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Sample records for agronomically important genes

  1. Identifying genes of agronomic importance in maize by screening microsatellites for evidence of selection during domestication.

    PubMed

    Vigouroux, Y; McMullen, M; Hittinger, C T; Houchins, K; Schulz, L; Kresovich, S; Matsuoka, Y; Doebley, J

    2002-07-23

    Crop species experienced strong selective pressure directed at genes controlling traits of agronomic importance during their domestication and subsequent episodes of selective breeding. Consequently, these genes are expected to exhibit the signature of selection. We screened 501 maize genes for the signature of selection using microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We applied the Ewens-Watterson test, which can reveal deviations from a neutral-equilibrium model, as well as two nonequilibrium tests that incorporate the domestication bottleneck. We investigated two classes of SSRs: those known to be polymorphic in maize (Class I) and those previously classified as monomorphic in maize (Class II). Fifteen SSRs exhibited some evidence for selection in maize and 10 showed evidence under stringent criteria. The genes containing nonneutral SSRs are candidates for agronomically important genes. Because demographic factors can bias our tests, further independent tests of these candidates are necessary. We applied such an additional test to one candidate, which encodes a MADS box transcriptional regulator, and confirmed that this gene experienced a selective sweep during maize domestication. Genomic scans for the signature of selection offer a means of identifying new genes of agronomic importance even when gene function and the phenotype of interest are unknown.

  2. Sorghum Dw1, an agronomically important gene for lodging resistance, encodes a novel protein involved in cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Miki; Fujimoto, Haruka; Hirano, Ko; Araki-Nakamura, Satoko; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Fujii, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Masako; Song, Xian Jun; Ito, Yusuke; Nagae, Rie; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sazuka, Takashi

    2016-06-22

    Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to enhanced lodging resistance, resulting in increased crop productivity. In the history of grain sorghum breeding, the spontaneous mutation, dw1 found in Memphis in 1905, was the first widely used semi-dwarfing gene. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Dw1. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and cloning, and revealed that Dw1 encodes a novel uncharacterized protein. Knockdown or T-DNA insertion lines of orthologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis also showed semi-dwarfism similar to that of a nearly isogenic line (NIL) carrying dw1 (NIL-dw1) of sorghum. A histological analysis of the NIL-dw1 revealed that the longitudinal parenchymal cell lengths of the internode were almost the same between NIL-dw1 and wildtype, while the number of cells per internode was significantly reduced in NIL-dw1. NIL-dw1dw3, carrying both dw1 and dw3 (involved in auxin transport), showed a synergistic phenotype. These observations demonstrate that the dw1 reduced the cell proliferation activity in the internodes, and the synergistic effect of dw1 and dw3 contributes to improved lodging resistance and mechanical harvesting.

  3. Sorghum Dw1, an agronomically important gene for lodging resistance, encodes a novel protein involved in cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Miki; Fujimoto, Haruka; Hirano, Ko; Araki-Nakamura, Satoko; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Fujii, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Masako; Song, Xian Jun; Ito, Yusuke; Nagae, Rie; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sazuka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to enhanced lodging resistance, resulting in increased crop productivity. In the history of grain sorghum breeding, the spontaneous mutation, dw1 found in Memphis in 1905, was the first widely used semi-dwarfing gene. Here, we report the identification and characterization of Dw1. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and cloning, and revealed that Dw1 encodes a novel uncharacterized protein. Knockdown or T-DNA insertion lines of orthologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis also showed semi-dwarfism similar to that of a nearly isogenic line (NIL) carrying dw1 (NIL-dw1) of sorghum. A histological analysis of the NIL-dw1 revealed that the longitudinal parenchymal cell lengths of the internode were almost the same between NIL-dw1 and wildtype, while the number of cells per internode was significantly reduced in NIL-dw1. NIL-dw1dw3, carrying both dw1 and dw3 (involved in auxin transport), showed a synergistic phenotype. These observations demonstrate that the dw1 reduced the cell proliferation activity in the internodes, and the synergistic effect of dw1 and dw3 contributes to improved lodging resistance and mechanical harvesting. PMID:27329702

  4. The pangenome of an agronomically important crop plant Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Golicz, Agnieszka A.; Bayer, Philipp E.; Barker, Guy C.; Edger, Patrick P.; Kim, HyeRan; Martinez, Paula A.; Chan, Chon Kit Kenneth; Severn-Ellis, Anita; McCombie, W. Richard; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Pires, J. Chris; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Tang, Haibao; Teakle, Graham R.; Town, Christopher D.; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis. PMID:27834372

  5. Marker-assisted backcross approach for important agronomic traits of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing technologies are useful for identification of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cost effective manner. QTL mapping, association mapping and Mutmap approaches provide opportunities for use of such SNPs to associate and identify genes that control important agronomic ...

  6. Breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important crops

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi; Dufourmantel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment by maternal inheritance, as well as a lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. More than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed using the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer desired agronomic traits or express high levels of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Despite such significant progress, this technology has not been extended to major crops. However, highly efficient soybean, carrot and cotton plastid transformation has recently been accomplished through somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors. This review focuses on recent exciting developments in this field and offers directions for further research and development. PMID:15866001

  7. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    PubMed Central

    Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

  8. Domestication footprints anchor genomic regions of agronomic importance in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Dongyuan; Li, Yinghui; Lightfoot, David A; Yang, Zhijiang; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhikun; Huang, Long; Zhang, Zhiwu; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Present-day soybeans consist of elite cultivars and landraces (Glycine max, fully domesticated (FD)), annual wild type (Glycine soja, nondomesticated (ND)), and semi-wild type (semi-domesticated (SD)). FD soybean originated in China, although the details of its domestication history remain obscure. More than 500 diverse soybean accessions were sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) to address fundamental questions regarding soybean domestication. In total, 64,141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 0.05 were found among the 512 tested accessions. The results indicated that the SD group is not a hybrid between the FD and ND groups. The initial domestication region was pinpointed to central China (demarcated by the Great Wall to the north and the Qinling Mountains to the south). A total of 800 highly differentiated genetic regions and > 140 selective sweeps were identified, and these were three- and twofold more likely, respectively, to encompass a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) than the rest of the soybean genome. Forty-three potential quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs; including 15 distinct traits) were identified by genome-wide association mapping. The results of the present study should be beneficial for soybean improvement and provide insight into the genetic architecture of traits of agronomic importance.

  9. Retention of agronomically important variation in germplasm core collections: implications for allele mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary targets of allele mining efforts are loci of agronomic importance. Agronomic loci typically exhibit patterns of allelic diversity consistent with a history of natural or artificial selection. Natural or artificial selection causes the distribution of genetic diversity at such loci to d...

  10. Genes associated with agronomic traits in non-heading Chinese cabbage identified by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genomes of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis), heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and their close relative Arabidopsis thaliana have provided important resources for studying the evolution and genetic improvement of cruciferous plants. Natural growing conditions present these plants with a variety of physiological challenges for which they have a repertoire of genes that ensure adaptability and normal growth. We investigated the differential expressions of genes that control adaptability and development in plants growing in the natural environment to study underlying mechanisms of their expression. Results Using digital gene expression tag profiling, we constructed an expression profile to identify genes related to important agronomic traits under natural growing conditions. Among three non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars, we found thousands of genes that exhibited significant differences in expression levels at five developmental stages. Through comparative analysis and previous reports, we identified several candidate genes associated with late flowering, cold tolerance, self-incompatibility, and leaf color. Two genes related to cold tolerance were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We identified a large number of genes associated with important agronomic traits of non-heading Chinese cabbage. This analysis will provide a wealth of resources for molecular-assisted breeding of cabbage. The raw data and detailed results of this analysis are available at the website http://nhccdata.njau.edu.cn. PMID:24655567

  11. Agronomic Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines agronomic weed problems and control. Contents include a listing of the characteristics of weeds, a section on herbicides, and a section on the important weeds of agronomic crops in Pennsylvania. The herbicide section discusses systemic herbicides, contact…

  12. Functional Roles of microRNAs in Agronomically Important Plants—Potential as Targets for Crop Improvement and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T.; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Dubery, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production. Manipulation of mRNA transcript abundance via miRNA control provides a unique strategy for modulating differential plant gene expression and miRNAs are thus emerging as the next generation targets for genetic engineering for improvement of the agronomic properties of crops. However, a deeper understanding of its potential and the mechanisms involved will facilitate the design of suitable strategies to obtain the desirable traits with minimum trade-offs in the modified crops. In this regard, this review highlights the diverse roles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs in various food and industrial crops and recent advances made in the uses of miRNAs to improve plants of agronomically importance so as to significantly enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to various environmental stress agents of biotic—or abiotic origin. PMID:28382044

  13. Functional Roles of microRNAs in Agronomically Important Plants-Potential as Targets for Crop Improvement and Protection.

    PubMed

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Dubery, Ian A

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production. Manipulation of mRNA transcript abundance via miRNA control provides a unique strategy for modulating differential plant gene expression and miRNAs are thus emerging as the next generation targets for genetic engineering for improvement of the agronomic properties of crops. However, a deeper understanding of its potential and the mechanisms involved will facilitate the design of suitable strategies to obtain the desirable traits with minimum trade-offs in the modified crops. In this regard, this review highlights the diverse roles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs in various food and industrial crops and recent advances made in the uses of miRNAs to improve plants of agronomically importance so as to significantly enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to various environmental stress agents of biotic-or abiotic origin.

  14. Association Mapping Reveals Genetic Loci Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Lentinula edodes, Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuang; Gong, Wenbing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhiquan; Nong, Wenyan; Bian, Yinbing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L. edodes cultivars (FST = 0.247). Using the mixed linear model, a total of 43 markers were detected to be significantly associated with four traits. The number of markers associated with traits ranged from 9 to 26, and the phenotypic variations explained by each marker varied from 12.07% to 31.32%. Apart from five previously reported markers, the remaining 38 markers were newly reported here. Twenty-one markers were identified as simultaneously linked to two to four traits, and five markers were associated with the same traits in cultivation tests performed in two consecutive years. The 43 traits-associated markers were related to 97 genes, and 24 of them were related to 10 traits-associated markers detected in both years or identified previously, 13 of which had a >2-fold expression change between the mycelium and primordium stages. Our study has provided candidate markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and useful clues for understanding the genetic architecture of agronomic traits in the shiitake mushroom. PMID:28261189

  15. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits.

  16. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  17. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

    2014-01-01

    Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding. PMID:25360796

  18. Association mapping for important agronomic traits in core collection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

    2014-01-01

    Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding.

  19. Agronomic traits and gene containment capability of cleistogamous rice lines with the superwoman1-cleistogamy mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Shinnosuke; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Yatou, Osamu; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pollen-mediated transgene flow is a major concern for the production of genetically modified (GM) rice. Cleistogamy is a useful tool for preventing this form of gene flow. We previously identified the cleistogamous rice mutant superwoman1-cleistogamy (spw1-cls) and determined its molecular genetic mechanism. In the present study, we cultivated spw1-cls over five years to examine effects of cleistogamy on agronomic traits. Simultaneously, we cultivated cleistogamous backcross lines created by continuous backcrossing with “Yumeaoba” (a japonica cultivar) as the recurrent parent and by application of a DNA marker. In these experimental cultivations, spw1-cls and its backcross lines showed almost equal or slightly lower, but acceptable, agronomic traits compared with each control line. We also conducted natural crossing tests in paddy fields to assess the gene containment capability of spw1-cls. In a series of field experiments, there was no natural crossing between spw1-cls (pollen donor) and pollen recipient lines, but the wild-type donor and recipient lines were crossed. Thus, the cleistogamy of the spw1-cls mutation is able to inhibit natural crossing effectively, without significant loss of commercial benefits, such as yield. We conclude that spw1-cls cleistogamy is a practical tool for gene containment in GM rice cultivation. PMID:23136523

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci across recombinant inbred lines and testcross populations for traits of agronomic importance in rice.

    PubMed

    You, Aiqing; Lu, Xinggui; Jin, Huajun; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Yang, Haiyuan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling traits of agronomic importance detected in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are also expressed in testcross (TC) hybrids of rice. A genetic map was constructed using an RIL population derived from a cross between B5 and Minghui 63, a parent of the most widely grown hybrid rice cultivar in China. Four TC hybrid populations were produced by crossing the RILs with three maintaining lines for the widely used cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines and the genic male-sterile line Peiai64s. The mean values of the RILs for the seven traits investigated were significantly correlated to those of the F1 hybrids in the four TC populations. Twenty-seven main-effect QTL were identified in the RILs. Of these, the QTL that had the strongest effect on each of the seven traits in the RILs was detected in two or more of the TC populations, and six other QTL were detected in one TC population. Epistatic analysis revealed that the effect of epistatic QTL was relatively weak and cross combination specific. Searching publicly available QTL data in rice revealed the positional convergence of the QTL with the strongest effect in a wide range of populations and under different environments. Since the main-effect QTL is expressed across different testers, and in different genetic backgrounds and environments, it is a valuable target for gene manipulation and for further application in rice breeding. When a restorer line that expresses main-effect QTL is bred, it could be used in a number of cross combinations.

  1. Chromosomal Localization of Genes Conferring Desirable Agronomic Traits from Wheat-Agropyron cristatum Disomic Addition Line 5113.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfeng; Lu, Yuqing; Pan, Cuili; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Xi, Yajun; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Creation of wheat-alien disomic addition lines and localization of desirable genes on alien chromosomes are important for utilization of these genes in genetic improvement of common wheat. In this study, wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivative line 5113 was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and was demonstrated to be a novel wheat-A. cristatum disomic 6P addition line. Compared with its parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), 5113 displayed multiple elite agronomic traits, including higher uppermost internode/plant height ratio, larger flag leaf, longer spike length, elevated grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike, more kernel number in the middle spikelet, more fertile tiller number per plant, and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Genes conferring these elite traits were localized on the A. cristatum 6P chromosome by using SLAF-seq markers and biparental populations (F1, BC1F1 and BC1F2 populations) produced from the crosses between Fukuho and 5113. Taken together, chromosomal localization of these desirable genes will facilitate transferring of high-yield and high-resistance genes from A. cristatum into common wheat, and serve as the foundation for the utilization of 5113 in wheat breeding.

  2. Chromosomal Localization of Genes Conferring Desirable Agronomic Traits from Wheat-Agropyron cristatum Disomic Addition Line 5113

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cuili; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Xi, Yajun; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Creation of wheat-alien disomic addition lines and localization of desirable genes on alien chromosomes are important for utilization of these genes in genetic improvement of common wheat. In this study, wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivative line 5113 was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and was demonstrated to be a novel wheat-A. cristatum disomic 6P addition line. Compared with its parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), 5113 displayed multiple elite agronomic traits, including higher uppermost internode/plant height ratio, larger flag leaf, longer spike length, elevated grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike, more kernel number in the middle spikelet, more fertile tiller number per plant, and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Genes conferring these elite traits were localized on the A. cristatum 6P chromosome by using SLAF-seq markers and biparental populations (F1, BC1F1 and BC1F2 populations) produced from the crosses between Fukuho and 5113. Taken together, chromosomal localization of these desirable genes will facilitate transferring of high-yield and high-resistance genes from A. cristatum into common wheat, and serve as the foundation for the utilization of 5113 in wheat breeding. PMID:27824906

  3. Genome wide association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits of maize hybrids in the sub-tropics.

    PubMed

    Farfan, Ivan D Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N; Murray, Seth C; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.

  4. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  5. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    PubMed

    Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  6. Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

  7. Assessment of inheritance pattern and agronomic performance of transgenic rapeseed having harpin Xooc-encoding hrf2 gene.

    PubMed

    Huo, Rong; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ling-Li; Qiao, Jun-Qing; Shao, Min; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2010-10-01

    hrf2 gene is a member of the harpin-encoding gene family of rice-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola. In our previous studies, we observed that harpin(Xooc) could elicit hypersensitive cell death in non-host plants, induce disease and insect resistance in plants, and enhance plant growth. In this study, the rapeseed cultivar, Yangyou 4, was genetically engineered via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to express the hrf2 gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analyses of T(1) generation of transgenic rapeseed revealed stable integration and expression of the inserted gene hrf2. In addition, the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was greatly enhanced. A comparison between agronomic characters of transgenic and control lines displayed significant differences in terms of plant height, stem width, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1,000-seed weight, and seed yield per plant. Among lines with resistance to S. sclerotiorum, T(1)1 had improved agronomic traits compared with controls with a 22.7% seed yield increase. These results suggest that the introduction of the hrf2 gene into rapeseed can be an effective strategy for enhancing resistance to S. sclerotiorum.

  8. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    PubMed

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  9. Genetic control of agronomically important traits of pepper fruits analyzed by Hayman's partial diallel cross scheme.

    PubMed

    Schuelter, A R; Pereira, G M; Amaral, A T; Casali, V W D; Scapim, C A; Barros, W S; Finger, F L

    2010-01-01

    Pepper species of the genus Capsicum have been cultivated over centuries, producing both pungent and sweet fruit; the pungency is caused by alkaloids called capsaicinoids. Among the five cultivated species, Capsicum chinense is one of the most popular, being native to the Amazon basin. This species is characterized by a wide variety of fruit sizes, shapes and colors, with different capsaicinoid content. In addition, fruits are rich in vitamins A and C. Despite the importance of this plant as a spice and its medicinal uses, research on its genetic variability and potential for breeding programs is still incipient. We investigated the genetic control of some traits through diallel analysis with the objective of introgressing these traits into cultivated varieties. For the diallel analysis, the progeny of crosses between peppers with pungent and sweet fruits, together with the parents, were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The fruits were harvested and analyzed for the traits total fresh fruit mass, total dry fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, vitamin C content, fruit pungency, and number of seeds per fruit. Genetic variability was detected for all traits. In the diallel analysis, the additive-dominant model was considered to be adequate for total fresh fruit mass, percentage dry matter, total soluble solids, and vitamin C content. Additive genetic effects and dominance were found for all traits; consequently, breeding for improvement of these fruit traits would be viable.

  10. An advanced reference genome of Trifolium subterraneum L. reveals genes related to agronomic performance.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parwinder; Bayer, Philipp E; Milec, Zbyněk; Vrána, Jan; Yuan, Yuxuan; Appels, Rudi; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline; Nichols, Phillip; Erskine, William; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-23

    Subterranean clover is an important annual forage legume, whose diploidy and inbreeding nature make it an ideal model for genomic analysis in Trifolium. We reported a draft genome assembly of the subterranean clover TSUd_r1.1. Here we evaluate genome mapping on nanochannel arrays and generation of a transcriptome atlas across tissues to advance the assembly and gene annotation. Using a BioNano-based assembly spanning 512 Mb (93% genome coverage), we validated the draft assembly, anchored unplaced contigs and resolved misassemblies. Multiple contigs (264) from the draft assembly coalesced into 97 super-scaffolds (43% of genome). Sequences longer than >1 Mb increased from 40 to 189 Mb giving 1.4-fold increase in N50 with total genome in pseudomolecules improved from 73 to 80%. The advanced assembly was re-annotated using transcriptome atlas data to contain 31,272 protein-coding genes capturing >96% of the gene content. Functional characterisation and GO enrichment confirmed gene expression for response to water deprivation, flavonoid biosynthesis, and embryo development ending in seed dormancy, reflecting adaptation to the harsh Mediterranean environment. Comparative analyses across Papilionoideae identified 24,893 Trifolium-specific and 6,325 subterranean-clover-specific genes that could be mined further for traits such as geocarpy and grazing tolerance. Eight key traits, including persistence, improved livestock health by isoflavonoid production in addition to important agro-morphological traits, were fine-mapped on the high density SNP linkage map anchored to the assembly. This new genomic information is crucial to identify loci governing traits allowing marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping and identification of tissue-specific gene promoters for biotechnological improvement of forage legumes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Agronomic assessment of the wheat semi-dwarfing gene Rht8 in contrasting nitrogen treatments and water regimes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ania M.; Gooding, Mike; Ferrante, Ariel; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Orford, Simon; Gasperini, Debora; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Reduced height 8 (Rht8) is the main alternative to the GA-insensitive Rht alleles in hot and dry environments where it reduces plant height without yield penalty. The potential of Rht8 in northern-European wheat breeding remains unclear, since the close linkage with the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a is unfavourable in the relatively cool summers. In the present study, two near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting for the Rht8/tall allele from Mara in a UK-adapted and photoperiod-sensitive wheat variety were evaluated in trials with varying nitrogen fertiliser (N) treatments and water regimes across sites in the UK and Spain. The Rht8 introgression was associated with a robust height reduction of 11% regardless of N treatment and water regime and the Rht8 NIL was more resistant to root-lodging at agronomically-relevant N levels than the tall NIL. In the UK with reduced solar radiation over the growing season than the site in Spain, the Rht8 NIL showed a 10% yield penalty at standard agronomic N levels due to concomitant reduction in grain number and spike number whereas grain weight and harvest index were not significantly different to the tall NIL. The yield penalty associated with the Rht8 introgression was overcome at low N and in irrigated conditions in the UK, and in the high-temperature site in Spain. Decreased spike length and constant spikelet number in the Rht8 NIL resulted in spike compaction of 15%, independent of N and water regime. The genetic interval of Rht8 overlaps with the compactum gene on 2DS, raising the possibility of the same causative gene. Further genetic dissection of these loci is required. PMID:27212788

  12. Soybean genetic transformation: A valuable tool for the functional study of genes and the production of agronomically improved plants

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Milena Schenkel; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an invaluable tool for molecular, genetic, biochemical and physiological studies by gene overexpression or silencing, transposon-based mutagenesis, protein sub-cellular localization and/or promoter characterization as well as a breakthrough for breeding programs, allowing the production of novel and genetically diverse genotypes. However, the stable transformation of soybean cannot yet be considered to be routine because it depends on the ability to combine efficient transformation and regeneration techniques. Two methods have been used with relative success to produce completely and stably transformed plants: particle bombardment and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. In addition, transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes has been used as a powerful tool for functional studies. Most available information on gene function is based on heterologous expression systems. However, as the activity of many promoters or proteins frequently depends on specific interactions that only occur in homologous backgrounds, a final confirmation based on a homologous expression system is desirable. With respect to soybean biotech improvement, transgenic lines with agronomical, nutritional and pharmaceutical traits have been obtained, including herbicide-tolerant soybeans, which represented the principal biotech crop in 2011, occupying 47% of the global biotech area. PMID:23412849

  13. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910–2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method. PMID:27441835

  14. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  15. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  16. Agronomically important thrips: development of species-specific primers in multiplex PCR and microarray assay using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences for identification.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W B; Tseng, M J; Chang, N T; Wu, S Y; Tsai, Y S

    2015-02-01

    Thrips, the sole vector of plant Tospovirus, are major pests of many agricultural crops throughout the world. Molecular approaches have been applied in recent decades to identify these minute and morphologically difficult to distinguish insects. In this study, sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of 15 agronomically important thrips, including several virus transmission species, have been analyzed in order to design species-specific primers for multiplex PCR and probes for microarray assay. That the ITS1 sequence distances within species were smaller than those among species suggests that the ITS1 fragment can be used for thrips species identification. The specificity and stability of these primers, combined with universal paired primers, were tested and verified in multiplex PCR. Using these specific primers as probes, microarray assay showed that PCR products of all thrips species hybridized consistently to their corresponding probes, though some signals were weak. We have demonstrated that multiplex PCR using specific primers based on ITS1 sequences is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective diagnostic tool for thrips species identification. Moreover, the DNA microarray assay is expected to extend into a reliable high-throughput screening tool for the vast numbers of thrips.

  17. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    PubMed

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  18. Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two testcross populations.

    PubMed

    Mei, H W; Luo, L J; Ying, C S; Wang, Y P; Yu, X Q; Guo, L B; Paterson, A H; Li, Z K

    2003-06-01

    To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, QTL mapping was performed to dissect the main effect (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of "Lemont/Teqing", and two testcross (TC) F(1) populations derived from these RILs. The correlation analyses reveal a general pattern, i.e. trait heritability in the RILs was negatively correlated to trait heterosis in the TC hybrids. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs affecting seven traits, including heading date (HD), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), panicle length (PL), spikelet number per panicle (SN) and spikelet fertility (SF), were identified and could be classified into two predominant groups, additive QTLs detected primarily in the RILs, and overdominant QTLs identified exclusively in the TC populations. There is little overlap between QTLs identified in the RILs and in the TC populations. This result implied that additive gene action is largely independent from non-additive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits of rice. The detected E-QTLs collectively explained a much greater portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs, supporting prior findings that epistasis has played an important role in the genetic control of quantitative traits in rice. The implications of these results to the development of inbred and hybrid cultivars were discussed.

  19. EcoTILLING-Based Association Mapping Efficiently Delineates Functionally Relevant Natural Allelic Variants of Candidate Genes Governing Agronomic Traits in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Srivastava, Rishi; Nath, Manoj; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale mining and high-throughput genotyping of novel gene-based allelic variants in natural mapping population are essential for association mapping to identify functionally relevant molecular tags governing useful agronomic traits in chickpea. The present study employs an alternative time-saving, non-laborious and economical pool-based EcoTILLING approach coupled with agarose gel detection assay to discover 1133 novel SNP allelic variants from diverse coding and regulatory sequence components of 1133 transcription factor (TF) genes by genotyping in 192 diverse desi and kabuli chickpea accessions constituting a seed weight association panel. Integrating these SNP genotyping data with seed weight field phenotypic information of 192 structured association panel identified eight SNP alleles in the eight TF genes regulating seed weight of chickpea. The associated individual and combination of all SNPs explained 10–15 and 31% phenotypic variation for seed weight, respectively. The EcoTILLING-based large-scale allele mining and genotyping strategy implemented for association mapping is found much effective for a diploid genome crop species like chickpea with narrow genetic base and low genetic polymorphism. This optimized approach thus can be deployed for various genomics-assisted breeding applications with optimal expense of resources in domesticated chickpea. The seed weight-associated natural allelic variants and candidate TF genes delineated have potential to accelerate marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:27148286

  20. Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits Dissected by Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.; Stich, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P < 1.28e-05 (Bonferroni correction of α = 0.05) for the inbreds of the spring and winter trial. For the seed quality traits, a single SNP-sulfur concentration in seeds (SUL) association explained up to 67.3% of the phenotypic variance, whereas for the agronomic traits, a single SNP-blossom color (BLC) association explained up to 30.2% of the phenotypic variance. In a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search within a distance of 2.5 Mbp around these SNP-trait associations, 62 hits of potential candidate genes with a BLAST-score of ≥100 and a sequence identity of ≥70% to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036

  1. A physical map of important QTLs, functional markers and genes available for sesame breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi

    2016-10-01

    Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed crops grown mainly in Africa and Asia. Although genetic and genomic studies on sesame have started late, the past 5 years have witnessed extensive progresses in these areas on this crop. Important genomic sequence resources such as functional markers, genes and QTLs linked to agronomically important traits, have been generated through linkage mapping and association analysis to assist sesame improvement programs. However, most of these data are scattered in different maps making them hard to be exploited efficiently in breeding programs. In this study, we report a comprehensive physical map gathering 151 published genomic sequence resources which highlighted some hotspot functional regions in the sesame genome. Moreover, 83,135 non-redundant SSRs have been supplied along with their physical position and motif composition. This will assist future research in fine mapping or pinpointing more functional genes based on the already published QTLs and functional markers. This physical map represents a good landmark for further non-overlapping genetic and genomic studies working towards sesame improvement.

  2. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Potter, Philip A.; Ramankutty, Navin

    2011-01-01

    Increased phosphorus (P) fertilizer use and livestock production has fundamentally altered the global P cycle. We calculated spatially explicit P balances for cropland soils at 0.5° resolution based on the principal agronomic P inputs and outputs associated with production of 123 crops globally for the year 2000. Although agronomic inputs of P fertilizer (14.2 Tg of P·y−1) and manure (9.6 Tg of P·y−1) collectively exceeded P removal by harvested crops (12.3 Tg of P·y−1) at the global scale, P deficits covered almost 30% of the global cropland area. There was massive variation in the magnitudes of these P imbalances across most regions, particularly Europe and South America. High P fertilizer application relative to crop P use resulted in a greater proportion of the intense P surpluses (>13 kg of P·ha−1·y−1) globally than manure P application. High P fertilizer application was also typically associated with areas of relatively low P-use efficiency. Although manure was an important driver of P surpluses in some locations with high livestock densities, P deficits were common in areas producing forage crops used as livestock feed. Resolving agronomic P imbalances may be possible with more efficient use of P fertilizers and more effective recycling of manure P. Such reforms are needed to increase global agricultural productivity while maintaining or improving freshwater quality. PMID:21282605

  3. Bacterial gene import and mesophilic adaptation in archaea.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Zivanovic, Yvan; Deschamps, Philippe; Moreira, David

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that the archaeal ancestor was hyperthermophilic, but during archaeal evolution, several lineages - including haloarchaea and their sister methanogens, the Thaumarchaeota, and the uncultured Marine Group II and Marine Group III Euryarchaeota (MGII/III) - independently adapted to lower temperatures. Recent phylogenomic studies suggest that the ancestors of these lineages were recipients of massive horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Many of the acquired genes, which are often involved in metabolism and cell envelope biogenesis, were convergently acquired by distant mesophilic archaea. In this Opinion article, we explore the intriguing hypothesis that the import of these bacterial genes was crucial for the adaptation of archaea to mesophilic lifestyles.

  4. Bacterial gene import and mesophilic adaptation in archaea

    PubMed Central

    López-García, Purificación; Zivanovic, Yvan; Deschamps, Philippe; Moreira, David

    2015-01-01

    It is widely believed that the archaeal ancestor was hyperthermophilic, but during archaeal evolution, several lineages — including haloarchaea and their sister methanogens, the Thaumarchaeota, and the uncultured Marine Group II and Marine Group III Euryarchaeota (MGII/III) — independently adapted to lower temperatures. Recent phylogenomic studies suggest that the ancestors of these lineages were recipients of massive horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Many of the acquired genes, which are often involved in metabolism and cell envelope biogenesis, were convergently acquired by distant mesophilic archaea. In this Opinion article, we explore the intriguing hypothesis that the import of these bacterial genes was crucial for the adaptation of archaea to mesophilic lifestyles. PMID:26075362

  5. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  6. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-02-18

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously.

  7. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics—An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B. Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S.; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2–4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet. PMID:27881984

  8. The importance of gene-environment interactions in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddon, Hudson; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity. Heritability, monogenic and polygenic obesity studies provide converging evidence that obesity-predisposing genes interact with a variety of environmental, lifestyle and treatment exposures. However, some skepticism remains regarding the validity of these studies based on several issues, which include statistical modelling, confounding, low replication rate, underpowered analyses, biological assumptions and measurement precision. What follows in this review includes (1) an introduction to the study of GEI, (2) the evidence of GEI in the field of obesity, (3) an outline of the biological mechanisms that may explain these interaction effects, (4) methodological challenges associated with GEI studies and potential solutions, and (5) future directions of GEI research. Thus far, this growing body of evidence has provided a deeper understanding of GEI influencing obesity and may have tremendous applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine and individualized lifestyle recommendations.

  9. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower. PMID:28355304

  10. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Gui; Lv, Guang-de; Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying; Li, Si-Shen

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower.

  11. Association analysis of genes involved in maize (Zea mays L.) root development with seedling and agronomic traits under contrasting nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Kumar, Bharath; Pace, Jordon; Jansen, Constantin; Gonzalez-Portilla, Pedro J; Reyes-Matamoros, Jenaro; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Lee, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding of the genetic control of root development might allow one to develop lines with root systems with the potential to adapt to soils with limited nutrient availability. For this purpose, an association study (AS) panel consisting of 74 diverse set of inbred maize lines were screened for seedling root traits and adult plant root traits under two contrasting nitrogen (N) levels (low and high N). Allele re-sequencing of RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1 genes related to root development was carried out for AS panel lines. Association analysis was carried out between individual polymorphisms, and both seedling and adult plant traits, while controlling for spurious associations due to population structure and kinship relations. Based on the SNPs identified in RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1, lines within the AS panel were grouped into 16, 9, 22, and 7 haplotypes, respectively. Association analysis revealed several polymorphisms within root genes putatively associated with the variability in seedling root and adult plant traits development under contrasting N levels. The highest number of significantly associated SNPs with seedling root traits were found in RTCL (19 SNPs) followed by RUM1 (4 SNPs) and in case of RTH3 and RUL1, two and three SNPs, respectively, were significantly associated with root traits. RTCL and RTH3 were also found to be associated with grain yield. Thus considerable allelic diversity is present within the candidate genes studied and can be utilized to develop functional markers that allow identification of maize lines with improved root architecture and yield under N stress conditions.

  12. Fine-tuning tomato agronomic properties by computational genome redesign.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández Del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites.

  13. Fine-Tuning Tomato Agronomic Properties by Computational Genome Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Javier; Fernández del Carmen, Asun; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Rambla, Jose Luis; Pons, Clara; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Elena, Santiago F.; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Considering cells as biofactories, we aimed to optimize its internal processes by using the same engineering principles that large industries are implementing nowadays: lean manufacturing. We have applied reverse engineering computational methods to transcriptomic, metabolomic and phenomic data obtained from a collection of tomato recombinant inbreed lines to formulate a kinetic and constraint-based model that efficiently describes the cellular metabolism from expression of a minimal core of genes. Based on predicted metabolic profiles, a close association with agronomic and organoleptic properties of the ripe fruit was revealed with high statistical confidence. Inspired in a synthetic biology approach, the model was used for exploring the landscape of all possible local transcriptional changes with the aim of engineering tomato fruits with fine-tuned biotechnological properties. The method was validated by the ability of the proposed genomes, engineered for modified desired agronomic traits, to recapitulate experimental correlations between associated metabolites. PMID:22685389

  14. Network rewiring is an important mechanism of gene essentiality change

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Inhae; Han, Seong Kyu; Bowie, James U.; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-01-01

    Gene essentiality changes are crucial for organismal evolution. However, it is unclear how essentiality of orthologs varies across species. We investigated the underlying mechanism of gene essentiality changes between yeast and mouse based on the framework of network evolution and comparative genomic analysis. We found that yeast nonessential genes become essential in mouse when their network connections rapidly increase through engagement in protein complexes. The increased interactions allowed the previously nonessential genes to become members of vital pathways. By accounting for changes in gene essentiality, we firmly reestablished the centrality-lethality rule, which proposed the relationship of essential genes and network hubs. Furthermore, we discovered that the number of connections associated with essential and non-essential genes depends on whether they were essential in ancestral species. Our study describes for the first time how network evolution occurs to change gene essentiality. PMID:23198090

  15. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants.

    PubMed

    Panchy, Nicholas; Lehti-Shiu, Melissa; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2016-08-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication.

  16. Elite Haplotypes of a Protein Kinase Gene TaSnRK2.3 Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lili; Mao, Xinguo; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Weiyu; Chang, Xiaoping; Reynolds, Matthew; Wang, Zhenhua; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2.3-1D. Three haplotypes for A genome, and two main haplotypes for B genome of TaSnRK2.3 were identified in 32 genotypes. Functional markers (2.3AM1, 2.3AM2, 2.3BM1, 2.3BM2) were successfully developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Association analysis was performed with the general linear model in TASSEL 2.1. The results showed that both TaSnRK2.3-1A and TaSnRK2.3-1B were significantly associated with plant height (PH), length of peduncle and penultimate node, as well as 1,000-grain weight (TGW) under different environments. Additionally, TaSnRK2.3-1B was significantly associated with stem water-soluble carbohydrates at flowering and mid-grain filling stages. Hap-1A-1 had higher TGW and lower PH; Hap-1B-1 had higher TGW and stem water-soluble carbohydrates, as well as lower PH, thus the two haplotypes were considered as elite haplotypes. Geographic distribution and allelic frequencies indicated that the two preferred haplotypes Hap-1A-1 and Hap-1B-1 were positively selected in the process of Chinese wheat breeding. These results could be valuable for genetic improvement and germplasm enhancement using molecular marker assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  17. Importance of reference gene selection for articular cartilage mechanobiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabah, A.; Stadnik, P.; Gilbert, S.J.; Duance, V.C.; Blain, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Identification of genes differentially expressed in mechano-biological pathways in articular cartilage provides insight into the molecular mechanisms behind initiation and/or progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is reliant on the use of reference genes for normalisation. Appropriate validation of reference gene stability is imperative for accurate data analysis and interpretation. This study determined in vitro reference gene stability in articular cartilage explants and primary chondrocytes subjected to different compressive loads and tensile strain, respectively. Design The expression of eight commonly used reference genes (18s, ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA and YWHAZ) was determined by qPCR and data compared using four software packages (comparative delta-Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Calculation of geometric means of the ranked weightings was carried out using RefFinder. Results Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalisation of mechanically-regulated transcript levels in articular cartilage tissue or isolated chondrocytes were dependent on experimental set-up. SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 were the most stable genes whilst glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and to a lesser extent Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), showed variable expression in response to load, demonstrating their unsuitability in such in vitro studies. The effect of using unstable reference genes to normalise the expression of aggrecan (ACAN) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) resulted in inaccurate quantification of these mechano-sensitive genes and erroneous interpretation/conclusions. Conclusion This study demonstrates that commonly used ‘reference genes’ may be unsuitable for in vitro cartilage chondrocyte mechanobiology studies, reinforcing the principle that careful validation of reference genes is essential prior to each experiment to

  18. Importance of immune response genes in hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Josiane Bazzo; Macedo, Luciana Conci; de Barros, Morgana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Camila; Cadide, Renata Campos; Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2013-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a disease caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor VIII resulting from genetic inheritance linked to chromosome X. One treatment option is the administration of plasma or recombinant FVIII. However, some patients develop inhibitors or antibodies against this factor. Inhibitors are alloantibodies that bind to the epitope of factor VIII causing it to be recognized by the immune system as a foreign peptide. This is the most serious complication in hemophilia patients in respect to replacement therapy. Some studies have suggested that genetic factors influence the development of factor VIII inhibitors such as ethnicity, family history, mutations in the factor VIII gene and in genes of the immune system. The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to assess the influence of genetic factors of immune response genes, especially genes of the major histocompatibility complex and cytokines, which may be related to the development of factor VIII inhibitors in hemophilia A patients. Understanding these risk factors will help to determine future differential treatment in the control and prevention of the development of inhibitors. PMID:24106448

  19. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication. PMID:27288366

  20. Epigenetic profile of developmentally important genes in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, J; Hansmann, T; Herrmann, D; Wrenzycki, C; Zechner, U; Haaf, T; Niemann, H

    2011-03-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are associated with an increased incidence of epigenetic aberrations, specifically in imprinted genes. Here, we used the bovine oocyte as a model to determine putative epigenetic mutations at three imprinted gene loci caused by the type of maturation, either in vitro maturation (IVM) in Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM) or modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) medium, or in vivo maturation. We applied a limiting dilution approach and direct bisulfite sequencing to analyze the methylation profiles of individual alleles (DNA molecules) for H19/IGF2, PEG3, and SNRPN, which are each associated with imprinting defects in humans and/or the mouse model, and are known to be differentially methylated in bovine embryos. Altogether, we obtained the methylation patterns of 203 alleles containing 4,512 CpG sites from immature oocytes, 213 alleles with 4,779 CpG sites from TCM-matured oocytes, 215 alleles/4,725 CpGs in mSOF-matured oocytes, and 78 alleles/1,672 CpGs from in vivo-matured oocytes. The total rate of individual CpGs and entire allele methylation errors did not differ significantly between the two IVM and the in vivo group, indicating that current IVM protocols have no or only marginal effects on these critical epigenetic marks. Furthermore, the mRNA expression profiles of the three imprinted genes and a panel of eight other genes indicative of oocyte competence were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. We found different mRNA expression profiles between in vivo-matured oocytes versus their in vitro-matured counterparts, suggesting an influence on regulatory mechanisms other than DNA methylation.

  1. Effective Boolean dynamics analysis to identify functionally important genes in large-scale signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hung-Cuong; Kwon, Yung-Keun

    2015-11-01

    Efficiently identifying functionally important genes in order to understand the minimal requirements of normal cellular development is challenging. To this end, a variety of structural measures have been proposed and their effectiveness has been investigated in recent literature; however, few studies have shown the effectiveness of dynamics-based measures. This led us to investigate a dynamic measure to identify functionally important genes, and the effectiveness of which was verified through application on two large-scale human signaling networks. We specifically consider Boolean sensitivity-based dynamics against an update-rule perturbation (BSU) as a dynamic measure. Through investigations on two large-scale human signaling networks, we found that genes with relatively high BSU values show slower evolutionary rate and higher proportions of essential genes and drug targets than other genes. Gene-ontology analysis showed clear differences between the former and latter groups of genes. Furthermore, we compare the identification accuracies of essential genes and drug targets via BSU and five well-known structural measures. Although BSU did not always show the best performance, it effectively identified the putative set of genes, which is significantly different from the results obtained via the structural measures. Most interestingly, BSU showed the highest synergy effect in identifying the functionally important genes in conjunction with other measures. Our results imply that Boolean-sensitive dynamics can be used as a measure to effectively identify functionally important genes in signaling networks.

  2. Agronomic and Quality Characteristics of Two New Sets of Langdon Durum – wWld Emmer Wheat Chromosome Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides) has been a useful source of genes for high grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Prior studies have found other useful genes for agronomic and quality traits in Langdon durum - T. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) disomic sub...

  3. Effects of Agronomic and Conservation Management Practices On Organic Matter and Associated Properties in Claypan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter plays several important roles in the biogeochemistry of soil and impacts the sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems. Retention and transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) are affected by agronomic and conservation management practices. The primary objective of this stu...

