (1) environmental control of both, (2) bottom-up control of herbivore trait variation, and (3) top-down control of grass trait variation. To test this, we collected data on the community composition and trait variation of grasses (41 species) and grasshoppers (53 species) in 50 plots in a South African savanna. Structural equation models were used to investigate how the range and spacing of within-community functional trait values of both grasses and their insect herbivores (grasshoppers; Acrididae) respond to (1) rainfall and fire frequency gradients and (2) the trait similarity patterns of the other trophic level. The analyses revealed that traits of co-occurring grasses became more similar toward lower rainfall and higher fire frequency (environmental control), while showing little evidence for top-down control. Grasshopper trait range patterns, on the other hand, were mostly directly driven by vegetation structure and grass trait range patterns (bottom-up control), while environmental factors had mostly indirect effects via plant traits. Our study shows the potential to expand trait-based community assembly theory to include trophic interactions.

  11. A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution

    PubMed Central

    van Bodegom, Peter M.; Douma, Jacob C.; Verheijen, Lieneke M.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are indispensable for our understanding of climate change impacts. The application of traits in DGVMs is increasingly refined. However, a comprehensive analysis of the direct impacts of trait variation on global vegetation distribution does not yet exist. Here, we present such analysis as proof of principle. We run regressions of trait observations for leaf mass per area, stem-specific density, and seed mass from a global database against multiple environmental drivers, making use of findings of global trait convergence. This analysis explained up to 52% of the global variation of traits. Global trait maps, generated by coupling the regression equations to gridded soil and climate maps, showed up to orders of magnitude variation in trait values. Subsequently, nine vegetation types were characterized by the trait combinations that they possess using Gaussian mixture density functions. The trait maps were input to these functions to determine global occurrence probabilities for each vegetation type. We prepared vegetation maps, assuming that the most probable (and thus, most suited) vegetation type at each location will be realized. This fully traits-based vegetation map predicted 42% of the observed vegetation distribution correctly. Our results indicate that a major proportion of the predictive ability of DGVMs with respect to vegetation distribution can be attained by three traits alone if traits like stem-specific density and seed mass are included. We envision that our traits-based approach, our observation-driven trait maps, and our vegetation maps may inspire a new generation of powerful traits-based DGVMs. PMID:25225413

  12. A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution.

    PubMed

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Douma, Jacob C; Verheijen, Lieneke M

    2014-09-23

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are indispensable for our understanding of climate change impacts. The application of traits in DGVMs is increasingly refined. However, a comprehensive analysis of the direct impacts of trait variation on global vegetation distribution does not yet exist. Here, we present such analysis as proof of principle. We run regressions of trait observations for leaf mass per area, stem-specific density, and seed mass from a global database against multiple environmental drivers, making use of findings of global trait convergence. This analysis explained up to 52% of the global variation of traits. Global trait maps, generated by coupling the regression equations to gridded soil and climate maps, showed up to orders of magnitude variation in trait values. Subsequently, nine vegetation types were characterized by the trait combinations that they possess using Gaussian mixture density functions. The trait maps were input to these functions to determine global occurrence probabilities for each vegetation type. We prepared vegetation maps, assuming that the most probable (and thus, most suited) vegetation type at each location will be realized. This fully traits-based vegetation map predicted 42% of the observed vegetation distribution correctly. Our results indicate that a major proportion of the predictive ability of DGVMs with respect to vegetation distribution can be attained by three traits alone if traits like stem-specific density and seed mass are included. We envision that our traits-based approach, our observation-driven trait maps, and our vegetation maps may inspire a new generation of powerful traits-based DGVMs.

  13. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  14. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  15. Global climate niche estimates for bioenergy crops and invasive species of agronomic origin: potential problems and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barney, Jacob N; DiTomaso, Joseph M

    2011-03-09

    The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9), herbaceous (3), and woody (4) bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum), the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia). Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30) and moderate (EI≥20) climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of the climate

  16. Global Climate Niche Estimates for Bioenergy Crops and Invasive Species of Agronomic Origin: Potential Problems and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Jacob N.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9), herbaceous (3), and woody (4) bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum), the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia). Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30) and moderate (EI≥20) climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of the climate

  17. Maize yield gaps caused by non-controllable, agronomic, and socioeconomic factors in a changing climate of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijuan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lin, Xiaomao; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Lv, Shuo; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    Closing the gap between current and potential yields is one means of increasing agricultural production to feed the globally increasing population. Therefore, investigation of the geographic patterns, trends and causes of crop yield gaps is essential to identifying where yields might be increased and quantifying the contributions of yield-limiting factors that may provide us potentials to enhance crop productivity. In this study, the changes in potential yields, attainable yields, potential farmers' yields, and actual farmers' yields during the past five decades in Northeast China (NEC) were investigated. Additionally the yield gaps caused by non-controllable, agronomic, and socioeconomic factors were determined. Over the period 1961 to 2010 the estimated regional area-weighted mean maize potential yield, attainable yield, and potential farmers' yield were approximately 12.3 t ha(-1), 11.5 t ha(-1), and 6.4 t ha(-1) which showed a decreasing tendency. The actual farmers' yield over NEC was 4.5 t ha(-1), and showed a tendency to increase (p<0.01) by 1.27 t ha(-1) per decade. The regional mean total yield gap (YGt), weighted by the area in each county dedicated to maize crop, was 64% of potential yield. Moreover, 8, 40, and 16% reductions in potential yields were due to non-controllable factors (YGI), agronomic factors (YGII), and socioeconomic factors (YGIII), respectively. Therefore, the exploitable yield gap, considered here as the difference between the potential yield and what one can expect considering non-controllable factors (i.e. YGt-YGI), of maize in NEC was about 56%. The regional area-weighted averages of YGt, and YGIII were found to have significant decreases of 11.0, and 10.7% per decade. At the time horizon 2010, the exploitable yield gaps were estimated to equal 36% of potential yield. This led to the conclusion that the yield gap could be deeply reduced by improving local agronomic management and controlling socioeconomic factors.