  4. Evaluation of gene importance in microarray data based upon probability of selection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li M; Fu-Liu, Casey S

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray devices permit a genome-scale evaluation of gene function. This technology has catalyzed biomedical research and development in recent years. As many important diseases can be traced down to the gene level, a long-standing research problem is to identify specific gene expression patterns linking to metabolic characteristics that contribute to disease development and progression. The microarray approach offers an expedited solution to this problem. However, it has posed a challenging issue to recognize disease-related genes expression patterns embedded in the microarray data. In selecting a small set of biologically significant genes for classifier design, the nature of high data dimensionality inherent in this problem creates substantial amount of uncertainty. Results Here we present a model for probability analysis of selected genes in order to determine their importance. Our contribution is that we show how to derive the P value of each selected gene in multiple gene selection trials based on different combinations of data samples and how to conduct a reliability analysis accordingly. The importance of a gene is indicated by its associated P value in that a smaller value implies higher information content from information theory. On the microarray data concerning the subtype classification of small round blue cell tumors, we demonstrate that the method is capable of finding the smallest set of genes (19 genes) with optimal classification performance, compared with results reported in the literature. Conclusion In classifier design based on microarray data, the probability value derived from gene selection based on multiple combinations of data samples enables an effective mechanism for reducing the tendency of fitting local data particularities. PMID:15784140

  5. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2016-08-26

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. PMID:27567261

  7. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

    2012-12-01

    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  8. Genome-wide association study of 12 agronomic traits in peach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ke; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Qi; Guo, Jian; Zhao, Pei; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Tian, Zhixi; Wang, Lirong

    2016-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is a highly valuable crop species and is recognized by molecular researchers as a model fruit for the Rosaceae family. Using whole-genome sequencing data generated from 129 peach accessions, here we perform a comprehensive genome-wide association study for 12 key agronomic traits. We show that among the 10 qualitative traits investigated, nine exhibit consistent and more precise association signals than previously identified by linkage analysis. For two of the qualitative traits, we describe candidate genes, one potentially involved in cell death and another predicted to encode an auxin-efflux carrier, that are highly associated with fruit shape and non-acidity, respectively. Furthermore, we find that several genomic regions harbouring association signals for fruit weight and soluble solid content overlapped with predicted selective sweeps that occurred during peach domestication and improvement. Our findings contribute to the large-scale characterization of genes controlling agronomic traits in peach. PMID:27824331

  9. Using phylogenomic patterns and gene ontology to identify proteins of importance in plant evolution.

    PubMed

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; De la Torre-Bárcena, Jose E; Lee, Ernest K; Katari, Manpreet S; Little, Damon P; Stevenson, Dennis W; Martienssen, Rob; Coruzzi, Gloria M; DeSalle, Rob

    2010-07-12

    We use measures of congruence on a combined expressed sequenced tag genome phylogeny to identify proteins that have potential significance in the evolution of seed plants. Relevant proteins are identified based on the direction of partitioned branch and hidden support on the hypothesis obtained on a 16-species tree, constructed from 2,557 concatenated orthologous genes. We provide a general method for detecting genes or groups of genes that may be under selection in directions that are in agreement with the phylogenetic pattern. Gene partitioning methods and estimates of the degree and direction of support of individual gene partitions to the overall data set are used. Using this approach, we correlate positive branch support of specific genes for key branches in the seed plant phylogeny. In addition to basic metabolic functions, such as photosynthesis or hormones, genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation by small RNAs were significantly overrepresented in key nodes of the phylogeny of seed plants. Two genes in our matrix are of critical importance as they are involved in RNA-dependent regulation, essential during embryo and leaf development. These are Argonaute and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 found to be overrepresented in the angiosperm clade. We use these genes as examples of our phylogenomics approach and show that identifying partitions or genes in this way provides a platform to explain some of the more interesting organismal differences among species, and in particular, in the evolution of plants.

  10. Identifying reproducible cancer-associated highly expressed genes with important functional significances using multiple datasets

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Li, Xiangyu; Guo, You; Zhang, Yuncong; Deng, Xusheng; Chen, Lufei; Zhang, Jiahui; Guo, Zheng; Ao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes between cancer and normal tissues is of basic importance for studying cancer mechanisms. However, current methods, such as the commonly used Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), are biased to genes with low expression levels. Recently, we proposed an algorithm, named the pairwise difference (PD) algorithm, to identify highly expressed DE genes based on reproducibility evaluation of top-ranked expression differences between paired technical replicates of cells under two experimental conditions. In this study, we extended the application of the algorithm to the identification of DE genes between two types of tissue samples (biological replicates) based on several independent datasets or sub-datasets of a dataset, by constructing multiple paired average gene expression profiles for the two types of samples. Using multiple datasets for lung and esophageal cancers, we demonstrated that PD could identify many DE genes highly expressed in both cancer and normal tissues that tended to be missed by the commonly used SAM. These highly expressed DE genes, including many housekeeping genes, were significantly enriched in many conservative pathways, such as ribosome, proteasome, phagosome and TNF signaling pathways with important functional significances in oncogenesis. PMID:27796338

  11. NIMEFI: gene regulatory network inference using multiple ensemble feature importance algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ruyssinck, Joeri; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Geurts, Pierre; Dhaene, Tom; Demeester, Piet; Saeys, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts, DREAM4 and DREAM5, have been established to benchmark network inference techniques using gene expression measurements. In these challenges the overall top performer was the GENIE3 algorithm. This method decomposes the network inference task into separate regression problems for each gene in the network in which the expression values of a particular target gene are predicted using all other genes as possible predictors. Next, using tree-based ensemble methods, an importance measure for each predictor gene is calculated with respect to the target gene and a high feature importance is considered as putative evidence of a regulatory link existing between both genes. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we generalize the regression decomposition strategy of GENIE3 to other feature importance methods. We compare the performance of support vector regression, the elastic net, random forest regression, symbolic regression and their ensemble variants in this setting to the original GENIE3 algorithm. To create the ensemble variants, we propose a subsampling approach which allows us to cast any feature selection algorithm that produces a feature ranking into an ensemble feature importance algorithm. We demonstrate that the ensemble setting is key to the network inference task, as only ensemble variants achieve top performance. As second contribution, we explore the effect of using rankwise averaged predictions of multiple ensemble algorithms as opposed to only one. We name this approach NIMEFI (Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance algorithms) and show that this approach outperforms all individual methods in general, although on a specific network a single method can perform better. An implementation of NIMEFI has been made publicly available.

  12. Know your community - Biochar: agronomic and environmental uses community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Biochar: Agronomic and Environmental Uses” Community was formed in November 2010 (https://www.agronomy.org/membership/communities/biochar-agronomic-and-environmental-uses). The community’s initial function has been providing a forum at the tri-society’s national meetings to fill the need for a ...

  13. The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spt7 Gene Encodes a Very Acidic Protein Important for Transcription in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gansheroff, L. J.; Dollard, C.; Tan, P.; Winston, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally were identified as suppressors of Ty and {delta small} insertion mutations in the 5' regions of the HIS4 and LYS2 genes. Other genes that have been identified in mutant hunts of this type have been shown to play a role in transcription. In this work we show that SPT7 is also important for proper transcription in vivo. We have cloned and sequenced the SPT7 gene and have shown that it encodes a large, acidic protein that is localized to the nucleus. The SPT7 protein contains a bromodomain sequence; a deletion that removes the bromodomain from the SPT7 protein causes no detectable mutant phenotype. Strains that contain an spt7 null mutation are viable but grow very slowly and have transcriptional defects at many loci including insertion mutations, Ty elements, the INO1 gene and the MFA1 gene. These transcriptional defects and other mutant phenotypes are similar to those caused by certain mutations in SPT15, which encodes the TATA binding protein (TBP). The similarity of the phenotypes of spt7 and spt15 mutants, including effects of spt7 mutations on the transcription start site of certain genes, suggests that SPT7 plays an important role in transcription initiation in vivo. PMID:7713415

  14. Genome-wide association analysis for non agronomic traits in maize under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the most serious environmental stress facing maize production, and strongly threatens crop yields. Changes in agronomic traits in response to this stress have been extensively studied using biparental mapping populations and inbred lines, but little is known about the related genes and un...

  15. Searching for new loci and candidate genes for economically important traits through gene-based association analysis of Simmental cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangwei; Fan, Huizhong; Chang, Tianpeng; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2017-01-01

    Single-marker genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a convenient strategy of genetic analysis that has been successful in detecting the association of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative traits. However, analysis of individual SNPs can only account for a small proportion of genetic variation and offers only limited knowledge of complex traits. This inadequacy may be overcome by employing a gene-based GWAS analytic approach, which can be considered complementary to the single-SNP association analysis. Here we performed an initial single-SNP GWAS for bone weight (BW) and meat pH value with a total of 770,000 SNPs in 1141 Simmental cattle. Additionally, 21836 cattle genes collected from the Ensembl Genes 83 database were analyzed to find supplementary evidence to support the importance of gene-based association study. Results of the single SNP-based association study showed that there were 11 SNPs significantly associated with bone weight (BW) and two SNPs associated with meat pH value. Interestingly, all of these SNPs were located in genes detected by the gene-based association study. PMID:28169328

  16. Searching for new loci and candidate genes for economically important traits through gene-based association analysis of Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Fan, Huizhong; Chang, Tianpeng; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2017-02-07

    Single-marker genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a convenient strategy of genetic analysis that has been successful in detecting the association of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative traits. However, analysis of individual SNPs can only account for a small proportion of genetic variation and offers only limited knowledge of complex traits. This inadequacy may be overcome by employing a gene-based GWAS analytic approach, which can be considered complementary to the single-SNP association analysis. Here we performed an initial single-SNP GWAS for bone weight (BW) and meat pH value with a total of 770,000 SNPs in 1141 Simmental cattle. Additionally, 21836 cattle genes collected from the Ensembl Genes 83 database were analyzed to find supplementary evidence to support the importance of gene-based association study. Results of the single SNP-based association study showed that there were 11 SNPs significantly associated with bone weight (BW) and two SNPs associated with meat pH value. Interestingly, all of these SNPs were located in genes detected by the gene-based association study.

  17. [Effects of stereoscopic cultivation on soil microorganism, enzyme activity and the agronomic characters of Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-ran; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    Compartments of soil microorganism and enzymes between stereoscopic cultivation (three storeys) and field cultivation (CK) of Panax notoginseng were carried out, and the effects on P. notoginseng agronomic characters were also studied. Results show that concentration of soil microorganism of stereoscopic cultivation was lower than field cultivation; the activity of soil urea enzyme, saccharase and neutral phosphatase increased from lower storey to upper storey; the activity of soil urea enzyme and saccharase of lower and upper storeys were significantly lower than CK; agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginsengin were inferior to field cultivation, the middle storey with the best agronomic characters among the three storeys. The correlation analysis showed that fungi, actinomycetes and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with P. notoginseng agronomic characters; concentration of soil fungi and bacteria were significantly correlated with the soil relative water content; actinomycete and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with soil pH and relative water content, respectively; the activities of soil urea enzyme and saccharase were significantly correlated with the soil daily maximum temperature difference. Inconclusion, The current research shows that the imbalance of soil microorganism and the acutely changing of soil enzyme activity were the main reasons that caused the agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginseng were worse than field cultivation. Thus improves the concentration of soil microorganism and enzyme activity near to field soil by improving the structure of stereoscopic cultivation is very important. And it was the direction which we are endeavoring that built better soil ecological environment for P. notoginseng of stereoscopic cultivation.

  18. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression of important regulatory genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kalyna, Maria; Simpson, Craig G.; Syed, Naeem H.; Lewandowska, Dominika; Marquez, Yamile; Kusenda, Branislav; Marshall, Jacqueline; Fuller, John; Cardle, Linda; McNicol, Jim; Dinh, Huy Q.; Barta, Andrea; Brown, John W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) coupled to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a post-transcriptional mechanism for regulating gene expression. We have used a high-resolution AS RT–PCR panel to identify endogenous AS isoforms which increase in abundance when NMD is impaired in the Arabidopsis NMD factor mutants, upf1-5 and upf3-1. Of 270 AS genes (950 transcripts) on the panel, 102 transcripts from 97 genes (32%) were identified as NMD targets. Extrapolating from these data around 13% of intron-containing genes in the Arabidopsis genome are potentially regulated by AS/NMD. This cohort of naturally occurring NMD-sensitive AS transcripts also allowed the analysis of the signals for NMD in plants. We show the importance of AS in introns in 5′ or 3′UTRs in modulating NMD-sensitivity of mRNA transcripts. In particular, we identified upstream open reading frames overlapping the main start codon as a new trigger for NMD in plants and determined that NMD is induced if 3′-UTRs were >350 nt. Unexpectedly, although many intron retention transcripts possess NMD features, they are not sensitive to NMD. Finally, we have shown that AS/NMD regulates the abundance of transcripts of many genes important for plant development and adaptation including transcription factors, RNA processing factors and stress response genes. PMID:22127866

  19. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Shaping melons: agronomic and genetic characterization of QTLs that modify melon fruit morphology.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Moreno, Eduard; Essafi, Ali; Fergany, Mohamed; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Martín-Hernandez, Ana Montserrat; Alvarez, Jose María; Monforte, Antonio J

    2010-09-01

    The consistency of quantitative trait locus (QTL) effects among genetic backgrounds is a key factor for introgressing QTLs from initial mapping experiments into applied breeding programs. We have selected four QTLs (fs6.4, fw4.3, fw4.4 and fw8.1) involved in melon fruit morphology that had previously been detected in a collection of introgression lines derived from the cross between a Spanish cultivar, "Piel de Sapo," and the Korean accession PI161375 (Songwan Charmi). Introgression lines harboring these QTLs were crossed with an array of melon inbred lines representative of the most important cultivar types. Hybrids of the introgression and inbred lines, with the appropriate controls, were evaluated in replicated agronomic trials. The effects of the QTLs were consistent among the different genetic backgrounds, demonstrating the utility of these QTLs for applied breeding programs in modifying melon fruit morphology. Three QTLs, fw4.4, fs6.4 and fs12.1 were subjected to further study in order to map them more accurately by substitution mapping using a new set of introgression lines with recombination events within the QTL chromosome region. The position of the QTLs was narrowed down to 36-5 cM, depending on the QTL. The results presented in the current study set the basis for the use of these QTLs in applied breeding programs and for the molecular characterization of the genes underlying them.

  1. Characterization and embryonic expression of four amphioxus Frizzled genes with important functions during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guanghui; Li, Guang; Chen, Xiaoying; Wang, Yiquan

    2013-12-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays crucial roles in the embryonic patterning of all metazoans. Recent studies on Wnt genes in amphioxus have shed important insights into the evolution of the vertebrate Wnt gene family and their functions. Nevertheless, the potential roles of Wnt family receptors encoded by Frizzled (Fz) genes in amphioxus embryonic development remain to be investigated. In the present study, we identified four amphioxus Fz genes-AmphiFz1/2/7, AmphiFz4, AmphiFz5/8, and AmphiFz9/10-and analyzed their expression patterns during amphioxus embryogenesis. We found that these four Fz genes were maternally expressed and might be involved in early animal-vegetal axis establishment. The AmphiFz1/2/7 transcripts were detected in the central dorsal neural plate, mesoderm, the Hatschek's pit, and rim of the mouth, whereas those of AmphiFz4 were detected in the mesoderm, pharyngeal endoderm, and entire gut region. AmphiFz5/8 was exclusively expressed in the anterior-most region, whereas AmphiFz9/10 was expressed in the neural plate, somites, and tail bud. The dynamic and diverse expression patterns of amphioxus Fz genes suggest that these genes are not only associated with early embryonic axis establishment but also are involved in the development of several organs in amphioxus.

  2. Food commensal microbes as a potentially important avenue in transmitting antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua H; Manuzon, Michele; Lehman, Mark; Wan, Kai; Luo, Hongliang; Wittum, Thomas E; Yousef, Ahmed; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2006-01-01

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ART) pathogens is a major threat to public health. While the surfacing of ART food-borne pathogens is alarming, the magnitude of the antibiotic resistance (AR) gene pool in food-borne commensal microbes is yet to be revealed. Incidence of ART commensals in selected retail food products was examined in this study. The presence of 10(2)-10(7) CFU of ART bacteria per gram of foods in many samples, particularly in ready-to-eat, 'healthy' food items, indicates that the ART bacteria are abundant in the food chain. AR-encoding genes were detected in ART isolates, and Streptococcus thermophilus was found to be a major host for AR genes in cheese microbiota. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc sp. isolates were also found carrying AR genes. The data indicate that food could be an important avenue for ART bacterial evolution and dissemination. AR-encoding plasmids from several food-borne commensals were transmitted to Streptococcus mutans via natural gene transformation under laboratory conditions, suggesting the possible transfer of AR genes from food commensals to human residential bacteria via horizontal gene transfer.

  3. Genome-wide indel/SSR scanning reveals significant loci associated with excellent agronomic traits of a cabbage (Brassica oleracea) elite parental line ‘01–20’

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Han, Fengqing; Liu, Xing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2017-01-01

    Elite parental lines are of great significance to crop breeding. To discover unique genomic loci associated with excellent economic traits in the elite cabbage inbred-line ‘01–20’, we performed comparisons of phenotypes as well as whole-genome insertion-deletion/simple sequence repeat loci between ‘01–20’ and each of its five sister lines. ‘01–20’ has a range of excellent agronomic traits, including early-maturing, and improvements in plant type and leaf colour. Eight unique loci were discovered for ‘01–20’ and ‘01-07-258’, another elite line similar to ‘01–20’ at the whole-genome level. In addition, two excellent double-haploid lines derived from a cross of ‘01–20’ also inherited these loci. Based on the quantitative trait locus association results, five of these loci were found to be associated with important agronomic traits, which could explain why the elite parent ‘01–20’ possesses greener outer leaves, a more compact and upright plant-type, rounder head, shorter core length, and better taste. Additionally, some of these loci have clustering effects for quantitative trait loci associated with different traits; therefore, important genes in these regions were analysed. The obtained results should enable marker-assisted multi-trait selection at the whole-genome level in cabbage breeding and provide insights into significant genome loci and their breeding effects. PMID:28164997

  4. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming.

  5. Tetracycline and Phenicol Resistance Genes and Mechanisms: Importance for Agriculture, the Environment, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports have speculated on the future impact that antibiotic-resistant bacteria will have on food production, human health, and global economics. This review examines microbial resistance to tetracyclines and phenicols, antibiotics that are widely used in global food production. The mechanisms of resistance, mode of spread between agriculturally and human-impacted environments and ecosystems, distribution among bacteria, and the genes most likely to be associated with agricultural and environmental settings are included. Forty-six different tetracycline resistance () genes have been identified in 126 genera, with (M) having the broadest taxonomic distribution among all bacteria and (B) having the broadest coverage among the Gram-negative genera. Phenicol resistance genes are organized into 37 groups and have been identified in 70 bacterial genera. The review provides the latest information on tetracycline and phenicol resistance genes, including their association with mobile genetic elements in bacteria of environmental, medical, and veterinary relevance. Knowing what specific antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are found in specific bacterial species and/or genera is critical when using a selective suite of ARGs for detection or surveillance studies. As detection methods move to molecular techniques, our knowledge about which type of bacteria carry which resistance gene(s) will become more important to ensure that the whole spectrum of bacteria are included in future surveillance studies. This review provides information needed to integrate the biology, taxonomy, and ecology of tetracycline- and phenicol-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes so that informative surveillance strategies can be developed and the correct genes selected.

  6. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming. PMID:27199978

  7. Stochastic gene expression in single cells: exploring the importance of noise in genetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2003-03-01

    Cells are intrinsically noisy biochemical reactors. This leads to random cell to cell variation (noise) in gene expression levels. First, I will address the source of this noise at the level of transcription and translation of a single gene. Our experimental results demonstrate that the intrinsic noise of a single gene is predominantly controlled at the translational level, and that increased translational efficiency leads to increased noise strength. This observation is consistent with a theoretical model in which proteins are randomly produced in sharp bursts followed by periods of slow decay. Second, I will explore the importance of genetic noise for a naturally occuring network: the lac operon. The classic lactose utilization network of E. coli has been under investigation for several decades and, in its simplest form the network may be modeled as a single positive feedback module. However, this simplicity is deceptive, as even this basic network is capable of complex metabolic behavior, including adaptation, amplification, and graded-to-binary response conversion. I will present single cell measurements on the expression of key genes in lactose uptake network and explore the importance of genetic noise on the regulation of these genes.

  8. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  9. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  10. Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krutz, L. J.; Dale L. Shaner,; Mark A. Weaver,; Webb, Richard M.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Reddy, Krishna N.; Huang, Y.; Thompson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. The genes responsible for s-triazine mineralization, i.e. atzABCDEF and trzNDF, occur in at least four bacterial phyla and are implicated in the development of enhanced degradation in agricultural soils from all continents except Antarctica. Enhanced degradation occurs in at least nine crops and six crop rotation systems that rely on s-triazine herbicides for weed control, and, with the exception of acidic soil conditions and s-triazine application frequency, adaptation of the microbial population is independent of soil physiochemical properties and cultural management practices. From an agronomic perspective, residual weed control could be reduced tenfold in s-triazine-adapted relative to non-adapted soils. From an environmental standpoint, the off-site loss of total s-triazine residues could be overestimated 13-fold in adapted soils if altered persistence estimates and metabolic pathways are not reflected in fate and transport models. Empirical models requiring soil pH and s-triazine use history as input parameters predict atrazine persistence more accurately than historical estimates, thereby allowing practitioners to adjust weed control strategies and model input values when warranted. 

  11. Mutations in PRKN and SNCA Genes Important for the Progress of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowska, Anna; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Although Parkinson’s disease (PD) was first described almost 200 years ago, it remains an incurable disease with a cause that is not fully understood. Nowadays it is known that disturbances in the structure of pathological proteins in PD can be caused by more than environmental and genetic factors. Despite numerous debates and controversies in the literature about the role of mutations in the SNCA and PRKN genes in the pathogenesis of PD, it is evident that these genes play a key role in maintaining dopamine (DA) neuronal homeostasis and that the dysfunction of this homeostasis is relevant to both familial (FPD) and sporadic (SPD) PD with different onset. In recent years, the importance of alphasynuclein (ASN) in the process of neurodegeneration and neuroprotective function of the Parkin is becoming better understood. Moreover, there have been an increasing number of recent reports indicating the importance of the interaction between these proteins and their encoding genes. Among others interactions, it is suggested that even heterozygous substitution in the PRKN gene in the presence of the variants +2/+2 or +2/+3 of NACP-Rep1 in the SNCA promoter, may increase the risk of PD manifestation, which is probably due to ineffective elimination of over-expressed ASN by the mutated Parkin protein. Finally, it seems that genetic testing may be an important part of diagnostics in patients with PD and may improve the prognostic process in the course of PD. However, only full knowledge of the mechanism of the interaction between the genes associated with the pathogenesis of PD is likely to help explain the currently unknown pathways of selective damage to dopaminergic neurons in the course of PD. PMID:24532983

  12. MAT gene idiomorphs suggest a heterothallic sexual cycle in a predominantly asexual and important pine pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Michael J; Slippers, Bernard; Duong, Tuan A; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-01-01

    Diplodia pinea (=Sphaeropsis sapinea) is a well-known and economically important latent pathogen of Pinus spp. in many parts of the world. Despite intensive scrutiny, its sexual state has never been observed and the fungus has thus been considered exclusively asexual. It was, therefore, surprising that a recent population genetics study showed high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles in a number of populations, suggesting that the pathogen has a cryptic sexual stage. Using the genome sequence of two individual D. pinea isolates, we interrogated the structure of the MAT locus in this fungus. The results suggested that D. pinea is heterothallic (self-sterile) with complete and apparently functional copies of the MAT genes containing the α-1 and HMG domains present in different isolates. In addition to the MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-1 genes, we found a MAT1-1-4 gene in the MAT1-1 idiomorph and a novel MAT1-2-5 gene in the MAT1-2 idiomorph. Importantly, the frequencies of occurrence of both idiomorphs in populations examined were not significantly different from a 1:1 ratio, which would be expected in sexually reproducing populations. Although the sexual state has never been observed, the results strongly suggest that D. pinea has a cryptic, heterothallic sexual cycle.

  13. Characterising functionally important and ecologically meaningful genetic diversity using a candidate gene approach.

    PubMed

    Piertney, Stuart B; Webster, Lucy M I

    2010-04-01

    Over the past two decades the fields of molecular ecology and population genetics have been dominated by the use of putatively neutral DNA markers, primarily to resolve spatio-temporal patterns of genetic variation to inform our understanding of population structure, gene flow and pedigree. Recent emphasis in comparative functional genomics, however, has fuelled a resurgence of interest in functionally important genetic variation that underpins phenotypic traits of adaptive or ecological significance. It may prove a major challenge to transfer genomics information from classical model species to examine functional diversity in non-model species in natural populations, but already multiple gene-targeted candidate loci with major effect on phenotype and fitness have been identified. Here we briefly describe some of the research strategies used for isolating and characterising functional genetic diversity at candidate gene-targeted loci, and illustrate the efficacy of some of these approaches using our own studies on red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). We then review how candidate gene markers have been used to: (1) quantify genetic diversity among populations to identify those depauperate in genetic diversity and requiring specific management action; (2) identify the strength and mode of selection operating on individuals within natural populations; and (3) understand direct mechanistic links between allelic variation at single genes and variance in individual fitness.

  14. Analysis of Important Gene Ontology Terms and Biological Pathways Related to Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Cai, Yu-Dong; Liu, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a serious disease that results in more than thirty thousand deaths around the world per year. To design effective treatments, many investigators have devoted themselves to the study of biological processes and mechanisms underlying this disease. However, it is far from complete. In this study, we tried to extract important gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways for pancreatic cancer by adopting some existing computational methods. Genes that have been validated to be related to pancreatic cancer and have not been validated were represented by features derived from GO terms and KEGG pathways using the enrichment theory. A popular feature selection method, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, was employed to analyze these features and extract important GO terms and KEGG pathways. An extensive analysis of the obtained GO terms and KEGG pathways was provided to confirm the correlations between them and pancreatic cancer.

  15. Analysis of Important Gene Ontology Terms and Biological Pathways Related to Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang; Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a serious disease that results in more than thirty thousand deaths around the world per year. To design effective treatments, many investigators have devoted themselves to the study of biological processes and mechanisms underlying this disease. However, it is far from complete. In this study, we tried to extract important gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways for pancreatic cancer by adopting some existing computational methods. Genes that have been validated to be related to pancreatic cancer and have not been validated were represented by features derived from GO terms and KEGG pathways using the enrichment theory. A popular feature selection method, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, was employed to analyze these features and extract important GO terms and KEGG pathways. An extensive analysis of the obtained GO terms and KEGG pathways was provided to confirm the correlations between them and pancreatic cancer. PMID:27957501

  16. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit.

  17. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2015-06-08

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae).

  18. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Thomas H.; Garb, Jessica E.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). PMID:26058392

  19. Analysis of elite variety tag SNPs reveals an important allele in upland rice.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jun; Zhang, Shilai; Dong, Yang; He, Weiming; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Xianneng; Zhang, Yesheng; Li, Xin; Li, Baoye; Huang, Wangqi; Wan, Wenting; Yu, Yang; Li, Qiong; Li, Jun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Tao, Dayun; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Hu, Fengyi; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Elite crop varieties usually fix alleles that occur at low frequencies within non-elite gene pools. Dissecting these alleles for desirable agronomic traits can be accomplished by comparing the genomes of elite varieties with those from non-elite populations. Here we deep-sequence six elite rice varieties and use two large control panels to identify elite variety tag single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles (ETASs). Guided by this preliminary analysis, we comprehensively characterize one protein-altering ETAS in the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene of the IRAT104 upland rice variety. This allele displays a drastic frequency difference between upland and irrigated rice, and a selective sweep is observed around this allele. Functional analysis indicates that in upland rice, this allele is associated with significantly higher abscisic acid levels and denser lateral roots, suggesting its association with upland rice suitability. This report provides a potential strategy to mine rare, agronomically important alleles.

  20. The importance of immune gene variability (MHC) in evolutionary ecology and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Genetic studies have typically inferred the effects of human impact by documenting patterns of genetic differentiation and levels of genetic diversity among potentially isolated populations using selective neutral markers such as mitochondrial control region sequences, microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). However, evolutionary relevant and adaptive processes within and between populations can only be reflected by coding genes. In vertebrates, growing evidence suggests that genetic diversity is particularly important at the level of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC variants influence many important biological traits, including immune recognition, susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, individual odours, mating preferences, kin recognition, cooperation and pregnancy outcome. These diverse functions and characteristics place genes of the MHC among the best candidates for studies of mechanisms and significance of molecular adaptation in vertebrates. MHC variability is believed to be maintained by pathogen-driven selection, mediated either through heterozygote advantage or frequency-dependent selection. Up to now, most of our knowledge has derived from studies in humans or from model organisms under experimental, laboratory conditions. Empirical support for selective mechanisms in free-ranging animal populations in their natural environment is rare. In this review, I first introduce general information about the structure and function of MHC genes, as well as current hypotheses and concepts concerning the role of selection in the maintenance of MHC polymorphism. The evolutionary forces acting on the genetic diversity in coding and non-coding markers are compared. Then, I summarise empirical support for the functional importance of MHC variability in parasite resistance with emphasis on the evidence derived from free-ranging animal populations investigated in their natural habitat. Finally, I discuss the importance of

  1. Gene expression analyses of primary melanomas reveal CTHRC1 as an important player in melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Johanna; Le Joncour, Vadim; Nummela, Pirjo; Jahkola, Tiina; Virolainen, Susanna; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Saksela, Olli; Hölttä, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is notorious for its high tendency to metastasize and its refractoriness to conventional treatments after metastasis, and the responses to most targeted therapies are short-lived. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind melanoma development and progression is needed to develop more effective therapies and to identify new markers to predict disease behavior. Here, we compared the gene expression profiles of benign nevi, and non-metastatic and metastatic primary melanomas to identify any common changes in disease progression. We identified several genes associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix modification to be upregulated in metastatic melanomas. We selected one of these genes, collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1), for detailed analysis, and found that CTHRC1 was expressed in both melanoma cells and the associated fibroblasts, as well as in the endothelium of tumor blood vessels. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression by shRNAs in melanoma cells inhibited their migration in Transwell assays and their invasion in three-dimensional collagen and Matrigel matrices. We also elucidated the possible down-stream effectors of CTHRC1 by gene expression profiling of the CTHRC1-knockdown cells. Our analyses showed that CTHRC1 is regulated coordinately with fibronectin and integrin β3 by the pro-invasive and -angiogenic transcription factor NFATC2. We also found CTHRC1 to be a target of TFGβ and BRAF. These data highlight the importance of tumor stroma in melanoma progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 was recognized as an important mediator of melanoma cell migration and invasion, providing together with its regulators—NFATC2, TGFβ, and BRAF—attractive therapeutic targets against metastatic melanomas. PMID:26918341

  2. Expression Profile of Developmentally Important Genes in preand peri-Implantation Goat Embryos Produced In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles. Results: The gradual pattern of reduction in the maternally stored transcripts without renewal thereafter (cluster-1: Lifr1, Bmpr1, Alk4, Id3, Ctnnb, Akt, Oct4, Rex1, Erk1, Smad1 and 5) implies that their protein products are essential during early cleavages when the goat embryo is silent and reliant to the maternal legacy of mRNA. The potential importance of transcription augment at day-3 (cluster-2: Fzd, c-Myc, Cdc25a, Sox2) or day- 14 (cluster-3: Fgfr4, Nanog) suggests that they are nascent embryonic mRNAs which intimately involved in the overriding of MET or regulation of blastocyst formation, respectively. The observation of two expression peaks at both day-3 and day-14 (cluster-4: Gata4, Cdx2) would imply their potential importance during these two critical stages of preand periimplantation development. Conclusion: Evolutionary comparison revealed that the selected subset of genes has been rewired in goat and human/goat similarity is greater than the mouse/goat or bovine/goat similarities. The developed profiles provide a resource for comprehensive understanding of goat preimplantation development and pluripotent stem cell engineering as well. PMID:27695614

  3. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2015-05-01

    Development and application of new types of fertilizers using innovative nanotechnology are one of the potentially effective options of significantly enhancing the global agricultural productions needed to meet the future demands of the growing population. Indeed, the review of available literature indicates that some engineered nanomaterials can enhance plant-growth in certain concentration ranges and could be used as nanofertilizers in agriculture to increase agronomic yields of crops and/or minimize environmental pollution. This article summarizes this type of nanomaterials under four categories: macronutrient nanofertilizers, micronutrient nanofertilizers, nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers, and plant-growth-enhancing nanomaterials. Each category is discussed respectively with reference to nanomaterials' chemical composition, particle size, concentrations applied, benefited plant species, plant incubation methods, and plant-growth enhancement aspects and the rates. The importance, research directions, and research requirements of each nanofertilizer category for achieving sustainable agriculture are also specifically examined. Finally, this review suggests that development of N and P macronutrient nanofertilizers is a high research and development priority both for food production and environmental protection.

  4. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  5. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

    PubMed

    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate.

  6. Dimension reduction with gene expression data using targeted variable importance measurement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When a large number of candidate variables are present, a dimension reduction procedure is usually conducted to reduce the variable space before the subsequent analysis is carried out. The goal of dimension reduction is to find a list of candidate genes with a more operable length ideally including all the relevant genes. Leaving many uninformative genes in the analysis can lead to biased estimates and reduced power. Therefore, dimension reduction is often considered a necessary predecessor of the analysis because it can not only reduce the cost of handling numerous variables, but also has the potential to improve the performance of the downstream analysis algorithms. Results We propose a TMLE-VIM dimension reduction procedure based on the variable importance measurement (VIM) in the frame work of targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE). TMLE is an extension of maximum likelihood estimation targeting the parameter of interest. TMLE-VIM is a two-stage procedure. The first stage resorts to a machine learning algorithm, and the second step improves the first stage estimation with respect to the parameter of interest. Conclusions We demonstrate with simulations and data analyses that our approach not only enjoys the prediction power of machine learning algorithms, but also accounts for the correlation structures among variables and therefore produces better variable rankings. When utilized in dimension reduction, TMLE-VIM can help to obtain the shortest possible list with the most truly associated variables. PMID:21849016

  7. Prevalence of genes encoding extracellular proteases in Staphylococcus aureus - important targets triggering immune response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zdzalik, Michal; Karim, Abdulkarim Y; Wolski, Krzysztof; Buda, Pawel; Wojcik, Kinga; Brueggemann, Sarah; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Eick, Sigrun; Calander, Ann-Marie; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Kubica, Malgorzata; Polakowska, Klaudia; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Wladyka, Benedykt; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2012-11-01

    Proteases of Staphylococcus aureus have long been considered to function as important virulence factors, although direct evidence of the role of particular enzymes remains incomplete and elusive. Here, we sought to provide a collective view of the prevalence of extracellular protease genes in genomes of commensal and pathogenic strains of S. aureus and their expression in the course of human and mouse infection. Data on V8 protease, staphopains A and B, aureolysin, and the recently described and poorly characterized group of six Spl proteases are provided. A phylogenetically diverse collection of 167 clinical isolates was analyzed, resulting in the comprehensive genetic survey of the prevalence of protease-encoding genes. No correlation between identified gene patterns with specific infections was established. Humoral response against the proteases of interest was examined in the sera derived from human patients and from a model mouse infection. The analysis suggests that at least some, if not all, tested proteases are expressed and secreted during the course of infection. Overall, the results presented in this study support the hypothesis that the secretory proteases as a group may contribute to the virulence of S. aureus.

  8. Efflux pump gene hefA of Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether efflux systems contribute to multidrug resistance of H pylori. METHODS: A chloramphenicol-induced multidrug resistance model of six susceptible H pylori strains (5 isolates and H pylori NCTC11637) was developed. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were selected and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin, metronidazole, penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin in multidrug resistant strains and their parent strains was determined by agar dilution tests. The level of mRNA expression of hefA was assessed by fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR. A H pylori LZ1026 knockout mutant (ΔH pylori LZ1026) for (putative) efflux protein was constructed by inserting the kanamycin resistance cassette from pEGFP-N2 into hefA, and its susceptibility profiles to 10 antibiotics were evaluated. RESULTS: The MIC of six multidrug-resistant strains (including 5 clinical isolates and H pylori NCTC11637) increased significantly (≥ 4-fold) compared with their parent strains. The expression level of hefA gene was significantly higher in the MDR strains than in their parent strains (P = 0.033). A H pylori LZ1026 mutant was successfully constructed and the ΔH pylori LZ1026 was more susceptible to four of the 10 antibiotics. All the 20 strains displayed transcripts for hefA that confirmed the in vitro expression of these genes. CONCLUSION: The efflux pump gene hefA plays an important role in multidrug resistance of H pylori. PMID:18777600

  9. Analysis of an nsdC mutant in Aspergillus flavus reveals an extensive role in the regulation of several secondary metabolic gene clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that can invade and contaminate agronomically important crops. The fungus produces a number of toxic secondary metabolites, such as aflatoxin, which are synthesized from genes located in close proximity with each other on the chromosome. A. flavus has appro...

  10. Insulin resistance and elevated triglyceride in muscle: more important for survival than ‘thrifty’ genes?

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, S R; Johnson, N A

    2004-01-01

    Elevated intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) is strongly associated with insulin resistance, though a cause and effect relationship has not been fully described. Insulin sensitivity and IMTG content are both dynamic and can alter rapidly in response to dietary variation, physical activity and thermoregulatory response. Physically active humans (athletes) display elevated IMTG content, but in contrast to obese persons, are insulin sensitive. This paradox has created confusion surrounding the role of IMTG in the development of insulin resistance. In this review we consider the modern athlete as the physiological archetype of the Late Palaeolithic hunter–gatherer to whom the selection pressures of food availability, predation and fluctuating environmental conditions applied and to whom the genotype of modern man is virtually identical. As food procurement by the hunter–gatherer required physical activity, ‘thrifty’ genes that encouraged immediate energy storage upon refeeding after food deprivation (Neel, 1962) must have been of secondary importance in survival to genes that preserved physical capacity during food deprivation. Similarly genes that enabled survival during cold exposure whilst starved would be of primary importance. In this context, we discuss the advantage afforded by an elevated IMTG content, and how under these conditions, a concomitant muscle resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake would also be advantageous. In sedentary modern man, adiposity is high and skeletal muscle appears to respond as if a state of starvation exists. In this situation, elevated plasma lipids serve to accrue lipid and induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Reversal of this physiological state is primarily dependant on adequate contractile activity, however, in modern Western society, physical inactivity combined with abundant food and warmth has rendered IMTG a redundant muscle substrate. PMID:14608009

  11. Importance of the COMT gene for sex differences in brain function and predisposition to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    As outlined elsewhere in this volume, sex differences can affect brain function and its dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. It is known that genetic factors contribute to these sex dimorphisms, but the individual genes have rarely been identified. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which encodes an enzyme that metabolises catechol compounds, including dopamine, is a leading candidate in this regard. COMT's enzyme activity, and the neurochemistry and behaviour of COMT knockout mice are both markedly sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, genetic associations between COMT and psychiatric phenotypes frequently show differences between men and women. Although many of these differences are unconfirmed or minor, some appear to be of reasonable robustness and magnitude and are reviewed in this chapter. Sexually dimorphic effects of COMT are usually attributed to transcriptional regulation by oestrogens; however, a careful examination of the literature suggests that additional mechanisms are likely to be at least as important. Here, we review the evidence for a sexually dimorphic influence of COMT upon psychiatric phenotypes and brain function, and discuss potential mechanisms by which this may occur. We conclude that despite the evidence being incomplete, there are accumulating and in places compelling data showing that COMT has markedly sexually dimorphic effects on brain function and its dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Although oestrogenic regulation of COMT is probably partially responsible for these sex differences, other mechanisms are likely also involved. Since sex differences in the genetic architecture of brain function and psychiatric disorders are the rule not the exception, we anticipate that additional evidence will emerge for sexual dimorphisms, not only in COMT but also in many other autosomal genes.

  12. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  13. RNA Editing of the GP Gene of Ebola Virus is an Important Pathogenicity Factor.

    PubMed

    Volchkova, Valentina A; Dolnik, Olga; Martinez, Mikel J; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Synthesis of the surface glycoprotein GP of Ebola virus (EBOV) is dependent on transcriptional RNA editing, whereas direct expression of the GP gene results in synthesis of nonstructural secreted glycoprotein sGP. In this study, we investigate the role of RNA editing in the pathogenicity of EBOV using a guinea pig model and recombinant guinea pig-adapted EBOV containing mutations at the editing site, allowing expression of surface GP without the need for RNA editing, and also preventing synthesis of sGP. We demonstrate that the elimination of the editing site leads to EBOV attenuation in vivo, explained by lower virus spread caused by the higher virus cytotoxicity and, most likely, by an increased ability of the host defense systems to recognize and eliminate virus-infected cells. We also demonstrate that expression of sGP does not affect pathogenicity of EBOV in guinea pigs. In conclusion, data obtained indicate that downregulation of the level of surface GP expression through a mechanism of GP gene RNA editing plays an important role in the high pathogenicity of EBOV.

  14. Importance of rare gene copy number alterations for personalized tumor characterization and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Michael; Friedrich, Betty; Beyer, Andreas

    2016-10-03

    It has proven exceedingly difficult to ascertain rare copy number alterations (CNAs) that may have strong effects in individual tumors. We show that a regulatory network inferred from gene expression and gene copy number data of 768 human cancer cell lines can be used to quantify the impact of patient-specific CNAs on survival signature genes. A focused analysis of tumors from six tissues reveals that rare patient-specific gene CNAs often have stronger effects on signature genes than frequent gene CNAs. Further comparison to a related network-based approach shows that the integration of indirectly acting gene CNAs significantly improves the survival analysis.

  15. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  16. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  17. Association of green stem disorder with agronomic traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green stem disorder (GSD) of soybean is the occurrence of non-senescent, fleshy green stems of plants with normal, fully mature pods and seeds. The main focus of this study was to determine the relationship between GSD incidence and agronomic traits and to determine if GSD incidence was associated w...

  18. Indirect role of microRNAs and transcription factors in the regulation of important cancer genes: A network biology approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Jafari, R; Marashi, S A; Farazmand, A

    2015-10-30

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although the mechanisms of gene regulation in cancer have been the subject of intense investigation during the last decades, the precise role of regulatory processes in cancer is largely unknown. More specifically, it is not completely understood how microRNAs and transcription factors regulate and influence the cancer-related processes. In the present study, using cancer-specific biological networks we examine the role of microRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) in regulation of important cancer genes. The importance measures which are used in this study consider both network structure information and biological data on miRNA- and TF-based gene regulation. By analyzing cancer-specific PPI, signaling and metabolic networks, it was shown that microRNAs and transcription factors tend to regulate those genes which are in the neighborhood of important components of cancer-specific PPI, signaling, and metabolic networks. The role of microRNAs was found to be particularly important, which confirms our previously-published results on the importance of microRNAs in detecting important network components. Moreover, we highlight that the miRNAs appear to apply their function via regulating the "neighbors" of important cancer genes, which implies their indirect role in cancer, and presumably, in fine-tuning the effect of other cancer-related genes.

  19. The HDF1 histone deacetylase gene is important for conidiation, sexual reproduction, and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley. Its genome contains chromosomal regions with higher genetic variation and enriched for genes expressed in planta, suggesting a role of chromatin modification in the regulation of infection-related genes. In a pre...

  20. Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits.

  1. 5' sequences are important positive and negative determinants of the longevity of Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, M L; Klein, U; Bogorad, L

    1993-01-01

    We have found that sequences in the 5' leader of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast rbcL gene, when fused 5' to foreign genes, destabilize transcripts of these chimeric genes in the chloroplast of transgenic Chlamydomonas but that 5' sequences of the rbcL structural gene prevent this destabilization. Transcripts of the chloroplast rbcL gene are about equally abundant at all times in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growing on an alternating 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. However, Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformants, harboring chimeric genes containing the same rbcL promoter with 63 or 92 bp of the rbcL 5' leader sequence fused upstream of the Escherichia coli uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) gene, accumulated GUS transcripts only in the dark. Transcripts disappeared rapidly upon illumination of the cells. The same phenomenon was exhibited by transcripts of chimeric genes in which the GUS gene coding sequence was replaced by other unrelated genes. The precipitous light-induced drop in GUS transcript abundance was found to be due to an approximately 16-fold increase in the rate of degradation of GUS transcripts in light rather than to a decrease in the rate of transcription of the GUS gene. Transcripts of a chimeric rbcL-GUS construct in which the leader sequence of the rbcL gene was replaced by 103 bp of the leader sequence of the atpB gene were stable in illuminated cells. The destabilizing effect of the rbcL 5' leader sequence was reversed by adding 257 bp of the 5' coding region of the rbcL gene. The results show that chloroplast transcript levels in illuminated Chlamydomonas cells--and perhaps in other cases--can be determined, at least to some extent, by sequences and interactions of sequences transcribed from the 5' ends of genes. Images PMID:8434017

  2. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    ‚€Ã‚¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? • What kind of water management is needed to maintain a productive crop? The answers to these questions will help supporting institutions across the state to improve land assessment and agronomic management practices for biomass production. In the last decade, energy supply has become a worldwide problem. Bioenergy crops could supply energy in the future. Bioenergy crops are plants, usually perennial grasses and trees, that produce a lot of biomass that can be converted into energy. Bioenergy crops can be grown for two energy markets: power generation, such as heat and electricity, or liquid fuel, such as cellulosic ethanol. These resources could reduce petroleum dependency and greenhouse gas production. Woody plants and herbaceous warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus,energy cane, and high yielding sorghums, could be major sources of biomass in Mississippi.

  3. Imipenem Treatment Induces Expression of Important Genes and Phenotypes in a Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate

    PubMed Central

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Cerqueira, Gustavo Maia; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Pang, Sui Ping

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a notorious multidrug-resistant pathogen, and development of novel control measures is of the utmost importance. Understanding the factors that play a role in drug resistance may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Pili are essential for A. baumannii adherence to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces as well as virulence. In the present study, we found that biofilm formation was significantly induced in an imipenem-resistant (Impr) strain treated with a subinhibitory concentration of antibiotic compared to that in an untreated control and an imipenem-susceptible (Imps) isolate. Using microarray and quantitative PCR analyses, we observed that several genes responsible for the synthesis of type IV pili were significantly upregulated in the Impr but not in the Imps isolate. Notably, this finding is corroborated by an increase in the motility of the Impr strain. Our results suggest that the ability to overproduce colonization factors in response to imipenem treatment confers biological advantage to A. baumannii and may contribute to clinical success. PMID:26666943

  4. Detection of QTL for metabolic and agronomic traits in wheat with adjustments for variation at genetic loci that affect plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Langridge, Peter; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with levels of individual metabolites (mQTL) was combined with the mapping of agronomic traits to investigate the genetic basis of variation and co-variation in metabolites, agronomic traits, and plant phenology in a field-grown bread wheat population. Metabolome analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry resulting in identification of mainly polar compounds, including secondary metabolites. A total of 558 metabolic features were obtained from the flag leaves of 179 doubled haploid lines, of which 197 features were putatively identified, mostly as alkaloids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Coordinated genetic control was observed for several groups of metabolites, such as organic acids influenced by two loci on chromosome 7A. Five major phenology-related loci, which were introduced as cofactors in the analyses, differed in their impact upon metabolic and agronomic traits with QZad-aww-7A having more impact on the expression of both metabolite and agronomic QTL than Ppd-B1, Vrn-A1, Eps, and QZad-aww-7D. This QTL study validates the utility of combining agronomic and metabolomic traits as an approach to identify potential trait enhancement targets for breeding selection and reinforces previous results that demonstrate the importance of including plant phenology in the assessment of useful traits in this wheat mapping population.

  5. Inactivation of the Neurospora Crassa Gene Encoding the Mitochondrial Protein Import Receptor Mom19 by the Technique of ``sheltered Rip''

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, TAA.; Metzenberg, R. L.; Schneider, H.; Lill, R.; Neupert, W.; Nargang, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a technique referred to as ``sheltered RIP'' (repeat induced point mutation) to create mutants of the mom-19 gene of Neurospora crassa, which encodes an import receptor for nuclear encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. Sheltered RIP permits the isolation of a mutant gene in one nucleus, even if that gene is essential for the survival of the organism, by sheltering the nucleus carrying the mutant gene in a heterokaryon with an unaffected nucleus. Furthermore, the nucleus harboring the RIPed gene contains a selectable marker so that it is possible to shift nuclear ratios in the heterokaryons to a state in which the nucleus containing the RIPed gene predominates in cultures grown under selective conditions. This results in a condition where the target gene product should be present at very suboptimal levels and allows the study of the mutant phenotype. One allele of mom-19 generated by this method contains 44 transitions resulting in 18 amino acid substitutions. When the heterokaryon containing this allele was grown under conditions favoring the RIPed nucleus, no MOM19 protein was detectable in the mitochondria of the strain. Homokaryotic strains containing the RIPed allele exhibit a complex and extremely slow growth phenotype suggesting that the product of the mom-19 gene is important in N. crassa. PMID:8138148

  6. For robust big data analyses: a collection of 150 important pro-metastatic genes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Yang, Jun-Ping; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2017-01-21

    Metastasis is the greatest contributor to cancer-related death. In the era of precision medicine, it is essential to predict and to prevent the spread of cancer cells to significantly improve patient survival. Thanks to the application of a variety of high-throughput technologies, accumulating big data enables researchers and clinicians to identify aggressive tumors as well as patients with a high risk of cancer metastasis. However, there have been few large-scale gene collection studies to enable metastasis-related analyses. In the last several years, emerging efforts have identified pro-metastatic genes in a variety of cancers, providing us the ability to generate a pro-metastatic gene cluster for big data analyses. We carefully selected 285 genes with in vivo evidence of promoting metastasis reported in the literature. These genes have been investigated in different tumor types. We used two datasets downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, specifically, datasets of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, for validation tests, and excluded any genes for which elevated expression level correlated with longer overall survival in any of the datasets. Ultimately, 150 pro-metastatic genes remained in our analyses. We believe this collection of pro-metastatic genes will be helpful for big data analyses, and eventually will accelerate anti-metastasis research and clinical intervention.

  7. Microarray Data Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis Leaves for Genes Important in Vascular Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzeal, A. J.; Wyatt, S. E.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2016-01-01

    Venation patterning in leaves is a major determinant of photosynthesis efficiency because of its dependency on vascular transport of photoassimilates, water, and minerals. Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microgravity show delayed growth and leaf maturation. Gene expression data from the roots, hypocotyl, and leaves of A. thaliana grown during spaceflight vs. ground control analyzed by Affymetrix microarray are available through NASA's GeneLab (GLDS-7). We analyzed the data for differential expression of genes in leaves resulting from the effects of spaceflight on vascular patterning. Two genes were found by preliminary analysis to be upregulated during spaceflight that may be related to vascular formation. The genes are responsible for coding an ARGOS like protein (potentially affecting cell elongation in the leaves), and an F-box/kelch-repeat protein (possibly contributing to protoxylem specification). Further analysis that will focus on raw data quality assessment and a moderated t-test may further confirm upregulation of the two genes and/or identify other gene candidates. Plants defective in these genes will then be assessed for phenotype by the mapping and quantification of leaf vascular patterning by NASA's VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software to model specific vascular differences of plants grown in spaceflight.

  8. Microarray Data Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis Leaves for Genes Important in Vascular Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzeal, A. J.; Wyatt, S. E.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2016-01-01

    Venation patterning in leaves is a major determinant of photosynthesis efficiency because of its dependency on vascular transport of photoassimilates, water, and minerals. Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microgravity show delayed growth and leaf maturation. Gene expression data from the roots, hypocotyl, and leaves of A. thaliana grown during spaceflight vs. ground control analyzed by Affymetrix microarray are available through NASAs GeneLab (GLDS-7). We analyzed the data for differential expression of genes in leaves resulting from the effects of spaceflight on vascular patterning. Two genes were found by preliminary analysis to be upregulated during spaceflight that may be related to vascular formation. The genes are responsible for coding an ARGOS like protein (potentially affecting cell elongation in the leaves), and an F-boxkelch-repeat protein (possibly contributing to protoxylem specification). Further analysis that will focus on raw data quality assessment and a moderated t-test may further confirm upregulation of the two genes and/or identify other gene candidates. Plants defective in these genes will then be assessed for phenotype by the mapping and quantification of leaf vascular patterning by NASAs VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software to model specific vascular differences of plants grown in spaceflight.

  9. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  10. Agronomical parameters, sugar profile and antioxidant compounds of "Catherine" peach cultivar influenced by different plum rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-02-03

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of "Catherine" peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  11. Assessing Utilization and Environmental Risks of Important Genes in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Khan, Muhammad A.; Ahmad, Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic plants with improved salt and drought stress tolerance have been developed with a large number of abiotic stress-related genes. Among these, the most extensively used genes are the glycine betaine biosynthetic codA, the DREB transcription factors, and vacuolar membrane Na+/H+ antiporters. The use of codA, DREBs, and Na+/H+ antiporters in transgenic plants has conferred stress tolerance and improved plant phenotype. However, the future deployment and commercialization of these plants depend on their safety to the environment. Addressing environmental risk assessment is challenging since mechanisms governing abiotic stress tolerance are much more complex than that of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits, which have been considered to date. Therefore, questions arise, whether abiotic stress tolerance genes need additional considerations and new measurements in risk assessment and, whether these genes would have effects on weediness and invasiveness potential of transgenic plants? While considering these concerns, the environmental risk assessment of abiotic stress tolerance genes would need to focus on the magnitude of stress tolerance, plant phenotype and characteristics of the potential receiving environment. In the present review, we discuss environmental concerns and likelihood of concerns associated with the use of abiotic stress tolerance genes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the uses of these genes in domesticated crop plants are safe for the environment. Risk assessment, however, should be carefully conducted on biofeedstocks and perennial plants taking into account plant phenotype and the potential receiving environment. PMID:27446095

  12. Transcriptome Analysis in Rat Kidneys: Importance of Genes Involved in Programmed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chan, Julie Y. H.; Lee, Chien-Te

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal conditions in pregnancy can elicit long-term effects on the health of offspring. The most common outcome is programmed hypertension. We examined whether there are common genes and pathways in the kidney are responsible for generating programmed hypertension among three different models using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (DEX, 0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22, 60% high-fructose (HF) diet, or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyester (l-NAME, 60 mg/kg/day) to conduct DEX, HF, or l-NAME model respectively. All three models elicited programmed hypertension in adult male offspring. We observed five shared genes (Bcl6, Dmrtc1c, Egr1, Inmt, and Olr1668) among three different models. The identified differential genes (DEGs) that are related to regulation of blood pressure included Aqp2, Ptgs1, Eph2x, Hba-a2, Apln, Guca2b, Hmox1, and Npy. RNA-Seq identified genes in arachidonic acid metabolism are potentially gatekeeper genes contributing to programmed hypertension. In addition, HF and DEX increased expression and activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2 gene encoding protein). Conclusively, the DEGs in arachidonic acid metabolism are potentially gatekeeper genes in programmed hypertension. The roles of DEGs identified by the RNA-Seq in this study deserve further clarification, to develop the potential interventions in the prevention of programmed hypertension. PMID:25739086

  13. De novo mutations from sporadic schizophrenia cases highlight important signaling genes in an independent sample.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Thorsten M; Harroch, Sheila; Manor, Orly; Lichtenberg, Pesach; Friedlander, Yechiel; Seandel, Marco; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Dolgalev, Igor; Heguy, Adriana; Chao, Moses V; Malaspina, Dolores

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating syndrome with high heritability. Genomic studies reveal more than a hundred genetic variants, largely nonspecific and of small effect size, and not accounting for its high heritability. De novo mutations are one mechanism whereby disease related alleles may be introduced into the population, although these have not been leveraged to explore the disease in general samples. This paper describes a framework to find high impact genes for schizophrenia. This study consists of two different datasets. First, whole exome sequencing was conducted to identify disruptive de novo mutations in 14 complete parent-offspring trios with sporadic schizophrenia from Jerusalem, which identified 5 sporadic cases with de novo gene mutations in 5 different genes (PTPRG, TGM5, SLC39A13, BTK, CDKN3). Next, targeted exome capture of these genes was conducted in 48 well-characterized, unrelated, ethnically diverse schizophrenia cases, recruited and characterized by the same research team in New York (NY sample), which demonstrated extremely rare and potentially damaging variants in three of the five genes (MAF<0.01) in 12/48 cases (25%); including PTPRG (5 cases), SCL39A13 (4 cases) and TGM5 (4 cases), a higher number than usually identified by whole exome sequencing. Cases differed in cognition and illness features based on which mutation-enriched gene they carried. Functional de novo mutations in protein-interaction domains in sporadic schizophrenia can illuminate risk genes that increase the propensity to develop schizophrenia across ethnicities.

  14. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  15. Quantifying the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Preferences As Drivers of Gene Content in Prokaryotic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Tamames, Javier; Sánchez, Pablo D.; Nikel, Pablo I.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary forces shape microbial genomes: vertical inheritance of genes by phylogenetic descent, and acquisition of new genes related to adaptation to particular habitats and lifestyles. Quantification of the relative importance of each driving force proved difficult. We determined the contribution of each factor, and identified particular genes or biochemical/cellular processes linked to environmental preferences (i.e., propensity of a taxon to live in particular habitats). Three types of data were confronted: (i) complete genomes, which provide gene content of different taxa; (ii) phylogenetic information, via alignment of 16S rRNA sequences, which allowed determination of the distance between taxa, and (iii) distribution of species in environments via 16S rRNA sampling experiments, reflecting environmental preferences of different taxa. The combination of these three datasets made it possible to describe and quantify the relationships among them. We found that, although phylogenetic descent was responsible for shaping most genomes, a discernible part of the latter was correlated to environmental adaptations. Particular families of genes were identified as environmental markers, as supported by direct studies such as metagenomic sequencing. These genes are likely important for adaptation of bacteria to particular conditions or habitats, such as carbohydrate or glycan metabolism genes being linked to host-associated environments. PMID:27065987

  16. Autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis from a degraded Mediterranean area can be used to improve physiological traits and performance of a plant of agronomic interest under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Azcón, Rosario; López-Castillo, Olga M; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that some microorganisms autochthonous from stressful environments are beneficial when used with autochthonous plants, but these microorganisms rarely have been tested with allochthonous plants of agronomic interest. This study investigates the effectiveness of drought-adapted autochthonous microorganisms [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] from a degraded Mediterranean area to improve plant growth and physiology in Zea mays under drought stress. Maize plants were inoculated or not with B. thuringiensis, a consortium of AM fungi or a combination of both microorganisms. Plants were cultivated under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress. Several physiological parameters were measured, including among others, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients content, oxidative damage to lipids, accumulation of proline and antioxidant compounds, root hydraulic conductivity and the expression of plant aquaporin genes. Under drought conditions, the inoculation of Bt increased significantly the accumulation of nutrients. The combined inoculation of both microorganisms decreased the oxidative damage to lipids and accumulation of proline induced by drought. Several maize aquaporins able to transport water, CO2 and other compounds were regulated by the microbial inoculants. The impact of these microorganisms on plant drought tolerance was complementary, since Bt increased mainly plant nutrition and AM fungi were more active improving stress tolerance/homeostatic mechanisms, including regulation of plant aquaporins with several putative physiological functions. Thus, the use of autochthonous beneficial microorganisms from a degraded Mediterranean area is useful to protect not only native plants against drought, but also an agronomically important plant such as maize.

  17. Importance of gene dosage in controlling dendritic arbor formation during development.

    PubMed

    Copf, Tijana

    2015-09-01

    Proper dendrite morphology is crucial for normal nervous system functioning. While a number of genes have been implicated in dendrite morphogenesis in both invertebrates and mammals, it remains unclear how developing dendrites respond to changes in gene dosage and what type of patterns their responses may follow. To understand this, I review here evidence from the recent literature, focusing on the genetic studies performed in the Drosophila larval dendritic arborization class IV neuron, an excellent cell type to understand dendrite morphogenesis. I summarize how class IV arbors change morphology in response to developmental fluctuations in the expression levels of 47 genes, studied by means of genetic manipulations such as loss-of-function and gain-of-function, and for which sufficient information is available. I find that arbors can respond to changing gene dosage in several distinct ways, each characterized by a singular dose-response curve. Interestingly, in 72% of cases arbors are sensitive, and thus adjust their morphology, in response to both decreases and increases in the expression of a given gene, indicating that dendrite morphogenesis is a process particularly sensitive to gene dosage. By summarizing the parallels between Drosophila and mammals, I show that many Drosophila dendrite morphogenesis genes have orthologs in mammals, and that some of these are associated with mammalian dendrite outgrowth and human neurodevelopmental disorders. One notable disease-related molecule is kinase Dyrk1A, thought to be a causative factor in Down syndrome. Both increases and decreases in Dyrk1A gene dosage lead to impaired dendrite morphogenesis, which may contribute to Down syndrome pathoetiology.

  18. Importance of HOX genes in normal prostate gland formation, prostate cancer development and its early detection.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saqib; Langley, Stephen E M

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this paper were to review the published literature on the role of HOX genes in the development of the normal prostate gland and in prostate cancer and to discuss the potential role of the HOX family member, Engrailed-2 (EN2), as a diagnostic test of PCa. Hox genes were first described in the fruit fly Drosphila melanogaster, where they specify the body plan and control the formation of body segments. They belong to a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identity during normal embryonic development. They have been shown to be re-expressed by several different types of cancers. Studies have shown that different Hox genes are responsible for the development of the separate lobes of the prostate gland, the seminal vesicles and the epididymis. All HOX13 paralogues are expressed in the adult human prostate, suggesting the possibility of similarities between the function and expression of HOX genes within urological structures at similar anterior-posterior positions. The oncogenic and tumour suppressor signalling pathways associated with PCa converge on the HOX gene network, which ultimately controls gene expression, affecting tumour formation and metastatic progression. The Engrailed genes (EN1 and EN2) from the HOX gene family show a very high degree of functional conservation during embryonic development. Urinary EN2 is being investigated as a potential diagnostic marker of early PCa. It is secreted into the urine by PCa cells but not by normal prostatic tissue. A recent study has shown an association between urinary EN2 levels and cancer volume in radical prostatectomy specimens. The ability to predict tumour volume could inform the treatment decision-making process for patients with localized PCa choosing between active surveillance and radical treatment options.

  19. Molecular evolution and functional characterisation of haplotypes of an important rubber biosynthesis gene in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Uthup, T K; Rajamani, A; Ravindran, M; Saha, T

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A synthase (HMGS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytoplasmic isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway leading to natural rubber production in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Analysis of the structural variants of this gene is imperative to understand their functional significance in rubber biosynthesis so that they can be properly utilised for ongoing crop improvement programmes in Hevea. We report here allele richness and diversity of the HMGS gene in selected popular rubber clones. Haplotypes consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the coding and non-coding regions with a high degree of heterozygosity were identified. Segregation and linkage disequilibrium analysis confirmed that recombination is the major contributor to the generation of allelic diversity, rather than point mutations. The evolutionarily conserved nature of some SNPs was identified by comparative DNA sequence analysis of HMGS orthologues from diverse taxa, demonstrating the molecular evolution of rubber biosynthesis genes in general. In silico three-dimensional structural studies highlighting the structural positioning of non-synonymous SNPs from different HMGS haplotypes revealed that the ligand-binding site on the enzyme remains impervious to the reported sequence variations. In contrast, gene expression results indicated the possibility of association between specific haplotypes and HMGS expression in Hevea clones, which may have a downstream impact up to the level of rubber production. Moreover, haplotype diversity of the HMGS gene and its putative association with gene expression can be the basis for further genetic association studies in rubber. Furthermore, the data also show the role of SNPs in the evolution of candidate genes coding for functional traits in plants.

  20. Myocardin marks the earliest cardiac gene expression and plays an important role in heart development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Fu; Wang, Shusheng; Wu, Qiulian; Cao, Dongsun; Nguyen, Thiha; Chen, Yiping; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2008-10-01

    Myocardin belongs to the SAP domain family of transcription factors and is expressed specifically in cardiac and smooth muscle during embryogenesis and in adulthood. Myocardin functions as a transcriptional coactivator of SRF and is sufficient and necessary for smooth muscle gene expression. However, the in vivo function of myocardin during cardiogenesis is not completely understood. Here we clone myocardin from chick embryonic hearts and show that myocardin protein sequences are highly conserved cross species. Detailed studies of chick myocardin expression reveal that myocardin is expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle lineage during early embryogenesis, similar to that found in mouse. Interestingly, the expression of myocardin in the heart was found enriched in the outflow tract and the sinoatrial segments shortly after the formation of linear heart tube. Such expression pattern is also maintained in later developing embryos, suggesting that myocardin may play a unique role in the formation of those cardiac modules. Similar to its mouse counterpart, chick myocardin is able to activate cardiac and smooth muscle promoter reporter genes and induce smooth muscle gene expression in nonmuscle cells. Ectopic overexpression of myocardin enlarged the embryonic chick heart. Conversely, repression of the endogenous chick myocardin using antisense oligonucleotides or a dominant negative mutant form of myocardin inhibited cardiogenesis. Together, our data place myocardin as one of the earliest cardiac marker genes for cardiogenesis and support the idea that myocardin plays an essential role in cardiac gene expression and cardiogenesis.

  1. Importance of Genetic Studies in Consanguineous Populations for the Characterization of Novel Human Gene Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hashem A.; Rodriguez, Santiago; Gaunt, Tom R.; Day, Ian N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Consanguineous offspring have elevated levels of homozygosity. Autozygous stretches within their genome are likely to harbour loss of function (LoF) mutations which will lead to complete inactivation or dysfunction of genes. Studying consanguineous offspring with clinical phenotypes has been very useful for identifying disease causal mutations. However, at present, most of the genes in the human genome have no disorder associated with them or have unknown function. This is presumably mostly due to the fact that homozygous LoF variants are not observed in outbred populations which are the main focus of large sequencing projects. However, another reason may be that many genes in the genome—even when completely “knocked out,” do not cause a distinct or defined phenotype. Here, we discuss the benefits and implications of studying consanguineous populations, as opposed to the traditional approach of analysing a subset of consanguineous families or individuals with disease. We suggest that studying consanguineous populations “as a whole” can speed up the characterisation of novel gene functions as well as indicating nonessential genes and/or regions in the human genome. We also suggest designing a single nucleotide variant (SNV) array to make the process more efficient. PMID:27000383

  2. Chloroplast Genome Analysis of Resurrection Tertiary Relict Haberlea rhodopensis Highlights Genes Important for Desiccation Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Zdravka; Sablok, Gaurav; Daskalova, Evelina; Zahmanova, Gergana; Apostolova, Elena; Yahubyan, Galina; Baev, Vesselin

    2017-01-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a paleolithic tertiary relict species, best known as a resurrection plant with remarkable tolerance to desiccation. When exposed to severe drought stress, H. rhodopensis shows an ability to maintain the structural integrity of its photosynthetic apparatus, which re-activates easily upon rehydration. We present here the results from the assembly and annotation of the chloroplast (cp) genome of H. rhodopensis, which was further subjected to comparative analysis with the cp genomes of closely related species. H. rhodopensis showed a cp genome size of 153,099 bp, harboring a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,415 bp separated by small and large copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,826 and 84,443 bp. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of the typical angiosperm cp genomes. The genome hosts 137 genes representing 70.66% of the plastome, which includes 86 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. A comparative plastome analysis with other closely related Lamiales members revealed conserved gene order in the IR and LSC/SSC regions. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes from 33 species defines this species as belonging to the Gesneriaceae family. From an evolutionary point of view, a site-specific selection analysis detected positively selected sites in 17 genes, most of which are involved in photosynthesis (e.g., rbcL, ndhF, accD, atpE, etc.). The observed codon substitutions may be interpreted as being a consequence of molecular adaptation to drought stress, which ensures an evolutionary advantage to H. rhodopensis.

  3. Chloroplast Genome Analysis of Resurrection Tertiary Relict Haberlea rhodopensis Highlights Genes Important for Desiccation Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Zdravka; Sablok, Gaurav; Daskalova, Evelina; Zahmanova, Gergana; Apostolova, Elena; Yahubyan, Galina; Baev, Vesselin

    2017-01-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a paleolithic tertiary relict species, best known as a resurrection plant with remarkable tolerance to desiccation. When exposed to severe drought stress, H. rhodopensis shows an ability to maintain the structural integrity of its photosynthetic apparatus, which re-activates easily upon rehydration. We present here the results from the assembly and annotation of the chloroplast (cp) genome of H. rhodopensis, which was further subjected to comparative analysis with the cp genomes of closely related species. H. rhodopensis showed a cp genome size of 153,099 bp, harboring a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,415 bp separated by small and large copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,826 and 84,443 bp. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of the typical angiosperm cp genomes. The genome hosts 137 genes representing 70.66% of the plastome, which includes 86 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. A comparative plastome analysis with other closely related Lamiales members revealed conserved gene order in the IR and LSC/SSC regions. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes from 33 species defines this species as belonging to the Gesneriaceae family. From an evolutionary point of view, a site-specific selection analysis detected positively selected sites in 17 genes, most of which are involved in photosynthesis (e.g., rbcL, ndhF, accD, atpE, etc.). The observed codon substitutions may be interpreted as being a consequence of molecular adaptation to drought stress, which ensures an evolutionary advantage to H. rhodopensis. PMID:28265281

  4. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    . Results showed that in France it was mainly syrphids that control aphid populations. The choice of flowers Families to include in flower strip is important. You have to avoid choosing the same plant family as the one of the crop you want to protect because you would risk to attract pests and diseases in the field. In fact, it's important to choose the optimal diversity of plant Family and not the greatest diversity.

  5. Genome-scale study of the importance of binding site context for transcription factor binding and gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Xu, Feifei; Ronne, Hans; Komorowski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background The rate of mRNA transcription is controlled by transcription factors that bind to specific DNA motifs in promoter regions upstream of protein coding genes. Recent results indicate that not only the presence of a motif but also motif context (for example the orientation of a motif or its location relative to the coding sequence) is important for gene regulation. Results In this study we present ContextFinder, a tool that is specifically aimed at identifying cases where motif context is likely to affect gene regulation. We used ContextFinder to examine the role of motif context in S. cerevisiae both for DNA binding by transcription factors and for effects on gene expression. For DNA binding we found significant patterns of motif location bias, whereas motif orientations did not seem to matter. Motif context appears to affect gene expression even more than it affects DNA binding, as biases in both motif location and orientation were more frequent in promoters of co-expressed genes. We validated our results against data on nucleosome positioning, and found a negative correlation between preferred motif locations and nucleosome occupancy. Conclusion We conclude that the requirement for stable binding of transcription factors to DNA and their subsequent function in gene regulation can impose constraints on motif context. PMID:19014636

  6. The biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance gene ndvB is important for expression of ethanol oxidation genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Trevor; Zhang, Li; Hinz, Aaron J; Parr, Christopher J; Mah, Thien-Fah

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are responsible for a large number of persistent infections and are often more resistant to antibiotics than are free-floating bacteria. In a previous study, we identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene, ndvB, which is important for the formation of periplasmic glucans. We established that these glucans function in biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance by sequestering antibiotic molecules away from their cellular targets. In this study, we investigate another function of ndvB in biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance. DNA microarray analysis identified 24 genes that were responsive to the presence of ndvB. A subset of 20 genes, including 8 ethanol oxidation genes (ercS', erbR, exaA, exaB, eraR, pqqB, pqqC, and pqqE), was highly expressed in wild-type biofilm cells but not in ΔndvB biofilms, while 4 genes displayed the reciprocal expression pattern. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed the ndvB-dependent expression of the ethanol oxidation genes and additionally demonstrated that these genes were more highly expressed in biofilms than in planktonic cultures. Expression of erbR in ΔndvB biofilms was restored after the treatment of the biofilm with periplasmic extracts derived from wild-type biofilm cells. Inactivation of ethanol oxidation genes increased the sensitivity of biofilms to tobramycin. Together, these results reveal that ndvB affects the expression of multiple genes in biofilms and that ethanol oxidation genes are linked to biofilm-specific antibiotic resistance.

  7. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genes encoding defensins of important Chagas disease vectors used for phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Catarina Andréa Chaves; Lima, Ana Carolina Bastos; Jansen, Ana Maria; Galvão, Cleber; Jurberg, José; Costa, Jane; Azambuja, Patricia; Waniek, Peter Josef

    2015-12-01

    Insects possess both cellular and humoral immune responses. The latter makes them capable to recognize and control invading pathogens after synthesis of a variety of small proteins, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Defensins, cysteine-rich cationic peptides with major activity against Gram-positive bacteria, are one ubiquitous class of antimicrobial peptides, widely distributed in different animal and plant taxa. Regarding triatomines in each of the so far analyzed species, various defensin gene isoforms have been identified. In the present study, these genes were sequenced and used as a molecular marker for phylogenetic analysis. Considering the vectors of Chagas disease the authors are reporting for the first time the presence of these genes in Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius nasutus (Stål, 1859), and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835). Members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex were included into the study to verify the genetic variability within these taxa. Mainly in their mature peptide, the deduced defensin amino acid sequences were highly conserved. In the dendrogram based on defensin encoding nucleotide, sequences the Triatoma Def3/4 genes were separated from the rest. In the dendrogram based on deduced amino acid sequences the Triatoma Def2/3/4 together with Rhodnius DefA/B pre-propeptides were separated from the rest. In the sub-branches of both the DNA and amino acid dendrograms, the genus Triatoma was separated from the genus Rhodnius as well as from P. megistus.

  9. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks.

  10. Regulation of fixLJ by Hfq Controls Symbiotically Important Genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsheng; Nguyen, Hahn; Salas González, Isai; Teplitski, Max

    2016-11-01

    The RNA-binding chaperone Hfq plays critical roles in the establishment and functionality of the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its legume hosts. A mutation in hfq reduces symbiotic efficiency resulting in a Fix(-) phenotype, characterized by the inability of the bacterium to fix nitrogen. At least in part, this is due to the ability of Hfq to regulate the fixLJ operon, which encodes a sensor kinase-response regulator pair that controls expression of the nitrogenase genes. The ability of Hfq to bind fixLJ in vitro and in planta was demonstrated with gel shift and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Two (ARN)2 motifs in the fixLJ message were the likely sites through which Hfq exerted its posttranscriptional control. Consistent with the regulatory effects of Hfq, downstream genes controlled by FixLJ (such as nifK, noeB) were also subject to Hfq regulation in planta.

  11. Use of microarray technology to profile gene expression patterns important for reproduction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Evans, A C O; Forde, N; O'Gorman, G M; Zielak, A E; Lonergan, P; Fair, T

    2008-07-01

    Fertility in cattle is a major component of many agricultural enterprises and there is pressure to devise methods to improve this. A number of approaches are ongoing, one of which is to better understand the cellular and molecular events of the development of reproductive tissues and to use these as targets for developing new strategies. Microarray technologies now allow us the potential to determine the transcriptional profile of expressed genes in a given tissue. This review focuses on the types of microarrays available for studies in cattle and concludes that genes associated with one or more of the cellular processes of cell survival/death, intracellular signalling, transcription and translation, cell division and proliferation and cellular metabolism are the main transcriptional pathways that control the development of ovarian follicles, oocytes, early embryos and the uterine endometrium about the time of the establishment of pregnancy.

  12. Copper accumulation in vineyard soils: Rhizosphere processes and agronomic practices to limit its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Gustavo; Bastos de Melo, George Wellington; Terzano, Roberto; Del Buono, Daniele; Astolfi, Stefania; Tomasi, Nicola; Pii, Youry; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants. In particular, root exudates affecting the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the rhizosphere, might reduce the availability of Cu in the soil and hence its absorption. In addition, this review will aim at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of agronomic practices, such as liming, the use of pesticides, the application of organic matter, biochar and coal fly ashes, the inoculation with bacteria and/or mycorrhizal fungi and the intercropping, in alleviating Cu toxicity symptoms.

  13. Identification of forensically important sarcophagid flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China based on COI and period gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yadong; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Yan, Weitao; Li, Pei; Cai, Jifeng; Wu, LiXiang

    2014-01-01

    Unequivocal identification of insect specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. With the development of molecular identification, spate of discussions about the feature of the DNA fragments have been raised. Relying solely on single DNA fragment for delimiting closely related species is supposed to be dangerous. Aiming at obtaining more reliable markers that might be universally used, we explore the utility of 700-bp COI fragment and 678-bp period gene fragment in the identification of Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Thirty-six sarcophagid fly specimens were collected from 19 locations in 11 Chinese provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into nine species with relatively strong supporting values, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with COI and period gene fragments. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed that the combination of nuclear and mitochondrial genes for species identification is much more accurate. The results of this research will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae database.

  14. Importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of selected birth defects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Kartiko, S; Finnell, R H

    2009-05-01

    It is generally understood that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the highly complex etiology of structural birth defects, including neural tube defects, oral clefts and congenital heart defects, by disrupting highly regulated embryonic developmental processes. The intrauterine environment of the developing embryo/fetus is determined by maternal factors such as health/disease status, lifestyle, medication, exposure to environmental teratogens, as well as the maternal genotype. Certain genetic characteristics of the embryo/fetus also predispose it to developmental abnormalities. Epidemiologic and animal studies conducted over the last few decades have suggested that the interplay between genes and environmental factors underlies the etiological heterogeneity of these defects. It is now widely believed that the study of gene-environment interactions will lead to better understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathological processes that contribute to the development of complex birth defects. It is only through such an understanding that more efficient measures will be developed to prevent these severe, costly and often deadly defects. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex clinical and experimental literature on current hypotheses of interactions between several select environmental factors and those genetic pathways in which they are most likely to have significant modifying effects. These include maternal folate nutritional status, maternal diabetes/obesity-related conditions, and maternal exposure to selected medications and environmental contaminants. Our goal is to highlight the potential gene-environment interactions affecting early embryogenesis that deserve comprehensive study.

  15. Seed traits and genes important for translational biology – highlights from recent discoveries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds provide foods, feeds, and fuels. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural species. In this review, seed traits important for agriculture are discussed with an emphasis...

  16. RNA-Seq facilitates a new perspective on signal transduction and gene regulation in important plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2013-06-01

    RNA-Seq is opening new doors for the functional understanding of microorganisms. Advances in RNA-Seq technology are allowing investigators to focus their studies on specific functional questions. An interesting example is presented by An et al. (2013) in this issue of Molecular Microbiology. New genes were identified for proteins and ncRNAs when the authors concentrated on the role of the rpf genes, which code for key components of a signal transduction hub in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Although rpf gene products were already known to be involved in controlling transcription of many genes, including those encoding several important virulence factors, novel and unexpected properties of this signal transduction system emerged from the RNA-Seq analysis. In addition to identifying new target genes influenced by the rpf genes, the study found that the regulons of RpfC and RpfG, the sensor and response regulator of the master two-component regulatory system, only partially overlapped, indicating that the Rpf signalling system is even more complex than previously appreciated.

  17. Microarray Data Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis Leaves for Genes Important in Vascular Patterning. Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis with Microarray Data from GeneLab: Identification of Genes Important in Vascular Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzel, A. J.; Wyatt, S. E.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2016-01-01

    Venation patterning in leaves is a major determinant of photosynthesis efficiency because of its dependency on vascular transport of photo-assimilates, water, and minerals. Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microgravity show delayed growth and leaf maturation. Gene expression data from the roots, hypocotyl, and leaves of A. thaliana grown during spaceflight vs. ground control analyzed by Affymetrix microarray are available through NASA's GeneLab (GLDS-7). We analyzed the data for differential expression of genes in leaves resulting from the effects of spaceflight on vascular patterning. Two genes were found by preliminary analysis to be up-regulated during spaceflight that may be related to vascular formation. The genes are responsible for coding an ARGOS (Auxin-Regulated Gene Involved in Organ Size)-like protein (potentially affecting cell elongation in the leaves), and an F-box/kelch-repeat protein (possibly contributing to protoxylem specification). Further analysis that will focus on raw data quality assessment and a moderated t-test may further confirm up-regulation of the two genes and/or identify other gene candidates. Plants defective in these genes will then be assessed for phenotype by the mapping and quantification of leaf vascular patterning by NASA's VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software to model specific vascular differences of plants grown in spaceflight.

  18. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Genes Coding Pharmaceutically Important Enzymes from Halo-Thermo Tolerant Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Safary, Azam; Moniri, Rezvan; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Robust pharmaceutical and industrial enzymes from extremophile microorganisms are main source of enzymes with tremendous stability under harsh conditions which make them potential tools for commercial and biotechnological applications. Methods: The genome of a Gram-positive halo-thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SL1, new isolate from Saline Lake, was investigated for the presence of genes coding for potentially pharmaceutical enzymes. We determined gene sequences for the enzymes laccase (CotA), l-asparaginase (ansA3, ansA1), glutamate-specific endopeptidase (blaSE), l-arabinose isomerase (araA2), endo-1,4-β mannosidase (gmuG), glutaminase (glsA), pectate lyase (pelA), cellulase (bglC1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ycbD) and allantoinases (pucH) in the genome of Bacillus sp. SL1. Results: Based on the DNA sequence alignment results, six of the studied enzymes of Bacillus sp. SL-1 showed 100% similarity at the nucleotide level to the same genes of B. licheniformis 14580 demonstrating extensive organizational relationship between these two strains. Despite high similarities between the B. licheniformis and Bacillus sp. SL-1 genomes, there are minor differences in the sequences of some enzyme. Approximately 30% of the enzyme sequences revealed more than 99% identity with some variations in nucleotides leading to amino acid substitution in protein sequences. Conclusion: Molecular characterization of this new isolate provides useful information regarding evolutionary relationship between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis species. Since, the most industrial processes are often performed in harsh conditions, enzymes from such halo-thermotolerant bacteria may provide economically and industrially appealing biocatalysts to be used under specific physicochemical situations in medical, pharmaceutical, chemical and other industries.

  19. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Genes Coding Pharmaceutically Important Enzymes from Halo-Thermo Tolerant Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Safary, Azam; Moniri, Rezvan; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Robust pharmaceutical and industrial enzymes from extremophile microorganisms are main source of enzymes with tremendous stability under harsh conditions which make them potential tools for commercial and biotechnological applications. Methods: The genome of a Gram-positive halo-thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SL1, new isolate from Saline Lake, was investigated for the presence of genes coding for potentially pharmaceutical enzymes. We determined gene sequences for the enzymes laccase (CotA), l-asparaginase (ansA3, ansA1), glutamate-specific endopeptidase (blaSE), l-arabinose isomerase (araA2), endo-1,4-β mannosidase (gmuG), glutaminase (glsA), pectate lyase (pelA), cellulase (bglC1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ycbD) and allantoinases (pucH) in the genome of Bacillus sp. SL1. Results: Based on the DNA sequence alignment results, six of the studied enzymes of Bacillus sp. SL-1 showed 100% similarity at the nucleotide level to the same genes of B. licheniformis 14580 demonstrating extensive organizational relationship between these two strains. Despite high similarities between the B. licheniformis and Bacillus sp. SL-1 genomes, there are minor differences in the sequences of some enzyme. Approximately 30% of the enzyme sequences revealed more than 99% identity with some variations in nucleotides leading to amino acid substitution in protein sequences. Conclusion: Molecular characterization of this new isolate provides useful information regarding evolutionary relationship between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis species. Since, the most industrial processes are often performed in harsh conditions, enzymes from such halo-thermotolerant bacteria may provide economically and industrially appealing biocatalysts to be used under specific physicochemical situations in medical, pharmaceutical, chemical and other industries. PMID:28101462

  20. Intragenic CpG islands play important roles in bivalent chromatin assembly of developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jungwoo; Noh, Kyung-Min; Choi, Won-Young; Jeon, Sejin; Oh, Goo Taeg; Kim-Ha, Jeongsil; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Joon

    2017-03-07

    CpG, 5'-C-phosphate-G-3', islands (CGIs) have long been known for their association with enhancers, silencers, and promoters, and for their epigenetic signatures. They are maintained in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a poised but inactive state via the formation of bivalent chromatin containing both active and repressive marks. CGIs also occur within coding sequences, where their functional role has remained obscure. Intragenic CGIs (iCGIs) are largely absent from housekeeping genes, but they are found in all genes associated with organ development and cell lineage control. In this paper, we investigated the epigenetic status of iCGIs and found that they too reside in bivalent chromatin in ESCs. Cell type-specific DNA methylation of iCGIs in differentiated cells was linked to the loss of both the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks, and disruption of physical interaction with promoter regions, resulting in transcriptional activation of key regulators of differentiation such as PAXs, HOXs, and WNTs. The differential epigenetic modification of iCGIs appears to be mediated by cell type-specific transcription factors distinct from those bound by promoter, and these transcription factors may be involved in the hypermethylation of iCGIs upon cell differentiation. iCGIs thus play a key role in the cell type-specific regulation of transcription.