  18. Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Simić, Domagoj; Mladenović Drinić, Snezana; Zdunić, Zvonimir; Jambrović, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brkić, Josip; Brkić, Andrija; Brkić, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research.

  19. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  20. Agronomically important thrips: development of species-specific primers in multiplex PCR and microarray assay using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences for identification.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W B; Tseng, M J; Chang, N T; Wu, S Y; Tsai, Y S

    2015-02-01

    Thrips, the sole vector of plant Tospovirus, are major pests of many agricultural crops throughout the world. Molecular approaches have been applied in recent decades to identify these minute and morphologically difficult to distinguish insects. In this study, sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of 15 agronomically important thrips, including several virus transmission species, have been analyzed in order to design species-specific primers for multiplex PCR and probes for microarray assay. That the ITS1 sequence distances within species were smaller than those among species suggests that the ITS1 fragment can be used for thrips species identification. The specificity and stability of these primers, combined with universal paired primers, were tested and verified in multiplex PCR. Using these specific primers as probes, microarray assay showed that PCR products of all thrips species hybridized consistently to their corresponding probes, though some signals were weak. We have demonstrated that multiplex PCR using specific primers based on ITS1 sequences is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective diagnostic tool for thrips species identification. Moreover, the DNA microarray assay is expected to extend into a reliable high-throughput screening tool for the vast numbers of thrips.

  1. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  2. Are Youth Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Mitch; Toprak, Fatih; Goemans, Anouk; Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Vedder, Paul

    2016-12-10

    In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were found between bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. These results were not affected by publication bias. Anti-bullying interventions could potentially benefit from including elements that have been found effective in the treatment of youth psychopathy.

  3. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  4. Fertigation effect of distillery effluent on agronomical practices of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek).

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar; Chopra, A K

    2012-03-01

    The fertigation effect of distillery effluents concentrations such as 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied on Trigonella foenu-graecu (Pusa early bunching) along with control (bore well water). On irrigation of soil with different effluents up to 90 days of harvesting, it was observed that there was a significant effect on moisture content (P < 0.001), EC, pH, Cl(-), total organic carbon (TOC), HCO₃⁻, CO₃⁻², Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), TKN, NO₃²⁻, PO₄³⁻, and SO₄²⁻ (P < 0.0001) and insignificant effect on WHC and bulk density (P > 0.05).There was no significant change in the soil texture of the soil. Among various concentrations of effluent irrigation, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased pH (16.66%) and increased moisture content (30.82%), EC(84.13%), Cl(-) (292.37%), TOC (4311.61%), HCO₃⁻ (27.76%), CO₃⁻² (32.63%), Na +) (273%), K(+) (31.59%), Ca(2+) (729.76%), Mg(2+) (740.47%), TKN (1723.32%), NO₃²⁻ (98.02%), PO₄³⁻ (337.79%), and SO₄²⁻ (77.78%), Fe(2+) (359.91%), Zn (980.48%), Cu (451.51%), Cd (3033.33%), Pb (2350.00%), and Cr (2375.00%) in the soil. The agronomical parameters such as shoot length, root length, number of leaves, flowers, pods, dry weight, chlorophyll content, LAI, crop yield, and HI of T. foenum-graecum were recorded to be in increasing order at low concentration of the effluent, i.e., from 5% to 50% and in decreasing order at higher effluent concentration, i.e., from 75% to 100% as compared to control. The enrichment factor of various heavy metals was ordered for soil Cd>Cr> Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe and for T. foenum-graecum plants Pb>Cr>Cd>Cu>Zn>Fe after irrigation with distillery effluent.

  5. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors.

    PubMed

    De Raad, Boele; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-02-01

    A list of 2,365 personality descriptive items was selected from a computerized database of the Dutch language. The list included terms from various word classes, such as trait adjectives, trait nouns, and trait verbs, and from expressions in which the meaning was drawn from a combination of words. The items were administered to 1,466 participants, who provided self- or other-ratings. Principal components analyses were performed on both original and ipsatized data. The data set was split to investigate the invariance of the factors. The analyses yielded a final 8-factorial structure that included the Big 5. Three new trait factors were discovered, namely Virtue, Competence, and Hedonism.

  7. Functional traits and ecological affinities of riparian plants along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr. Daniel,; Merritt, David; Shafroth, Patrick B; Scott, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Trait-based approaches to vegetation analyses are becoming more prevalent in studies of riparian vegetation dynamics, including responses to flow regulation, groundwater pumping, and climate change. These analyses require species trait data compiled from the literature and floras or original field measurements. Gathering such data makes trait-based research time intensive at best and impracticable in some cases. To support trait-based analysis of vegetation along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, a data set of 20 biological traits and ecological affinities for 179 species occurring in that study area was compiled. This diverse flora shares species with many riparian areas in the western USA and includes species that occur across a wide moisture gradient. Data were compiled from published scientific papers, unpublished reports, plant fact sheets, existing trait databases, regional floras, and plant guides. Data for ordinal environmental tolerances were more readily available than were quantitative traits. More publicly available data are needed for traits of both common and rare southwestern U.S. plant species to facilitate comprehensive, trait-based research. The trait data set is free to use and can be downloaded from ScienceBase: https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/58af41dee4b01ccd54f9f2ff and https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7QV3JN1

  8. Surface Morphology of Amygdala Is Associated with Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuyu; Wang, Yanan; Xu, Pengfei; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Gong, Gaolang; Luo, Yuejia

    2012-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of amygdala in trait anxiety level, in which amygdala was typically treated as a whole. To date, it remains unknown whether the morphology of specific subregions of amygdala are associated with trait anxiety. Here, we employed a shape analysis approach to locate the association between its morphology and trait anxiety on the surface of amygdala. 24 healthy young participants were included. The boundary of amygdala for each subject was first manually outlined using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) image, followed by 3D surface reconstruction and parameterization using spherical harmonic description. Two point-wise metrics, direct displacement between the individual surface and atlas surface and its normal projection, were used to quantify the surface morphology of amygdala. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between the two surface metrics and trait anxiety levels, which were located around the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala. Our results provided localized information for the association between amygdala and trait anxiety, and suggested a central role of the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala on trait anxiety. PMID:23112851

  9. Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Donovan, L A; Ludwig, F; Rosenthal, D M; Rieseberg, L H; Dudley, S A

    2009-08-01

    Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, Helianthus anomalus and Helianthus deserticola, and artificial hybrids of their ancestral parents. Leaf traits assessed were leaf size, succulence, nitrogen (N) concentration and water-use efficiency (WUE). Biomass and leaf traits of artificial hybrids indicate that the actively moving dune habitat of H. anomalus was more growth limiting, with lower N availability but higher relative water availability than the stabilized dune habitat of H. deserticola. Habitats differed for direct selection on leaf N and WUE, but not size or succulence, for the artificial hybrids. However, within the H. anomalus habitat, direct selection on WUE also differed among populations. Across years, direct selection on leaf traits did not differ. Leaf N was the only trait for which direct selection differed between habitats but not within the H. anomalus habitat, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an important selective force driving adaptation of H. anomalus to the active dune habitat.

  10. Identification of Marker-Trait Associations for Lint Traits in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad A.; Rahman, Mehboob-ur-

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting high quality lint, a long-awaited breeding goal—accomplished partly, can be achieved by identifying DNA markers which could be used for diagnosing cotton plants containing the desired traits. In the present studies, a total of 185 cotton genotypes exhibiting diversity for lint traits were selected from a set of 546 genotypes evaluated for fiber traits in 2009. These genotypes were extensively studied for three consecutive years (2011–2013) at three different locations. Significant genetic variations were found for average boll weight, ginning out turn (GOT), micronaire value, staple length, fiber bundle strength, and uniformity index. IR-NIBGE-3701 showed maximum GOT (43.63%). Clustering of genotypes using Ward's method was found more informative than that of the clusters generated by principal component analysis. A total of 382 SSRs were surveyed on 10 Gossypium hirsutum genotypes exhibiting contrasting fiber traits. Out of these, 95 polymorphic SSR primer pairs were then surveyed on 185 genotypes. The gene diversity averaged 0.191 and the polymorphic information content (PIC) averaged 0.175. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and STRUCTURE software grouped these genotypes into four major clusters each. Genetic distance within the clusters ranged from 0.0587 to 0.1030. A total of 47 (25.41%) genotypes exhibited shared ancestry. In total 6.8% (r2 ≥ 0.05) and 4.4% (r2 ≥ 0.1) of the marker pairs showed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD). A number of marker-trait associations (in total 75) including 13 for average boll weight, 18 for GOT percentage, eight for micronaire value, 18 for staple length, three for fiber bundle strength, and 15 for uniformity index were calculated. Out of these, MGHES-51 was associated with all the traits. Most of the marker-trait associations were novel while few validated the associations reported in the previous studies. High frequency of favorable

  11. Identification of QTLs for yield-related traits in RILs derived from the cross between pLIA-1 carrying Oryza longistaminata chromosome segments and Norin 18 in rice

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Emily; Himi, Eiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Zhu, Sinhao; Doi, Kazuyuki; Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    To improve rice yield, a wide genetic pool is necessary. It is therefore important to explore wild rice relatives. Oryza longistaminata is a distantly related wild rice relative that carries the AA genome. Its potential for improving agronomic traits is not well studied. Introgression line (pLIA-1) that carries Oryza longistaminata’s chromosome segments, showed high performance in yield-related traits under non-fertilized conditions. Therefore, to illustrate Oryza longistaminata’s potential for improving yield-related traits, RILs from the F1 of a cross between pLIA-1 and Norin 18 were developed and QTL analysis was done using the RAD-Seq method. In total, 36 QTLs for yield-related traits were identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 11. Clusters of QTLs for strongly correlated traits were also identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 8. Phenotypic data from recombinant plants for chromosomes 1 and 8 QTL clusters revealed that the pLIA-1 genotype on chromosome 1 region was more important for panicle-related traits and a combination of pLIA-1 genotypes on chromosomes 1 and 8 showed a favorable phenotype under non-fertilized conditions. These results suggest that Oryza longistaminata’s chromosome segments carry important alleles that can be used to improve yield-related traits of rice. PMID:28163588

  12. Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait

  13. Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait

  14. Estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters of cellular immune-associated traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Scott J; McNeilly, Tom N; Banos, Georgios; Coffey, Mike P; Russell, George C; Bagnall, Ainsley; Mitchell, Mairi C; Wall, Eileen

    2017-04-01

    Data collected from an experimental Holstein-Friesian research herd were used to determine genetic and phenotypic parameters of innate and adaptive cellular immune-associated traits. Relationships between immune-associated traits and production, health, and fertility traits were also investigated. Repeated blood leukocyte records were analyzed in 546 cows for 9 cellular immune-associated traits, including percent T cell subsets, B cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. Variance components were estimated by univariate analysis. Heritability estimates were obtained for all 9 traits, the highest of which were observed in the T cell subsets percent CD4(+), percent CD8(+), CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio, and percent NKp46(+) cells (0.46, 0.41, 0.43 and 0.42, respectively), with between-individual variation accounting for 59 to 81% of total phenotypic variance. Associations between immune-associated traits and production, health, and fertility traits were investigated with bivariate analyses. Strong genetic correlations were observed between percent NKp46(+) and stillbirth rate (0.61), and lameness episodes and percent CD8(+) (-0.51). Regarding production traits, the strongest relationships were between CD4(+):CD8(+) ratio and weight phenotypes (-0.52 for live weight; -0.51 for empty body weight). Associations between feed conversion traits and immune-associated traits were also observed. Our results provide evidence that cellular immune-associated traits are heritable and repeatable, and the noticeable variation between animals would permit selection for altered trait values, particularly in the case of the T cell subsets. The associations we observed between immune-associated, health, fertility, and production traits suggest that genetic selection for cellular immune-associated traits could provide a useful tool in improving animal health, fitness, and fertility.