  1. Ribosome profiling reveals an important role for translational control in circadian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Christopher; Lahens, Nicholas F.; Hogenesch, John B.; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms are driven by a conserved transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop in mammals. Although most core clock factors are transcription factors, post-transcriptional control introduces delays that are critical for circadian oscillations. Little work has been done on circadian regulation of translation, so to address this deficit we conducted ribosome profiling experiments in a human cell model for an autonomous clock. We found that most rhythmic gene expression occurs with little delay between transcription and translation, suggesting that the lag in the accumulation of some clock proteins relative to their mRNAs does not arise from regulated translation. Nevertheless, we found that translation occurs in a circadian fashion for many genes, sometimes imposing an additional level of control on rhythmically expressed mRNAs and, in other cases, conferring rhythms on noncycling mRNAs. Most cyclically transcribed RNAs are translated at one of two major times in a 24-h day, while rhythmic translation of most noncyclic RNAs is phased to a single time of day. Unexpectedly, we found that the clock also regulates the formation of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies, which control the fate of mRNAs, suggesting circadian coordination of mRNA metabolism and translation. PMID:26338483

  2. Epigenetic heterogeneity of developmentally important genes in human sperm: Implications for assisted reproduction outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kuhtz, Juliane; Schneider, Eberhard; El Hajj, Nady; Zimmermann, Lena; Fust, Olga; Linek, Bartosz; Seufert, Rudolf; Hahn, Thomas; Schorsch, Martin; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of male infertility is poorly understood, the majority of cases remaining unsolved. The association of aberrant sperm DNA methylation patterns and compromised semen parameters suggests that disturbances in male germline epigenetic reprogramming contribute to this problem. So far there are only few data on the epigenetic heterogeneity of sperm within a given sample and how to select the best sperm for successful infertility treatment. Limiting dilution bisulfite sequencing of small pools of sperm from fertile donors did not reveal significant differences in the occurrence of abnormal methylation imprints between sperm with and without morphological abnormalities. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection was not associated with an improved epigenetic quality, compared to standard intracytoplasmatic sperm injection. Deep bisulfite sequencing (DBS) of 2 imprinted and 2 pluripotency genes in sperm from men attending a fertility center showed that in both samples with normozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) the vast majority of sperm alleles was normally (de)methylated and the percentage of epimutations (allele methylation errors) was generally low (<1%). However, DBS allowed one to identify and quantify these rare epimutations with high accuracy. Sperm samples not leading to a pregnancy, in particular in the OAT group, had significantly more epimutations in the paternally methylated GTL2 gene than samples leading to a live birth. All 13 normozoospermic and 13 OAT samples leading to a child had <1% GTL2 epimutations, whereas one (7%) of 14 normozoospermic and 7 (50%) of 14 OAT samples without pregnancy displayed 1–14% GTL2 epimutations. PMID:25625849

  3. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R.; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  4. Fate of atrazine in a soil under different agronomic management practices.

    PubMed

    Prado, B; Fuentes, M; Verhulst, N; Govaerts, B; De León, F; Zamora, O

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural management affects the movement of atrazine in soil and leaching to groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine atrazine adsorption in a soil after 20 years of atrazine application under agronomic management practices differing in tillage practice (conventional and zero tillage), residue management (with and without residue retention) and crop rotation (wheat-maize rotation and maize monoculture). Atrazine sorption was determined using batch and column experiments. In the batch experiment, the highest distribution coefficient Kd (1.1 L kg(-1)) at 0-10 cm soil depth was observed under zero tillage, crop rotation and residue retention (conservation agriculture). The key factor in adsorption was soil organic matter content and type. This was confirmed in the column experiment, in which the highest Kd values were observed in treatments with residue retention, under either zero or conventional tillage (0.81 and 0.68 L kg(-1), respectively). Under zero tillage, the fact that there was no soil movement helped to increase the Kd. The increased soil organic matter content with conservation agriculture may be more important than preferential flow due to higher pore connectivity in the same system. The soil's capacity to adsorb 2-hydroxyatrazine (HA), an important atrazine metabolite, was more important than its capacity to adsorb atrazine, and was similar under all four management practices (Kd ranged from 30 to 40 L kg(-1)). The HA adsorption was attributed to the type and amount of clay in the soil, which is unaffected by agronomic management. Soils under conservation agriculture had higher atrazine retention potential than soils under conventional tillage, the system that predominates in the study area.

  5. The Riemerella anatipestifer AS87_01735 Gene Encodes Nicotinamidase PncA, an Important Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolan; Liu, Beibei; Dou, Yafeng; Fan, Hongjie; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Riemerella anatipestifer is a major bacterial pathogen that causes septicemic and exudative diseases in domestic ducks. In our previous study, we found that deletion of the AS87_01735 gene significantly decreased the bacterial virulence of R. anatipestifer strain Yb2 (mutant RA625). The AS87_01735 gene was predicted to encode a nicotinamidase (PncA), a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, which is an important reaction in the NAD+ salvage pathway. In this study, the AS87_01735 gene was expressed and identified as the PncA-encoding gene, using an enzymatic assay. Western blot analysis demonstrated that R. anatipestifer PncA was localized to the cytoplasm. The mutant strain RA625 (named Yb2ΔpncA in this study) showed a similar growth rate but decreased NAD+ quantities in both the exponential and stationary phases in tryptic soy broth culture, compared with the wild-type strain Yb2. In addition, Yb2ΔpncA-infected ducks showed much lower bacterial loads in their blood, and no visible histological changes were observed in the heart, liver, and spleen. Furthermore, Yb2ΔpncA immunization of ducks conferred effective protection against challenge with the virulent wild-type strain Yb2. Our results suggest that the R. anatipestifer AS87_01735 gene encodes PncA, which is an important virulence factor, and that the Yb2ΔpncA mutant can be used as a novel live vaccine candidate. IMPORTANCE Riemerella anatipestifer is reported worldwide as a cause of septicemic and exudative diseases of domestic ducks. The pncA gene encodes a nicotinamidase (PncA), a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, which is an important reaction in the NAD+ salvage pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized the pncA-homologous gene AS87_01735 in R. anatipestifer strain Yb2. R. anatipestifer PncA is a cytoplasmic protein that possesses similar PncA activity, compared with other organisms. Generation of the

  6. Importance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young C.; Bischof, Georg F.; Lauer, William A.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    The glycoproteins of herpesviruses and of HIV/SIV are made late in the replication cycle and are derived from transcripts that use an unusual codon usage that is quite different from that of the host cell. Here we show that the actions of natural transinducers from these two different families of persistent viruses (Rev of SIV and ORF57 of the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus) are dependent on the nature of the skewed codon usage. In fact, the transinducibility of expression of these glycoproteins by Rev and by ORF57 can be flipped simply by changing the nature of the codon usage. Even expression of a luciferase reporter could be made Rev dependent or ORF57 dependent by distinctive changes to its codon usage. Our findings point to a new general principle in which different families of persisting viruses use a poor codon usage that is skewed in a distinctive way to temporally regulate late expression of structural gene products. PMID:26504241

  7. Lymphocyte-activation gene-3, an important immune checkpoint in cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Yayi; Rivard, Christopher J; Rozeboom, Leslie; Yu, Hui; Ellison, Kim; Kowalewski, Ashley; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2016-09-01

    Immunotherapy has recently become widely used in lung cancer. Many oncologists are focused on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoints has shown promising efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but questions remain to be answered. Among them is whether the simultaneous inhibition of other checkpoints could improve outcomes. Lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is another vital checkpoint that may have a synergistic interaction with PD-1/PD-L1. Here we review the LAG-3 function in cancer, clinical trials with agents targeting LAG-3 and the correlation of LAG-3 with other checkpoints.

  8. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Bharani; Neale, Helen C; Hancock, John T; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  9. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, John T.; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant’s natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction. PMID:26325299

  10. Horizontal transfer and gene conversion as an important driving force in shaping the landscape of mitochondrial introns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojun; Hao, Weilong

    2014-04-16

    Group I introns are highly dynamic and mobile, featuring extensive presence-absence variation and widespread horizontal transfer. Group I introns can invade intron-lacking alleles via intron homing powered by their own encoded homing endonuclease gene (HEG) after horizontal transfer or via reverse splicing through an RNA intermediate. After successful invasion, the intron and HEG are subject to degeneration and sequential loss. It remains unclear whether these mechanisms can fully address the high dynamics and mobility of group I introns. Here, we found that HEGs undergo a fast gain-and-loss turnover comparable with introns in the yeast mitochondrial 21S-rRNA gene, which is unexpected, as the intron and HEG are generally believed to move together as a unit. We further observed extensively mosaic sequences in both the introns and HEGs, and evidence of gene conversion between HEG-containing and HEG-lacking introns. Our findings suggest horizontal transfer and gene conversion can accelerate HEG/intron degeneration and loss, or rescue and propagate HEG/introns, and ultimately result in high HEG/intron turnover rate. Given that up to 25% of the yeast mitochondrial genome is composed of introns and most mitochondrial introns are group I introns, horizontal transfer and gene conversion could have served as an important mechanism in introducing mitochondrial intron diversity, promoting intron mobility and consequently shaping mitochondrial genome architecture.

  11. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  12. Nature vs. Nurture: Which Is More Important to Intelligence: Genes or Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2000-01-01

    This brief article reviews the literature on the relative importance of genetic or environmental influences on intelligence. It concludes that: (1) giftedness has various expressions; (2) intelligence encompasses a wide range of human abilities; (3) both subjective and objective assessment techniques should be used; and (4) all ethnicities have…

  13. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-27

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops.

  14. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  15. Plasmid-chromosomal transition of genes important in staphylococcal enterotoxin B expression.

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, D W; Iandolo, J J

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to further elucidate the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Our laboratory has previously shown that, in strains of Staphylococcus aureus which harbor a 1.15-megadalton plasmid (pentB or pSN2), the plasmid appears to be required for SEB synthesis; in other S. aureus strains, designated chromosomal SEB producers, this 1.15-megadalton plasmid is conspicuously absent. We report here than in both Bacillus subtilis minicells and a coupled translational assay, pSN2 codes for a polypeptide of 18,000 daltons. This product is not immunologically reactive with purified anti-SEB globulin. Nevertheless, pSN2 is necessary but not sufficient for SEB synthesis in strains which harbor the plasmid. Further, the data provide a reasonable link between plasmid-bearing and chromosomal SEB producers: transformational analysis indicates that both require functions specified (in plasmid-bearing strains) by pSN2 for SEB synthesis. The combined genetic and biochemical data suggest that pSN2 is not the reservoir for the SEB structural gene, but that the pSN2-specific functions required for SEB synthesis are regulatory in nature. Images PMID:6792077

  16. Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii PHR1, a pH-regulated gene important for cell wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kottom, T J; Thomas, C F; Limper, A H

    2001-12-01

    Pneumocystis carinii remains an important opportunistic fungal pathogen causing life-threatening pneumonia in patients with AIDS and malignancy. Currently, little is known about how the organism adapts to environmental stresses and maintains its cellular integrity. We recently discovered an open reading frame approximately 600 bp downstream of the region coding GSC-1, a gene mediating beta-glucan cell wall synthesis in P. carinii. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, termed P. carinii PHR1, exhibited 38% homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAS1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential to maintaining cell wall integrity, and 37% homology to Candida albicans PHR1/PHR2, pH-responsive genes encoding proteins recently implicated in cross-linking beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucans. In view of its homology to these related fungal genes, the pH-dependent expression of P. carinii PHR1 was examined. As in C. albicans, P. carinii PHR1 expression was repressed under acidic conditions but induced at neutral and more alkaline pH. PHR1-related proteins have been implicated in glucan cell wall stability under various environmental conditions. Although difficulties with P. carinii culture and transformation have traditionally limited assessment of gene function in the organism itself, we have successfully used heterologous expression of P. carinii genes in related fungi to address functional correlates of P. carinii-encoded proteins. Therefore, the potential role of P. carinii PHR1 in cell wall integrity was examined by assessing its ability to rescue an S. cerevisiae gas1 mutant with absent endogenous Phr1p-like activity. Interestingly, P. carinii PHR1 DNA successfully restored proliferation of S. cerevisiae gas1 mutants under lethal conditions of cell wall stress. These results indicate that P. carinii PHR1 encodes a protein responsive to environmental pH and capable of mediating fungal cell wall integrity.

  17. Cherubism Gene Sh3bp2 is Important for Optimal Bone Formation, Osteoblast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Padma M.; Wang, Chiachien J.; Chen, I-Ping; Jafarov, Toghrul; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Ueki, Yasuyoshi; Reichenberger, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cherubism is a human genetic disorder that causes bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the maxilla and mandible in children. It is caused by mutations in SH3BP2. The exact pathogenesis of the disorder is an area of active research. Sh3bp2 knock-in mice were developed by introducing a Pro416Arg mutation (Pro418Arg in humans) in the mouse genome. The osteoclast phenotype of this mouse model was recently described. Methods We examined the bone phenotype of the cherubism mouse model, the role of Sh3bp2 during bone formation, osteoblast differentiation and osteoblast function. Results We observed delays in early postnatal development of homozygous Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Sh3bp2KI/KI mice exhibit increased growth plate thickness and significantly decreased trabecular bone thickness and reduced bone mineral density. Histomorphometric and μ-CT analyses reveal bone loss in cranial and appendicular skeleton. Sh3bp2KI/KI mice also exhibit a significant decrease in osteoid formation that indicates a defect in osteoblast function. Calvarial osteoblast cell cultures exhibit a decrease in alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization suggesting reduced differentiation potential. Gene expression of osteoblast differentiation markers like collagen type-I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin are decreased in osteoblast cultures from Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Conclusions These data suggest that Sh3bp2 function regulates bone homeostasis not only through osteoclast-specific effects but also through effects on osteoblast differentiation and function. PMID:20691350

  18. RiceATM: a platform for identifying the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chia-Chun; Chen, Rong-Kuen; Jwo, Woei-Shyuan; Wu, Chih-Wen; Ting, Wen-Yen; Shung, Dah-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Chi; Chen, Jeremy J.W.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in plant development and stress-response regulation, and they frequently display multi-targeting characteristics. The control of defined rice phenotypes occurs through multiple genes; however, evidence demonstrating the relationship between agronomic traits and miRNA expression profiles is lacking. In this study, we investigated eight yield-related traits in 187 local rice cultivars and profiled the expression levels of 193 miRNAs in these cultivars using microarray analyses. By integrating the miRBase database, the rice annotation project database, and the miRanda and psRNATarget web servers, we constructed a database (RiceATM) that can be employed to investigate the association between rice agronomic traits and miRNA expression. The functions of this platform include phenotype selection, sample grouping, microarray data pretreatment, statistical analysis and target gene predictions. To demonstrate the utility of RiceATM, we used the database to identify four miRNAs associated with the heading date and validated their expression trends in the cultivars with early or late heading date by real-time PCR. RiceATM is a useful tool for researchers seeking to characterize the role of certain miRNAs for a specific phenotype and discover potential biomarkers for breeding or functional studies. Database URL: http://syslab3.nchu.edu.tw/rice/ PMID:28025342

  19. Automatic detection and agronomic characterization of olive groves using high-resolution imagery and LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, T.; Rühl, J.; Sciortino, R.; Marra, F. P.; La Scalia, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union grants subsidies for olive production. Areas of intensified olive farming will be of major importance for the increasing demand for oil production of the next decades, and countries with a high ratio of intensively and super-intensively managed olive groves will be more competitive than others, since they are able to reduce production costs. It can be estimated that about 25-40% of the Sicilian oliviculture must be defined as "marginal". Modern olive cultivation systems, which permit the mechanization of pruning and harvest operations, are limited. Agronomists, landscape planners, policy decision-makers and other professionals have a growing need for accurate and cost-effective information on land use in general and agronomic parameters in the particular. The availability of high spatial resolution imagery has enabled researchers to propose analysis tools on agricultural parcel and tree level. In our study, we test the performance of WorldView-2 imagery relative to the detection of olive groves and the delineation of olive tree crowns, using an object-oriented approach of image classification in combined use with LIDAR data. We selected two sites, which differ in their environmental conditions and in their agronomic parameters of olive grove cultivation. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is the low necessary quantity of data input and its automatibility. However, it should be applied in other study areas to test if the good results of accuracy assessment can be confirmed. Data extracted by the proposed methodology can be used as input data for decision-making support systems for olive grove management.

  20. Effects of Delaying Transplanting on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Rice under Mechanical Transplantation Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qihua; Wu, Xiu; Ma, Jiaqing; Chen, Bocong; Xin, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT) of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT). The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT. PMID:25875607

  1. Characterization of the metacaspase 1 gene in Plasmodium vivax field isolates from southern Iran and Italian imported cases.

    PubMed

    Rezanezhad, H; Menegon, M; Sarkari, B; Hatam, G R; Severini, C

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium vivax is still the more prevalent human Plasmodium outside Africa and despite this fact, there is still a deep lack of knowledge on its biology. Metacaspases are cysteine proteases related to metazoan caspases, involved in programmed cell death. Here, we have characterized the P. vivax metacaspase 1 gene in a total of 63 vivax isolates, 32 isolates collected in southern Iran and 31 Italian imported isolates originating from 12 different endemic countries. We have firstly identified DNA size polymorphism in P. vivax metacaspase 1 gene. A total of four different allelic sizes were found, resulting from the insertion of 1 to 4 tandem repeat units located within the intronic region of the P. vivax metacaspase 1. Similarly, we also have identified four distinct allelic types by using vivax merozoite surface protein-1 size polymorphism analysis.

  2. Agronomic conditions and crop evolution in ancient Near East agriculture.

    PubMed

    Araus, José L; Ferrio, Juan P; Voltas, Jordi; Aguilera, Mònica; Buxó, Ramón

    2014-05-23

    The appearance of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent propelled the development of Western civilization. Here we investigate the evolution of agronomic conditions in this region by reconstructing cereal kernel weight and using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of kernels and charcoal from a set of 11 Upper Mesopotamia archaeological sites, with chronologies spanning from the onset of agriculture to the turn of the era. We show that water availability for crops, inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), was two- to fourfold higher in the past than at present, with a maximum between 10,000 and 8,000 cal BP. Nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) decreased over time, which suggests cultivation occurring under gradually less-fertile soil conditions. Domesticated cereals showed a progressive increase in kernel weight over several millennia following domestication. Our results provide a first comprehensive view of agricultural evolution in the Near East inferred directly from archaeobotanical remains.

  3. Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Muñoz-Ferreiro, N; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2010-03-01

    Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing. Composted sludge shows the best quality from a heavy metal point of view, but its low available nitrogen content increases the input of heavy metals when spread, as compared to digested or pelletised sludge. Pelletised sludge has higher heavy metal content than anaerobically digested sludge. Despite the good quality of the sludges, future regulations, especially with regard to Cd levels, will limit the use of this waste in agriculture.

  4. Agronomic conditions and crop evolution in ancient Near East agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Mònica; Buxó, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent has propelled the development of Western civilization. Here we investigate the evolution of agronomic conditions in this region by reconstructing cereal kernel weight and using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of kernels and charcoal from a set of 11 Upper Mesopotamia archaeological sites, with chronologies spanning from the onset of agriculture to the turn of the era. We show that water availability for crops, inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), was two- to fourfold higher in the past than at present, with a maximum between 10,000 and 8,000 cal BP. Nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) decreased over time, which suggests cultivation occurring under gradually less fertile soil conditions. Domesticated cereals showed a progressive increase in kernel weight over several millennia following domestication. Our results provide a first comprehensive view of agricultural evolution in the Near East inferred directly from archaeobotanical remains. PMID:24853475

  5. Spectral-agronomic relationships of corn, soybean and wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the past six years several thousand reflectance spectra of corn, soybean, and wheat canopies were acquired and analyzed. The relationships of biophysical variables, including leaf area index, percent soil cover, chlorophyll and water content, to the visible and infrared reflectance of canopies are described. The effects on reflectance of cultural, environmental, and stress factors such as planting data, seeding rate, row spacing, cultivar, soil type and nitrogen fertilization are also examined. The conclusions are that several key agronomic variables including leaf area index, development stage and degree of stress are strongly related to spectral reflectance and that it should be possible to estimate these descriptions of crop condition from satellite acquired multispectral data.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4 to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes, and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3–4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important

  7. The Nf-actin gene is an important factor for food-cup formation and cytotoxicity of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Myeong-Heon; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2010-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri destroys target cells by trogocytosis, a phagocytosis mechanism, and a process of piecemeal ingestion of target cells by food-cups. Phagocytosis is an actin-dependent process that involves polymerization of monomeric G-actin into filamentous F-actin. However, despite the numerous studies concerning phagocytosis, its role in the N. fowleri food-cup formation related with trogocytosis has been poorly reported. In this study, we cloned and characterized an Nf-actin gene to elucidate the role of Nf-actin gene in N. fowleri pathogenesis. The Nf-actin gene is composed of 1,128-bp and produced a 54.1-kDa recombinant protein (Nf-actin). The sequence identity was 82% with nonpathogenic Naegleria gruberi but has no sequence identity with other mammals or human actin gene. Anti-Nf-actin polyclonal antibody was produced in BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Nf-actin. The Nf-actin was localized on the cytoplasm, pseudopodia, and especially, food-cup structure (amoebastome) in N. fowleri trophozoites using immunofluorescence assay. When N. fowleri co-cultured with Chinese hamster ovary cells, Nf-actin was observed to localize around on phagocytic food-cups. We also observed that N. fowleri treated with cytochalasin D as actin polymerization inhibitor or transfected with antisense oligomer of Nf-actin gene had shown the reduced ability of food-cup formation and in vitro cytotoxicity. Finally, it suggests that Nf-actin plays an important role in phagocytic activity of pathogenic N. fowleri.

  8. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    PubMed

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff.

  9. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  10. Application of a novel phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (RePAT) gene in developing glufosinate-resistant rice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Liu, Ziduo; Li, Yue; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, only few glufosinate-resistant genes are available for commercial application. Thus, developing novel glufosinate-resistant genes with commercial feasibility is extremely important and urgent for agricultural production. In this study, we transferred a newly isolated RePAT gene into a japonica rice variety Zhonghua11, resulting in a large number of independent T0 transgenic plants, most of which grew normally under high-concentration glufosinate treatment. Four transgenic plants with one intact RePAT expression cassette integrated into the intergenic region were selected. Agronomic performances of their T2 progenies were investigated, and the results suggested that the expression of RePAT had no adverse effect on the agronomic performance. Definite glufosinate resistance of the selected transgenic plants was further confirmed to be related to the expression of RePAT by assay on the medium and qRT-PCR. The inheritance and expression of RePAT in two transgenic plants were confirmed to be stable. Finally, the two-year field assay of glufosinate resistance suggested that the agronomic performance of the transgenic plant (PAT11) was not affected by high dosage of glufosinate (5000 g/ha). Collectively, our study proves the high resistance of a novel gene RePAT to glufosinate and provides a glufosiante-resistant rice variety with agricultural application potential. PMID:26879398

  11. Idaten is a new cold-inducible transposon of Volvox carteri that can be used for tagging developmentally important genes.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Noriko; Nishii, Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    A cold-inducible transposon called Jordan has previously been used to tag and recover genes controlling key aspects of Volvox development, including the process called inversion. In a search for additional genes, we isolated 17 new inversionless mutants from cultures grown at 24 degrees (the temperature that activates Jordan transposition). These mutants were stable at 32 degrees, but generated revertants at 24 degrees . DNA blots revealed that one mutant had a transposon unrelated to Jordan inserted in invA ("inversionless A"). This new transposon, which we named Idaten, has terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) beginning with CCCTA, and upon insertion it creates a 3-bp target-site duplication. It appears to belong to the CACTA superfamily of class II DNA transposons, which includes En/Spm. No significant open reading frames were in the Idaten sequence, but we retrieved another element with Idaten-type TIRs encoding a protein similar to the En/Spm transposase as a candidate for an Idaten-specific transposase. We found that in five of the new inversionless strains we could not find any Jordan insertions causing the phenotype to possess insertions of an Idaten family member in a single locus (invC). This clearly indicates that Idaten is a potentially powerful alternative to Jordan for tagging developmentally important genes in Volvox.

  12. Identification of genes important for cutaneous function revealed by a large scale reverse genetic screen in the mouse.

    PubMed

    DiTommaso, Tia; Jones, Lynelle K; Cottle, Denny L; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Vancollie, Valerie E; Watt, Fiona M; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bradley, Allan; Steel, Karen P; Sundberg, John P; White, Jacqueline K; Smyth, Ian M

    2014-10-01

    The skin is a highly regenerative organ which plays critical roles in protecting the body and sensing its environment. Consequently, morbidity and mortality associated with skin defects represent a significant health issue. To identify genes important in skin development and homeostasis, we have applied a high throughput, multi-parameter phenotype screen to the conditional targeted mutant mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Mouse Genetics Project (Sanger-MGP). A total of 562 different mouse lines were subjected to a variety of tests assessing cutaneous expression, macroscopic clinical disease, histological change, hair follicle cycling, and aberrant marker expression. Cutaneous lesions were associated with mutations in 23 different genes. Many of these were not previously associated with skin disease in the organ (Mysm1, Vangl1, Trpc4ap, Nom1, Sparc, Farp2, and Prkab1), while others were ascribed new cutaneous functions on the basis of the screening approach (Krt76, Lrig1, Myo5a, Nsun2, and Nf1). The integration of these skin specific screening protocols into the Sanger-MGP primary phenotyping pipelines marks the largest reported reverse genetic screen undertaken in any organ and defines approaches to maximise the productivity of future projects of this nature, while flagging genes for further characterisation.

  13. The ecological importance of the Staphylococcus sciuri species group as a reservoir for resistance and virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Nemeghaire, Stéphanie; Argudín, M Angeles; Feßler, Andrea T; Hauschild, Tomasz; Schwarz, Stefan; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-07-16

    The Staphylococcus sciuri species group includes five species that are most often presented as commensal animal-associated bacteria. The species of this group are Staphylococcus sciuri (with three subspecies), Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Staphylococcus fleurettii and Staphylococcus stepanovicii. Members of these group are commonly found in a broad range of habitats including animals, humans and the environment. However, those species have been isolated also from infections, both in veterinary and human medicine. Members of this group have been shown to be pathogenic, though infections caused by these species are infrequent. Furthermore, members of the S. sciuri species group have also been found to carry multiple virulence and resistance genes. Indeed, genes implicated in biofilm formation or coding for toxins responsible of toxic shock syndrome and multi-resistance, similar to those carried by Staphylococcus aureus, were detected. This group may thereby represent a reservoir for other bacteria. Despite its recognized abundance as commensal bacteria and its possible role as reservoir of virulence and resistance genes for other staphylococci, the S. sciuri species group is often considered harmless and, as such, not as well documented as, for example, S. aureus. More investigation into the role of the S. sciuri species group as commensal and pathogenic bacteria is required to fully assess its medical and veterinary importance.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Class 1 Integron Resistance Gene Cassettes among Salmonella Strains Isolated from Imported Seafood ▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashraf A.; Ponce, Elizabeth; Nawaz, M. S.; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Khan, Junaid A.; West, Christine S.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 210 Salmonella isolates, representing 64 different serovars, were isolated from imported seafood samples, and 55/210 isolates were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Class 1 integrons from three multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains (Salmonella enterica serovars Newport [strain 62], Typhimurium var. Copenhagen [strain 629], and Lansing [strain 803], originating from Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, respectively) were characterized. Southern hybridization of plasmids isolated from these strains, using a class 1 integron probe, showed that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin resistance genes were located on a megaplasmid in strain 629. Our study indicates that imported seafood could be a reservoir for Salmonella isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. PMID:19074612

  15. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  16. Transcriptome Characterization of Gnetum parvifolium Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Important Secondary Metabolic Pathways of Flavonoids and Stilbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Nan; Chang, Ermei; Li, Minghe; Ji, Jing; Yao, Xiamei; Bartish, Igor V.; Liu, Jianfeng; Ma, Jing; Chen, Lanzhen; Jiang, Zeping; Shi, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Gnetum is a small, unique group of Gnetophyta with a controversial phylogenetic position. Gnetum parvifolium is an important Chinese traditional medicinal plant, which is rich in bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and stilbenoids. These compounds provide significant medicinal effects, mostly as antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial agents. However, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of these compounds in G. parvifolium are still unknown. In this study, we found that flavonoids and stilbene compounds accumulated at different levels in various tissues of G. parvifolium. We further obtained and analyzed massive sequence information from pooled samples of G. parvifolium by transcriptome sequencing, which generated 94,816 unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Functional annotation of all these unigenes revealed that many of them were associated with several important secondary metabolism pathways including flavonoids and stilbenoids. In particular, several candidate unigenes (PAL-, C4H-, 4CL-, and STS-like genes) involved in stilbenoids biosynthesis were highly expressed in leaves and mature fruits. Furthermore, high temperature and UV-C strongly induced the expression of these genes and enhanced stilbene production (i.e., resveratrol and piceatannol) in leaves of young seedlings. Our present transcriptomic and biochemical data on secondary metabolites in G. parvifolium should encourage further investigation on evolution, ecology, functional genomics, and breeding of this plant with strong pharmaceutical potential. PMID:26973657

  17. Spatial transcriptome analysis provides insights of key gene(s) involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis in medicinally important herb Trillium govanianum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep; Singh, Gagandeep; Bhandawat, Abhishek; Singh, Gopal; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Trillium govanianum, an endangered medicinal herb native to the Himalaya, is less studied at the molecular level due to the non-availability of genomic resources. To facilitate the basic understanding of the key genes and regulatory mechanism of pharmaceutically important biosynthesis pathways, first spatial transcriptome sequencing of T. govanianum was performed. 151,622,376 (~11.5 Gb) high quality reads obtained using paired-end Illumina sequencing were de novo assembled into 69,174 transcripts. Functional annotation with multiple public databases identified array of genes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis and other secondary metabolite pathways including brassinosteroid, carotenoid, diterpenoid, flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, steroid and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, and important TF families (bHLH, MYB related, NAC, FAR1, bZIP, B3 and WRKY). Differentially expressed large number of transcripts, together with CYPs and UGTs suggests involvement of these candidates in tissue specific expression. Combined transcriptome and expression analysis revealed that leaf and fruit tissues are the main site of steroidal saponin biosynthesis. In conclusion, comprehensive genomic dataset created in the current study will serve as a resource for identification of potential candidates for genetic manipulation of targeted bioactive metabolites and also contribute for development of functionally relevant molecular marker resource to expedite molecular breeding and conservation efforts in T. govanianum. PMID:28349986

  18. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids’ plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs. PMID:26907211

  19. Metabolic prediction of important agronomic traits in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-02-24

    Hybrid crops have contributed greatly to improvements in global food and fodder production over the past several decades. Nevertheless, the growing population and changing climate have produced food crises and energy shortages. Breeding new elite hybrid varieties is currently an urgent task, but present breeding procedures are time-consuming and labour-intensive. In this study, parental metabolic information was utilized to predict three polygenic traits in hybrid rice. A complete diallel cross population consisting of eighteen rice inbred lines was constructed, and the hybrids' plant height, heading date and grain yield per plant were predicted using 525 metabolites. Metabolic prediction models were built using the partial least square regression method, with predictive abilities ranging from 0.858 to 0.977 for the hybrid phenotypes, relative heterosis, and specific combining ability. Only slight changes in predictive ability were observed between hybrid populations, and nearly no changes were detected between reciprocal hybrids. The outcomes of prediction of the three highly polygenic traits demonstrated that metabolic prediction was an accurate (high predictive abilities) and efficient (unaffected by population genetic structures) strategy for screening promising superior hybrid rice. Exploitation of this pre-hybridization strategy may contribute to rice production improvement and accelerate breeding programs.

  20. Importance of gene duplication in the evolution of genomic imprinting revealed by molecular evolutionary analysis of the type I MADS-box gene family in Arabidopsis species.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of molecular evolution of imprinted genes is controversial and the entire picture is still to be unveiled. Recently, a relationship between the formation of imprinted genes and gene duplication was reported in genome-wide survey of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because gene duplications influence the molecular evolution of the duplicated gene family, it is necessary to investigate both the pattern of molecular evolution and the possible relationship between gene duplication and genomic imprinting for a better understanding of evolutionary aspects of imprinted genes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary changes of type I MADS-box genes that include imprinted genes by using relative species of Arabidopsis thaliana (two subspecies of A. lyrata and three subspecies of A. halleri). A duplicated gene family enables us to compare DNA sequences between imprinted genes and its homologs. We found an increased number of gene duplications within species in clades containing the imprinted genes, further supporting the hypothesis that local gene duplication is one of the driving forces for the formation of imprinted genes. Moreover, data obtained by phylogenetic analysis suggested "rapid evolution" of not only imprinted genes but also its closely related orthologous genes, which implies the effect of gene duplication on molecular evolution of imprinted genes.

  1. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

  2. Importin-β facilitates nuclear import of human GW proteins and balances cytoplasmic gene silencing protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Schraivogel, Daniel; Schindler, Susann G.; Danner, Johannes; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Pfaff, Janina; Hannus, Stefan; Depping, Reinhard; Meister, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) guide Argonaute (Ago) proteins to distinct target mRNAs leading to translational repression and mRNA decay. Ago proteins interact with a member of the GW protein family, referred to as TNRC6A-C in mammals, which coordinate downstream gene-silencing processes. The cytoplasmic functions of TNRC6 and Ago proteins are reasonably well established. Both protein families are found in the nucleus as well. Their detailed nuclear functions, however, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is not clear which import routes Ago and TNRC6 proteins take into the nucleus. Using different nuclear transport assays, we find that Ago as well as TNRC6 proteins shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. While import receptors might function redundantly to transport Ago2, we demonstrate that TNRC6 proteins are imported by the Importin-β pathway. Finally, we show that nuclear localization of both Ago2 and TNRC6 proteins can depend on each other suggesting actively balanced cytoplasmic Ago – TNRC6 levels. PMID:26170235

  3. Penicillium oxalicum PoFlbC regulates fungal asexual development and is important for cellulase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guangshan; Li, Zhonghai; Wu, Ruimei; Qin, Yuqi; Liu, Guodong; Qu, Yinbo

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi can initiate vegetative growth on complex plant polysaccharides in nature through secreting a large amount of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. These fungi develop a large amount of asexual spores to disperse and survive under harsh conditions, such as carbon and nitrogen depletion. Numerous studies report the presence of a cross-talk between asexual development and extracellular enzyme production, especially at the regulation level. This study identified and characterized a C2H2-type transcription factor called PoFlbC, which is an Aspergillus FlbC ortholog, in cellulolytic fungus Penicillium oxalicum. Results showed that the native level of PoFlbC was crucial for the normal growth and asexual development of P. oxalicum. Importantly, deletion of the PoflbC gene substantially reduced cellulase and hemicellulase productions. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed a global downregulation of genes encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, and other proteins with functions in lignocellulose degradation. A similar defect was also observed in the OEPoflbC strain, suggesting that the production of cellulolytic enzymes was maintained by native expression of the PoflbC. In this study, an essential activator for both fungal asexual development and cellulase production was established in P. oxalicum.

  4. On the Importance of Oxidative Folding in the Evolution of Conotoxins: Cysteine Codon Preservation through Gene Duplication and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Andrew M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Puillandre, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Conotoxin genes are among the most rapidly evolving genes currently known; however, despite the well-established hypervariability of the intercysteine loops, the cysteines demonstrate significant conservation, with a site-specific codon bias for each cysteine in a family of conotoxins. Herein we present a novel rationale behind the codon-level conservation of the cysteines that comprise the disulfide scaffold. We analyze cysteine codon conservation using an internal reference and phylogenetic tools; our results suggest that the established codon conservation can be explained as the result of selective pressures linked to the production efficiency and folding of conotoxins, driving the conservation of cysteine at the amino-acid level. The preservation of cysteine has resulted in maintenance of the ancestral codon in most of the daughter lineages, despite the hypervariability of adjacent residues. We propose that the selective pressures acting on the venom components of cone snails involve an interplay of biosynthetic efficiency, activity at the target receptor and the importance of that activity to effective prey immobilization. Functional redundancy in the venom can thus serve as a buffer for the energy expenditure of venom production. PMID:24244311

  5. Identification of local- and habitat-dependent selection: scanning functionally important genes in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius).

    PubMed

    Shikano, Takahito; Ramadevi, Jetty; Merilä, Juha

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the selective forces promoting adaptive population divergence is a central issue in evolutionary biology. The role of environmental salinity in driving adaptation and evolution in aquatic organisms is still poorly understood. We investigated the relative impacts of habitat type (cf. saltwater vs. freshwater) and geographic area in shaping adaptive population divergence, as well as genes responsible for adaptation to different salinities in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius). To this end, we employed a hitchhiking mapping approach with 111 microsatellite loci and one insertion/deletion locus including 63 loci situated within or close to genes with important physiological functions such as osmoregulation, growth, and thermal response. Using three pairs of marine and freshwater populations from different geographic areas, we identified several loci showing consistent evidence of being under directional selection in different outlier tests. Analyses of molecular variance at the loci under selection indicated that geographic area rather than habitat type has been acting as a central force in shaping adaptive population divergence. Nevertheless, both outlier tests and a spatial analysis method indicated that two loci (growth hormone receptor 2 and DEAD box polypeptide 56) are involved in adaptation to different habitats, implying that environmental salinity has been affecting them as a selective force. These loci are promising candidates for further investigations focusing on the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to marine and freshwater environments.

  6. Drug-gene modeling in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia highlights importance of 6-mercaptopurine for outcome.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Alex H; Firth, Martin J; Anderson, Denise; Samuels, Amy L; Ford, Jette; Kees, Ursula R

    2013-05-01

    Patients relapsing with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) face a dismal outcome. The aim of this study was to identify new markers of drug resistance and clinical response in T-ALL. We measured gene expression and drug sensitivity in 15 pediatric T-ALL cell lines to find signatures predictive of resistance to 10 agents used in therapy. These were used to generate a model for outcome prediction in patient cohorts using microarray data from diagnosis specimens. In three independent T-ALL cohorts, the 10-drug model was able to accurately identify patient outcome, indicating that the in vitro-derived drug-gene profiles were clinically relevant. Importantly, predictions of outcome within each cohort were linked to distinct drugs, suggesting that different mechanisms contribute to relapse. Sulfite oxidase (SUOX) expression and the drug-transporter ABCC1 (MRP1) were linked to thiopurine sensitivity, suggesting novel pathways for targeting resistance. This study advances our understanding of drug resistance in T-ALL and provides new markers for patient stratification. The results suggest potential benefit from the earlier use of 6-mercaptopurine in T-ALL therapy or the development of adjuvants that may sensitize blasts to this drug. The methodology developed in this study could be applied to other cancers to achieve patient stratification at the time of diagnosis.

  7. IncP-1ε Plasmids are Important Vectors of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Agricultural Systems: Diversification Driven by Class 1 Integron Gene Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Holger; Binh, Chu T. T.; Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Zimmerling, Ute; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Ledger, Thomas; González, Bernardo; Top, Eva; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    The role of broad-host range IncP-1ε plasmids in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems has not yet been investigated. These plasmids were detected in total DNA from all of 16 manure samples and in arable soil based on a novel 5′-nuclease assay for real-time PCR. A correlation between IncP-1ε plasmid abundance and antibiotic usage was revealed. In a soil microcosm experiment the abundance of IncP-1ε plasmids was significantly increased even 127 days after application of manure containing the antibiotic compound sulfadiazine, compared to soil receiving only manure, only sulfadiazine, or water. Fifty IncP-1ε plasmids that were captured in E. coli CV601gfp from bacterial communities of manure and arable soil were characterized by PCR and hybridization. All plasmids carried class 1 integrons with highly varying sizes of the gene cassette region and the sul1 gene. Three IncP-1ε plasmids captured from soil bacteria and one from manure were completely sequenced. The backbones were nearly identical to that of the previously described IncP-1ε plasmid pKJK5. The plasmids differed mainly in the composition of a Tn402-like transposon carrying a class 1 integron with varying gene cassettes, IS1326, and in three of the plasmids the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 with various truncations. Diverse Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were revealed as hosts of one of the IncP-1ε plasmids in soil microcosms. Our data suggest that IncP-1ε plasmids are important vectors for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems. PMID:22279444

  8. Gene expression atlas of pigeonpea and its application to gain insights into genes associated with pollen fertility implicated in seed formation.

    PubMed

    Pazhamala, Lekha T; Purohit, Shilp; Saxena, Rachit K; Garg, Vanika; Krishnamurthy, L; Verdier, Jerome; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-02-23

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, mainly used for its protein rich seeds. To link the genome sequence information with agronomic traits resulting from specific developmental processes, a Cajanus cajan gene expression atlas (CcGEA) was developed using the Asha genotype. Thirty tissues/organs representing developmental stages from germination to senescence were used to generate 590.84 million paired-end RNA-Seq data. The CcGEA revealed a compendium of 28 793 genes with differential, specific, spatio-temporal and constitutive expression during various stages of development in different tissues. As an example to demonstrate the application of the CcGEA, a network of 28 flower-related genes analysed for cis-regulatory elements and splicing variants has been identified. In addition, expression analysis of these candidate genes in male sterile and male fertile genotypes suggested their critical role in normal pollen development leading to seed formation. Gene network analysis also identified two regulatory genes, a pollen-specific SF3 and a sucrose-proton symporter, that could have implications for improvement of agronomic traits such as seed production and yield. In conclusion, the CcGEA provides a valuable resource for pigeonpea to identify candidate genes involved in specific developmental processes and to understand the well-orchestrated growth and developmental process in this resilient crop.

  9. Population structure and genetic basis of the agronomic traits of upland cotton in China revealed by a genome-wide association study using high-density SNPs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Nie, Xinhui; Shen, Chao; You, Chunyuan; Li, Wu; Zhao, Wenxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Lin, Zhongxu

    2017-03-16

    Gossypium hirsutum L. represents the largest source of textile fibre, and China is one of the largest cotton producing and consuming countries in the world. To investigate the genetic architecture of the agronomic traits of upland cotton in China, a diverse and nation-wide population containing 503 G. hirsutum accessions was collected for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 16 agronomic traits. The accessions were planted in four places from 2012 to 2013 for phenotyping. The CottonSNP63K array and a published high-density map based on this array were used for genotyping. The 503 G. hirsutum accessions were divided into 3 subpopulations based on 11,975 quantified polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By comparing the genetic structure and phenotypic variation among 3 genetic subpopulations, 7 geographic distributions and 4 breeding periods, we found that geographic distribution and breeding period were not the determinants of genetic structure. In addition, no obvious phenotypic differentiations were found among the 3 subpopulations, even though they had different genetic backgrounds. A total of 324 SNPs and 160 candidate quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified as significantly associated with the 16 agronomic traits. A network was established for multi-effects in QTLs and inter-associations among traits. Thirty-eight associated regions had pleiotropic effects controlling more than one trait. One candidate gene, Gh_D08G2376, was speculated to control the lint percentage (LP). This GWAS is the first report using high-resolution SNPs in upland cotton in China to comprehensively investigate agronomic traits, and it provides a fundamental resource for cotton genetic research and breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of Epigenetic Patterns in Low Birth Weight Children: Importance of Hypomethylation of the ACE Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Marina; dos Santos, Jéssica Cassilla; Ortiz, Paula Helena Lima; Hirata, Mario; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas; Araujo, Ronaldo C.; Ierardi, Daniela Filippini; Franco, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that epigenetic alterations are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many chronic disorders linked to fetal programming. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) appears as one candidate gene that brings new insights into the epigenetic control and later development of diseases. In this view, we have postulated that epigenetic modifications in the ACE gene might show different interactions between birth weight (BW), blood pressure levels, plasma ACE activity and ACE I/D polymorphism. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the DNA methylation of 3 CpG sites using pyrosequencing within the ACE gene promoter of peripheral blood leukocytes from 45 LBW children compared with 70 NBW children. Our results have revealed that LBW children have lower methylation levels (P<0.001) in parallel with a higher ACE activity (P = 0.001). Adjusting for prematurity, gender, age, body mass index, and family history of cardiovascular disease did not alter these findings. We have also performed analyses of individual CpG sites. The frequency of DNA methylation was significantly different at two CpG sites (site 1: nucleotide position +555; and site 3: nucleotide position +563). In addition, we have found a significant inverse correlation between degree of DNA methylation and both ACE activity (P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure levels (P<0.001). We also observed that the methylation level was significantly lower in LBW children who are carriers of the DD genotype compared to NBW children with DD genotype (P<0.024). In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that the hypomethylation in the 3 CpG sites of ACE gene promoter is associated with LBW in 6 to 12 year-old children. The magnitude of these epigenetic changes appears to be clinically important, which is supported by the observation that discrete changes in DNA methylation can affect systolic blood pressure and ACE protein activity levels. PMID:25170764

  11. Occurrence of the tdh and trh genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from waters and raw shellfish collected in two French coastal areas and from seafood imported into France.