  15. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  16. Nitrogen topdressing and application ways of fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen in weed control and agronomic performance of common bean.

    PubMed

    Silva, Matheus G; Arf, Orivaldo; Teodoro, Paulo E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of interaction between nitrogen topdressing and different application ways (active ingredients) a.i. fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen in weed control and agronomic performance of common bean. The experiment was conducted during winter 2003 in Selvíria/MS. The experimental design used was a randomized block design with four replications in a factorial scheme 2 x 7. The first factor was composed by the absence or presence of nitrogen topdressing, while the second factor consisted of different application ways of fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen. The following variables were measured: leaf N content, dry matter of plants, yield components (number of pods plant(-1), number of grains plant(-1), the average number of grains pod(-1) and mass of 100 grains), grain yield, phytotoxicity and weed control percentage. The nitrogen topdressing with 75 kg ha(-1) provided higher dry matter of plants, higher weed control and higher common bean yield of irrigated winter. In the absence of nitrogen topdressing in the application of urea before or together to fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen increased their effectiveness in controlling weeds without interference in the agronomic performance of common bean.

  17. Health benefits of vitamins and secondary metabolites of fruits and vegetables and prospects to increase their concentrations by agronomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Bidel, Luc P R; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Gautier, Hélène; Lauri-Lopez, Félicie; Urban, Laurent

    2010-12-08

    Fruits and vegetables (FAVs) are an important part of the human diet and a major source of biologically active substances such as vitamins and secondary metabolites. The consumption of FAVs remains globally insufficient, so it should be encouraged, and it may be useful to propose to consumers FAVs with enhanced concentrations in vitamins and secondary metabolites. There are basically two ways to reach this target: the genetic approach or the environmental approach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the results that have been obtained so far through purely agronomic approaches and brings them into perspective by comparing them with the achievements of genetic approaches. Although agronomic approaches offer very good perspectives, the existence of variability of responses suggests that the current understanding of the way regulatory and metabolic pathways are controlled needs to be increased. For this purpose, more in-depth study of the interactions existing between factors (light and temperature, for instance, genetic factors × environmental factors), between processes (primary metabolism and ontogeny, for example), and between organs (as there is some evidence that photooxidative stress in leaves affects antioxidant metabolism in fruits) is proposed.

  18. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  19. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  20. Molecular Evolution of Candidate Genes for Crop-Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; McAssey, Edward V.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations. PMID:24914686

  1. Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture-insights from genomics.

    PubMed

    Studholme, David J; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Thornton, Chris R; Grant, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits.

  2. Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture—insights from genomics

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, David J.; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L.; Beale, Michael H.; Thornton, Chris R.; Grant, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits. PMID:23908658

  3. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  4. Marker assisted selection of low phytic acid trait in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, S; Tamilkumar, P; Senthil, N; Nagarajan, P; Thangavelu, A U; Raveendran, M; Vellaikumar, S; Ganesan, K N; Balagopal, R; Vijayalakshmi, G; Shobana, V

    2014-02-01

    Maize is the third important major food crop. Breeding for low phytate maize genotypes is an effective strategy for decreasing the content of kernel phytic acid (a chelator of cations such as Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) ) and thereby increasing the bioavailability of nutritive minerals in human diet and animal feed. Previous studies have established that a mutant plant with a lpa2-2 allele accumulates less phytic acid in seeds. Therefore, the marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB), which involves introgression of lpa2-2 recessive allele (which confer low phytate trait) from a lpa2-2 mutant line into a well-adapted line using backcrosses and selection of lines possessing lpa2-2 allele in each backcross population using molecular markers, is an effective strategy for developing low phytate maize. So far, no studies have developed any lpa2-2 allele specific molecular markers for this purpose. Here, using backcross and selfed progenies, obtained by crossing low phytate mutant line 'EC 659418' (i.e. donor of lpa2-2 allele) into agronomically superior line 'UMI395', we have validated that a SSR marker 'umc2230', located 0.4 cM downstream of lpa2-2, cosegregate, in a Mendelian fashion, with low phytic acid trait. Therefore umc2230 can be dependably used in MABB for the development of low phytate maize.

  5. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  6. Udder health and female fertility traits are favourably correlated and support each other in multi-trait evaluations.

    PubMed

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, M K; Lassen, J; Berg, P; Jakobsen, J H; Johansson, K; Sørensen, A C

    2011-06-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for protein yield (PY), clinical mastitis (CM), somatic cell score, number of inseminations (NI) and days from calving to first insemination (CFI) in first-parity Swedish Red cows by series of tri-variate linear animal models. The heritability of PY was moderate (0.34 ± 0.004), and the heritabilities of the functional traits were all low (0.014 ± 0.001-0.14 ± 0.004). The genetic correlation between CM and CFI (0.38 ± 0.05) was stronger than the correlation between CM and NI (0.05 ± 0.06), perhaps because CM and CFI usually are observed in early lactation when the cow is likely to be in negative energy balance, whereas NI generally is recorded when the cow is not in negative energy balance any more. The genetic correlation between NI and CFI was very close to zero (-0.002 ± 0.05), indicating that these two fertility traits have different genetic backgrounds. All genetic correlations between PY and the functional traits were moderate and unfavourable, ranging from 0.22 ± 0.02 to 0.47 ± 0.03. In addition, the effect of including genetic and phenotypic correlations between the trait groups milk production, udder health and female fertility on the accuracy of the selection index was quantified for a heifer, a cow and a proven bull. The difference between the accuracy obtained by multi-trait and single-trait evaluations was largest for the cow (0.012) and small for the heifer and the bull (0.006 and 0.004) because the phenotype of the cow for one trait could assist in predicting the Mendelian sampling term for a correlated trait.

  7. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    PubMed

    Klonner, Günther; Fischer, Stefan; Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  8. Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-08-07

    Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift.

  9. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties. PMID:27187616

  10. Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

  11. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones.

  12. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  13. Estimation in Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigdon, Steven E.; Tsutakawa, Robert K.

    Estimation of ability and item parameters in latent trait models is discussed. When both ability and item parameters are considered fixed but unknown, the method of maximum likelihood for the logistic or probit models is well known. Discussed are techniques for estimating ability and item parameters when the ability parameters or item parameters…

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci and Antagonistic Associations for Two Developmentally Related Traits in the Drosophila Head

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Federico H.

    2017-01-01

    In insects, some developmentally related traits are negatively correlated. Here, we mapped Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for traits of eye size and head capsule, in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster. Composite interval mapping identified QTL on all major chromosomes. Two negatively correlated traits (size of eyes and between-eyes distance) were influenced by one QTL that appeared to be antagonistic between the traits (QTL cytological range is 25F5–30A6), consistent with a negative genetic correlation between these traits of the head capsule. Comparisons of QTL across traits indicated a nonrandom distribution over the genome, with a considerable overlap between some QTL across traits. Developmentally-related traits were influenced by QTL in a pattern that is consistent both with 1) the sign of the genetic correlation between the traits and 2) a constraint in the micro-evolutionary differentiation in the traits. PMID:28130460

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Maladaptive Personality Traits and Their Connections With Normative Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Wright, Zara E; Pahlen, Shandell; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-04-03

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposes an alternative model for personality disorders, which includes maladaptive-level personality traits. These traits can be operationalized by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there has been extensive research on genetic and environmental influences on normative level personality, the heritability of the DSM-5 traits remains understudied. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing traits indexed by the PID-5 and the International Personality Item Pool NEO (IPIP-NEO) in adult twins (N = 1,812 individuals). Research aims include (a) replicating past findings of the heritability of normative level personality as measured by the IPIP-NEO as a benchmark for studying maladaptive level traits, (b) ascertaining univariate heritability estimates of maladaptive level traits as measured by the PID-5, (c) establishing how much variation in personality pathology can be attributed to the same genetic components affecting variation in normative level personality, and (d) determining residual variance in personality pathology domains after variance attributable to genetic and environmental components of general personality has been removed. Results revealed that PID-5 traits reflect similar levels of heritability to that of IPIP-NEO traits. Further, maladaptive and normative level traits that correlate at the phenotypic level also correlate at the genotypic level, indicating overlapping genetic components contribute to variance in both. Nevertheless, we also found evidence for genetic and environmental components unique to maladaptive level personality traits, not shared with normative level traits. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Altered structural connectivity and trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Han, Kiwan; Lee, Seung-Koo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-09-05

    This study tested association between anhedonia scores and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of trait anhedonia in schizophrenia. A total of 31 patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion weighted imaging and scoring of trait anhedonia using the Physical Anhedonia Scale. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we found that fractional anisotropy values of some white matter regions were differently correlated with Physical Anhedonia Scale scores between the two groups. The white matter regions that were more significantly correlated with trait anhedonia in patients than in controls included the left side of the cingulum, splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus I and II, anterior thalamic radiation, and optic radiation. Of these regions, fractional anisotropy values in the cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus II were positively correlated with trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that alterations in structural connectivity within large-scale brain networks, including the default mode and central executive networks, may contribute to the development of trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Evolution of selenium utilization traits

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Héctor; Zhang, Yan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Salinas, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Background The essential trace element selenium is used in a wide variety of biological processes. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is co-translationally incorporated into a restricted set of proteins. It is encoded by an UGA codon with the help of tRNASec (SelC), Sec-specific elongation factor (SelB) and a cis-acting mRNA structure (SECIS element). In addition, Sec synthase (SelA) and selenophosphate synthetase (SelD) are involved in the biosynthesis of Sec on the tRNASec. Selenium is also found in the form of 2-selenouridine, a modified base present in the wobble position of certain tRNAs, whose synthesis is catalyzed by YbbB using selenophosphate as a precursor. Results We analyzed completely sequenced genomes for occurrence of the selA, B, C, D and ybbB genes. We found that selB and selC are gene signatures for the Sec-decoding trait. However, selD is also present in organisms that do not utilize Sec, and shows association with either selA, B, C and/or ybbB. Thus, selD defines the overall selenium utilization. A global species map of Sec-decoding and 2-selenouridine synthesis traits is provided based on the presence/absence pattern of selenium-utilization genes. The phylogenies of these genes were inferred and compared to organismal phylogenies, which identified horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events involving both traits. Conclusion These results provide evidence for the ancient origin of these traits, their independent maintenance, and a highly dynamic evolutionary process that can be explained as the result of speciation, differential gene loss and HGT. The latter demonstrated that the loss of these traits is not irreversible as previously thought. PMID:16086848

  18. Identification of heterotic loci associated with yield-related traits in Chinese common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaojin; Wu, Shuang; Tian, Feng; Xin, Xiaoyun; Zha, Xiaojun; Dong, Xianxin; Fu, Yongcai; Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Jinshui; Sun, Chuanqing

    2011-07-01

    Many rice breeding programs have currently reached yield plateaus as a result of limited genetic variability in parental strains. Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and serves as an important gene pool for the genetic improvement of rice cultivars. In this study, heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were identified in wild and cultivated rice and investigated using a set of 265 introgression lines (ILs) of O. rufipogon Griff. in the background of the Indica high-yielding cultivar Guichao 2 (O. sativa L.). Forty-two HLs were detected by a single point analysis of mid-parent heterosis values from test cross F(1) offspring, and 30 (71.5%) of these HLs showed significantly positive effects, consistent with the superiority shown by the F(1) test cross population in the six yield-related traits under study. Genetic mapping of hsp11, a locus responsible for the number of spikelets per panicle, confirmed the utility of these HLs. The results indicate that favorable HLs capable of improving agronomic traits are available. The identification of HLs between wild rice and cultivated rice could lead to a new strategy for the application of heterosis in rice breeding.