    PubMed

    Robert-Pillot, Annick; Guénolé, Alain; Lesne, Jean; Delesmont, Régis; Fournier, Jean-Michel; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2004-03-15

    The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected in two French coastal areas, clinical samples, and seafood products imported into France was studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers was used to detect the hemolysin genes. Most of the clinical isolates (91%) and 1.5% of the isolates from seafood possessed the hemolysin genes. Three and fifteen percent, respectively, of the two groups of environmental strains carried the hemolysin genes depending on the geographic site. The tdh and trh genes play important roles in virulence. Thus, our results indicate that pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in French coastal areas and in seafood imported into France. Furthermore, they may also be present in French seafood products.

  12. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  14. Health benefits of vitamins and secondary metabolites of fruits and vegetables and prospects to increase their concentrations by agronomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Bidel, Luc P R; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Gautier, Hélène; Lauri-Lopez, Félicie; Urban, Laurent

    2010-12-08

    Fruits and vegetables (FAVs) are an important part of the human diet and a major source of biologically active substances such as vitamins and secondary metabolites. The consumption of FAVs remains globally insufficient, so it should be encouraged, and it may be useful to propose to consumers FAVs with enhanced concentrations in vitamins and secondary metabolites. There are basically two ways to reach this target: the genetic approach or the environmental approach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the results that have been obtained so far through purely agronomic approaches and brings them into perspective by comparing them with the achievements of genetic approaches. Although agronomic approaches offer very good perspectives, the existence of variability of responses suggests that the current understanding of the way regulatory and metabolic pathways are controlled needs to be increased. For this purpose, more in-depth study of the interactions existing between factors (light and temperature, for instance, genetic factors × environmental factors), between processes (primary metabolism and ontogeny, for example), and between organs (as there is some evidence that photooxidative stress in leaves affects antioxidant metabolism in fruits) is proposed.

  15. Why UV vision and red vision are important for damselfish (Pomacentridae): structural and expression variation in opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Stieb, Sara M; Cortesi, Fabio; Sueess, Lorenz; Carleton, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter; Marshall, N J

    2017-03-01

    Coral reefs belong to the most diverse ecosystems on our planet. The diversity in coloration and lifestyles of coral reef fishes makes them a particularly promising system to study the role of visual communication and adaptation. Here, we investigated the evolution of visual pigment genes (opsins) in damselfish (Pomacentridae) and examined whether structural and expression variation of opsins can be linked to ecology. Using DNA sequence data of a phylogenetically representative set of 31 damselfish species, we show that all but one visual opsin are evolving under positive selection. In addition, selection on opsin tuning sites, including cases of divergent, parallel, convergent and reversed evolution, has been strong throughout the radiation of damselfish, emphasizing the importance of visual tuning for this group. The highest functional variation in opsin protein sequences was observed in the short- followed by the long-wavelength end of the visual spectrum. Comparative gene expression analyses of a subset of the same species revealed that with SWS1, RH2B and RH2A always being expressed, damselfish use an overall short-wavelength shifted expression profile. Interestingly, not only did all species express SWS1 - a UV-sensitive opsin - and possess UV-transmitting lenses, most species also feature UV-reflective body parts. This suggests that damsels might benefit from a close-range UV-based 'private' communication channel, which is likely to be hidden from 'UV-blind' predators. Finally, we found that LWS expression is highly correlated to feeding strategy in damsels with herbivorous feeders having an increased LWS expression, possibly enhancing the detection of benthic algae.

  16. Localization of the Bacillus subtilis murB gene within the dcw cluster is important for growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Real, Gonçalo; Henriques, Adriano O

    2006-03-01

    The Bacillus subtilis murB gene, encoding UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase, a key enzyme in the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthetic pathway, is embedded in the dcw (for "division and cell wall") cluster immediately upstream of divIB. Previous attempts to inactivate murB were unsuccessful, suggesting its essentiality. Here we show that the cell morphology, growth rate, and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics of murB conditional mutants is a function of the expression level of murB. In one mutant, in which murB was insertionally inactivated in a merodiploid bearing a second xylose-inducible PxylA-murB allele, DivIB levels were reduced and a normal growth rate was achieved only if MurB levels were threefold that of the wild-type strain. However, expression of an extra copy of divIB restored normal growth at wild-type levels of MurB. In contrast, DivIB levels were normal in a second mutant containing an in-frame deletion of murB (DeltamurB) in the presence of the PxylA-murB gene. Furthermore, this strain grew normally with wild-type levels of MurB. During sporulation, the levels of MurB were highest at the time of synthesis of the spore cortex PG. Interestingly, the DeltamurB PxylA-murB mutant did not sporulate efficiently even at high concentrations of inducer. Since high levels of inducer did not interfere with sporulation of a murB(+)PxylA-murB strain, it appears that ectopic expression of murB fails to support efficient sporulation. These data suggest that coordinate expression of divIB and murB is important for growth and sporulation. The genetic context of the murB gene within the dcw cluster is unique to the Bacillus group and, taken together with our data, suggests that in these species it contributes to the optimal expression of cell division and PG biosynthetic functions during both vegetative growth and spore development.

  17. Chorismate mutase: an alternatively spliced parasitism gene and a diagnostic marker for three important Globodera nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chorismate mutase gene is widely distributed in both cyst and root-knot nematode species and believed to play a critical role in nematode parasitism. In this study, we cloned a new chorismate mutase gene (Gt-cm-1) from Globodera tabacum and further characterized the gene structure in both G. tab...

  18. Gene-environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies in its clinical presentation and course. Susceptibility gene variants for ADHD and associated antisocial behaviour are being identified with emerging evidence of gene-environment interaction. Genes and environmental factors that influence the origins of disorder are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to its course and outcome.

  19. Applied Mathematics for agronomical engineers in Spain at UPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Mathematics, created or discovered, are a global human conceptual endowment, containing large systems of knowledge, and varied skills to use definite parts of them, in creation or discovery, or for applications, e.g. in Physics, or notably in engineering behaviour. When getting upper intellectual levels in the 19th century, the agronomical science and praxis was noticeably or mainly organised in Spain in agronomical engineering schools and also in institutes, together with technician schools, also with different lower lever centres, and they have evolved with progress and they are much changing at present to a EEES schema (Bolonia process). They work in different lines that need some basis or skills from mathematics. The vocation to start such careers, that have varied curriculums, contains only some mathematics, and the number of credits for mathematics is restrained because time is necessary for other initial sciences such as applied chemistry, biology, ecology and soil sciences, but some basis and skill of maths are needed, also with Physics, at least for electricity, machines, construction, economics at initial ground levels, and also for Statistics that are here considered part of Applied Mathematics. The ways of teaching mathematical basis and skills are especial, and are different from the practical ways needed e. g. for Soil Sciences, and they involve especial efforts from students, and especial controls or exams that guide much learning. The mathematics have a very large accepted content that uses mostly a standard logic, and that is remarkably stable and international, rather similar notation and expressions being used with different main languages. For engineering the logical basis is really often not taught, but the use of it is transferred, especially for calculus that requires both adapted somehow simplified schemas and the learning of a specific skill to use it, and also for linear algebra. The basic forms of differential calculus in several

  20. Importance of metabolic rate to the relationship between the number of genes in a functional category and body size in Peto's paradox for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ii, Masato; Nishizuka, Satoshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of tumour suppression mechanisms is a major challenge in cancer biology. Therefore, Peto's paradox, or low cancer incidence in large animals, has attracted focus. According to the gene-abundance hypothesis, which considers the increase/decrease in cancer-related genes with body size, researchers evaluated the associations between gene abundance and body size. However, previous studies only focused on a few specific gene functions and have ignored the alternative hypothesis (metabolic rate hypothesis): in this hypothesis, the cellular metabolic rate and subsequent oxidative stress decreases with increasing body size. In this study, we have elected to explore the gene-abundance hypothesis taking into account the metabolic rate hypothesis. Thus, we comprehensively investigated the correlation between the number of genes in various functional categories and body size while at the same time correcting for the mass-specific metabolic rate (Bc). A number of gene functions that correlated with body size were initially identified, but they were found to be artefactual due to the decrease in Bc with increasing body size. By contrast, immune system-related genes were found to increase with increasing body size when the correlation included this correction for Bc. These findings support the gene-abundance hypothesis and emphasize the importance of also taking into account the metabolic rate when evaluating gene abundance–body size relationships. This finding may be useful for understanding cancer evolution and tumour suppression mechanisms as well as for determining cancer-related genes and functions. PMID:27703689

  1. Importance of metabolic rate to the relationship between the number of genes in a functional category and body size in Peto's paradox for cancer.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Ii, Masato; Nishizuka, Satoshi S

    2016-09-01

    Elucidation of tumour suppression mechanisms is a major challenge in cancer biology. Therefore, Peto's paradox, or low cancer incidence in large animals, has attracted focus. According to the gene-abundance hypothesis, which considers the increase/decrease in cancer-related genes with body size, researchers evaluated the associations between gene abundance and body size. However, previous studies only focused on a few specific gene functions and have ignored the alternative hypothesis (metabolic rate hypothesis): in this hypothesis, the cellular metabolic rate and subsequent oxidative stress decreases with increasing body size. In this study, we have elected to explore the gene-abundance hypothesis taking into account the metabolic rate hypothesis. Thus, we comprehensively investigated the correlation between the number of genes in various functional categories and body size while at the same time correcting for the mass-specific metabolic rate (Bc). A number of gene functions that correlated with body size were initially identified, but they were found to be artefactual due to the decrease in Bc with increasing body size. By contrast, immune system-related genes were found to increase with increasing body size when the correlation included this correction for Bc. These findings support the gene-abundance hypothesis and emphasize the importance of also taking into account the metabolic rate when evaluating gene abundance-body size relationships. This finding may be useful for understanding cancer evolution and tumour suppression mechanisms as well as for determining cancer-related genes and functions.

  2. Into the blue: the importance of murine lacZ gene expression profiling in understanding and treating human disease.

    PubMed

    Armit, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) is a major international effort to explore the effects of knocking out 20,000 genes in the mouse. A new study by White and colleagues, published in the current issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms, demonstrates the usefulness of lacZ in situ reporter expression patterns in extending our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships as part of the IMPC high-throughput screen. In situ gene expression profiling is invaluable for evaluating compartment-specific gene expression patterns, and these enrich our understanding of the role of genes in a great number of biological processes in multiple organ systems. Furthermore, the complexity of gene expression patterns informs our understanding of how genes influence lethality. This Editorial aims to highlight ways in which the lacZ expression profiles can impact on biomedical research by uncovering as-yet-unknown genotype-phenotype relationships, and through predicting the role of genes in health and disease.

  3. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Oxiles, Lindsay; Brooks, Fred; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cho, Yangrae

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  4. Multivariate diallel analysis allows multiple gains in segregating populations for agronomic traits in Jatropha.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Peixoto, L A; Silva, L A; Laviola, B G; Bhering, L L

    2017-03-22

    Jatropha is research target worldwide aimed at large-scale oil production for biodiesel and bio-kerosene. Its production potential is among 1200 and 1500 kg/ha of oil after the 4th year. This study aimed to estimate combining ability of Jatropha genotypes by multivariate diallel analysis to select parents and crosses that allow gains in important agronomic traits. We performed crosses in diallel complete genetic design (3 x 3) arranged in blocks with five replications and three plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, canopy projection between rows, canopy projection on the line, number of branches, mass of hundred grains, and grain yield. Data were submitted to univariate and multivariate diallel analysis. Genotypes 107 and 190 can be used in crosses for establishing a base population of Jatropha, since it has favorable alleles for increasing the mass of hundred grains and grain yield and reducing the plant height. The cross 190 x 107 is the most promising to perform the selection of superior genotypes for the simultaneous breeding of these traits.

  5. Relation of agronomic and multispectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Ahlrichs, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between crop canopy variables such as leaf area index (LAI) and their multispectral reflectance properties were investigated along with the potential for estimating canopy variables from remotely sensed reflectance measurements. Reflectance spectra over the 0.4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range were acquired during each of the major development stages of spring wheat canopies at Williston, North Dakota, during three seasons. Treatments included planting date, N fertilization, cultivar, and soil moisture. Agronomic measurements included development stage, biomass, LAI, and percent soil cover. High correlations were found between reflectance and percent cover, LAI, and biomass. A near infrared wavelength band, 0.76 to 0.90 microns, was most important in explaining variation in LAI and percent cover, while a middle infrared band, 2.08 to 2.35 microns, explained the most variation in biomass and plant water content. Transformations, including the near infrared/red reflectance ratio and greenness index, were also highly correlated to canopy variables. The relationship of canopy variables to reflectance decreased as the crop began to ripen. the canopy variables could be accurately predicted using measurements from three to five wavelength bands. The wavelength bands proposed for the thematic mapper sensor were more strongly related to the canopy variables than the LANDSAT MSS bands.

  6. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  7. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management. PMID:26284104

  8. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  9. The importance of making ends meet: mutations in genes and altered expression of proteins of the MRN complex and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The MRN protein complex, consisting of MRE1, RAD50 and NBS1, plays a crucial role in sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and it is involved in cell cycle control. This makes the MRN complex an important guard of genome stability. Hypomorphic mutations in NBS1 result in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), which is characterized by, among other things, an increased predisposition to malignancies, especially leukemia/lymphoma. Relatives of NBS patients carrying heterozygous mutations are also more prone to cancer development. This review summarizes several studies searching for associations between heterozygous mutations in NBS1, MRE11, and RAD50 and cancer and examining the levels of expression of proteins coded by these genes in tumor tissues. The results indicate that both decreased and increased expression of NBS1 may contribute to tumorigenesis, whereas overexpressed RAD50 has an anti-tumoric effect. MRE11 and RAD50 are also affected in tumors with microsatellite instability. However, the outcomes of association studies, which concerned primarily lymphomas/leukemias and breast cancer, were inconclusive. Heterozygous NBS1 mutations and molecular variants 657del5, I171V, R215W and E185Q were most commonly analyzed. Among these, an association with cancer was found most frequently for 657del5 (in leukemia/lymphoma and breast cancer) and I171V (in leukemia, breast, head and neck and colorectal cancers); however, other studies gave contradictory results. For other NBS1 as well as MRE11 and RAD50 variants, too little data were available to assess their role in cancer risk. Overall, the results suggest that heterozygous MRN complex mutations and molecular variants may contribute only to a limited fraction of tumors. This may be caused by several factors: various frequencies of the variants in specific populations, different criteria used for selection of control groups, possible effects of environmental factors, and potential interactions with variants of other

  10. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli carrying supplementary virulence genes are an important cause of moderate to severe diarrhoeal disease in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Patzi-Vargas, Sandra; Zaidi, Mussaret Bano; Perez-Martinez, Iza; León-Cen, Magda; Michel-Ayala, Alba; Chaussabel, Damien; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhoea worldwide, but little is known about their epidemiology in Mexico. We determined the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens in 831 children with acute diarrhoea over a four-year period in Yucatan, Mexico. Six DEC supplementary virulence genes (SVG), mainly associated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), were sought in 3100 E. coli isolates. DEC was the most common bacterial enteropathogen (28%), surpassing Salmonella (12%) and Shigella (9%). Predominant DEC groups were diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (35%), EAEC (24%), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (19%). Among children with DEC infections, 14% had severe illness mainly caused by EPEC (26%) and DAEC (18%); 30% had moderate diarrhoea mainly caused by DAEC (36%), mixed DEC infections (33%) and EAEC (32%). DAEC was most prevalent during spring, while ETEC, EAEC and EPEC predominated in summer. EAEC was more frequent in children 6-24 months old than in those younger than 6 months of age (P = 0.008, OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 1.3-13.9). The presence of SVG dispersin, (aatA), dispersin-translocator (aatA), enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (astA), plasmid encoded toxin (pet), cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) was higher in DEC than non-DEC strains, (36% vs 26%, P <0.0001, OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). 98% of EAEC-infected children harboured strains with SVG; 85% carried the aap-aatA gene combination, and 33% of these also carried astA. 28% of both EPEC and ETEC, and 6% of DAEC patients had strains with SVG. 54% of EPEC patients carried pet-positive strains alone or in combination with astA; only this DEC group harboured cdt-positive isolates. All ETEC patients carried astA- or astA-aap-positive strains. astA and aap were the most common SVG in DAEC (3% and 2%) and non-DEC strains (21% and 13%). DEC carrying SVG are an important cause of moderate to severe bacterial diarrhoea in Mexican children.

  11. Molecular cloning and differential expression analysis of a squalene synthase gene from Dioscorea zingiberensis, an important pharmaceutical plant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Wang, Runfa; Jin, Liang; Shen, Junhao; Li, Xiaotong; Yang, Ting; Zhou, Mengzhuo; Yang, Zhifan; Chen, Yongqin

    2014-09-01

    Diosgenin is a steroid derived from cholesterol in plants and used as a typical initial intermediate for synthesis of numerous steroidal drugs in the world. Commercially, this compound is extracted mainly from the rhizomes or tubers of some Dioscorea species. Squalene synthase (SQS: EC 2.5.1.21) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to form squalene, the first committed step for biosynthesis of plant sterols including cholesterol, and is thought to play an important role in diosgenin biosynthesis. A full-length cDNA of a putative squalene synthase gene was cloned from D. zingiberensis and designated as DzSQS (Genbank Accession Number KC960673). DzSQS was contained an open reading frame of 1,230 bp encoding a polypeptide of 409 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 46 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.2. The deduced amino acid sequence of DzSQS shared over 70 % sequence identity with those of SQSs from other plants. The truncated DzSQS in which 24 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH. GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that DzSQS was expressed from highest to lowest order in mature leaves, newly-formed rhizomes, young leaves, young stems, and two-year-old rhizomes of D. zingiberensis.

  12. cis Elements and trans factors are both important in strain-specific regulation of the leukotoxin gene in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodrubetz, D; Spitznagel, J; Wang, B; Phillips, L H; Jacobs, C; Kraig, E

    1996-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, the etiologic agent of localized juvenile periodontitis, produces a potent leukotoxin that kills human neutrophils. The production of leukotoxin RNA can vary more than 50-fold among isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and strains expressing high levels of leukotoxin RNA are most often found at sites of periodontal disease. To assess the relative contributions of transcription factors and promoter sequences in setting the disparate levels of leukotoxin RNA found, we have undertaken classical cis/trans analyses. First, the leukotoxin promoter regions from moderately leukotoxic (Y4) and minimally leukotoxic (ATCC 33384) strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously sequences leukotoxin promoter region of the high-producer strain JP2. The Y4 and ATCC 33384 promoter regions each contain a 528-bp segment that is absent from JP2. Interestingly, the analysis of various deletion constructs in A. actinomycetemcomitans indicated that Y4, despite the large insertion, initiates leukotoxin RNA synthesis at the same promoter as JP2 does. To perform cis/trans analyses, these three leukotoxin promoter regions were cloned into a plasmid upstream of the reporter gene beta-galactosidase. Each plasmid was transformed into JP2, Y4, and ATCC 33384, and the beta-galactosidase levels were determined. The results indicated that the sequences responsible for down-regulating leukotoxin RNA levels in Y4 relative to JP2 are found within the transcribed region of the Y4 leukotoxin operon. Importantly, in ATCC 33384, strain-specific trans factors and promoter sequence differences are equally significant in determining the lower levels of leukotoxin RNA. We hypothesize that either strain ATCC 33384 has a negative regulatory protein (which is missing or mutated in JP2/Y4) or that JP2 and Y4 carry an activator that is missing or mutated in ATCC 33384. PMID:8751884

  13. Sendai Virus and Simian Virus 5 Block Activation of Interferon-Responsive Genes: Importance for Virus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Didcock, L.; Young, D. F.; Goodbourn, S.; Randall, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sendai virus (SeV) is highly pathogenic for mice. In contrast, mice (including SCID mice) infected with simian virus 5 (SV5) showed no overt signs of disease. Evidence is presented that a major factor which prevented SV5 from productively infecting mice was its inability to circumvent the interferon (IFN) response in mice. Thus, in murine cells that produce and respond to IFN, SV5 protein synthesis was rapidly switched off. In marked contrast, once SeV protein synthesis began, it continued, even if the culture medium was supplemented with alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β). However, in human cells, IFN-α/β did not inhibit the replication of either SV5 or SeV once virus protein synthesis was established. To begin to address the molecular basis for these observations, the effects of SeV and SV5 infections on the activation of an IFN-α/β-responsive promoter and on that of the IFN-β promoter were examined in transient transfection experiments. The results demonstrated that (i) SeV, but not SV5, inhibited an IFN-α/β-responsive promoter in murine cells; (ii) both SV5 and SeV inhibited the activation of an IFN-α/β-responsive promoter in human cells; and (iii) in both human and murine cells, SeV was a strong inducer of the IFN-β promoter, whereas SV5 was a poor inducer. The ability of SeV and SV5 to inhibit the activation of IFN-responsive genes in human cells was confirmed by RNase protection experiments. The importance of these results in terms of paramyxovirus pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:10074164

  14. Genetic basis and importance of metal resistant genes in bacteria for bioremediation of contaminated environments with toxic metal pollutants.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Dash, Hirak R; Chakraborty, Jaya

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollution is one of the most persistent and complex environmental issues, causing threat to the ecosystem and human health. On exposure to several toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury, several bacteria has evolved with many metal-resistant genes as a means of their adaptation. These genes can be further exploited for bioremediation of the metal-contaminated environments. Many operon-clustered metal-resistant genes such as cadB, chrA, copAB, pbrA, merA, and NiCoT have been reported in bacterial systems for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and nickel resistance and detoxification, respectively. The field of environmental bioremediation has been ameliorated by exploiting diverse bacterial detoxification genes. Genetic engineering integrated with bioremediation assists in manipulation of bacterial genome which can enhance toxic metal detoxification that is not usually performed by normal bacteria. These techniques include genetic engineering with single genes or operons, pathway construction, and alternations of the sequences of existing genes. However, numerous facets of bacterial novel metal-resistant genes are yet to be explored for application in microbial bioremediation practices. This review describes the role of bacteria and their adaptive mechanisms for toxic metal detoxification and restoration of contaminated sites.

  15. Contrasting agronomic response of biochar amendment to a Mediterranean Cambisol: Incubation vs. field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; De Celis, Reyes; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar to soil is being proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, biochars offer a simple, sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added value products. Numerous research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth by supplying and, more importantly, retaining nutrients and by providing other services such as improving soil physical and biological properties [1]. However, the effectiveness of biochar in enhancing plant fertility is a function of soil type, climate, and type of crop [2] but also of the biochar properties. The inherent variability of biochars due to different feedstock and production conditions implies a high variability of their effect on soil properties and productivity. Furthermore, due to the irreversibility of biochar application, it is necessary to perform detailed studies to achieve a high level of certainty that adding biochar to agricultural soils, for whatever reason, will not negatively affect soil health and productivity. The major goals of this research were: i) understanding how the properties of 5 different biochars produced by using different feedstock and pyrolysis conditions are related to their agronomic response, and ii) assessing the agronomic effect of biochar amendment under field conditions of a typical Mediterranean non-irrigated plantation. Four of the used biochars were produced by pyrolysis from wood (2), paper sludge (1) and sewage sludge (1), at temperatures up to 620 °C. The fifth biochar was produced from old grapevine wood by applying the traditional kiln method. Biochars were analysed for elemental composition (C, H, N), pH, WHC and ash contents. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of lignin residues in

  16. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  17. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    PubMed

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  19. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    PubMed Central

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like “cell wall,” “carbohydrate catabolic process” and “starch and sucrose metabolic process” among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  20. Analyzing the miRNA-Gene Networks to Mine the Important miRNAs under Skin of Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Husile

    2016-01-01

    Genetic networks provide new mechanistic insights into the diversity of species morphology. In this study, we have integrated the MGI, GEO, and miRNA database to analyze the genetic regulatory networks under morphology difference of integument of humans and mice. We found that the gene expression network in the skin is highly divergent between human and mouse. The GO term of secretion was highly enriched, and this category was specific in human compared to mouse. These secretion genes might be involved in eccrine system evolution in human. In addition, total 62,637 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in human integument genes (IGs), while 26,280 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in mouse IGs. The interactions between miRNAs and IGs in human are more complex than those in mouse. Furthermore, hsa-miR-548, mmu-miR-466, and mmu-miR-467 have an enormous number of targets on IGs, which both have the role of inhibition of host immunity response. The pattern of distribution on the chromosome of these three miRNAs families is very different. The interaction of miRNA/IGs has added the new dimension in traditional gene regulation networks of skin. Our results are generating new insights into the gene networks basis of skin difference between human and mouse. PMID:27689084

  1. Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements and Conjugal Gene Transfer for Subsurface Microbial Community Adaptation to Biotransformation of Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Soren J.

    2005-06-01

    The overall goal of this project is to investigate the effect of mobile genetic elements and conjugal gene transfer on subsurface microbial community adaptation to mercury and chromium stress and biotransformation. Our studies focus on the interaction between the fate of these metals in the subsurface and the microbial community structure and activity.

  2. Ku is important for telomere maintenance, but not for differential expression of telomeric VSG genes, in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Conway, Colin; McCulloch, Richard; Ginger, Michael L; Robinson, Nicholas P; Browitt, Alison; Barry, J David

    2002-06-14

    Trypanosome antigenic variation, involving differential expression of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes, has a strong association with telomeres and with DNA recombination. All expressed VSGs are telomeric, and differential activation involves recombination into the telomeric environment or silencing/activation of subtelomeric promoters. A number of pathogen contingency gene systems associated with immune evasion involve telomeric loci, which has prompted speculation that chromosome ends provide conditions conducive for the operation of rapid gene switching mechanisms. Ku is a protein associated with eukaryotic telomeres that is directly involved in DNA recombination and in gene silencing. We have tested the hypothesis that Ku in trypanosomes is centrally involved in differential VSG expression. We show, via the generation of null mutants, that trypanosome Ku is closely involved in telomere length maintenance, more so for a transcriptionally active than an inactive telomere, but exhibits no detectable influence on DNA double strand break repair. The absence of Ku and the consequent great shortening of telomeres had no detectable influence either on the rate of VSG switching or on the silencing of the telomeric promoters of the VSG subset that is expressed in the tsetse fly.

  3. Genome-wide study of KNOX regulatory network reveals brassinosteroid catabolic genes important for shoot meristem function in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In flowering plants, knotted1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factors play crucial roles in establishment and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), from which aerial organs such as leaves, stems, and flowers initiate. We report that a rice (Oryza sativa) KNOX gene Oryza sativa homeobox1...

  4. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  5. A survey of the agronomic and end-use characteristics of low phytic acid soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With unique high protein and oil contents, soybean (Glycine max L. merr.) is one of the most widely grown agronomic crops in the United States. Around 98% of those soybeans are used in animal feeds ranging from swine and cattle to domestic animals and aquaculture. This chapter will introduce phytic ...

  6. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to Predict and Prevent Uptake by Crop Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciatio...

  7. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut disease evaluations of advanced breeding lines are conducted annually to compare the agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and disease resistance of cultivars that are currently available or close to being released for the Southwest. In 2016, a total of 21 com...

  8. Agronomic effects of mutations in two soybean Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil normally contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with higher levels of stearic acid is desired for use in the baking industry, for both its chemical properties and human health benefits. Several lines with increased stearic acid have been identified; however, the agronom...

  9. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 20 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2015 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics). Environmental conditions in 2015 were not favorable for Sclerotinia blight, southern bl...

  10. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 23 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2014 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to soilborne diseases. Among the 16 runner entries evaluated, Tamrun OL11...

  11. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 21 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2013 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to diseases (Sclerotinia blight, southern blight, and Pythium and Rhizoctonia pod rot). Among th...

  12. Unmanned aerial vehicles for high-throughput phenotyping and agronomic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants....

  13. Cultivar x binary mixture interaction effect on agronomic traits in orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the agronomic value, including dry matter yield and forage quality of 25 orchardgrass cultivars grown in monoculture and binary mixtures with alfalfa under supplemental irrigation from 2009 to 2012 at a Millville, UT, field site. Orchardgrass monoc...

  14. Genome-wide association study of agronomic traits in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a global Andean diversity panel (ADP) of 237 genotypes of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris was conducted to gain insight into the genetic architecture of several agronomic traits controlling phenology, biomass, yield components and seed yield. The panel wa...

  15. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards.

  16. Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Genes from Freesia hybrida Play Important and Partially Overlapping Roles in the Biosynthesis of Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueqing; Liu, Xingxue; Cai, Xinquan; Shan, Xiaotong; Gao, Ruifang; Yang, Song; Han, Taotao; Wang, Shucai; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in both anthocyanin biosynthesis and proanthocyanidin accumulation. In many plant species, it is encoded by a gene family, however, how the different copies evolve either to function in different tissues or at different times or to specialize in the use of different but related substrates needs to be further investigated, especially in monocot plants. In this study, a total of eight putative DFR-like genes were firstly cloned from Freesia hybrida. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were classified into different branches, and FhDFR1, FhDFR2, and FhDFR3 were clustered into DFR subgroup, whereas others fell into the group with cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) proteins. Then, the functions of the three FhDFR genes were further characterized. Different spatio-temporal transcription patterns and levels were observed, indicating that the duplicated FhDFR genes might function divergently. After introducing them into Arabidopsis dfr (tt3-1) mutant plants, partial complementation of the loss of cyanidin derivative synthesis was observed, implying that FhDFRs could convert dihydroquercetin to leucocyanidin in planta. Biochemical assays also showed that FhDFR1, FhDFR2, and FhDFR3 could utilize dihydromyricetin to generate leucodelphinidin, while FhDFR2 could also catalyze the formation of leucocyanidin from dihydrocyanidin. On the contrary, neither transgenic nor biochemical analysis demonstrated that FhDFR proteins could reduce dihydrokaempferol to leucopelargonidin. These results were consistent with the freesia flower anthocyanin profiles, among which delphinidin derivatives were predominant, with minor quantities of cyanidin derivatives and undetectable pelargonidin derivatives. Thus, it can be deduced that substrate specificities of DFRs were the determinant for the categories of anthocyanins aglycons accumulated in F. hybrida. Furthermore, we also found that

  17. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K.; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010–11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  18. Transcriptome sequencing of Hydrangea macrophylla to uncover genes related to reblooming and powdery mildew resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Massively parallel pyrosequencing technology has been used extensively on agronomic crops and model plants. Transcriptome sequencing is a useful first step in functional genomic studies, microarray and gene expression studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) surveys, quantitative trait loci (QT...

  19. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future.

  20. Mendel's genes: toward a full molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of classical genetics is founded on the hereditary behavior of the seven genes studied by Gregor Mendel. The advent of molecular techniques has unveiled much about the identity of these genes. To date, four genes have been sequenced: A (flower color), LE (stem length), I (cotyledon color), and R (seed shape). Two of the other three genes, GP (pod color) and FA (fasciation), are amenable to candidate gene approaches on the basis of their function, linkage relationships, and synteny between the pea and Medicago genomes. However, even the gene (locus) identity is not known for certain for the seventh character, the pod form, although it is probably V. While the nature of the mutations used by Mendel cannot be determined with certainty, on the basis of the varieties available in Europe in the 1850s, we can speculate on their nature. It turns out that these mutations are attributable to a range of causes-from simple base substitutions and changes to splice sites to the insertion of a transposon-like element. These findings provide a fascinating connection between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology that can be used very effectively in teaching new generations of geneticists. Mendel's characters also provide novel insights into the nature of the genes responsible for characteristics of agronomic and consumer importance.

  1. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles coated with glucose can silence important genes of Leishmania major at sub-toxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Ali Fatahi; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Daliri, Karim; Jebali, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) and MgO NPs coated with glucose (MONPCG) on Leishmania (L) major. First, the promastigotes of L. major were separately incubated with serial concentrations of MgO NPs and MONPCG for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Then, the cell viability of promastigotes was evaluated by MTT assay. On the other hand, the relative expression of Cpb and GP63 genes was detected by quantitative-real time PCR. Based on results, the increase of concentration, both MgO NPs and MONPCG, and incubation time led to decrease of cell viability. Moreover, the expression of Cpb and GP63 genes was decreased with increase of concentration of MgO NPs and MONPCG. Also, the increase of incubation time led to decrease of their expression in MgO NPs treated promastogotes. But, in case of MONPCG treated promastogotes, the increase of incubation time did not change the expression of Cpb and GP63. Interestingly, MONPCG could silence Cpb and GP63 genes better than MgO NPs. Note, the capability was also seen at sub-toxic concentrations of MONPCG.

  2. Inactivation of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Bacillus subtilis Reveals Importance of Each Ribosomal Protein for Cell Proliferation and Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Akanuma, Genki; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Natori, Yousuke; Yano, Koichi; Suzuki, Shota; Omata, Shuya; Ishizuka, Morio; Sekine, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Among the 57 genes that encode ribosomal proteins in the genome of Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive bacterium, 50 genes were targeted by systematic inactivation. Individual deletion mutants of 16 ribosomal proteins (L1, L9, L15, L22, L23, L28, L29, L32, L33.1, L33.2, L34, L35, L36, S6, S20, and S21) were obtained successfully. In conjunction with previous reports, 22 ribosomal proteins have been shown to be nonessential in B. subtilis, at least for cell proliferation. Although several mutants that harbored a deletion of a ribosomal protein gene did not show any significant differences in any of the phenotypes that were tested, various mutants showed a reduced growth rate and reduced levels of 70S ribosomes compared with the wild type. In addition, severe defects in the sporulation frequency of the ΔrplA (L1) mutant and the motility of the ΔrpsU (S21) mutant were observed. These data provide the first evidence in B. subtilis that L1 and S21 are required for the progression of cellular differentiation. PMID:23002217

  3. Use of the CO I Gene as a Species Indicator for Forensically Important Flies: A Forensic Entomology Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honda, Jeffrey Y.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic entomologists utilize insects (particularly flies) to establish the time interval between death and body discovery. This important piece of information may answer questions as to the circumstances of the individual's death and insects are now routinely utilized and recognized as being important forensic indicators. Of extreme importance…

  4. Screens for Extragenic Mutations That Fail to Complement Act1 Alleles Identify Genes That Are Important for Actin Function in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Welch, M. D.; Vinh, DBN.; Okamura, H. H.; Drubin, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Null mutations in SAC6 and ABP1, genes that encode actin-binding proteins, failed to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the ACT1 gene. To identify novel genes whose protein products interact with actin, mutations that fail to complement act1-1 or act1-4, two temperature-sensitive alleles of ACT1, were isolated. A total of 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations and 12 new alleles of ACT1 were identified in two independent screens. The 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations represent alleles of at least four different genes, ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4 (Actin NonComplementing). Mutations in the ANC1 gene were shown to cause osmosensitivity and defects in actin organization; phenotypes that are similar to those caused by act1 mutations. We conclude that the ANC1 gene product plays an important role in actin cytoskeletal function. The 12 new alleles of ACT1 will be useful for further elucidation of the functions of actin in yeast. PMID:8243992

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of the highly efficient oil-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 reveals genes important in dodecane uptake and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ankita; Charrier, Marimikel; Wu, Yu-Wei; Malfatti, Stephanie; Zhou, Carol E.; Singer, Steven W.; Dugan, Larry; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-01-01

    The hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 has attracted substantial attention due to its powerful oil-degrading capabilities and its potential to play an important ecological role in the cleanup of alkanes. In this study, we compare the transcriptome of the strain RAG-1 grown in dodecane, the corresponding alkanol (dodecanol), and sodium acetate for the characterization of genes involved in dodecane uptake and utilization. Comparison of the transcriptional responses of RAG-1 grown on dodecane led to the identification of 1074 genes that were differentially expressed relative to sodium acetate. Of these, 622 genes were upregulated when grown in dodecane. The highly upregulated genes were involved in alkane catabolism, along with stress response. Our data suggest AlkMb to be primarily involved in dodecane oxidation. Transcriptional response of RAG-1 grown on dodecane relative to dodecanol also led to the identification of permease, outer membrane protein and thin fimbriae coding genes potentially involved in dodecane uptake. This study provides the first model for key genes involved in alkane uptake and metabolism in A. venetianus RAG-1. PMID:27664055

  6. In vivo import of a normal or mutagenized heterologous transfer RNA into the mitochondria of transgenic plants: towards novel ways of influencing mitochondrial gene expression?

    PubMed Central

    Small, I; Maréchal-Drouard, L; Masson, J; Pelletier, G; Cosset, A; Weil, J H; Dietrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that nuclear-encoded RNAs are present inside mitochondria has been reported from a wide variety of organisms, and is presumed to be due to import of specific cytosolic RNAs. In plants, the first examples were the mitochondrial leucine transfer RNAs of bean. In all cases, the evidence is circumstantial, based on hybridization of the mitochondrial RNAs to nuclear and not mitochondrial DNA. Here we show that transgenic potato plants carrying a leucine tRNA gene from bean nuclear DNA contain RNA transcribed from the introduced gene both in the cytosol and inside mitochondria, providing proof that the mitochondrial leucine tRNA is derived from a nuclear gene and imported into the mitochondria. The same bean gene carrying a 4 bp insertion in the anticodon loop was also expressed in transgenic potato plants and the transcript found to be present inside mitochondria, suggesting that this natural RNA import system could eventually be used to introduce foreign RNA sequences into mitochondria. Images PMID:1563345

  7. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus—virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes. PMID:27669224

  8. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-09-23

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes.

  9. Cold shock genes cspA and cspB from Caulobacter crescentus are posttranscriptionally regulated and important for cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Ricardo R; Lang, Elza A S; Silva, Carolina A P T; Marques, Marilis V

    2012-12-01

    Cold shock proteins (CSPs) are nucleic acid binding chaperones, first described as being induced to solve the problem of mRNA stabilization after temperature downshift. Caulobacter crescentus has four CSPs: CspA and CspB, which are cold induced, and CspC and CspD, which are induced only in stationary phase. In this work we have determined that the synthesis of both CspA and CspB reaches the maximum levels early in the acclimation phase. The deletion of cspA causes a decrease in growth at low temperature, whereas the strain with a deletion of cspB has a very subtle and transient cold-related growth phenotype. The cspA cspB double mutant has a slightly more severe phenotype than that of the cspA mutant, suggesting that although CspA may be more important to cold adaptation than CspB, both proteins have a role in this process. Gene expression analyses were carried out using cspA and cspB regulatory fusions to the lacZ reporter gene and showed that both genes are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Deletion mapping of the long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of each gene identified a common region important for cold induction, probably via translation enhancement. In contrast to what was reported for other bacteria, these cold shock genes have no regulatory regions downstream from ATG that are important for cold induction. This work shows that the importance of CspA and CspB to C. crescentus cold adaptation, mechanisms of regulation, and pattern of expression during the acclimation phase apparently differs in many aspects from what has been described so far for other bacteria.

  10. Gene expression profiles of hair and wool sheep reveal importance of Th2 immune mechanisms for increased resistance to.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, K M; Bowdridge, S A; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I; Zajac, A M; Notter, D R

    2015-05-01

    Management of gastrointestinal parasites is a critical issue for sheep producers worldwide. Increases in the prevalence of drug-resistant worms have complicated parasite control and increased economic losses. Therefore, other methods of parasite control need to be assessed, including the use of genetically resistant animals in breeding programs. Hair sheep breeds such as the St. Croix have greater parasite resistance than conventional wool breeds. However, the immune mechanisms that control parasite resistance in hair or wool breeds have not yet been fully determined, and information on cytokine expression profiles for both wool sheep selected for increased resistance and hair sheep is limited. Our objective was to investigate gene expression differences in 24 parasite-resistant hair and 24 susceptible wool sheep to identify immune effectors associated with resistance to . One-half of the lambs were infected and sacrificed at 3 or 27 d after infection. Remaining lambs were not infected. Breed differences in expression of genes associated with Th1 and Th2 immune responses in lymph nodes and abomasal tissue were determined. Th2-associated genes included IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IgE, the α chain of the IL-4 receptor, and the α chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). Th1-associated genes included interferon gamma (IFN-γ), the p35 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12 p35), and the β1 and β2 chains of the IL-12 receptor (IL-12 Rβ1 and IL-12 Rβ2, respectively). In both hair and wool sheep, infection with resulted in greater expression of IgE, IL-13, IL-5, and IL-12 p35 and somewhat reduced expression of IFNγ in lymph nodes. In abomasal tissue, parasite infection resulted in greater IgE, IL-13, FcεRI, and IL-12 p35 expression in infected lambs compared with control lambs. Between breeds, hair sheep had a stronger Th2 response after infection than wool sheep, with increased expression of IgE and IL-13 and decreased expression of IFNγ in lymph nodes and increased expression

  11. Importance of interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins and retinoic acid inducible gene I for influenza virus replication: A review.

    PubMed

    Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between Influenza viruses and host cells is key to elucidating the pathogenesis of these viruses. Several host factors have been identified that exert antiviral functions; however, influenza viruses continue to replicate utilizing host cell machinery. Herein, we review the mechanisms of action of two host-derived proteins on conferring cellular resistance to the influenza virus; (1) the interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins, 1, 2 and 3, a recently identified family of early restriction factors; and (2) retinoic acid inducible gene I, a key mediator of antiviral immunity. These data may contribute to the design of novel and efficient anti-influenza treatments.