  19. The relationship of career decision self-efficacy, trait anxiety, and affectivity among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Işik, Erkan

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between career decision self-efficacy and personal-emotional life, including trait anxiety and positive and negative affect in a sample of 249 undergraduate students. Turkish versions of career decision self-efficacy scale-short form, positive and negative affect schedule, and trait anxiety inventory were administrated. Higher career decision self-efficacy was associated with higher positive affectivity and lower trait anxiety and negative affectivity. Trait anxiety and positive affect were the significant predictors of career decision self-efficacy. Implications for career counseling and ideas for future research were discussed.

  20. A multi-trait, meta-analysis for detecting pleiotropic polymorphisms for stature, fatness and reproduction in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V-1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups.

  1. Study of genetic variation in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using agro-morphological traits and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Parsaeian, M; Mirlohi, A; Saeidi, G

    2011-03-01

    This research was conducted to study the genetic variation among eighteen genotypes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) collected from various agro-climatic regions of Iran along with six exotic genotypes from the Asian countries using both agro-morphological and ISSR marker traits. The results showed significant differences among genotypes for all agro-morphological traits and a relatively high genetic coefficient of variation observed for number of fruiting branches per plant, capsules per plant, plant height and seed yield per plant. Cluster analysis based on these traits grouped the genotypes into five separate clusters. Larger inter- than intra cluster distances implies the presence of higher genetic variability between the genotypes of different groups. Genotypes of two clusters with a good amount of genetic divergence and desirable agronomic traits were detected as promising genotypes for hybridization programs. The 13 ISSR primers chosen for molecular analysis revealed 170 bands, of which 130 (76.47%) were polymorphic. The generated dendrogram based on ISSR profiles divided the genotypes into seven groups. A principal coordinate analysis confirmed the results of clustering. The agro-morphological traits and ISSR markers reflected different aspects of genetic variation among the genotypes as revealed by a non significant cophenetic correlation in the Mantel test. Therefore the complementary application of both types of information is recommended to maximize the efficiency of sesame breeding programs. The discordance among diversity patterns and geographical distribution of genotypes found in this investigation implies that the parental lines for hybridization should be selected based on genetic diversity rather than the geographical distribution.

  2. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  3. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  4. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  5. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Martha M.; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grueter, Cyril C.; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L.; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S.; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the ‘method of exclusion’ to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  6. Fungal traits that drive ecosystem dynamics on land.

    PubMed

    Treseder, Kathleen K; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Fungi contribute extensively to a wide range of ecosystem processes, including decomposition of organic carbon, deposition of recalcitrant carbon, and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about physiological and morphological traits of fungi that directly influence these processes, and we describe the functional genes that encode these traits. In addition, we synthesize information from 157 whole fungal genomes in order to determine relationships among selected functional genes within fungal taxa. Ecosystem-related traits varied most at relatively coarse taxonomic levels. For example, we found that the maximum amount of variance for traits associated with carbon mineralization, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and stress tolerance could be explained at the levels of order to phylum. Moreover, suites of traits tended to co-occur within taxa. Specifically, the genetic capacities for traits that improve stress tolerance-β-glucan synthesis, trehalose production, and cold-induced RNA helicases-were positively related to one another, and they were more evident in yeasts. Traits that regulate the decomposition of complex organic matter-lignin peroxidases, cellobiohydrolases, and crystalline cellulases-were also positively related, but they were more strongly associated with free-living filamentous fungi. Altogether, these relationships provide evidence for two functional groups: stress tolerators, which may contribute to soil carbon accumulation via the production of recalcitrant compounds; and decomposers, which may reduce soil carbon stocks. It is possible that ecosystem functions, such as soil carbon storage, may be mediated by shifts in the fungal community between stress tolerators and decomposers in response to environmental changes, such as drought and warming.

  7. Target Enrichment Improves Mapping of Complex Traits by Deep Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianjun; Fan, Jue; Hauser, Bernard A; Rhee, Seung Y

    2015-11-03

    Complex traits such as crop performance and human diseases are controlled by multiple genetic loci, many of which have small effects and often go undetected by traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Recently, bulked segregant analysis with large F2 pools and genome-level markers (named extreme-QTL or X-QTL mapping) has been used to identify many QTL. To estimate parameters impacting QTL detection for X-QTL mapping, we simulated the effects of population size, marker density, and sequencing depth of markers on QTL detectability for traits with differing heritabilities. These simulations indicate that a high (>90%) chance of detecting QTL with at least 5% effect requires 5000× sequencing depth for a trait with heritability of 0.4-0.7. For most eukaryotic organisms, whole-genome sequencing at this depth is not economically feasible. Therefore, we tested and confirmed the feasibility of applying deep sequencing of target-enriched markers for X-QTL mapping. We used two traits in Arabidopsis thaliana with different heritabilities: seed size (H(2) = 0.61) and seedling greening in response to salt (H(2) = 0.94). We used a modified G test to identify QTL regions and developed a model-based statistical framework to resolve individual peaks by incorporating recombination rates. Multiple QTL were identified for both traits, including previously undiscovered QTL. We call our method target-enriched X-QTL (TEX-QTL) mapping; this mapping approach is not limited by the genome size or the availability of recombinant inbred populations and should be applicable to many organisms and traits.

  8. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture.

  9. Fungal Traits That Drive Ecosystem Dynamics on Land

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fungi contribute extensively to a wide range of ecosystem processes, including decomposition of organic carbon, deposition of recalcitrant carbon, and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about physiological and morphological traits of fungi that directly influence these processes, and we describe the functional genes that encode these traits. In addition, we synthesize information from 157 whole fungal genomes in order to determine relationships among selected functional genes within fungal taxa. Ecosystem-related traits varied most at relatively coarse taxonomic levels. For example, we found that the maximum amount of variance for traits associated with carbon mineralization, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and stress tolerance could be explained at the levels of order to phylum. Moreover, suites of traits tended to co-occur within taxa. Specifically, the genetic capacities for traits that improve stress tolerance—β-glucan synthesis, trehalose production, and cold-induced RNA helicases—were positively related to one another, and they were more evident in yeasts. Traits that regulate the decomposition of complex organic matter—lignin peroxidases, cellobiohydrolases, and crystalline cellulases—were also positively related, but they were more strongly associated with free-living filamentous fungi. Altogether, these relationships provide evidence for two functional groups: stress tolerators, which may contribute to soil carbon accumulation via the production of recalcitrant compounds; and decomposers, which may reduce soil carbon stocks. It is possible that ecosystem functions, such as soil carbon storage, may be mediated by shifts in the fungal community between stress tolerators and decomposers in response to environmental changes, such as drought and warming. PMID:25971588

  10. The Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern and Trait Anxiety: Evidence for Discriminant Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Warren R.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1980-01-01

    Supports the discriminant validity of the Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern, as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey, in relation to trait anxiety. Future research should include measures of trait anxiety to collaborate findings in a laboratory setting. (Author/JAC)

  11. An evaluation of U.S. strawberry producers trait prioritization—evidence from audience clicker surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluating the relative importance of strawberry traits to U.S. strawberry producers are limited. The strawberry traits included in this study were fruit skin color, fruit size, fruit flavor, fruit firmness, shelf life at retail, open plant canopy, productivity, extended harvest season, roo...

  12. Comparison of Teachers and Pre-Service Teachers with Respect to Personality Traits and Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Kara, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare teachers and pre-service teachers in terms of personality traits and career adaptability. The relationships between personality traits and career adaptability are also investigated. A total of 176 pre-service teachers took part in the study, including 90 men and 76 women, and a total of 204 teachers took part in…

  13. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  14. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring agromorphological traits in Lens culinaris Medik

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and gr...

  15. Agronomic and remedial benefits and risks of applying biochar to soil: Current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    'Biochar' represents an emerging technology that is increasingly being recognized for its potential role in carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste management, renewable energy, soil improvement, crop productivity enhancement and environmental remediation. Published reviews have so far focused mainly on the above listed agronomic and environmental benefits of applying biochar, yet paid little or no attention to its harmful effects on the ecological system. This review highlights a balanced overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the pyrolysis process of biochar production, end-product quality and the benefits versus drawbacks of biochar on: (a) soil geochemistry and albedo, (b) microflora and fauna, (c) agrochemicals, (d) greenhouse gas efflux, (e) nutrients, (f) crop yield, and (g) contaminants (organic and inorganic). Future research should focus more on the unintended long-term consequences of biochar on biological organisms and their processes in the soil.

  16. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  17. Immunity Traits in Pigs: Substantial Genetic Variation and Limited Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Flori, Laurence; Gao, Yu; Laloë, Denis; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Teillaud, Angélique; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Joëlle; Pinton, Philippe; de Vaureix, Christiane; Bouffaud, Marcel; Mercat, Marie-José; Lefèvre, François; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4) heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection

  18. Variation in trait trade-offs allows differentiation among predefined plant functional types: implications for predictive ecology.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kattge, Jens; Van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) aggregate the variety of plant species into a small number of functionally different classes. We examined to what extent plant traits, which reflect species' functional adaptations, can capture functional differences between predefined PFTs and which traits optimally describe these differences. We applied Gaussian kernel density estimation to determine probability density functions for individual PFTs in an n-dimensional trait space and compared predicted PFTs with observed PFTs. All possible combinations of 1-6 traits from a database with 18 different traits (total of 18 287 species) were tested. A variety of trait sets had approximately similar performance, and 4-5 traits were sufficient to classify up to 85% of the species into PFTs correctly, whereas this was 80% for a bioclimatically defined tree PFT classification. Well-performing trait sets included combinations of correlated traits that are considered functionally redundant within a single plant strategy. This analysis quantitatively demonstrates how structural differences between PFTs are reflected in functional differences described by particular traits. Differentiation between PFTs is possible despite large overlap in plant strategies and traits, showing that PFTs are differently positioned in multidimensional trait space. This study therefore provides the foundation for important applications for predictive ecology.

  19. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-12-04

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  20. Agronomic assessment of the wheat semi-dwarfing gene Rht8 in contrasting nitrogen treatments and water regimes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ania M.; Gooding, Mike; Ferrante, Ariel; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Orford, Simon; Gasperini, Debora; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Reduced height 8 (Rht8) is the main alternative to the GA-insensitive Rht alleles in hot and dry environments where it reduces plant height without yield penalty. The potential of Rht8 in northern-European wheat breeding remains unclear, since the close linkage with the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a is unfavourable in the relatively cool summers. In the present study, two near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting for the Rht8/tall allele from Mara in a UK-adapted and photoperiod-sensitive wheat variety were evaluated in trials with varying nitrogen fertiliser (N) treatments and water regimes across sites in the UK and Spain. The Rht8 introgression was associated with a robust height reduction of 11% regardless of N treatment and water regime and the Rht8 NIL was more resistant to root-lodging at agronomically-relevant N levels than the tall NIL. In the UK with reduced solar radiation over the growing season than the site in Spain, the Rht8 NIL showed a 10% yield penalty at standard agronomic N levels due to concomitant reduction in grain number and spike number whereas grain weight and harvest index were not significantly different to the tall NIL. The yield penalty associated with the Rht8 introgression was overcome at low N and in irrigated conditions in the UK, and in the high-temperature site in Spain. Decreased spike length and constant spikelet number in the Rht8 NIL resulted in spike compaction of 15%, independent of N and water regime. The genetic interval of Rht8 overlaps with the compactum gene on 2DS, raising the possibility of the same causative gene. Further genetic dissection of these loci is required. PMID:27212788