  12. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  13. An important role for cholecystokinin, a CLOCK target gene, in the development and treatment of manic-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Arey, R N; Enwright, J F; Spencer, S M; Falcon, E; Ozburn, A R; Ghose, S; Tamminga, C; McClung, C A

    2014-03-01

    Mice with a mutation in the Clock gene (ClockΔ19) have been identified as a model of mania; however, the mechanisms that underlie this phenotype, and the changes in the brain that are necessary for lithium's effectiveness on these mice remain unclear. Here, we find that cholecystokinin (Cck) is a direct transcriptional target of CLOCK and levels of Cck are reduced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of ClockΔ19 mice. Selective knockdown of Cck expression via RNA interference in the VTA of wild-type mice produces a manic-like phenotype. Moreover, chronic treatment with lithium restores Cck expression to near wild-type and this increase is necessary for the therapeutic actions of lithium. The decrease in Cck expression in the ClockΔ19 mice appears to be due to a lack of interaction with the histone methyltransferase, MLL1, resulting in decreased histone H3K4me3 and gene transcription, an effect reversed by lithium. Human postmortem tissue from bipolar subjects reveals a similar increase in Cck expression in the VTA with mood stabilizer treatment. These studies identify a key role for Cck in the development and treatment of mania, and describe some of the molecular mechanisms by which lithium may act as an effective antimanic agent.

  14. Gene Network Analysis of Metallo Beta Lactamase Family Proteins Indicates the Role of Gene Partners in Antibiotic Resistance and Reveals Important Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Parimelzaghan, Anitha; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2016-06-01

    Metallo Beta (β) Lactamases (MBL) are metal dependent bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam antibiotics. In recent years, MBL have received considerable attention because it inactivates most of the β-lactam antibiotics. Increase in dissemination of MBL encoding antibiotic resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria often results in unsuccessful treatments. Gene interaction network of MBL provides a complete understanding on the molecular basis of MBL mediated antibiotic resistance. In our present study, we have constructed the MBL network of 37 proteins with 751 functional partners from pathogenic bacterial spp. We found 12 highly interconnecting clusters. Among the 37 MBL proteins considered in the present study, 22 MBL proteins are from B3 subclass, 14 are from B1 subclass and only one is from B2 subclass. Global topological parameters are used to calculate and compare the probability of interactions in MBL proteins. Our results indicate that the proteins associated within the network have a strong influence in antibiotic resistance mechanism. Interestingly, several drug targets are identified from the constructed network. We believe that our results would be helpful for researchers exploring MBL-mediated antibiotic resistant mechanisms.

  15. The LPB1 Gene Is Important for Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Phosphorus and Sulfur Deprivation1[w

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Wen; Moseley, Jeffrey L.; Wykoff, Dennis; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms exhibit a diverse set of responses when exposed to low-phosphate conditions. Some of these responses are specific for phosphorus limitation, including responses that enable cells to efficiently scavenge phosphate from internal and external stores via the production of high-affinity phosphate transporters and the synthesis of intracellular and extracellular phosphatases. Other responses are general and occur under a number of different environmental stresses, helping coordinate cellular metabolism and cell division with the growth potential of the cell. In this article, we describe the isolation and characterization of a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, low-phosphate bleaching (lpb1), which dies more rapidly than wild-type cells during phosphorus limitation. The responses of this mutant to nitrogen limitation appear normal, although the strain is also somewhat more sensitive than wild-type cells to sulfur deprivation. Interestingly, depriving the cells of both nutrients simultaneously allows for sustained survival that is similar to that observed with wild-type cells. Furthermore, upon phosphorus deprivation, the lpb1 mutant, like wild-type cells, exhibits increased levels of mRNA encoding the PHOX alkaline phosphatase, the PTB2 phosphate transporter, and the regulatory element PSR1. The mutant strain is also able to synthesize the extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity upon phosphorus deprivation and the arylsulfatase upon sulfur deprivation, suggesting that the specific responses to phosphorus and sulfur deprivation are normal. The LPB1 gene was tagged by insertion of the ARG7 gene, which facilitated its isolation and characterization. This gene encodes a protein with strong similarity to expressed proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and predicted proteins in Oryza sativa and Parachlamydia. A domain in the protein contains some similarity to the superfamily of nucleotide-diphospho-sugar transferases, and it is likely to be localized

  16. PARP-1 and YY1 are important novel regulators of CXCL12 gene transcription in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Marković, Jelena; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Karan-Djurašević, Teodora; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Arambašić, Jelena; Mihailović, Mirjana; Pavlović, Sonja; Poznanović, Goran; Vidaković, Melita

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress, the molecular mechanisms responsible for pancreatic beta cell depletion and development of diabetes remain poorly defined. At present, there is no preventive measure against diabetes. The positive impact of CXCL12 expression on the pancreatic beta cell prosurvival phenotype initiated this study. Our aim was to provide novel insight into the regulation of rat CXCL12 gene (Cxcl12) transcription. The roles of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in Cxcl12 transcription were studied by examining their in vitro and in vivo binding affinities for the Cxcl12 promoter in a pancreatic beta cell line by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The regulatory activities of PARP-1 and YY1 were assessed in transfection experiments using a reporter vector with a Cxcl12 promoter sequence driving luciferase gene expression. Experimental evidence for PARP-1 and YY1 revealed their trans-acting potential, wherein PARP-1 displayed an inhibitory, and YY1 a strong activating effect on Cxcl12 transcription. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced general toxicity in pancreatic beta cells was followed by changes in Cxcl12 promoter regulation. PARP-1 binding to the Cxcl12 promoter during basal and in STZ-compromised conditions led us to conclude that PARP-1 regulates constitutive Cxcl12 expression. During the early stage of oxidative stress, YY1 exhibited less affinity toward the Cxcl12 promoter while PARP-1 displayed strong binding. These interactions were accompanied by Cxcl12 downregulation. In the later stages of oxidative stress and intensive pancreatic beta cell injury, YY1 was highly expressed and firmly bound to Cxcl12 promoter in contrast to PARP-1. These interactions resulted in higher Cxcl12 expression. The observed ability of PARP-1 to downregulate, and of YY1 to upregulate Cxcl12 promoter activity anticipates corresponding effects in the natural context where the functional

  17. Importance of clustered 2'-O-(2-aminoethyl) residues for the gene targeting activity of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nitin; Majumdar, Alokes; Cuenoud, Bernard; Miller, Paul S; Seidman, Michael M

    2004-02-10

    We are developing triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) as gene targeting reagents in living mammalian cells. We have described psoralen-linked TFOs with 2'-O-methyl and 2'-O-(2-aminoethyl) (2'-AE) substitutions that are active in a gene knockout assay in cultured cells. The assay is based on mutagenesis by psoralen, a photoactive DNA cross-linker. Previous work showed that TFOs with three or four 2'-AE residues were disproportionately more active than those with one or two substitutions. Here we demonstrate that for optimal bioactivity the 2'-AE residues must be clustered rather than dispersed. We have further characterized bioactive and inactive TFOs in an effort to identify biochemical and biophysical correlates of biological activity. While thermal stability is a standard monitor of TFO biophysical activity, we find that T(m) values do not distinguish bioactive and inactive TFOs. In contrast, measurements of TFO association rates appear to correlate well with bioactivity, in that triplex formation occurs disproportionately faster with the TFOs containing three or four 2'-AE residues. We asked if extending the incubation time prior to photoactivation would enhance the bioactivity of a TFO with a slow on rate relative to the TFO with a faster association rate. However, there was no change in bioactivity differential. These results are compatible with a model in which TFO binding in vivo is followed by relatively rapid elution by cellular functions, similar to that described for transcription factors. Under these circumstances, TFOs with faster on rates would be favored because they would be more likely to be in triplexes at the time of photoactivation.

  18. Gene expression patterns and environmental enrichment-induced effects in the hippocampi of mice suggest importance of Lsamp in plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Heinla, Indrek; Leidmaa, Este; Kongi, Karina; Pennert, Airi; Innos, Jürgen; Nurk, Kaarel; Tekko, Triin; Singh, Katyayani; Vanaveski, Taavi; Reimets, Riin; Mandel, Merle; Lang, Aavo; Lilleväli, Kersti; Kaasik, Allen; Vasar, Eero; Philips, Mari-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp) gene is involved in behavioral adaptation in social and anxiogenic environments and has been associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric diseases. Here we studied the activity of alternative promoters of Lsamp gene in mice in three rearing conditions (standard housing, environmental enrichment and social isolation) and in two different genetic backgrounds (129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6). Isolation had no effect on the expression levels of Lsamp. Environmental enrichment elevated the expression levels of Lsamp 1b transcript specifically in the hippocampus in B6 mice, and the same tendency existed across both mouse lines and both transcripts. Furthermore, we showed that the density of cells exhibiting 1b promoter activity is remarkably higher in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation which is a specific area of enrichment-induced neurogenesis in adult rodents. On the contrary to 1b, 1a promoter is selectively active in the pyramidal and granule cell layers. We provide evidence that Lsamp modulates enrichment-induced activation of Bdnf as the enrichment-induced elevation of Bdnf in the hippocampus is significantly diminished in Lsamp-deficient mice; furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the expression levels of Lsamp and Bdnf transcripts in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Significant strain differences in Lsamp expression were detected in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and thalamus that could be related to the different behavioral phenotype of B6 and 129Sv mice. Our data provides further evidence that LSAMP is implicated in the hippocampal connectivity and plasticity thereby modulating adaptability in changing environments. PMID:26136648

  19. Gene expression patterns and environmental enrichment-induced effects in the hippocampi of mice suggest importance of Lsamp in plasticity.

    PubMed

    Heinla, Indrek; Leidmaa, Este; Kongi, Karina; Pennert, Airi; Innos, Jürgen; Nurk, Kaarel; Tekko, Triin; Singh, Katyayani; Vanaveski, Taavi; Reimets, Riin; Mandel, Merle; Lang, Aavo; Lilleväli, Kersti; Kaasik, Allen; Vasar, Eero; Philips, Mari-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp) gene is involved in behavioral adaptation in social and anxiogenic environments and has been associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric diseases. Here we studied the activity of alternative promoters of Lsamp gene in mice in three rearing conditions (standard housing, environmental enrichment and social isolation) and in two different genetic backgrounds (129S6/SvEv and C57BL/6). Isolation had no effect on the expression levels of Lsamp. Environmental enrichment elevated the expression levels of Lsamp 1b transcript specifically in the hippocampus in B6 mice, and the same tendency existed across both mouse lines and both transcripts. Furthermore, we showed that the density of cells exhibiting 1b promoter activity is remarkably higher in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation which is a specific area of enrichment-induced neurogenesis in adult rodents. On the contrary to 1b, 1a promoter is selectively active in the pyramidal and granule cell layers. We provide evidence that Lsamp modulates enrichment-induced activation of Bdnf as the enrichment-induced elevation of Bdnf in the hippocampus is significantly diminished in Lsamp-deficient mice; furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the expression levels of Lsamp and Bdnf transcripts in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Significant strain differences in Lsamp expression were detected in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and thalamus that could be related to the different behavioral phenotype of B6 and 129Sv mice. Our data provides further evidence that LSAMP is implicated in the hippocampal connectivity and plasticity thereby modulating adaptability in changing environments.

  20. Gene expression analysis reveals important pathways for drought response in leaves and roots of a wheat cultivar adapted to rainfed cropping in the Cerrado biome

    PubMed Central

    Poersch-Bortolon, Liane Balvedi; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Nhani, Antonio; Gonzáles, Hebert Hernán Soto; Torres, Gisele Abigail Montan; Consoli, Luciano; Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Drought limits wheat production in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. In order to search for candidate genes associated to the response to water deficit, we analyzed the gene expression profiles, under severe drought stress, in roots and leaves of the cultivar MGS1 Aliança, a well-adapted cultivar to the Cerrado. A set of 4,422 candidate genes was found in roots and leaves. The number of down-regulated transcripts in roots was higher than the up-regulated transcripts, while the opposite occurred in leaves. The number of common transcripts between the two tissues was 1,249, while 2,124 were specific to roots and 1,049 specific to leaves. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a 0.78 correlation with the expression data. The candidate genes were distributed across all chromosomes and component genomes, but a greater number was mapped on the B genome, particularly on chromosomes 3B, 5B and 2B. When considering both tissues, 116 different pathways were induced. One common pathway, among the top three activated pathways in both tissues, was starch and sucrose metabolism. These results pave the way for future marker development and selection of important genes and are useful for understanding the metabolic pathways involved in wheat drought response. PMID:27768155

  1. Mig-14 plays an important role in influencing gene expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, which contributes to cell invasion under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Hong; Xia, Qiufeng; Xu, Shungao; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    2013-11-01

    mig-14 is a horizontally acquired host-induced virulence gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The molecular function of mig-14 is still unknown; sequence analysis showed that mig-14 shared homology with the helix-loop-helix motif of the AraC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In our previous microarray-based studies, mig-14 was upregulated at the early stage of high osmotic stress, indicating a potential role under this condition. Therefore, we compared growth and the global transcriptional difference between wild-type and mig-14 mutant strains to identify the role of Mig-14. The results showed that growth of mig-14 mutant strain was clearly slower than that of the wild-type strain, and 148 genes showed significant differences in expression between these two strains under upshift high osmotic treatment for 30 min. In total, 77 genes and 71 genes in the mig-14 mutant strain were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Genes involved in invasion, virulence, flagellation, motility and chemotaxis of Salmonella were downregulated. Thus, cell invasion abilities of these two strains were further analyzed. The results confirmed that activities of mig-14 were important for cell invasion.

  2. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  3. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  4. Identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeasts based on nucleotide divergence in the 5' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzman, C P; Robnett, C J

    1997-01-01

    Clinically important species of Candida and related organisms were compared for extent of nucleotide divergence in the 5' end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene. This rDNA region is sufficiently variable to allow reliable separation of all known clinically significant yeast species. Of the 204 described species examined, 21 appeared to be synonyms of previously described organisms. Phylogenetic relationships among the species are presented. PMID:9114410

  5. Potential New Genes for Resistance to Mycosphaerella Graminicola Identified in Triticum Aestivum x Lophopyrum Elongatum Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lophopyrum species carry many desirable agronomic traits, including disease resistance, which can be transferred to wheat by interspecific hybridizations. To identify potentially new genes for disease and insect resistance carried by individual Lophopyrum chromosomes, 19 of 21 possible wheat cultiv...

  6. Ras gene product expression in blood and marrow smears of patients with acute leukemia: importance of fixation.

    PubMed

    Needleman, S W; Gutheil, J C; Kapil, V; Cimino, E F; Chana, G; Mane, S M

    1990-04-01

    Activation of ras protooncogenes by any of several possible mutations in codons 12, 13 or 61 has been demonstrated in a variety of human malignancies, including acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL). In situ staining for the ras gene product, p21, has been demonstrated in carcinomas of several sites. High levels of p21 expression have been associated with histologic anaplasia in prostate cancer and regional lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. We examined 16 marrow aspirates and blood smears from patients with acute leukemia, predominantly ANLL, and eight controls. Marrow aspirates or blood were smeared on glass slides and fixed immediately in 10% buffered formalin. p21 was examined with avidin-biotin linked immunoperoxidase visualization. Particular attention must be paid to antibody selection and fixation protocol to demonstrate p21, owing to its rapid degradation ex vivo. Three of 16 patients exhibited occasional high p21 expression primarily in leukemic blasts, but in no case were more than 10% of blast cells positive. Normal reticuloendothelial and myeloid cells occasionally exhibited mild to moderately heavy staining, but megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, lymphocytes and plasma cells were consistently negative. Most patients, 5 normal volunteers and 3 patients with non-malignant disease, exhibited no reactivity, or only a faint blush. These data suggest that while point mutation and concomitant activation of c-N-ras occurs regularly in ANLL, high levels of ras p21 expression are rarely found with this technique.

  7. Dextran-graft-linear poly(ethylene imine)s for gene delivery: importance of the linking strategy.

    PubMed

    Ochrimenko, Sofia; Vollrath, Antje; Tauhardt, Lutz; Kempe, Kristian; Schubert, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Fischer, Dagmar

    2014-11-26

    Low molar mass linear poly(ethylene imine)s (lPEI) were grafted onto dextran via different synthesis routes aiming at the elucidation of structure-property relationships of dextran-graft-linear poly(ethylene imine) (dex-g-lPEI) conjugates for gene delivery applications. Beside the molar mass of well-defined lPEIs and the linker unit, also the amount of lPEI in the polymeric vectors was varied. The synthesized dextran modifications were characterized regarding their chemical structure and showed enhanced complexation and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic degradation. The transfection efficiency of dex-g-lPEIs was increased compared to unmodified lPEI and revealed a dependency of the used linking strategy. All complexes of DNA and dex-g-lPEIs were found to be nontoxic, but the synthesis route showed a strong influence on the aggregation of red blood cells. In conclusion, the linking strategy of lPEI to dextran has a significant impact on the physicochemical characteristics of DNA/polymer complexes, the biocompatibility as well as the transfection efficiency.

  8. A Genomewide Screen for Tolerance to Cationic Drugs Reveals Genes Important for Potassium Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Lina; Canadell, David; Petrezsélyová, Silvia; Navarrete, Clara; Marešová, Lydie; Peréz-Valle, Jorge; Herrera, Rito; Olier, Iván; Giraldo, Jesús; Sychrová, Hana; Yenush, Lynne; Ramos, José; Ariño, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Potassium homeostasis is crucial for living cells. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the uptake of potassium is driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by the Pma1 H+-ATPase, and this process represents a major consumer of the gradient. We considered that any mutation resulting in an alteration of the electrochemical gradient could give rise to anomalous sensitivity to any cationic drug independently of its toxicity mechanism. Here, we describe a genomewide screen for mutants that present altered tolerance to hygromycin B, spermine, and tetramethylammonium. Two hundred twenty-six mutant strains displayed altered tolerance to all three drugs (202 hypersensitive and 24 hypertolerant), and more than 50% presented a strong or moderate growth defect at a limiting potassium concentration (1 mM). Functional groups such as protein kinases and phosphatases, intracellular trafficking, transcription, or cell cycle and DNA processing were enriched. Essentially, our screen has identified a substantial number of genes that were not previously described to play a direct or indirect role in potassium homeostasis. A subset of 27 representative mutants were selected and subjected to diverse biochemical tests that, in some cases, allowed us to postulate the basis for the observed phenotypes. PMID:21724935

  9. OsRRMh, a Spen-like gene, plays an important role during the vegetative to reproductive transition in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derui; Cai, Xiuling

    2013-09-01

    OsRRMh, a homologue of OsRRM, encodes a Spen-like protein, and is composed of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and one C-terminal Spen paralogue and an orthologue C-terminal domain (SPOC). The gene has been found to be constitutively expressed in the root, stem, leaf, spikelet, and immature seed, and alternative splicing patterns were confirmed in different tissues, which may indicate diverse functions for OsRRMh. The OsRRMh dsRNAi lines exhibited late-flowering and a larger panicle phenotype. When full-length OsRRMh and/or its SPOC domain were overexpressed, the fertility rate and number of spikelets per panicle were both markedly reduced. Also, overexpression of OsRRMh in the Arabidopsis fpa mutant did not restore the normal flowering time, and it delayed flowering in Col plants. Therefore, we propose that OsRRMh may confer one of its functions in the vegetative-to-reproductive transition in rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica cv. Zhonghua No. 11 (ZH11)).

  10. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J Alex; Murray, Seth C; Pugh, N Ace; Rooney, William L; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L S; Neely, Haly L; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F; Baltensperger, David D; Avant, Robert V; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1-the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons-of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project's goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first and

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for High-Throughput Phenotyping and Agronomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Murray, Seth C.; Pugh, N. Ace; Rooney, William L.; Shafian, Sanaz; Rajan, Nithya; Rouze, Gregory; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Neely, Haly L.; Rana, Aman; Bagavathiannan, Muthu V.; Henrickson, James; Bowden, Ezekiel; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff; Bishop, Michael P.; Sheridan, Ryan; Putman, Eric B.; Popescu, Sorin; Burks, Travis; Cope, Dale; Ibrahim, Amir; McCutchen, Billy F.; Baltensperger, David D.; Avant, Robert V.; Vidrine, Misty; Yang, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e.g., site-specific application of water and nutrients. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently gained traction as agricultural data collection systems. Using UAVs for agricultural remote sensing is an innovative technology that differs from traditional remote sensing in more ways than strictly higher-resolution images; it provides many new and unique possibilities, as well as new and unique challenges. Herein we report on processes and lessons learned from year 1—the summer 2015 and winter 2016 growing seasons–of a large multidisciplinary project evaluating UAV images across a range of breeding and agronomic research trials on a large research farm. Included are team and project planning, UAV and sensor selection and integration, and data collection and analysis workflow. The study involved many crops and both breeding plots and agronomic fields. The project’s goal was to develop methods for UAVs to collect high-quality, high-volume crop data with fast turnaround time to field scientists. The project included five teams: Administration, Flight Operations, Sensors, Data Management, and Field Research. Four case studies involving multiple crops in breeding and agronomic applications add practical descriptive detail. Lessons learned include critical information on sensors, air vehicles, and configuration parameters for both. As the first

  13. In silico analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing based methods for identification of medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Yeung, Ming-Yiu; Yue, Geoffrey; Au-Yeung, Rex K H; Yeung, Eugene Y H; Fung, Ami M Y; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2011-09-01

    This study provides guidelines on the usefulness of full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Microseq databases for identifying medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing can identify 26.1 % and 32.6 %, respectively, of medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria confidently to the species level, whereas the full-MicroSeq and 500-MicroSeq databases can identify 15.2 % and 26.1 %, respectively, of medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria confidently to the species level. Among the major groups of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the methods and databases are least useful for identification of Aeromonas, Bordetella and Bartonella species. None of the Aeromonas species can be confidently or doubtfully identified, whereas only 0 % and 0-33.3 % of Bordetella species and 0-10 % and 0-10 % of Bartonella species can be confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. On the other hand, these methods and databases are most useful for identification of members of the families Pasteurellaceae and Legionellaceae and Campylobacter species: 29.6-59.3 % and 7.4-18.5 % of members of Pasteurellaceae, 36-52 % and 12-24 % of members of Legionellaceae, and 26.7-60 % and 0-13.3 % of Campylobacter species can be confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. Thirty-nine medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that should be confidently identified by full 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the full-MicroSeq database. Twenty-three medically important aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that should be confidently identified by 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the 500-MicroSeq database. Compared with results of our previous studies on anaerobic and Gram-positive bacteria, full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing are able to confidently identify significantly more anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria than aerobic Gram

  14. A high-throughput genetic screen identifies previously uncharacterized Borrelia burgdorferi genes important for resistance against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Meghan E.; Hyde, Jenny A.; Medina-Perez, Diana N.; Gao, Lihui; Lundt, Maureen E.; Li, Xin; Norris, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro. The screens identified 66 genes whose disruption resulted in increased susceptibility to at least one of the stressors. These genes include previously characterized mediators of ROS and RNS resistance (including components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway and a subunit of a riboflavin transporter), as well as novel putative resistance candidates. DNA repair mutants were among the most sensitive to RNS in the Tn-seq screen, and survival assays with individual Tn mutants confirmed that the putative ribonuclease BB0839 is involved in resistance to nitric oxide. In contrast, mutants lacking predicted inner membrane proteins or transporters were among the most sensitive to ROS, and the contribution of three such membrane proteins (BB0017, BB0164, and BB0202) to ROS sensitivity was confirmed using individual Tn mutants and complemented strains. Further analysis showed that levels of intracellular manganese are significantly reduced in the Tn::bb0164 mutant, identifying a novel role for BB0164 in B. burgdorferi manganese homeostasis. Infection of C57BL/6 and gp91phox-/- mice with a mini-library of 39 Tn mutants showed that many of the genes identified in the in vitro screens are required for infectivity in mice. Collectively, our data provide insight into how B. burgdorferi responds to ROS and RNS and suggests that this response is relevant to the in vivo success of the organism

  15. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihui; Meng, Yan; Surana, Priyanka; Fuerst, Greg; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like peptides in barley, wheat, and rice, are highly induced by attack from fungal pathogens, in particular, the obligate biotrophic fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of barley powdery mildew. Previous research indicated that Blufensin1 (Bln1) functions as a negative regulator of basal defense mechanisms. In the current report, we show that BLN1 and BLN2 can both be secreted to the apoplast and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated overexpression of Bln2 increases susceptibility of barley to Bgh. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays signify that BLN1 and BLN2 can interact with each other, and with calmodulin. We then used BSMV-induced gene silencing to knock down Bln1, followed by Barley1 GeneChip transcriptome analysis, to identify additional host genes influenced by Bln1. Analysis of differential expression revealed a gene set enriched for those encoding proteins annotated to nuclear import and the secretory pathway, particularly Importin α1-b and Sec61 γ subunits. Further functional analysis of these two affected genes showed that when silenced, they also reduced susceptibility to Bgh. Taken together, we postulate that Bln1 is co-opted by Bgh to facilitate transport of disease-related host proteins or effectors, influencing the establishment of Bgh compatibility on its barley host. PMID:26089830

  16. Analysis of gene-disruption mutants of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene in rice, OsSPS1, shows the importance of sucrose synthesis in pollen germination.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuro; Hashida, Yoichi; Aoki, Naohiro; Okamura, Masaki; Yonekura, Madoka; Ohto, Chikara; Terao, Tomio; Ohsugi, Ryu

    2014-08-01

    The molecular function of an isoform of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in rice, OsSPS1, was investigated using gene-disruption mutant lines generated by retrotransposon insertion. The progeny of the heterozygote of disrupted OsSPS1 (SPS1(+/-)) segregated into SPS1(+/+), SPS1(+/-), and SPS1(-/-) at a ratio of 1:1:0. This distorted segregation ratio, together with the expression of OsSPS1 in the developing pollen revealed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion assay, suggested that the disruption of OsSPS1 results in sterile pollen. This hypothesis was reinforced by reciprocal crosses of SPS1(+/-) plants with wild-type plants in which the disrupted OsSPS1 was not paternally transmitted to the progeny. While the pollen grains of SPS(+/-) plants normally accumulated starch during their development, pollen germination on the artificial media was reduced to half of that observed in the wild-type control. Overall, our data suggests that sucrose synthesis via OsSPS1 is essential in pollen germination in rice.

  17. The clock gene cycle plays an important role in the circadian clock of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Karpova, Svetlana G; Tomioka, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To dissect the molecular oscillatory mechanism of the circadian clock in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, we have cloned a cDNA of the clock gene cycle (Gb'cyc) and analyzed its structure and function. Gb'cyc contains four functional domains, i.e. bHLH, PAS-A, PAS-B and BCTR domains, and is expressed rhythmically in light dark cycles, peaking at mid night. The RNA interference (RNAi) of Clock (Gb'Clk) and period (Gb'per) reduced the Gb'cyc mRNA levels and abolished the rhythmic expression, suggesting that the rhythmic expression of Gb'cyc is regulated by a mechanism including Gb'Clk and Gb'per. These features are more similar to those of mammalian orthologue of cyc (Bmal1) than those of Drosophila cyc. A single treatment with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of Gb'cyc effectively knocked down the Gb'cyc mRNA level and abolished its rhythmic expression. The cyc RNAi failed to disrupt the locomotor rhythm, but lengthened its free-running period in constant darkness (DD). It is thus likely that Gb'cyc is involved in the circadian clock machinery of the cricket. The cyc RNAi crickets showed a rhythmic expression of Gb'per and timeless (Gb'tim) in the optic lobe in DD, explaining the persistence of the locomotor rhythm. Surprisingly, cyc RNAi revealed a rhythmic expression of Gb'Clk in DD which is otherwise rather constitutively expressed in the optic lobe. These facts suggest that the cricket might have a unique clock oscillatory mechanism in which both Gb'cyc and Gb'Clk are rhythmically controlled and that under abundant expression of Gb'cyc the rhythmic expression of Gb'Clk may be concealed.

  18. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-02-26

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.

  19. Genetic and Association Mapping Study of Wheat Agronomic Traits Under Contrasting Water Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Dodig, Dejan; Zoric, Miroslav; Kobiljski, Borislav; Savic, Jasna; Kandic, Vesna; Quarrie, Steve; Barnes, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic analyses and association mapping were performed on a winter wheat core collection of 96 accessions sampled from a variety of geographic origins. Twenty-four agronomic traits were evaluated over 3 years under fully irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments. Grain yield was the most sensitive trait to water deficit and was highly correlated with above-ground biomass per plant and number of kernels per m2. The germplasm was structured into four subpopulations. The association of 46 SSR loci distributed throughout the wheat genome with yield and agronomic traits was analyzed using a general linear model, where subpopulation information was used to control false-positive or spurious marker-trait associations (MTAs). A total of 26, 21 and 29 significant (P < 0.001) MTAs were identified in irrigated, rainfed and drought treatments, respectively. The marker effects ranged from 14.0 to 50.8%. Combined across all treatments, 34 significant (P < 0.001) MTAs were identified with nine markers, and R2 ranged from 14.5 to 50.2%. Marker psp3200 (6DS) and particularly gwm484 (2DS) were associated with many significant MTAs in each treatment and explained the greatest proportion of phenotypic variation. Although we were not able to recognize any marker related to grain yield under drought stress, a number of MTAs associated with developmental and agronomic traits highly correlated with grain yield under drought were identified. PMID:22754357

  20. Generation of insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant rice by introduction of a T-DNA containing two Bt insecticidal genes and an EPSPS gene*

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Qi-chao; LIU, Ming-hong; ZHANG, Xian-wen; LIN, Chao-yang; ZHANG, Qing; SHEN, Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance have been two of the most important traits in the genetic improvement of various crops. In this study, two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ig, and a modified glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene (G10) were combined into a single transferred DNA (T-DNA) fragment and introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transgenic line with single-copy T-DNA insertion named GAI-14 was found to be highly resistant to striped stem borer and rice leaf roller, and tolerant to glyphosate. Analysis of T-DNA border sequence suggested that the transgenes were inserted at the chromosome 3 and appeared to have not interrupted any known or putative genes. A field trial observed no significant difference in the basic agronomic traits between GAI-14 and the recipient rice. PMID:26465130

  1. Whole-Genome Mapping of Agronomic and Metabolic Traits to Identify Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Bread Wheat Grown in a Water-Limited Environment1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Camilla B.; Taylor, Julian D.; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  2. Screening Reliable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Jun-Cheng; OuYang, Kun-Xi; Ding, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Shu-Qi; Lin, Meng-Fei; Chen, Han-Bin; Hu, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a promising plant species for oil and forage, but its genetic improvement is limited. Our current breeding program in this species focuses on exploiting the functional genes associated with important agronomical traits. Here, we screened reliable reference genes for accurately quantifying the expression of target genes using the technique of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in M. oleifera. Eighteen candidate reference genes were selected from a transcriptome database, and their expression stabilities were examined in 90 samples collected from the pods in different developmental stages, various tissues, and the roots and leaves under different conditions (low or high temperature, sodium chloride (NaCl)- or polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- simulated water stress). Analyses with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms revealed that the reliable reference genes differed across sample designs and that ribosomal protein L1 (RPL1) and acyl carrier protein 2 (ACP2) were the most suitable reference genes in all tested samples. The experiment results demonstrated the significance of using the properly validated reference genes and suggested the use of more than one reference gene to achieve reliable expression profiles. In addition, we applied three isotypes of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene that are associated with plant adaptation to abiotic stress to confirm the efficacy of the validated reference genes under NaCl and PEG water stresses. Our results provide a valuable reference for future studies on identifying important functional genes from their transcriptional expressions via RT-qPCR technique in M. oleifera. PMID:27541138

  3. An evolutionarily conserved gene, FUWA, plays a role in determining panicle architecture, grain shape and grain weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Gao, He; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Jin, Mingna; Weng, Jian-Feng; Ma, Jin; Ren, Yulong; Zhou, Kunneng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jian-Min

    2015-08-01

    Plant breeding relies on creation of novel allelic combinations for desired traits. Identification and utilization of beneficial alleles, rare alleles and evolutionarily conserved genes in the germplasm (referred to as 'hidden' genes) provide an effective approach to achieve this goal. Here we show that a chemically induced null mutation in an evolutionarily conserved gene, FUWA, alters multiple important agronomic traits in rice, including panicle architecture, grain shape and grain weight. FUWA encodes an NHL domain-containing protein, with preferential expression in the root meristem, shoot apical meristem and inflorescences, where it restricts excessive cell division. Sequence analysis revealed that FUWA has undergone a bottleneck effect, and become fixed in landraces and modern cultivars during domestication and breeding. We further confirm a highly conserved role of FUWA homologs in determining panicle architecture and grain development in rice, maize and sorghum through genetic transformation. Strikingly, knockdown of the FUWA transcription level by RNA interference results in an erect panicle and increased grain size in both indica and japonica genetic backgrounds. This study illustrates an approach to create new germplasm with improved agronomic traits for crop breeding by tapping into evolutionary conserved genes.

  4. Putative recombination events and evolutionary history of five economically important viruses of fruit trees based on coat protein-encoding gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Boulila, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the knowledge of recombination as an evolutionary process, 267 accessions retrieved from GenBank were investigated, all belonging to five economically important viruses infecting fruit crops (Plum pox, Apple chlorotic leaf spot, Apple mosaic, Prune dwarf, and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses). Putative recombinational events were detected in the coat protein (CP)-encoding gene using RECCO and RDP version 3.31beta algorithms. Based on RECCO results, all five viruses were shown to contain potential recombination signals in the CP gene. Reconstructed trees with modified topologies were proposed. Furthermore, RECCO performed better than the RDP package in detecting recombination events and exhibiting their evolution rate along the sequences of the five viruses. RDP, however, provided the possible major and minor parents of the recombinants. Thus, the two methods should be considered complementary.

  5. Sequences of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene are suitable for species identification of Korean Calliphorinae flies of forensic importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hwan; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Yu, Dong Ha; Jeong, Hyun Ju; Yoo, Ga Young; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2009-09-01

    Calliphorinae fly species are important indicators of the postmortem interval especially during early spring and late fall in Korea. Although nucleotide sequences of various Calliphorinae fly species are available, there has been no research on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences of Korean Calliphorinae flies. Here, we report the full-length sequences of the COI gene of four Calliphorinae fly species collected in Korea (five individuals of Calliphora vicina, five Calliphora lata, four Triceratopyga calliphoroides and three Aldrichina grahami). Each COI gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced and the resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned and analyzed by MEGA4 software. The results indicate that COI nucleotide sequences can be used to distinguish between these four species. Our phylogenetic result coincides with recent taxonomic views on the subfamily Calliphorinae in that the genera Aldrichina and Triceratopyga are nested within the genus Calliphora.

  6. Analysis of gene expression and regulation implicates C2H9orf152 has an important role in calcium metabolism and chicken reproduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Fan, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhenhe; Yang, Chan; Geng, Tuoyu; Gong, Daoqing; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    The reproductive system of a female bird is responsible for egg production. The genes highly expressed in oviduct are potentially important. From RNA-seq analysis, C2H9orf152 (an orthologous gene of human C9orf152) was identified as highly expressed in chicken uterus. To infer its function, we obtained and characterized its complete cDNA sequence, determined its spatiotemporal expression, and probed its transcription factor(s) through pharmaceutical approach. Data showed that the complete cDNA sequence was 1468bp long with a 789bp of open reading frame. Compared to other tested tissues, this gene was highly expressed in the oviduct and liver tissues, especially uterus. Its expression in uterus was gradually increased during developmental and reproductive periods, which verified its involvement in the growth and maturity of reproductive system. In contrast, its expression was not significant different between active and quiescent uterus, suggesting the role of C2H9orf152 in reproduction is likely due to its long-term effect. Moreover, based on its 5'-flanking sequence, Foxd3 and Hnf4a were predicted as transcription factors of C2H9orf152. Using berberine or retinoic acid (which can regulate the activities of Hnf4a and Foxd3, respectively), we demonstrated suppression of C2H9orf152 by the chemicals in chicken primary hepatocytes. As retinoic acid regulates calcium metabolism, and Hnf4a is a key nuclear factor to liver, these findings suggest that C2H9orf152 is involved in liver function and calcium metabolism of reproductive system. In conclusion, C2H9orf152 may have a long-term effect on chicken reproductive system by regulating calcium metabolism, suggesting this gene has an important implication in the improvement of egg production and eggshell quality.

  7. Effects of FGF10 on bovine oocyte meiosis progression, apoptosis, embryo development and relative abundance of developmentally important genes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pomini Pinto, R F; Fontes, P K; Loureiro, B; Sousa Castilho, A C; Sousa Ticianelli, J; Montanari Razza, E; Satrapa, R A; Buratini, J; Moraes Barros, C

    2015-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) acts at the cumulus oocyte complex, increasing the expression of cumulus cell expansion-related genes and oocyte competency genes. We tested the hypothesis that addition of FGF10 to the maturation medium improves oocyte maturation, decreases the percentage of apoptotic oocytes and increases development to the blastocyst stage while increasing the relative abundance of developmentally important genes (COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8). In all experiments, oocytes were matured for 22 h in TCM-199 supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10 or 50 ng/ml FGF10. In Experiment 1, after maturation, oocytes were stained with Hoechst to evaluate meiosis progression (metaphase I, intermediary phases and extrusion of the first polar body) and submitted to the TUNEL assay to evaluate apoptosis. In Experiment 2, oocytes were fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were frozen for analysis of COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8 relative abundance. In Experiment 1, 2.5 ng/ml FGF10 increased (p < 0.05) the percentage of oocytes with extrusion of the first polar body (35%) compared to 0, 10 and 50 ng/ml FGF10 (21, 14 and 12%, respectively) and FGF10 decreased the percentage of oocytes that were TUNEL positive in all doses studied. In Experiment 2, there was no difference in the percentage of oocytes becoming blastocysts between treatments and control. Real-time RT-PCR showed a tendency of 50 ng/ml FGF10 to increase the relative abundance of COX2 and PLAC8 and of 10 ng/ml FGF10 to increase CDX2. In conclusion, the addition of FGF10 to the oocyte maturation medium improves oocyte maturation in vitro, decreases the percentage of apoptotic oocytes and tends to increase the relative abundance of developmentally important genes.

  8. Automated Identification of Medically Important Bacteria by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Using a Novel Comprehensive Database, 16SpathDB▿

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Yeung, Juilian M. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. To overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16SpathDB (http://147.8.74.24/16SpathDB) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology and evaluated its use for automated identification of these bacteria. Among 91 nonduplicated bacterial isolates collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory, 71 (78%) were reported by 16SpathDB as a single bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, 19 (20.9%) were reported as more than one bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, and 1 (1.1%) was reported as no match. For the 71 bacterial isolates reported as a single bacterial species, all results were identical to their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach. For the 19 bacterial isolates reported as more than one bacterial species, all results contained their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach and all of them had their true identities as the “best match in 16SpathDB.” For the isolate (Gordonibacter pamelaeae) reported as no match, the bacterium has never been reported to be associated with human disease and was not included in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 16SpathDB is an automated, user-friendly, efficient, accurate, and regularly updated database for 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:21389154

  9. Mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles suggest an important role of PGC-1alpha in the compensatory mechanism of endemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shu-Lan; Tan, Wu-Hong; Zhang, Zeng-Tie; Zhang, Feng; Qu, Cheng-Juan; Lei, Yan-Xia; Zhu, Yan-He; Yu, Han-Jie; Xiang, You-Zhang; and others

    2013-10-15

    Keshan disease (KD) is an endemic dilated cardiomyopathy with unclear etiology. In this study, we compared mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 16 KD patients and 16 normal controls in KD areas. Total RNA was isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 4×44k whole genome microarrays. Mitochondrial-related genes were screened out by the Third-Generation Human Mitochondria-Focused cDNA Microarray (hMitChip3). Quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters related mitochondrial metabolism were conducted to validate our microarray results. In KD samples, 34 up-regulated genes (ratios≥2.0) were detected by significance analysis of microarrays and ingenuity systems pathway analysis (IPA). The highest ranked molecular and cellular functions of the differentially regulated genes were closely related to amino acid metabolism, free radical scavenging, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy production. Using IPA, 40 significant pathways and four significant networks, involved mainly in apoptosis, mitochondrion dysfunction, and nuclear receptor signaling were identified. Based on our results, we suggest that PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis might play an important role in the compensatory mechanism of KD. Our results may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarkers for KD in PBMCs, and may help to understand the pathogenesis of KD. Highlights: • Thirty-four up-regulated genes were detected in KD versus health controls. • Forty pathways and four networks were detected in KD. • PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis in KD.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Polygonum minus reveals candidate genes involved in important secondary metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Kok-Keong; Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Reyhaneh; Yeoh, Chean-Chean; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2017-01-01

    Background Polygonum minus is an herbal plant in the Polygonaceae family which is rich in ethnomedicinal plants. The chemical composition and characteristic pungent fragrance of Polygonum minus have been extensively studied due to its culinary and medicinal properties. There are only a few transcriptome sequences available for species from this important family of medicinal plants. The limited genetic information from the public expressed sequences tag (EST) library hinders further study on molecular mechanisms underlying secondary metabolite production. Methods In this study, we performed a hybrid assembly of 454 and Illumina sequencing reads from Polygonum minus root and leaf tissues, respectively, to generate a combined transcriptome library as a reference. Results A total of 34.37 million filtered and normalized reads were assembled into 188,735 transcripts with a total length of 136.67 Mbp. We performed a similarity search against all the publicly available genome sequences and found similarity matches for 163,200 (86.5%) of Polygonum minus transcripts, largely from Arabidopsis thaliana (58.9%). Transcript abundance in the leaf and root tissues were estimated and validated through RT-qPCR of seven selected transcripts involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. All the transcripts were annotated against KEGG pathways to profile transcripts related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Discussion This comprehensive transcriptome profile will serve as a useful sequence resource for molecular genetics and evolutionary research on secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Polygonaceae family. Transcriptome assembly of Polygonum minus can be accessed at http://prims.researchfrontier.org/index.php/dataset/transcriptome. PMID:28265493

  11. The Importance of an In-depth Study of Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements When Ascertaining the Clonal Relationship between Concomitant Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, Stéphanie; Ghamlouch, Hussein; Dremaux, Julie; Delette, Caroline; Harrivel, Véronique; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Gubler, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are hematological disorders that occur at different stages of B-cell development. It has been shown that CLL B-cells can differentiate into plasma cells in vitro and in vivo. CLL is the most frequent adult leukemia in the western world. It is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by clonal proliferation and the accumulation of mature CD5+ B lymphocytes (1). MM is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for more than 10% of all hematologic cancers (2). Although secondary cancers [particularly solid tumors (3–5)] can occur with CLL and MM, the concomitant occurrence of these two disorders in the same patient is rare [for a review of the few reported cases, see Ref. (6)]. The clonal relationship between these diseases has not always been clarified but is important in terms of understanding the pathogenesis and optimizing treatment. The clonal relationship between CLL and MM can be evaluated by (i) analyzing immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and light chain (Ig kappa light chain and Ig lambda light chain) gene rearrangement, (ii) identifying and comparing somatic mutations, and (iii) studying chromosomic aberrations. Nevertheless, Ig rearrangements must always be interpreted in the light of specific phenomena such as allelic exclusion, B-cell receptor (BCR) revision (VH and DH gene replacement), BCR editing, and somatic mutations—events that were not considered in previous studies. These issues can be addressed by sequencing the rearranged Ig genes from sorted populations and interpreting the generated data. In the present study, we evaluated the putative clonal relationship between the two diseases by combining DNA copy number analysis with an assessment of Ig gene rearrangements [clonality assessment, V(D)J sequencing, and somatic hypermutation analysis] in highly enriched CD19+ CD5+ (CLL) and CD38+ CD138+ (MM) cell populations. Array comparative genomic hybridization data suggested a possible

  12. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans.

  13. The importance of being (slightly) modified: The role of rRNA editing on gene expression control and its connections with cancer.

    PubMed

    Penzo, Marianna; Galbiati, Alice; Treré, Davide; Montanaro, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    In human ribosomal RNAs, over 200 residues are modified by specific, RNA-driven enzymatic complexes or stand-alone, RNA-independent enzymes. In most cases, modification sites are placed in specific positions within important functional areas of the ribosome. Some evidence indicates that the altered control in ribosomal RNA modifications may affect ribosomal function during mRNA translation. Here we provide an overview of the connections linking ribosomal RNA modifications to ribosome function, and suggest how aberrant modifications may affect the control of the expression of key cancer genes, thus contributing to tumor development. In addition, the future perspectives in this field are discussed.

  14. Predictive modelling of complex agronomic and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Keurentjes, Joost J B; Molenaar, Jaap; Zwaan, Bas J

    2013-09-01

    Biological systems are tremendously complex in their functioning and regulation. Studying the multifaceted behaviour and describing the performance of such complexity has challenged the scientific community for years. The reduction of real-world intricacy into simple descriptive models has therefore convinced many researchers of the usefulness of introducing mathematics into biological sciences. Predictive modelling takes such an approach another step further in that it takes advantage of existing knowledge to project the performance of a system in alternating scenarios. The ever growing amounts of available data generated by assessing biological systems at increasingly higher detail provide unique opportunities for future modelling and experiment design. Here we aim to provide an overview of the progress made in modelling over time and the currently prevalent approaches for iterative modelling cycles in modern biology. We will further argue for the importance of versatility in modelling approaches, including parameter estimation, model reduction and network reconstruction. Finally, we will discuss the difficulties in overcoming the mathematical interpretation of in vivo complexity and address some of the future challenges lying ahead.

  15. The miR-125 family is an important regulator of the expression and maintenance of maternal effect genes during preimplantational embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa; Seo, You-Mi; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Su-Yeon; Kwon, Jini; Ko, Jung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that Sebox is a new maternal effect gene (MEG) that is required for early embryo development beyond the two-cell (2C) stage because this gene orchestrates the expression of important genes for zygotic genome activation (ZGA). However, regulators of Sebox expression remain unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to use bioinformatics tools to identify such regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) and to determine the effects of the identified miRNAs on Sebox expression. Using computational algorithms, we identified a motif within the 3′UTR of Sebox mRNA that is specific to the seed region of the miR-125 family, which includes miR-125a-5p, miR-125b-5p and miR-351-5p. During our search for miRNAs, we found that the Lin28a 3′UTR also contains the same binding motif for the seed region of the miR-125 family. In addition, we confirmed that Lin28a also plays a role as a MEG and affects ZGA at the 2C stage, without affecting oocyte maturation or fertilization. Thus, we provide the first report indicating that the miR-125 family plays a crucial role in regulating MEGs related to the 2C block and in regulating ZGA through methods such as affecting Sebox and Lin28a in oocytes and embryos. PMID:27906131

  16. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-08-19

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants.

  17. The presence of Anf/Hesx1 homeobox gene in lampreys suggests that it could play an important role in emergence of telencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Bayramov, Andrey V.; Ermakova, Galina V.; Eroshkin, Fedor M.; Kucheryavyy, Alexandr V.; Martynova, Natalia Y.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence indicates that the core genetic mechanisms regulating early patterning of the brain rudiment in vertebrates are very similar to those operating during development of the anterior region of invertebrate embryos. However, the mechanisms underlying the morphological differences between the elaborate vertebrate brain and its simpler invertebrate counterpart remain poorly understood. Recently, we hypothesized that the emergence of the most anterior unit of the vertebrate brain, the telencephalon, could be related to the appearance in vertebrates’ ancestors of a unique homeobox gene, Anf/Hesx1(further Anf), which is absent from all invertebrates and regulates the earliest steps of telencephalon development in vertebrates. However, the failure of Anf to be detected in one of the most basal extant vertebrate species, the lamprey, seriously compromises this hypothesis. Here, we report the cloning of Anf in three lamprey species and demonstrate that this gene is indeed expressed in embryos in the same pattern as in other vertebrates and executes the same functions by inhibiting the expression of the anterior general regulator Otx2 in favour of the telencephalic regulator FoxG1. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Anf homeobox gene may have been important in the evolution of the telencephalon. PMID:28008996

  18. The Rcs phosphorelay system is specific to enteric pathogens/commensals and activates ydeI, a gene important for persistent Salmonella infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kimberly D; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria utilize phosphorelay systems to respond to environmental or intracellular stimuli. Salmonella enterica encodes a four-step phosphorelay system that involves two sensor kinase proteins, RcsC and RcsD, and a response regulator, RcsB. The physiological stimulus for Rcs phosphorelay activation is unknown; however, Rcs-regulated genes can be induced in vitro by osmotic shock, low temperature and antimicrobial peptide exposure. In this report we investigate the role of the Rcs pathway using phylogenetic analysis and experimental techniques. Phylogenetic analysis determined that full-length RcsC- and RcsD-like proteins are generally restricted to Enterobacteriaceae species that have an enteric pathogenic or commensal relationship with the host. Experimental data show that RcsD and RcsB, in addition to RcsC, are important for systemic infection in mice and polymyxin B resistance in vitro. To identify Rcs-regulated genes that confer these phenotypes, we took advantage of our observation that RcsA, a transcription factor and binding partner of RcsB, is not required for polymyxin B resistance or survival in mice. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium oligonucleotide microarrays were used to identify 18 loci that are activated by RcsC, RcsD and RcsB but not RcsA. Five of the 18 loci encode genes that contribute to polymyxin B resistance. One of these genes, ydeI, was shown by quantitative real-time PCR to be regulated by the Rcs pathway independently of RcsA. Additionally, the stationary-phase sigma factor, RpoS (sigmaS), regulates ydeI transcription. In vivo infections show that ydeI mutants are out-competed by wild type 10- to 100-fold after oral inoculation, but are only modestly attenuated after intraperitoneal inoculation. These data indicate that ydeI is an Rcs-activated gene that plays an important role in persistent infection of mice, possibly by increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

  19. The subunit gene Ldα1 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays important roles in the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam against Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Chenge; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wenchao; Han, Zhaojun; Jiang, Weihua

    2016-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ACh-gated ion channels. It is believed that nAChRs composed of different subunits may vary in their function and toxicological characteristics. Neonicotinoids are activators of nAChRs and important insecticides that are extensively used for crop protection and resistance has been developed by some pests. They are also major insecticides for the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is a destructive defoliator pest that invaded the Xinjiang region of China in the 1990s. However, little is known about the constitution or subunits of the target in this pest. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding four new nAChR subunits (named Ldα3, Ldα6, Ldα10, and Ldβ1) were cloned from L. decemlineata. These genes encode 822-, 753-, 672-, and 759-amino acid proteins, respectively, which share typical features of insect nAChRs subunits and closely resemble the corresponding subunits of the nAChRs from Tribolium castaneum. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed that these genes, as well as the previously identified Ldα1, Ldα2, and Ldα8 genes, are widely expressed in all developmental stages, including eggs, larvae of various instars, pupae, and adults. All genes monitored were expressed at higher levels in the head than in the thorax and abdomen, except for Ldα10. Dietary ingestion of double-stranded RNA bacterially expressed for Ldα1 (dsLdα1) significantly reduced the mRNA level of Ldα1 in treated larvae and adults by 48.0% and 78.6%, respectively. Among the non-target genes, Ldα3, Ldα9, and Ldβ1 were significantly up-regulated in larvae. A toxicity bioassay showed that dsLdα1 treatment greatly decreased the sensitivity to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in adults. The larval susceptibility to thiamethoxam but not to imidacloprid was also reduced because of the lower down-regulation of Ldα1. Thus, our results suggest that Ldα1 encodes a subunit of a functional nAChR that mediates the

  20. Genetic analysis of three important genes in pigmentation and melanoma susceptibility: CDKN2A, MC1R and HERC2/OCA2.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Fernandez, Lara P; Pita, Guillermo; Bravo, Jerónimo; Floristan, Uxua; Sendagorta, Elena; Feito, Marta; Avilés, José A; Martin-Gonzalez, Manuel; Lázaro, Pablo; Benítez, Javier; Ribas, Gloria

    2010-09-01

    The CDKN2A gene is regarded as the major familial malignant melanoma (MM) susceptibility gene. Human pigmentation is one of the main modulators of individual risk of developing MM. Therefore, the genes involved in the determination of skin colour and tanning response are potentially implicated in MM predisposition and may be useful predictors of MM risk in the general population. The human melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in pigmentation and also appears to be important in MM. The OCA2 gene has emerged as a new and significant determinant of human iris colour variation. We present a case-control study in Spanish population including 390 consecutive patients with melanoma and 254 control subjects. Sequence analysis of the entire coding region and genotyping of 5 tag-SNPs in the genomic region of MC1R was performed. We identified 27 variants, two reaching statistical significance [R160W (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.24-14.04, P = 0.02) and D294H (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.37-7.01, P = 0.01)] and we detected two novel non-synonymous changes: V92L and T308M. Odds ratio for carrying two functional variants was 4.25 (95% CI: 2.30-7.84, P = 3.63 x 10(-6)). Haplotypes of the entire MC1R region have been established, and we observed an enrichment of a rare European haplotype similar to African values carrying variants V92M and I155T. In addition, three potentially functional SNPs were selected in p16/CDKN2A and in the promoter region of OCA2/HERC2. Our data for CDKN2A gene did not reach statistically significant results for any of the two studied alleles. We found that the variant allele A > G of OCA2/HERC2 (rs12913832) was associated with pigmentation features: eye, hair and skin colour; P-values = 1.8 x 10(-29), 9.2 x 10(-16), 1.1 x 10(-3), respectively, validating previous results.

  1. XAANTAL2 (AGL14) Is an Important Component of the Complex Gene Regulatory Network that Underlies Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem Transitions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V; García-Ponce, Berenice; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Ugartechea-Chirino, Yamel; Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; de Folter, Stefan; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Dávila-Velderrain, José; Cruz-Sánchez, David; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Estévez-Palmas, Juan M; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2015-05-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple genes involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM) transitions have been characterized, but the mechanisms required for the dynamic attainment of vegetative, inflorescence, and floral meristem (VM, IM, FM) cell fates during SAM transitions are not well understood. Here we show that a MADS-box gene, XAANTAL2 (XAL2/AGL14), is necessary and sufficient to induce flowering, and its regulation is important in FM maintenance and determinacy. xal2 mutants are late flowering, particularly under short-day (SD) condition, while XAL2 overexpressing plants are early flowering, but their flowers have vegetative traits. Interestingly, inflorescences of the latter plants have higher expression levels of LFY, AP1, and TFL1 than wild-type plants. In addition we found that XAL2 is able to bind the TFL1 regulatory regions. On the other hand, the basipetal carpels of the 35S::XAL2 lines lose determinacy and maintain high levels of WUS expression under SD condition. To provide a mechanistic explanation for the complex roles of XAL2 in SAM transitions and the apparently paradoxical phenotypes of XAL2 and other MADS-box (SOC1, AGL24) overexpressors, we conducted dynamic gene regulatory network (GRN) and epigenetic landscape modeling. We uncovered a GRN module that underlies VM, IM, and FM gene configurations and transition patterns in wild-type plants as well as loss and gain of function lines characterized here and previously. Our approach thus provides a novel mechanistic framework for understanding the complex basis of SAM development.

  2. Are dopaminergic genes involved in a predisposition to pathological aggression? Hypothesizing the importance of "super normal controls" in psychiatricgenetic research of complex behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Mathews, Daniel; Fisher, Larry; Schnautz, Nancy; Braverman, Eric R; Schoolfield, John; Downs, Bernard W; Comings, David E

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that pathological aggression, a complex behavioral disorder, in adolescents may in part involve polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system. While a number of neurotransmitter systems must be involved, due to polygenic inheritance, one major pathway should involve the dopaminergic system. Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of aggression and violence have given rise to rational pharmacological treatments for these behaviors. The main biological systems that are known to be involved are certain reward neurotransmitters including: serotonin, opioid peptides, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine). It is our notion that pathological aggressive behavior is in part similar mechanistically to other forms of impulsive behaviors such as pathological gambling. By analogy to drug dependence, it has been speculated that the underlying pathology in pathological gambling is a reduction in the sensitivity of the reward system. While studying pathological gamblers and controls during a guessing game using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Reuter et al. observed a reduction of ventral striatal and ventromedial prefrontal activation in the pathological gamblers that were negatively correlated with gambling severity. Subsequently, linking hypo activation of these areas to disease severity. A positive correlation of both the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) polymorphisms were observed with pathological violence in adolescents in a blinded clinical trial. Thus, this and other cited work preliminary suggest a role for both the DRD2 and DAT genes in pathological aggressive behavior. We further hypothesize that follow-up gene research in this area, albeit premature, resulting in confirmation of positive correlations with dopaminergic polymorphisms, and utilizing highly screened controls (eliminating any addictive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors in both proband and family) may

  3. Designing an accompanying ecosystem to foster entrepreneurship among agronomic and forestry engineering students. Opinion and commitment of university lecturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Medina, L.; Fernández-Ahumada, E.; Lara-Vélez, P.; Taguas, E. V.; Gallardo-Cobos, R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero-Ginel, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a collective project conceived as an 'ecosystem to support and accompany entrepreneurs' has been proposed. The approach aims to spread and consolidate the entrepreneurial spirit and to respond to the demands of possible stakeholders involved in the whole process of training, as well as the subsequent integration of graduates into the labour market. Putting into practice this initiative, which involves multiple actors, is a complex and difficult task. For this reason, prior to its implementation, the authors considered it necessary to listen to main stakeholders' opinions and evaluate their degree of commitment and the requirements they consider important for the viability and sustainability of the initiative. This paper focuses on the faculty's opinions, gathered by means of a survey conducted with the entire faculty (N = 128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews held with 20 members of the School board. The results suggest that there is a general consensus on the suitability of this collective project and that there is a core of teachers willing to get involved. Evidently, guidelines need to be produced to facilitate taking on such tasks. However, the main drawbacks are related with the conflict between formal requirements of professor professional profile and the steps needed to establish the ecosystem.

  4. Ha83, a Chitin Binding Domain Encoding Gene, Is Important to Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus Budded Virus Production and Occlusion Body Assembling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huan; Xu, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Helicoerpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ha83 is a late expressed gene that encodes a chitin binding protein. Chitin domain truncation studies revealed that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position probably played an important role in both chitin binding ability and protein transmission of Ha83. In order to study the function of ha83 in the HearNPV infection cycle, an ha83 knockout HearNPV (Ha83KO) was constructed via homologous recombination. Viral growth and viral DNA replication curves showed that fewer budded virions were produced in Ha83KO transfected cells, while viral DNA replication was increased. Electron microscopy revealed that fewer nucleocapsids were transmitted from virogenic stroma in the Ha83KO transfected cell nucleus, and the morphology of occlusion bodies was prominently larger and cube-shaped. Furthermore, DNA quantity in occlusion bodies of Ha83KO was significantly lower than the occlusion bodies of HaWT. The transcription analysis indicated that these changes may be due to the decreased expression level of viral structural associated genes, such as polyhedrin, p10, pif-2, or cg30 in Ha83KO infected cells. Above results demonstrated that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position in Ha83 might be the key amino acid, and Ha83 plays an important role in BVs production and OBs assembling. PMID:26057202

  5. Identification of forensically important sarcophagid flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China, based on COI and 16S rDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yadong; Cai, Jifeng; Chang, Yunfeng; Li, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Xiang; Zhong, Ming; Wen, Jifang; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2011-11-01

    Insects attracted to cadavers may provide important indications of the postmortem interval (PMI). However, use of the flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) for PMI estimation is limited as the species are often not morphologically distinct, especially as immatures. In this study, 23 forensically important flesh flies were collected from 13 locations in 10 Chinese provinces. Then, a 278-bp segment of the cytochrome oxidase subunits one (COI) gene and a 289-bp segment of the 16S rDNA gene of all specimens were successfully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into four species (Boerttcherisca peregrina [Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830], Helicophagella melanura [Meigen, 1826], Parasarcophaga albiceps [Meigen, 1826], and Parasarcophaga dux [Thompson, 1869]) with relatively strong supporting values, thus indicating that the COI and 16S rDNA regions are suitable for identification of sarcophagid species. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed the potential of the two regions for sarcophagid species identification.

  6. NERF encodes a RING E3 ligase important for drought resistance and enhances the expression of its antisense gene NFYA5 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Wenwen; Zhao, Meng; Li, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    NFYA5 is an important drought-stress inducible transcription factor gene that is targeted by miR169 in Arabidopsis. We show here that the cis-natural antisense transcript gene of NFYA5, NFYA5 Enhancing RING FINGER (NERF), can produce siRNAs from their overlapping region (OR) and affect NFYA5 transcripts by functioning together with miR169. The NERF protein functions as an E3 ligase for ubiquitination. Overexpression of NERF or OR cDNA leads to siRNANERF accumulation, miR169 repression, and NFYA5 transcript enhancement; knock-down of NERF transcripts by an artificial miRNA enhances miR169 abundance and reduces NFYA5 transcripts. Overexpression of NFYA5 does not affect the NERF mRNA level. Deep sequencing of the small RNA library from 35S::OR plants identifies 960 sequences representing 323 unique siRNAs that originate from OR; the sequences of some siRNANERF are similar/complementary to those of miR169. Overexpression of the 195- to 280-bp OR cDNA-containing siRNAs similar/complementary to miR169 also leads to the accumulation of NFYA5 transcripts. Analysis of NERF knock-down plants and NERF overexpression lines showed that, like NFYA5, NERF is important for controlling stomatal aperture and drought resistance. This regulatory model might apply to other natural antisense transcripts with positively correlated expression patterns. PMID:25514924

  7. Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, C J; McClendon, M T; Walling, J G; Timmerman-Vaughan, G M; Murray, S; Meksem, K; Lightfoot, D A; Shultz, J L; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Inglis, D A; Rajesh, P N; McPhee, K E; Weeden, N F; Grusak, M A; Li, C-M; Storlie, E W

    2007-09-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model legumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries that would enable the isolation of genes involved in plant disease resistance or control of economically important traits. The BAC libraries encompassed about 3.2 haploid genome equivalents consisting of partially HindIII-digested DNA fragments with a mean size of 105 kb that were inserted in 1 of 2 vectors. The low-copy oriT-based T-DNA vector (pCLD04541) library contained 55 680 clones. The single-copy oriS-based vector (pIndigoBAC-5) library contained 65 280 clones. Colony hybridization of a universal chloroplast probe indicated that about 1% of clones in the libraries were of chloroplast origin. The presence of about 0.1% empty vectors was inferred by white/blue colony plate counts. The usefulness of the libraries was tested by 2 replicated methods. First, high-density filters were probed with low copy number sequences. Second, BAC plate-pool DNA was used successfully to PCR amplify 7 of 9 published pea resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and several other low copy number pea sequences. Individual BAC clones encoding specific sequences were identified. Therefore, the HindIII BAC libraries of pea, based on germplasm accession PI 269818, will be useful for the isolation of genes underlying disease resistance and other economically important traits.

  8. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    PubMed

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.

  9. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  10. Statistical analysis of agronomical factors and weather conditions influencing deoxynivalenol levels in oats in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, M; Börjesson, T; Hietaniemi, V; Elen, O

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between weather data and agronomical factors and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in oats was examined with the aim of developing a predictive model. Data were collected from a total of 674 fields during periods of up to 10 years in Finland, Norway and Sweden, and included DON levels in the harvested oats crop, agronomical factors and weather data. The results show that there was a large regional variation in DON levels, with higher levels in one region in Norway compared with other regions in Norway, Finland and Sweden. In this region the median DON level was 1000 ng g⁻¹ and the regulatory limit for human consumption (1750 ng g⁻¹) was exceeded in 28% of the samples. In other regions the median DON levels ranged from 75 to 270 ng g⁻¹, and DON levels exceeded 1750 ng g⁻¹ in 3-8% of the samples. Including more variables than region in a multiple regression model only increased the adjusted coefficient of determination from 0.17 to 0.24, indicating that very little of the variation in DON levels could be explained by weather data or agronomical factors. Thus, it was not possible to predict DON levels based on the variables included in this study. Further studies are needed to solve this problem. Apparently the infection and/or growth of DON producing Fusarium species are promoted in certain regions. One possibility may be to study the species distribution of fungal communities and their changes during the oats cultivation period in more detail.

  11. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  12. Agronomic Challenges and Opportunities for Smallholder Terrace Agriculture in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Raizada, Manish N.

    2017-01-01

    Improving land productivity is essential to meet increasing food and forage demands in hillside and mountain communities. Tens of millions of smallholder terrace farmers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America who earn $1–2 per day do not have access to peer-reviewed knowledge of best agronomic practices, though they have considerable traditional ecological knowledge. Terrace farmers also lack access to affordable farm tools and inputs required to increase crop yields. The objectives of this review are to highlight the agronomic challenges of terrace farming, and offer innovative, low-cost solutions to intensify terrace agriculture while improving local livelihoods. The article focuses on smallholder farmers in developing nations, with particular reference to Nepal. The challenges of terrace agriculture in these regions include lack of quality land area for agriculture, erosion and loss of soil fertility, low yield, poor access to agricultural inputs and services, lack of mechanization, labor shortages, poverty, and illiteracy. Agronomic strategies that could help address these concerns include intensification of terraces using agro-ecological approaches along with introduction of light-weight, low-cost, and purchasable tools and affordable inputs that enhance productivity and reduce female drudgery. To package, deliver, and share these technologies with remote hillside communities, effective scaling up models are required. One opportunity to enable distribution of these products could be to “piggy-back” onto pre-existing snackfood/cigarette/alcohol distribution networks that are prevalent even in the most remote mountainous regions of the world. Such strategies, practices, and tools could be supported by formalized government policies dedicated to the well-being of terrace farmers and ecosystems, to maintain resiliency at a time of alarming climate change. We hope this review will inform governments, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to draw

  13. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  14. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are −0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area. PMID:27905483

  15. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are ‑0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  16. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are -0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  17. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  18. Agronomic threshold of soil available phosphorus in grey desert soils in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, H.; Hao, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, J. S.; Li, J. M.; Ma, Y. B.

    2016-08-01

    Based on 23 years of data, yields of maize, wheat and cotton were modelled under different fertilizer management practices and at different levels of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) in soil. Three types of threshold models were used, namely linear-linear (LL), linear- plateau (LP), and Mitscherlich type exponential (Exp). The agronomic thresholds of available phosphorus were 25.4 mgkg-1 for cotton, 14.8 mgkg-1 for wheat, 13.1 mgkg-1 for maize and 25.4 mgkg-1 for the grey desert soil regions of Xinjiang in China as a whole.

  19. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3'-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene.

  20. A gene delivery system containing nuclear localization signal: Increased nucleus import and transfection efficiency with the assistance of RanGAP1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Jiulong; Chen, Qing; Wang, Kuanglei; Li, Chenxi; Li, Weinan; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei

    2017-01-15

    In the present report, a degradable gene delivery system (PAMS/DNA/10NLS) containing nucleus location signal peptide (NLS) was prepared. The agarose gel electrophoresis, particle size and zeta potential of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were similar to those of PAMS/DNA, which proved that NLS did not affect the interaction between PAMS and DNA. PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited marked extracellular and intracellular degradation under acidic conditions. The degradation was believed to allow NLS to come into contact with importins easily, which was able to mediate the nucleus import. With the help of NLS, PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited a higher transfection capability than PAMS/DNA. Moreover, the transfection of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was less dependent on the breakdown of the nucleus envelope than PAMS/DNA. Considering that GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) was able to activate the endogenous GTPase, which was necessary for NLS-mediated nucleus import, RanGAP1 overexpressed cells (RanGAP1 cells) were produced. This result showed that RanGAP1 cells had higher GTPase activities than normal cells. Both the nucleus import and transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were markedly higher in RanGAP1 cells than that in normal cells. The in vivo transfection results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was higher in RanGAP1 pre-treated mice than that in normal mice. These findings showed that PAMS/DNA/10NLS is a promising gene delivery system with the assistance of RanGAP1.

  1. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval

  2. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Semagn, Kassa; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N'Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM), 4B (80-82 cM) and 5A (296-297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  3. Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. A multiparental cross population for mapping QTL for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Milner, Sara Giulia; Maccaferri, Marco; Huang, Bevan Emma; Mantovani, Paola; Massi, Andrea; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Tuberosa, Roberto; Salvi, Silvio

    2016-02-01

    Multiparental cross designs for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) provide an efficient alternative to biparental populations because of their broader genetic basis and potentially higher mapping resolution. We describe the development and deployment of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) obtained by crossing four elite cultivars. A linkage map spanning 2664 cM and including 7594 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was produced by genotyping 338 RILs. QTL analysis was carried out by both interval mapping on founder haplotype probabilities and SNP bi-allelic tests for heading date and maturity date, plant height and grain yield from four field experiments. Sixteen QTL were identified across environments and detection methods, including two yield QTL on chromosomes 2BL and 7AS, with the former mapped independently from the photoperiod response gene Ppd-B1, while the latter overlapped with the vernalization locus VRN-A3. Additionally, 21 QTL with environment-specific effects were found. Our results indicated a prevalence of environment-specific QTL with relatively small effect on the control of grain yield. For all traits, functionally different QTL alleles in terms of direction and size of genetic effect were distributed among parents. We showed that QTL results based on founder haplotypes closely matched functional alleles at known heading date loci. Despite the four founders, only 2.1 different functional haplotypes were estimated per QTL, on average. This durum wheat population provides a mapping resource for detailed genetic dissection of agronomic traits in an elite background typical of breeding programmes.

  5. Genome-wide association analysis of agronomic traits in wheat under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Rees, D. Jasper G.; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association of agronomic traits of wheat for drought-tolerance breeding. Ninety-three diverse bread wheat genotypes were genotyped using the Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArTseq) protocol. The number of days-to-heading (DTH), number of days-to-maturity (DTM), plant height (PHT), spike length (SPL), number of kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GYLD), assessed under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions, were considered for the study. Population structure analysis and genome-wide association mapping were undertaken based on 16,383 silico DArTs loci with < 10% missing data. The population evaluated was grouped into nine distinct genetic structures. Inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium showed the existence of linkage decay as physical distance increased. A total of 62 significant (P < 0.001) marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected explaining more than 20% of the phenotypic variation observed under both drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions. Significant (P < 0.001) MTA event(s) were observed for DTH, PHT, SPL, SPS, and KPS; under both stressed and non-stressed conditions, while additional significant (P < 0.05) associations were observed for TKW, DTM and GYLD under non-stressed condition. The MTAs reported in this population could be useful to initiate marker-assisted selection (MAS) and targeted trait introgression of wheat under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions, and for fine mapping and cloning of the underlying genes and QTL. PMID:28234945

  6. QTL mapping of ten agronomic traits on the soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) genetic map and their association with EST markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W-K; Wang, Y-J; Luo, G-Z; Zhang, J-S; He, C-Y; Wu, X-L; Gai, J-Y; Chen, S-Y

    2004-04-01

    A set of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from soybean vars. Kefeng No.1 x Nannong 1138-2 was used to construct a genetic linkage map. The two parents exhibit contrasting characteristics for most of the traits that were mapped. Using restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we mapped 452 markers onto 21 linkage groups and covered 3595.9 cM of the soybean genome. All of the linkage groups except linkage group F were consistent with those of the consensus map of Cregan et al. (1999). Linkage group F was divided into two linkage groups, F1 and F2. The map consisted of 189 RFLPs, 219 SSRs, 40 ESTs, three R gene loci and one phenotype marker. Ten agronomic traits-days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of nodes on main stem, lodging, number of pods per node, protein content, oil content, 100-seed weight, and plot yield-were studied. Using winqtlcart, we detected 63 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that had LOD>3 for nine of the agronomic traits (only exception being seed oil content) and mapped these on 12 linkage groups. Most of the QTLs were clustered, especially on groups B1 and C2. Some QTLs were mapped to the same loci. This pleiotropism was common for most of the QTLs, and one QTL could influence at most five traits. Seven EST markers were found to be linked closely with or located at the same loci as the QTLs. EST marker GmKF059a, encoding a repressor protein and mapped on group C2, accounted for about 20% of the total variation of days to flowering, plant height, lodging and nodes on the main stem, respectively.

  7. Plasmodium male development gene-1 (mdv-1) is important for female sexual development and identifies a polarised plasma membrane during zygote development.

    PubMed

    Lal, Kalpana; Delves, Michael J; Bromley, Elizabeth; Wastling, Jonathan M; Tomley, Fiona M; Sinden, Robert E

    2009-06-01

    Successful development of Plasmodium sexual stages is essential for parasite survival, but the genes involved are poorly understood. We 'knocked out' the male development gene-1 (mdv-1) locus in Plasmodium berghei and found it to be important in female gametocyte activation. Indirect immunofluorescence assays show MDV-1 has a punctate cytoplasmic distribution in gametocytes. After activation of both females and males, MDV-1 is more peripherally located but in males exclusively it becomes concentrated in a few large foci. In vitro ookinete conversion assays that test the ability of activated female gametocytes to develop into retort stage ookinetes, suggests a complicit role for MDV-1, with the knock-out parasite producing 86% reduction in ookinetes. The retort stage ookinete develops from the zygote by increasing growth of an apical protrusion and MDV-1 locates at the 'leading' extracellular apical pole of this protrusion. In the fully developed ookinete MDV-1 is localised to the posterior pole. In vivo, the knock-out parasites demonstrate a phenotype in which there is a 90% reduction of parasite transmission to oocysts in mosquitoes.

  8. Mutation of genes of the PI3K/AKT pathway in breast cancer supports their potential importance as biomarker for breast cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Tserga, Aggeliki; Chatziandreou, Ilenia; Michalopoulos, Nicolaos V; Patsouris, Efstratios; Saetta, Angelica A

    2016-07-01

    Deregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is closely associated with cancer development and cancer progression. PIK3CA, AKT1, and PTEN are the fundamental molecules of the PI3K/AKT pathway with increased mutation rates in cancer cases leading to aberrant regulation of the pathway. Even though molecular alterations of the PI3K/AKT pathway have been studied in breast cancer, correlations between specific molecular alterations and clinicopathological features remain contradictory. In this study, we examined mutations of the PI3K/AKT pathway in 75 breast carcinomas using high-resolution melting analysis and pyrosequencing, in parallel with analysis of relative expression of PIK3CA and AKT2 genes. Mutations of PIK3CA were found in our cohort in 21 cases (28 %), 10 (13 %) in exon 9 and 11(15 %) in exon 20. Mutation frequency of AKT1 and PTEN genes was 4 and 3 %, respectively. Overall, alterations in the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade were detected in 35 % of the cases. Furthermore, comparison of 50 breast carcinomas with adjacent normal tissues showed elevated PIK3CA messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 18 % of tumor cases and elevated AKT2 mRNA levels in 14 %. Our findings, along with those of previous studies, underline the importance of the PI3K/AKT pathway components as potential biomarkers for breast carcinogenesis.

  9. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of GbRVd, a gene in Gossypium barbadense that plays an important role in conferring resistance to Verticillium wilt.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Ma, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xingfen; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

    2016-01-10

    Most of the disease resistance genes already characterized in plants encode nucleotide-binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins that have key roles in resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Using a cDNA library and RACE protocols, we cloned a coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR-type gene, GbRVd, from a resistant tetraploid cotton species, Gossypium barbadense (RVd=Resistance to V. dahliae). We also applied RT-qPCR and VIGS technologies to analyze how expression of GbRVd was induced upon attack by V. dahliae. Its 2862-bp ORF encodes a predicted protein containing 953 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular weight of 110.17kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.87. GbRVd has three domains - CC, NBS, and LRR - and is most closely related to Gossypium raimondii RVd (88% amino acid identity). Profiling demonstrated that GbRVd is constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and transcript levels are especially high in the leaves. In plants inoculated with V. dahliae, GbRVd was significantly up-regulated when compared with the control, with expression peaking at 48h post-inoculation. Silencing of GbRVd in cotton through VIGS dramatically down-regulated SA, NO, and H2O2 production, resulting in greater susceptibility to V. dahliae. Taken together, these results suggest that GbRVd has an important role in protecting G. barbadense against infection by V. dahliae.

  10. Two genes encoding the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase proteolipid specify precursors with different import sequences and are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed Central

    Gay, N J; Walker, J E

    1985-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding different precursor proteins of the same mature proteolipid subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase have been cloned from a bovine cDNA library. The hybridisation probe was a mixture of 17-mer oligonucleotides containing 256 discrete sequences. The coding sequences of the two cDNAs differ in 25 silent positions of codons and the 3' non-coding sequences are only weakly related. The precursor sequences, which direct the import of the proteolipid into the mitochondrion, are 61 and 68 amino acids long. They are related to each other in regions which probably are recognition signals for the processing protease. The corresponding genes are expressed differently in various tissues in a way that reflects their embryonic origin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2868890

  11. In-depth transcriptome analysis of Coilia ectenes, an important fish resource in the Yangtze River: de novo assembly, gene annotation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaishun; Gu, Ruobo; Xu, Gangchun; Xu, Pao; Nie, Zijuan; Hu, Yacheng

    2015-10-01

    Coilia ectenes is an important teleost species in the Yangtze River and a model organism that can be used to study the protection of fish resources. In this report, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of ten cDNA libraries from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, stomach, ovary, and testis tissues. A total of 352 million raw reads of 100 base pairs were generated, and 130,113 transcripts, corresponding to 65,350 non-redundant transcripts, with a mean length of 1520 bp, were assembled. BLASTx-based gene annotation (E-value<1 × 10(-5)) allowed the identification of 73,900 transcripts against at least one of four databases, including the NCBI non-redundant database, the GO database, the COG database, and the KEGG database. Our study provides a valuable resource for C. ectenes genomic and transcriptomic data that will facilitate future functional studies of C. ectenes.

  12. Identification of the forensically important sarcophagid flies Boerttcherisca peregrina, Parasarcophaga albiceps and Parasarcophaga dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) based on COII gene in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Li, X; Xiong, F; Su, R N; Chen, F L; Liu, Q L; Wang, X H; Chang, Y F; Zhong, M; Wang, X; Wen, J F

    2010-12-01

    Accurate species identication is a crucial step in forensic entomology, as the insect collected on a corpse can provide useful information for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for crime scene investigation has been severely restricted, as morphological identification is difficult, especially the identification of females and larvae. In this study, a method for using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and phylogenetic analysis was performed to distinguish the three Chinese sarcophagid species: Boerttcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) Parasarcophaga albiceps (Meigen, 1826) and Parasarcophaga dux (Thompson, 1869) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). DNA was extracted and analyzed by a 189 bp fragment of cytochrome coxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The monophyletic branches of the phylogenetic tree reveal that this marker is suitable for discrimination between these species, providing high support for separation on congeneric species. Therefore, the molecular method applied to the sarcophagid species identification is feasible.

  13. Comparative transcriptomics of three Poaceae species reveals patterns of gene expression evolution.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca M; Gowda, Malali; Moghe, Gaurav; Lin, Haining; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Shiu, Shin-Han; Jiang, Ning; Robin Buell, C

    2012-08-01

    The Poaceae family, also known as the grasses, includes agronomically important cereal crops such as rice, maize, sorghum, and wheat. Previous comparative studies have shown that much of the gene content is shared among the grasses; however, functional conservation of orthologous genes has yet to be explored. To gain an understanding of the genome-wide patterns of evolution of gene expression across reproductive tissues, we employed a sequence-based approach to compare analogous transcriptomes in species representing three Poaceae subgroups including the Pooideae (Brachypodium distachyon), the Panicoideae (sorghum), and the Ehrhartoideae (rice). Our transcriptome analyses reveal that only a fraction of orthologous genes exhibit conserved expression patterns. A high proportion of conserved orthologs include genes that are upregulated in physiologically similar tissues such as leaves, anther, pistil, and embryo, while orthologs that are highly expressed in seeds show the most diverged expression patterns. More generally, we show that evolution of gene expression profiles and coding sequences in the grasses may be linked. Genes that are highly and broadly expressed tend to be conserved at the coding sequence level while genes with narrow expression patterns show accelerated rates of sequence evolution. We further show that orthologs in syntenic genomic blocks are more likely to share correlated expression patterns compared with non-syntenic orthologs. These findings are important for agricultural improvement because sequence information is transferred from model species, such as Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum to crop plants without sequenced genomes.

  14. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1987--April 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, T.W.

    1988-12-31

    Many agronomically important crops are viewed as significant resources of renewable energy. Overall crop productivity could be increased if the efficiency of photoassimilate conversion into dry matter such as starch were improved in storage tissues. Starch production is controlled by the catalytic activity of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the first step of starch biosynthesis. This research focuses on the genetic structure and molecular mechanisms by which it is controlled during plant development and how it is affected by environmental and hormonal conditions. The current goal is to isolate the genes for this enzyme present in both cereal endosperm and potato tuber tissues, and to elucidate its structure and the controlling sequences responsible for gene expression. The long term goal is the improvement of starch production in storage organs by manipulating this gene so that it encodes an enzyme refractive to inorganic phosphate inhibition.

  15. A carotenogenic mini-pathway introduced into white corn does not affect development or agronomic performance

    PubMed Central

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Christou, Paul; Savin, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait. We found that Carolight® was indistinguishable from its near isogenic line in terms of agronomic performance, particularly grain yield and its main components. We also established experimentally that the functionality of the introduced trait was indistinguishable when plants were grown in a controlled environment or in the field. Such thorough characterization under different agronomic conditions is rarely performed even for first-generation traits such as herbicide tolerance and pest resistance, and certainly not for complex second-generation traits such as the metabolic remodeling in the Carolight® variety. Our results therefore indicate that Carolight® can now be incorporated into breeding lines to generate hybrids with locally adapted varieties for further product development and assessment. PMID:27922071

  16. Genetic analyses of agronomic traits in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhua; Kobayashi, Kiwa; Yoshida, Yasuko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of products made from Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) has increased in recent years in Japan. Increased consumer demand has led to recognition of the need for early varieties of this crop with high and stable yields. In order to accomplish this, more information is needed on the genetic mechanisms affecting earliness and yield. We conducted genetic analysis of 3 agronomic traits (days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight per plant) to segregate F(2) and F(3) populations derived from a cross between Tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokuriku No. 4' and 'Ishisoba'. Broad-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight were 0.70, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively, in F(3) population. Narrow-sense heritability for total seed weight (0.51) was highest, followed by heritability for days to flowering (0.37), with heritability for plant height (0.26) lowest. Later flowering was associated with increased plant height and higher yields. From the F(4) generation, we identified twelve candidate plants with earlier maturity and reduced plant height compared to 'Hokuriku No. 4', but almost the same total seed weight. These results suggest that hybridization breeding using the single seed descent (SSD) method is an effective approach for improving agronomic characteristics of Tartary buckwheat.

  17. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms.

  18. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  19. Waterfowl foraging in winter-flooded ricefields: Any agronomic benefits for farmers?

    PubMed

    Brogi, Anne; Pernollet, Claire A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Guillemain, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Winter-flooding of ricefields provides foraging habitat to waterfowl, which in return may bring agronomic benefits to farmers. Our study experimentally tested the effect of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) on the standing stalks and weed seed bank in the Camargue (France), both of which present major challenges for farmers. Three duck densities were tested: (D1) 5 ducks ha(-1) (historical nocturnal density), (D2) 23 ducks ha(-1) (present nocturnal density), and (D3) 300 ducks ha(-1) (Asian rice-duck farming density). The ducks reduced the stalks significantly: -27 % (D1), -52 % (D2), and -91 % (D3). Conversely, they decreased the number of seeds by only 3 % (D3) and the seed mass by about 21 % (D1 and D3), which was not significant. Besides they had no effect on seed species richness. This study clearly demonstrates that the winter-flooding effect on straw decomposition can be enhanced by waterfowl foraging, hence showing an agronomic benefit from ducks to farmers. However, there was no clear effect in terms of seed bank reduction.

  20. Integration of agronomic practices with herbicides for sustainable weed management in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Mohamed, M T M; Uddin, M K; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point.

  1. Analysis of interleukin-8 gene variants reveals their relative importance as genetic susceptibility factors for chronic periodontitis in the Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yuehong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Tianxiao; Yang, Haojie; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Zufei; Zhong, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8, an important chemokine that regulates the inflammatory response, plays an important role in periodontitis. Previous studies indicate that certain IL-8 gene polymorphisms are associated with periodontitis susceptibility in some populations. However, the literature is somewhat contradictory, and not all IL-8 polymorphisms have been examined, particularly in Han Chinese individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of every IL-8 SNP with chronic periodontitis in Han Chinese individuals. We analyzed 23 SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF)≥0.01, which were selected from 219 SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP and preliminary HapMap data analyses from a cohort of 400 cases and 750 controls from genetically independent Han Chinese individuals. Single SNP, haplotype and gender-specific associations were performed. We found that rs4073 and rs2227307 were significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. Further haplotype analysis indicated that a haplotype block (rs4073-rs2227307-rs2227306) that spans the promoter and exon1 of IL-8 was highly associated with chronic periodontitis. Additionally, the ATC haplotype in this block was increased 1.5-fold in these cases. However, when analyzing the samples by gender, no significant gender-specific associations in IL-8 were observed, similar to the results of haplotype association analyses in female and male subgroups. Our results provide further evidence that IL-8 is associated with chronic periodontitis in Han Chinese individuals. Furthermore, our results confirm previous reports suggesting the intriguing possibilities that IL-8 plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis and that this gene may be involved in the etiology of this condition.

  2. Functional mapping in pea, as an aid to the candidate gene selection and for investigating synteny with the model legume Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Aubert, G; Morin, J; Jacquin, F; Loridon, K; Quillet, M C; Petit, A; Rameau, C; Lejeune-Hénaut, I; Huguet, T; Burstin, J

    2006-04-01

    The identification of the molecular polymorphisms giving rise to phenotypic trait variability-both quantitative and qualitative-is a major goal of the present agronomic research. Various approaches such as positional cloning or transposon tagging, as well as the candidate gene strategy have been used to discover the genes underlying this variation in plants. The construction of functional maps, i.e. composed of genes of known function, is an important component of the candidate gene approach. In the present paper we report the development of 63 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 15 single-stranded conformation polymorphism markers for genes encoding enzymes mainly involved in primary metabolism, and their genetic mapping on a composite map using two pea recombinant inbred line populations. The complete genetic map covers 1,458 cM and comprises 363 loci, including a total of 111 gene-anchored markers: 77 gene-anchored markers described in this study, 7 microsatellites located in gene sequences, 16 flowering time genes, the Tri gene, 5 morphological markers, and 5 other genes. The mean spacing between adjacent markers is 4 cM and 90% of the markers are closer than 10 cM to their neighbours. We also report the genetic mapping of 21 of these genes in Medicago truncatula and add 41 new links between the pea and M. truncatula maps. We discuss the use of this new composite functional map for future candidate gene approaches in pea.

  3. Molecular Evolution of Candidate Genes for Crop-Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; McAssey, Edward V.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations. PMID:24914686

  4. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  5. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  6. Nutrient-regulated proteolysis of MrpC halts expression of genes important for commitment to sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Kroos, Lee

    2014-08-01

    Starved Myxococcus xanthus cells glide to aggregation centers and form fruiting bodies in which rod-shaped cells differentiate into ovoid spores. Commitment to development was investigated by adding nutrients at specific times after starvation and determining whether development halted or proceeded. At 24 h poststarvation, some rod-shaped cells were committed to subsequent shape change and to becoming sonication-resistant spores, but nutrients caused partial disaggregation of fruiting bodies. By 30 h poststarvation, 10-fold more cells were committed to becoming sonication-resistant spores, and compact fruiting bodies persisted after nutrient addition. During the critical period of commitment around 24 to 30 h poststarvation, the transcription factors MrpC and FruA cooperatively regulate genes important for sporulation. FruA responds to short-range C-signaling, which increases as cells form fruiting bodies. MrpC was found to be highly sensitive to nutrient-regulated proteolysis both before and during the critical period of commitment to sporulation. The rapid turnover of MrpC upon nutrient addition to developing cells halted expression of the dev operon, which is important for sporulation. Regulated proteolysis of MrpC appeared to involve ATP-independent metalloprotease activity and may provide a mechanism for monitoring whether starvation persists and halting commitment to sporulation if nutrients reappear.

  7. Nutrient-Regulated Proteolysis of MrpC Halts Expression of Genes Important for Commitment to Sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Ramya

    2014-01-01

    Starved Myxococcus xanthus cells glide to aggregation centers and form fruiting bodies in which rod-shaped cells differentiate into ovoid spores. Commitment to development was investigated by adding nutrients at specific times after starvation and determining whether development halted or proceeded. At 24 h poststarvation, some rod-shaped cells were committed to subsequent shape change and to becoming sonication-resistant spores, but nutrients caused partial disaggregation of fruiting bodies. By 30 h poststarvation, 10-fold more cells were committed to becoming sonication-resistant spores, and compact fruiting bodies persisted after nutrient addition. During the critical period of commitment around 24 to 30 h poststarvation, the transcription factors MrpC and FruA cooperatively regulate genes important for sporulation. FruA responds to short-range C-signaling, which increases as cells form fruiting bodies. MrpC was found to be highly sensitive to nutrient-regulated proteolysis both before and during the critical period of commitment to sporulation. The rapid turnover of MrpC upon nutrient addition to developing cells halted expression of the dev operon, which is important for sporulation. Regulated proteolysis of MrpC appeared to involve ATP-independent metalloprotease activity and may provide a mechanism for monitoring whether starvation persists and halting commitment to sporulation if nutrients reappear. PMID:24837289

  8. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thus provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new

  9. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; ...

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thusmore » provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new and

  10. Biological importance of a polymorphic CA sequence within intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) in high grade central osteosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Christian; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Schmidt, Hartmut; Korsching, Eberhard; August, Christian; Gosheger, Georg; Dirksen, Uta; Juergens, Heribert; Winkelmann, Wilfried; Brandt, Burkhard; Bielack, Stefan; Buerger, Horst; Gebert, Carsten

    2008-08-01

    Expression of EGFR in high grade osteosarcomas has been observed to be correlated with an improved prognosis. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear since amplifications of EGFR have rarely been described. Recently, the length of a polymorphic CA repeat located at a 5'-regulatory sequence in the intron 1 of the EGFR gene (SSR I) has been shown to be associated with its basal transcriptional activity. We therefore determined the allelic length of CA SSR-I in 219 cases of high grade osteosarcoma and correlated the results with EGFR expression in 34 cases, the presence of amplifications within the CA SSR-I repeat in 59 cases, and clinical follow-up. Our results confirm that in osteosarcoma patients short alleles are more frequent than longer ones, 16 CA repeats being the most frequent. The allele composition differed significantly from the one recently described in a healthy control population (P < 0.01). Short alleles tended to be associated with increased expression of EGFR. Amplifications of the EGFR gene were seen in 13.5% of cases. Significant correlations between allele length composition and neoadjuvant chemotherapy response or long term clinical outcome could not be established. While we were able to show that high frequency of EGFR expression in osteosarcomas is associated with predominantly short alleles of EGFR-CA SSR I, persisting shortcomings in the correspondence with clinical data point toward the existence of additional, putatively more important transcription control mechanisms for EGFR in osteosarcomas which might account for the good prognostic value of EGFR expression.

  11. Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Yusop, Mohd Rafii; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Azady, Amin; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Azizi, Parisa; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Allele mining is a promising way to dissect naturally occurring allelic variants of candidate genes with essential agronomic qualities. With the identification, isolation and characterisation of blast resistance genes in rice, it is now possible to dissect the actual allelic variants of these genes within an array of rice cultivars via allele mining. Multiple alleles from the complex locus serve as a reservoir of variation to generate functional genes. The routine sequence exchange is one of the main mechanisms of R gene evolution and development. Allele mining for resistance genes can be an important method to identify additional resistance alleles and new haplotypes along with the development of allele-specific markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Allele mining can be visualised as a vital link between effective utilisation of genetic and genomic resources in genomics-driven modern plant breeding. This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.

  12. Identification of predominant genes involved in regulation and execution of senescence-associated nitrogen remobilization in flag leaves of field grown barley.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Julien; Gregersen, Per L; Krupinska, Karin

    2014-07-01

    The transcriptomes of senescing flag leaves collected from barley field plots with standard or high nitrogen supply were compared to identify genes specifically associated with nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence under agronomically relevant conditions. In flag leaves collected in field plots with high nitrogen supply, the decline in chlorophyll content was delayed. By comparing changes in gene expression for the two nitrogen levels, it was possible to discriminate genes related to nitrogen remobilization during senescence and genes involved in other processes associated with the late development of leaves under field conditions. Predominant genes that were more strongly upregulated during senescence of flag leaves from plants with standard nitrogen supply included genes encoding the transcription factor HvNAC026, serine type protease SCPL51, and the autophagy factors APG7 and ATG18F. Elevated expression of these genes in senescing leaves from plants with standard nitrogen supply indicates important roles of the corresponding proteins in nitrogen remobilization. In comparison, the genes upregulated in both flag leaf samples might have roles in general senescence processes associated with late leaf development. Among these genes were the transcription factor genes HvNAC001, HvNAC005, HvNAC013, HvWRKY12 and MYB, genes encoding the papain-like cysteine peptidases HvPAP14 and HvPAP20, as well as a subtilase gene.

  13. A gene regulatory network model for floral transition of the shoot apex in maize and its dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhanshan; Danilevskaya, Olga; Abadie, Tabare; Messina, Carlos; Coles, Nathan; Cooper, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The transition from the vegetative to reproductive development is a critical event in the plant life cycle. The accurate prediction of flowering time in elite germplasm is important for decisions in maize breeding programs and best agronomic practices. The understanding of the genetic control of flowering time in maize has significantly advanced in the past decade. Through comparative genomics, mutant analysis, genetic analysis and QTL cloning, and transgenic approaches, more than 30 flowering time candidate genes in maize have been revealed and the relationships among these genes have been partially uncovered. Based on the knowledge of the flowering time candidate genes, a conceptual gene regulatory network model for the genetic control of flowering time in maize is proposed. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed gene regulatory network model, a first attempt was made to develop a dynamic gene network model to predict flowering time of maize genotypes varying for specific genes. The dynamic gene network model is composed of four genes and was built on the basis of gene expression dynamics of the two late flowering id1 and dlf1 mutants, the early flowering landrace Gaspe Flint and the temperate inbred B73. The model was evaluated against the phenotypic data of the id1 dlf1 double mutant and the ZMM4 overexpressed transgenic lines. The model provides a working example that leverages knowledge from model organisms for the utilization of maize genomic information to predict a whole plant trait phenotype, flowering time, of maize genotypes.

  14. A Gene Regulatory Network Model for Floral Transition of the Shoot Apex in Maize and Its Dynamic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhanshan; Danilevskaya, Olga; Abadie, Tabare; Messina, Carlos; Coles, Nathan; Cooper, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The transition from the vegetative to reproductive development is a critical event in the plant life cycle. The accurate prediction of flowering time in elite germplasm is important for decisions in maize breeding programs and best agronomic practices. The understanding of the genetic control of flowering time in maize has significantly advanced in the past decade. Through comparative genomics, mutant analysis, genetic analysis and QTL cloning, and transgenic approaches, more than 30 flowering time candidate genes in maize have been revealed and the relationships among these genes have been partially uncovered. Based on the knowledge of the flowering time candidate genes, a conceptual gene regulatory network model for the genetic control of flowering time in maize is proposed. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed gene regulatory network model, a first attempt was made to develop a dynamic gene network model to predict flowering time of maize genotypes varying for specific genes. The dynamic gene network model is composed of four genes and was built on the basis of gene expression dynamics of the two late flowering id1 and dlf1 mutants, the early flowering landrace Gaspe Flint and the temperate inbred B73. The model was evaluated against the phenotypic data of the id1 dlf1 double mutant and the ZMM4 overexpressed transgenic lines. The model provides a working example that leverages knowledge from model organisms for the utilization of maize genomic information to predict a whole plant trait phenotype, flowering time, of maize genotypes. PMID:22912876

  15. Designing an Accompanying Ecosystem to Foster Entrepreneurship among Agronomic and Forestry Engineering Students. Opinion and Commitment of University Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Medina, L.; Fernández-Ahumada, E.; Lara-Vélez, P.; Taguas, E. V.; Gallardo-Cobos, R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero-Ginel, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a collective project conceived as an 'ecosystem to support and accompany entrepreneurs' has been proposed. The approach aims to spread and consolidate the entrepreneurial spirit and to respond to the demands of possible stakeholders involved in the whole…

  16. EVALUATING THE ROLE OF HABITAT QUALITY ON ESTABLISHMENT OF GM AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA PLANTS IN NON-AGRONOMIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared soil chemistry and plant community data at non-agronomic mesic locations that either did or did not contain genetically modified (GM) Agrostis stolonifera. The best two-variable logistic regression model included soil Mn content and A. stolonifera cover and explained...

  17. Diversity characterization and association analysis of agronomic traits in a Chinese peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huifang; Huang, Li; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Youlin; Huang, Jiaquan; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Liao, Boshou

    2014-02-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular basis of phenotypic variations in plants. A peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection in China comprising 298 accessions was genotyped using 109 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which identified 554 SSR alleles and phenotyped for 15 agronomic traits in three different environments, exhibiting abundant genetic and phenotypic diversity within the panel. A model-based structure analysis assigned all accessions to three groups. Most of the accessions had the relative kinship of less than 0.05, indicating that there were no or weak relationships between accessions of the mini-core collection. For 15 agronomic traits in the peanut panel, generally the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives compared to the Q model and the general linear model-simple model. In total, 89 SSR alleles were identified to be associated with 15 agronomic traits of three environments by the Q + K model-based association analysis. Of these, eight alleles were repeatedly detected in two or three environments, and 15 alleles were commonly detected to be associated with multiple agronomic traits. Simple sequence repeat allelic effects confirmed significant differences between different genotypes of these repeatedly detected markers. Our results demonstrate the great potential of integrating the association analysis and marker-assisted breeding by utilizing the peanut mini-core collection.

  18. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers: A multi-site comparison of the effects on nitrous oxide emissions and agronomic performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to understand the effects of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEF) for their effect on nitrous oxide emissions and agronomic performance was the motivation underpinning this multi-location study across North America. Research locations participating in this study included Ames, IA; Auburn, ...

  19. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  20. Designing an accompanying ecosystem for entrepreneurship students of agronomic and forestry engineering. Opinion and commitment of the faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Leovigilda; Fernández-Ahumada, Elvira; Lara-Vélez, Pablo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gallardo-Cobos, Rosa; Campillo, M. Carmen; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.

    2014-05-01

    The current context has called attention to the need of training engineers with new skills beyond the purely technical. Among others, fostering the entrepreneurial spirit has gained special prominence. In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a 12-year-experience of an entrepreneurship program for undergraduate students concluded that, for an adequate consolidation and evolution of the program, is important to establish a robust network with active participation of all actors involved. With this antecedent, a collective project conceived as an "ecosystem of support and accompaniment for entrepreneurs" is the approach proposed. The objective is to perform an evaluation of this model in terms of viability, usefulness, actions to be taken and degree of commitment. The key actors identified (undergraduate students, faculty, alumni, local and regional entrepreneurs, enterprises, public administration) have been involved in the evaluation process. This study focuses on the academic staff. For that aim, a survey to the entire faculty (N=128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews to 20 members have been performed. Data have been treated by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results suggest that there exists an agreement concerning the appropriateness of a collective project; there is a critical mass of teachers willing to be engaged; guidelines need to be incorporated in order to facilitate taking on tasks; main restrictions concern the existing asymmetry between formal requirements and those necessary for establishing the ecosystem. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This research work has been developed in the framework of the ALFA III programme financed by the European Union.

  1. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.

  2. Plant- and microbial-based mechanisms to improve the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock: a review.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Melissa M; Schneider, Kim D

    2006-12-01

    Deficiency in plant-available phosphorus is considered to be a major limiting factor to food production in many agricultural soils. Mineral resources are necessary to restore soil phosphorus content. In regions where conventional fertilizers are not used due to cost limitations or to mitigate adverse environmental effects, local sources of phosphate rock are being increasingly recognized for potential use as alternative phosphorus fertilizers. The main obstacle associated with using directly applied ground phosphate rock is that the phosphate released is often unable to supply sufficient plant-available phosphorus for crop uptake. Plantand microbial-based mechanisms are low-cost, appropriate technologies to enhance the solubilization and increase the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock. Common mechanisms of phosphate rock dissolution including proton and organic acid production will be reviewed for both plants and microorganisms. This review will also address possibilities for future research directions and applications to agriculture, as well as highlight ongoing research at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

  3. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  4. Genome-Wide Prediction of Metabolic Enzymes, Pathways, and Gene Clusters in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peifen; Kim, Taehyong; Banf, Michael; Chavali, Arvind K.; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Bernard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant metabolism underpins many traits of ecological and agronomic importance. Plants produce numerous compounds to cope with their environments but the biosynthetic pathways for most of these compounds have not yet been elucidated. To engineer and improve metabolic traits, we need comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the organization and regulation of plant metabolism at the genome scale. Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify metabolic enzymes, pathways, and gene clusters from a sequenced genome. Using this pipeline, we generated metabolic pathway databases for 22 species and identified metabolic gene clusters from 18 species. This unified resource can be used to conduct a wide array of comparative studies of plant metabolism. Using the resource, we discovered a widespread occurrence of metabolic gene clusters in plants: 11,969 clusters from 18 species. The prevalence of metabolic gene clusters offers an intriguing possibility of an untapped source for uncovering new metabolite biosynthesis pathways. For example, more than 1,700 clusters contain enzymes that could generate a specialized metabolite scaffold (signature enzymes) and enzymes that modify the scaffold (tailoring enzymes). In four species with sufficient gene expression data, we identified 43 highly coexpressed clusters that contain signature and tailoring enzymes, of which eight were characterized previously to be functional pathways. Finally, we identified patterns of genome organization that implicate local gene duplication and, to a lesser extent, single gene transposition as having played roles in the evolution of plant metabolic gene clusters. PMID:28228535

  5. Predicting soil fumigant air concentrations under regional and diverse agronomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    SOFEA (SOil Fumigant Exposure Assessment system; Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) is a new stochastic numerical modeling tool for evaluating and managing human inhalation exposure potential associated with the use of soil fumigants. SOFEA calculates fumigant concentrations in air arising from volatility losses from treated fields for large agricultural regions using multiple transient source terms (treated fields), geographical information systems (GIS) information, agronomic specific variables, user-specified buffer zones, and field reentry intervals. A modified version of the USEPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term model (ISCST3) is used for air dispersion calculations. Weather information, field size, application date, application rate, application type, soil incorporation depth, pesticide degradation rates in air, tarp presence, field retreatment, and other sensitive parameters are varied stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques to mimic region and crop specific agronomic practices. Regional land cover, elevation, and population information can be used to refine source placement (treated fields), dispersion calculations, and risk assessments. This paper describes the technical algorithms of SOFEA and offers comparisons of simulation predictions for the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) to actual regional air monitoring measurements from Kern, California. Comparison of simulation results to daily air monitoring observations is remarkable over the entire concentration distribution (average percent deviation of 44% and model efficiency of 0.98), especially considering numerous inputs such as meteorological conditions for SOFEA were unavailable and approximated by neighboring regions. Both current and anticipated and/or forecasted fumigant scenarios can be simulated using SOFEA to provide risk managers and product stewards the necessary information to make sound regulatory decisions regarding the use of soil fumigants in agriculture.

  6. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  7. Controlled application rate of water treatment residual for agronomic and environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Olawale O; O'Connor, George A; Sartain, Jerry B; Nair, Vimala D

    2007-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTR) are useful soil amendments to control excessive soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, but indiscriminate additions can result in inadequate control or excessive immobilization of soluble P, leading to crop deficiencies. We evaluated the influence of application rates of an Al-WTR and various P-sources on plant yields, tissue P concentrations, and P uptake and attempted to identify a basis for determining WTR application rates. Bahiagrass (paspalum notatum Fluggae) was grown in a P-deficient soil amended with four P-sources at two application levels (N- and P-based rates) and three WTR rates (0, 10, and 25 g kg(-1) oven dry basis) in a glasshouse pot experiment. The glasshouse results were compared with data from a 2-yr field experiment with similar treatments that were surface applied to an established bahiagrass. Soil P storage capacity (SPSC) values increased with application rate of WTR, and the increase varied with sources of P applied. Soil soluble P concentrations increased as SPSC was reduced, and a change point was identified at 0 mg kg(-1) SPSC in the glasshouse and the field studies. A change point was identified in the bahiagrass yields at a tissue P concentration of 2.0 g kg(-1), corresponding to zero SPSC. Zero SPSC was shown to be an agronomic threshold above which yields and P concentrations of plants declined and below which there is little or no yield response to increased plant P concentrations. Applying P-sources at N-based rates, along with WTR sufficient to give SPSC value of 0 mg kg(-1) SPSC, enhanced the environmental benefits (reduced P loss potential) without negative agronomic impacts.

  8. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of WdTUP1, a gene that encodes a potential transcriptional repressor important for yeast-hyphal transitions in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbo; Abramczyk, Dariusz; Cooper, Chester R; Zheng, Li; Park, Changwon; Szaniszlo, Paul. J.

    2008-01-01

    The general transcriptional repressor Tup1p is known to influence cell development in many fungi. To determine whether the Tup1p ortholog (WdTup1p) of Wangiella dermatitidis also influences cellular development in this melanized, polymorphic human pathogen, the gene (WdTUP1) that encodes this transcription factor was isolated, sequenced and disrupted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the WdTup1p sequence was closely related to homologues in other polymorphic, conidiogenous fungi. Disruption of WdTUP1 produced mutants (wdtup1Δ) with pronounced growth and cellular abnormalities, including slow growth on various agar media and exclusively as a filamentous morphotype in liquid media. We concluded that WdTup1p represents an important switch regulator that controls the yeast-to-filamentous growth transition. However, detailed observations of the filamentous growth of the disruption mutant showed that the hyphae produced by the wdtup1Δ mutants, unlike those of the wild type, were arrested at a stage prior to the formation of true hyphae and subsequent conidia production. PMID:18061494

  10. Stabilization of secondary structure elements by specific combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues is more important for proteins encoded by GC-poor genes.

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich

    2012-12-01

    Stabilization of secondary structure elements by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids has been studied by the way of analysis of pentapeptide fragments from twelve partial bacterial proteomes. PDB files describing structures of proteins from species with extremely high and low genomic GC-content, as well as with average G + C were included in the study. Amino acid residues in 78,009 pentapeptides from alpha helices, beta strands and coil regions were classified into hydrophobic and hydrophilic ones. The common propensity scale for 32 possible combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acid residues in pentapeptide has been created: specific pentapeptides for helix, sheet and coil were described. The usage of pentapeptides preferably forming alpha helices is decreasing in alpha helices of partial bacterial proteomes with the increase of the average genomic GC-content in first and second codon positions. The usage of pentapeptides preferably forming beta strands is increasing in coil regions and in helices of partial bacterial proteomes with the growth of the average genomic GC-content in first and second codon positions. Due to these circumstances the probability of coil-sheet and helix-sheet transitions should be increased in proteins encoded by GC-rich genes making them prone to form amyloid in certain conditions. Possible causes of the described fact that importance of alpha helix and coil stabilization by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids is growing with the decrease of genomic GC-content have been discussed.

  11. Expression of important pathway genes involved in withanolides biosynthesis in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera upon treatment with Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arunachalam, Chinnathambi; Selvaraj, Natesan; Sulaiman, Ali Alharbi; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-06-01

    The investigation of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii extracts was carried out for the estimation of growth characteristics and major withanolides production in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera. The extract of G. edulis (50%) in MS liquid basal medium enabled maximum production of dry biomass (5.46 g DW) and withanolides contents (withanolide A 5.23 mg/g DW; withaferin A 2.24 mg/g DW and withanone 4.83 mg/g DW) in hairy roots after 40 days of culture with 48 h contact time. The obtained withanolides contents were significantly higher (2.32-fold-2.66-fold) in hairy root culture when compared to the control. RT PCR analysis of important pathway genes such as SE, SS, HMGR and FPPS exhibited substantial higher expression upon the seaweed extracts treatment in hairy root culture. This experiment would paw a platform for withanolides production in hairy root culture with the influence of sea weed extracts for pharmaceutical companies in the future.

  12. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingting; Ren, Wei; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Di; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE) responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns) in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC) during two periods, 1983-1999 and 2000-2010 (drier and warmer). Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax) in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin) in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6-11.0% and 19.5-92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping). Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming.

  13. Transcriptome analysis in Coffea eugenioides, an Arabica coffee ancestor, reveals differentially expressed genes in leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Priscila Mary; Reis Júnior, Osvaldo; Ivamoto, Suzana Tiemi; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Charmetant, Pierre; Leroy, Thierry; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-01

    Studies in diploid parental species of polyploid plants are important to understand their contributions to the formation of plant and species evolution. Coffea eugenioides is a diploid species that is considered to be an ancestor of allopolyploid Coffea arabica together with Coffea canephora. Despite its importance in the evolutionary history of the main economic species of coffee, no study has focused on C. eugenioides molecular genetics. RNA-seq creates the possibility to generate reference transcriptomes and identify coding genes and potential candidates related to important agronomic traits. Therefore, the main objectives were to obtain a global overview of transcriptionally active genes in this species using next-generation sequencing and to analyze specific genes that were highly expressed in leaves and fruits with potential exploratory characteristics for breeding and understanding the evolutionary biology of coffee. A de novo assembly generated 36,935 contigs that were annotated using eight databases. We observed a total of ~5000 differentially expressed genes between leaves and fruits. Several genes exclusively expressed in fruits did not exhibit similarities with sequences in any database. We selected ten differentially expressed unigenes in leaves and fruits to evaluate transcriptional profiles using qPCR. Our study provides the first gene catalog for C. eugenioides and enhances the knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in the C. arabica homeologous. Furthermore, this work will open new avenues for studies into specific genes and pathways in this species, especially related to fruit, and our data have potential value in assisted breeding applications.

  14. Relationship between differences of gene expression in early developing seeds of hybrid versus parents and heterosis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Zhong-Fu; Meng, Fan-Rong; Wu, Li-Min; Wang, Zhang-Kui; Sun, Qi-Xin

    2003-03-01

    In order to understand molecular basis of heterosis, mRNA differential display was used to analyze the differences in gene expression between seeds of 18 reciprocal hybrids and their 6 parents at 6th day after pollination. The relationship between gene expression patterns and heterosis was determined. Only bands that can be repeated in duplicate PCR were used for analysis so as to reduce false positive bands. Among the total of 2,025 bands displayed, 1,386 bands (68.43%) were reproducible. Eight patterns (fifteen kinds) of gene expression were observed, which include: (1) bands occurring in only one parent (two kinds); (2) bands observed in both hybrids and one parent (two kinds); (3) bands detected in parents and one hybrid (two kinds); (4) bands displayed in only one hybrid (two kinds); (5) bands revealed in one hybrid and its corresponding female (two kinds) or male (two kinds) parent; (6) bands visualized in only both hybrids (one kind); (7) bands occurring in only parents (one kind); (8) bands observed in parents and both hybrids (one kind). Our results indicate that differences of gene expression between hybrids and their parents are very obvious. The percentages of bands observed in only both hybrids and in only both parents are lower. The analysis shows that bands observed in parents and both hybrids are not correlated with all nine agronomic traits, which indicates differentially expressed genes are mainly responsible for the observed heterosis. At least one pattern of differential gene expression is significantly correlated with nine agronomic traits. Silenced bands in hybrid (which include bands occurring in only one parent, bands detected in both parents and one hybrid and bands in only parents) and bands present in one hybrid and its corresponding female or male parent are likely to play important roles in heterosis. These results suggest that early seed development could be closely related to heterosis.

  15. Comparative and parallel genome-wide association studies for metabolic and agronomic traits in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Peng, Meng; Gong, Liang; Gao, Yanqiang; Wan, Jian; Wang, Shouchuang; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bin; Li, Zongmei; Peng, Xiaoxi; Yang, Chenkun; Qu, Lianghuan; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The plant metabolome is characterized by extensive diversity and is often regarded as a bridge between genome and phenome. Here we report metabolic and phenotypic genome-wide studies (mGWAS and pGWAS) in rice grain that, in addition to previous metabolic GWAS in rice leaf and maize kernel, show both distinct and overlapping aspects of genetic control of metabolism within and between species. We identify new candidate genes potentially influencing important metabolic and/or morphological traits. We show that the differential genetic architecture of rice metabolism between different tissues is in part determined by tissue specific expression. Using parallel mGWAS and pGWAS we identify new candidate genes potentially responsible for variation in traits such as grain colour and size, and provide evidence of metabotype-phenotype linkage. Our study demonstrates a powerful strategy for interactive functional genomics and metabolomics in plants, especially the cloning of minor QTLs for complex phenotypic traits. PMID:27698483

  16. Identification of cold acclimation-responsive Rhododendron genes for lipid metabolism, membrane transport and lignin biosynthesis: importance of moderately abundant ESTs in genomic studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Dhanaraj, Anik L; Arora, Rajeev; Rowland, Lisa J; Fu, Yan; Sun, Li

    2006-04-01

    We have previously analysed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) Rhododendron leaves, and identified highly abundant complementary DNAs (cDNAs) possibly involved in cold acclimation. A potentially significant, but relatively unexplored, application of these EST data sets is the study of moderately abundant cDNAs, such as those picked only 1-3 times from each Rhododendron EST library containing approximately 430 ESTs. Using statistical tests and Northern blots, we established that the probability of differential expression of moderately abundant cDNAs based on the EST data is, indeed, a reasonably accurate predictor of their 'true' upregulation or downregulation as 11 out of 13 cDNAs (85%) studied fit this criterion. The analyses also revealed four aspects of cold acclimation in Rhododendron leaf tissues. Firstly, the concomitant upregulation of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase and delta-12 fatty acid desaturase in CA leaf tissues suggests that phospholipid biosynthesis and desaturation are important components of cold hardening in Rhododendron. Secondly, upregulation of plastidic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatemalic enzyme (NADP-ME) in CA tissues suggests that malate is an important source of acetyl-CoA used for fatty acid biosynthesis during cold acclimation. Thirdly, down-regulation of plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)2-1 aquaporin and upregulation of gated outward rectifying K+ channel (GORK) in CA tissues may be associated with the protection of overwintering leaves from freeze-induced cellular dehydration. Fourthly, upregulation of coumarate 3-hydroxylase may be associated with cell wall thickening in CA tissues. Physiological implications of these results, which reveal potentially novel regulations of cold acclimation in overwintering woody evergreens, are discussed. This work highlights the importance of also investigating low

  17. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) MEAM1, one of the most important vectors for plant viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among whiteflies, the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex is particularly important because of its ability to transmit hundreds of plant viruses, resulting in the loss of billions of U.S. dollars on agronomically important crops such as tomato, cucurbits, cassava, and cotton worl...

  19. Small RNAs as important regulators for the hybrid vigour of super-hybrid rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Peng, Yonggang; Wei, Xiaoli; Dai, Yan; Yuan, Dawei; Lu, Yufei; Pan, Yangyang; Zhu, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Heterosis is an important biological phenomenon; however, the role of small RNA (sRNA) in heterosis of hybrid rice remains poorly described. Here, we performed sRNA profiling of F1 super-hybrid rice LYP9 and its parents using high-throughput sequencing technology, and identified 355 distinct mature microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, 69 of which were differentially expressed sRNAs (DES) between the hybrid and the mid-parental value. Among these, 34 DES were predicted to target 176 transcripts, of which 112 encoded 94 transcription factors. Further analysis showed that 67.6% of DES expression levels were negatively correlated with their target mRNAs either in flag leaves or panicles. The target genes of DES were significantly enriched in some important biological processes, including the auxin signalling pathway, in which existed a regulatory network mediated by DES and their targets, closely associated with plant growth and development. Overall, 20.8% of DES and their target genes were significantly enriched in quantitative trait loci of small intervals related to important rice agronomic traits including growth vigour, grain yield, and plant architecture, suggesting that the interaction between sRNAs and their targets contributes to the heterotic phenotypes of hybrid rice. Our findings revealed that sRNAs might play important roles in hybrid vigour of super-hybrid rice by regulating their target genes, especially in controlling the auxin signalling pathway. The above finding provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of heterosis.

  20. Length of Selection Around Candidate Genes for Artificial Selection During Domestication and Crop Improvement in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic screens for artificial selection have been successful in identifying candidate genes for agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L). However, the validity of the candidates identified requires that selection sweeps are very short, only containing the candidate gene with the nearest neighboring g...

  1. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  2. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-González, José A.; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J.; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin–Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1. PMID:25743161

  3. Disruption of both chloroplastic and cytosolic FBPase genes results in a dwarf phenotype and important starch and metabolite changes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rojas-González, José A; Soto-Súarez, Mauricio; García-Díaz, Ángel; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Mérida, Ángel; Thormählen, Ina; Geigenberger, Peter; Serrato, Antonio J; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2015-05-01

    In this study, evidence is provided for the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPases) in plant development and carbohydrate synthesis and distribution by analysing two Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA knockout mutant lines, cyfbp and cfbp1, and one double mutant cyfbp cfbp1 which affect each FBPase isoform, cytosolic and chloroplastic, respectively. cyFBP is involved in sucrose synthesis, whilst cFBP1 is a key enzyme in the Calvin-Benson cycle. In addition to the smaller rosette size and lower rate of photosynthesis, the lack of cFBP1 in the mutants cfbp1 and cyfbp cfbp1 leads to a lower content of soluble sugars, less starch accumulation, and a greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The mutants also had some developmental alterations, including stomatal opening defects and increased numbers of root vascular layers. Complementation also confirmed that the mutant phenotypes were caused by disruption of the cFBP1 gene. cyfbp mutant plants without cyFBP showed a higher starch content in the chloroplasts, but this did not greatly affect the phenotype. Notably, the sucrose content in cyfbp was close to that found in the wild type. The cyfbp cfbp1 double mutant displayed features of both parental lines but had the cfbp1 phenotype. All the mutants accumulated fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose-phosphate during the light period. These results prove that while the lack of cFBP1 induces important changes in a wide range of metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids, the lack of cyFBP activity in Arabidopsis essentially provokes a carbon metabolism imbalance which does not compromise the viability of the double mutant cyfbp cfbp1.

  4. ScMT2-1-3, a metallothionein gene of sugarcane, plays an important role in the regulation of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700 bp long, including a 240 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd(2+), Cu(2+), PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu(2+) stress but downregulated under Cd(2+) stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd(2+). ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties.

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic

  7. Understanding V(D)J recombination initiator RAG1 gene using molecular phylogenetic and genetic variant analyses and upgrading missense and non-coding variants of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bhandari, Anita; Sarde, Sandeep J; Muppavarapu, Sekhar; Tandon, Ravi

    2015-07-10

    The recombination-activating genes (RAGs) encode for V(D)J recombinases responsible for rearrangements of antigen-receptor genes during T and B cell development, and RAG expression is known to correlate strictly with the process of rearrangement. There have been several studies of RAG1 illustrating biochemical, physiological and immunological properties. Hitherto, there are limited studies on RAG1 focusing molecular phylogenetic analyses, evolutionary traits, and genetic variants in human populations. Hence, there is a need of a comprehensive study on this topic. In the current report, we have shed light into insights of evolutionary traits and genetic variants of human RAG1 gene using 1092 genomes from human populations. Syntenic analyses revealed that two RAG genes are physically linked and conserved on the same locus in head-to-head orientation from sea urchin to human for about 550 MY. Spliceosomal introns have been in invaded in fishes and sea urchin, whereas gene structures of RAG1 gene from tetrapods remained single exon architecture. We compiled 751 genetic variants in human RAG1 gene using 1092 human genomes; where major stockholders of variant classes are 79% single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 12.2% somatic single nucleotide variants (somatic SNVs) and 6.8% deletion. Out of 267 missense variants, 140 are deleterious mutations. We identified 284 non-coding variants with 94% regulatory in nature.

  8. Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi M L; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Williams, Brett; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James; Mundree, Sagadevan G

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world's population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

  9. Row Ratios of Intercropping Maize and Soybean Can Affect Agronomic Efficiency of the System and Subsequent Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yitao; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jizong; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Shen; Zhai, Limei; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Ren, Tianzhi; Yin, Changbin

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping is regarded as an important agricultural practice to improve crop production and environmental quality in the regions with intensive agricultural production, e.g., northern China. To optimize agronomic advantage of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping system compared to monoculture of maize, two sequential experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 was to screening the optimal cropping system in summer that had the highest yields and economic benefits, and Experiment 2 was to identify the optimum row ratio of the intercrops selected from Experiment 1. Results of Experiment 1 showed that maize intercropping with soybean (maize || soybean) was the optimal cropping system in summer. Compared to conventional monoculture of maize, maize || soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization ratio and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen (N) accumulation, as well as better residual effect on the subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Experiment 2 showed that intercropping systems reduced use of N fertilizer per unit land area and increased relative biomass of intercropped maize, due to promoted photosynthetic efficiency of border rows and N utilization during symbiotic period. Intercropping advantage began to emerge at tasseling stage after N topdressing for maize. Among all treatments with different row ratios, alternating four maize rows with six soybean rows (4M:6S) had the largest land equivalent ratio (1.30), total N accumulation in crops (258 kg ha-1), and economic benefit (3,408 USD ha-1). Compared to maize monoculture, 4M:6S had significantly lower nitrate-N accumulation in soil both after harvest of maize and after harvest of the subsequent wheat, but it did not decrease yield of wheat. The most important advantage of 4M:6S was to increase biomass of intercropped maize and soybean, which further led to the increase of total N accumulation by crops as well as economic benefit. In conclusion, alternating

  10. Row Ratios of Intercropping Maize and Soybean Can Affect Agronomic Efficiency of the System and Subsequent Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yitao; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jizong; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Shen; Zhai, Limei; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Ren, Tianzhi; Yin, Changbin

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping is regarded as an important agricultural practice to improve crop production and environmental quality in the regions with intensive agricultural production, e.g., northern China. To optimize agronomic advantage of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping system compared to monoculture of maize, two sequential experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 was to screening the optimal cropping system in summer that had the highest yields and economic benefits, and Experiment 2 was to identify the optimum row ratio of the intercrops selected from Experiment 1. Results of Experiment 1 showed that maize intercropping with soybean (maize || soybean) was the optimal cropping system in summer. Compared to conventional monoculture of maize, maize || soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization ratio and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen (N) accumulation, as well as better residual effect on the subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Experiment 2 showed that intercropping systems reduced use of N fertilizer per unit land area and increased relative biomass of intercropped maize, due to promoted photosynthetic efficiency of border rows and N utilization during symbiotic period. Intercropping advantage began to emerge at tasseling stage after N topdressing for maize. Among all treatments with different row ratios, alternating four maize rows with six soybean rows (4M:6S) had the largest land equivalent ratio (1.30), total N accumulation in crops (258 kg ha(-1)), and economic benefit (3,408 USD ha(-1)). Compared to maize monoculture, 4M:6S had significantly lower nitrate-N accumulation in soil both after harvest of maize and after harvest of the subsequent wheat, but it did not decrease yield of wheat. The most important advantage of 4M:6S was to increase biomass of intercropped maize and soybean, which further led to the increase of total N accumulation by crops as well as economic benefit. In conclusion, alternating

  11. Comparative studies of Campylobacter jejuni genomic diversity reveal the importance of core and dispensable genes in the biology of this enigmatic food-borne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Tri; Konkel, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent events MLST, DNA microarrays, and genome sequencing has allowed for a greater understanding of the metabolic capacity and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni. While strain-specific genes may provide an isolate a selective advantage in environments and contribute to the organism's pathogenicity, recent work indicates that C. jejuni pathogenicity is dictated by variations in the nucleotide sequence of core genes. Challenges facing C. jejuni researchers include determining: a) the degree to which genomic diversity enables this bacterium to persist in particular environments; b) if C. jejuni virulence and disease severity can be predicted based on genotype; c) the set of core and variable genes whose products contribute to virulence; and d) the genes in which nucleotide changes can affect a strain's pathogenicity. PMID:19346123

  12. Strigolactone biology: genes, functional genomics, epigenetics and applications.

    PubMed

    Makhzoum, Abdullah; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Malik, Sonia; Gantet, Pascal; Tremouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

    2017-03-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) represent an important new plant hormone class marked by their multifunctional role in plant and rhizosphere interactions. These compounds stimulate hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and seed germination of root parasitic plants. In addition, they are involved in the control of plant architecture by inhibiting bud outgrowth as well as many other morphological and developmental processes together with other plant hormones such as auxins and cytokinins. The biosynthetic pathway of SLs that are derived from carotenoids was partially decrypted based on the identification of mutants from a variety of plant species. Only a few SL biosynthetic and regulated genes and related regulatory transcription factors have been identified. However, functional genomics and epigenetic studies started to give first elements on the modality of the regulation of SLs related genes. Since they control plant architecture and plant-rhizosphere interaction, SLs start to be used for agronomical and biotechnological applications. Furthermore, the genes involved in the SL biosynthetic pathway and genes regulated by SL constitute interesting targets for plant breeding. Therefore, it is necessary to decipher and better understand the genetic determinants of their regulation at different levels.

  13. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  14. Agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge on an Alfisol.

    PubMed

    Gavalda, D; Scheiner, J D; Revel, J C; Merlina, G; Kaemmerer, M; Pinelli, E; Guiresse, M

    2005-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on Alfisols in South-West France to assess the agronomic and environmental impacts of a single application of heat-dried sludge pellets at 11.1 Mg dry matter ha-1. The sludge pellets, with a moisture level of 9.5%, were spread on an irrigated crop of maize (Zea mays L.). This treatment was compared with inorganic fertilization (urea and diammonium phosphate mixed with KCl). Soil properties, yield and the composition of maize and the quality of drained water were monitored over 1 year to detect any changes resulting from sludge application. Amongst several determined soil properties, only two were significantly modified by the sludge application: The nitric nitrogen stock of the soil was higher in the inorganic fertilized plot, whereas Olsen-P soil content was higher in the sludge-amended plot. Agronomic recovery rates of N and P added by sludge were high: For the first crop following application, total amounts of N and P supplied by the sludge had the same efficiency as approximately 45% of the N and P amounts supplied by inorganic fertilizer. This ratio was 7% for the N uptake by the second maize crop. The quality and quantity of maize were equally good with both types of fertilization. During the 2 years following sludge spreading, N leaching remained as low in the sludged plot as in the inorganically fertilized one. The Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni composition of the drainage water was affected by neither of the types of amendment. From the heavy-metal contents of the soil, water and maize monitored over 1 year in the field experiment and from literature data for cow manure and atmospheric emissions, a theoretical balance between crop soil heavy-metal input and output over one century was drawn up. The long-term impact of cow manure on Zn, Ni and Cr in soil is higher than that of the studied heat-dried sludge. Obviously, sludge tended to cause a strong increase in soil Cu storage, valued for these soils, which are otherwise very Cu

  15. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwanney, Deaa; Chami, Ziad Al; Angelica De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, improving plant performance by providing growth promoters is a main concern of the organic agriculture. As a consequence of increased food demands, more efficient and alternatives of the current plant nutrition strategies are becoming