  1. Relevant role of dissolved humic matter in phosphorus bioavailability in natural and agronomical ecosystems through the formation of Humic-(Metal)-Phosphate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigorri, Roberto; Urrutia, Óscar; Erro, Javier; Pazos-Pérez, Nicolás; María García-Mina, José

    2016-04-01

    Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and the NOM fraction present in soil solution (dissolved organic matter: DOM) are currently considered as fundamental actors in soil fertility and crop mineral nutrition. Indeed, decreases in crop yields as well as soil erosion are closely related to low values of NOM and, in fact, the use of organic amendments as both soil improvers and plant growth enhancers is very usual in countries with soils poor in NOM. This role of NOM (and DOM) seems to be associated with the presence of bio-transformed organic molecules (humic substances) with high cation chelating-complexing ability. In fact, bioavailable micronutrients with metallic character in soil solutions of alkaline and calcareous soils are forming stable complexes with DOM. This beneficial action of DOM also concerns other plant nutrients such as inorganic phosphate (Pi). Among the different mechanisms involved in the beneficial action of DOM on P bioavailability, the possible formation of poly-nuclear complexes including stable chemical bonds between negative binding sites in humic substances and Pi through metal bridges in soil solution might be relevant, especially in acidic soils. In fact, several studies have proven that these complexes can be obtained in the laboratory and are very efficient in prevent Pi soil fixation and improve Pi root uptake. However, clear experimental evidence about their presence in soil solutions of natural and agronomical soil ecosystems has not published yet. We present here experimental results supporting the real presence of stable Pi-metal-Humic (PMH) complexes in the soil solution of several acidic soils. The study is based on the physico-chemical characterization (31P-NMR, FTIR, TEM-EDAX, ICP-OES) of the DOM fraction isolated by ultrafiltration from the soil solution of several representative acidic soils. In average, more than 60 % of Pi was found in the soil solution humic fraction forming stable humic-metal (Fe, Al) complexes.

  2. A Latent Trait Model for Differential Strategies in Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Some cognitive psychologists, who have tried to approach psychometric theories, say that the psychometric approach does not provide them with theories and methods with which they can deal with differential strategies. In this paper, a general latent trait model for differential strategies in cognitive processes is proposed which includes three…

  3. The Key to a Librarian's Success: Developing Entrepreneurial Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toftoy, Charles N.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for librarians to develop effective strategic plans and to regard the library operation as a business operation. Explains 12 entrepreneurial traits that are needed for success in librarianship and information services, including passion, enthusiasm, trustworthiness, creativity, persistence, responsibility, flexibility,…

  4. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  5. Etiology of Different Developmental Trajectories of Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Nathalie M. G.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; McCrory, Eamon J. P.; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal development of callous-unemotional traits (CU) in middle childhood using developmental trajectory analyses in a large twin dataset and examine the degree to which genetic and environmental influences contributed to the CU trajectory-group membership in children. Method: The study included 9,462 youths…

  6. Predicting Undergraduate Leadership Student Goal Orientation Using Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…

  7. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  8. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  9. Copy number variations related to reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) is one of important reproduction traits that affect overall profitability in dairy industry. However, historical selection for production and conformation rather than reproduction has resulted in a decline in cow fertility. Genomic structural variation including copy nu...

  10. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  11. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    PubMed

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  12. Variation in Plant Response to Herbivory Underscored by Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Aspen T.; Ames, Gregory M.; Wright, Justin P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to simulated defoliation in a greenhouse setting by measuring whole plant and leaf level traits in control and treated individuals. Simulated defoliation had no significant effects on any plant traits measured. However, the baseline leaf level traits of healthy plants consistently predicted the log response ratio for these species whole plant response to defoliation. The latitudinal mid-point of species’ distributions was also significantly correlated with aboveground biomass and total leaf area responses, with plants with a more northern distribution being more negatively impacted by treatment. These results indicate that even in the absence of significant overall impacts, functional traits may aid in predicting variability in plant responses to defoliation and in identifying the underlying limitations driving those responses. PMID:27936155

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.

  14. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  15. On the reality and relevance of traits.

    PubMed

    Stagner, R

    1977-04-01

    A review of published research on traits of personality is focused on the controversy over situationism vs. trait theory. Extreme emphasis on situationism is interpreted as a return to the atomistic psychologies of Wundt, Titchener, Watson, and Weiss. Available data are interpreted to indicate that "trait" can be defined operationally, that existing measures are adequately reliable, and that stability over long periods of time contradicts the situationist thesis. Trait measures predict behavior in the laboratory, in education, and industry. The trait construct should be retained in the vocabulary of scientific psychology.

  16. An Atlas of Genetic Correlations across Human Diseases and Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Anttila, Verneri; Gusev, Alexander; Day, Felix R.; Loh, Po-Ru; Duncan, Laramie; Perry, John R.B.; Patterson, Nick; Robinson, Elise B.; Daly, Mark J.; Price, Alkes L.; Neale, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods are the lack of availability of individual genotype data and widespread sample overlap among meta-analyses. We circumvent these difficulties by introducing a technique – cross-trait LD Score regression – for estimating genetic correlation that requires only GWAS summary statistics and is not biased by sample overlap. We use this method to estimate 276 genetic correlations among 24 traits. The results include genetic correlations between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, anorexia and obesity and associations between educational attainment and several diseases. These results highlight the power of genome-wide analyses, since there currently are no significantly associated SNPs for anorexia nervosa and only three for educational attainment. PMID:26414676

  17. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  18. A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance.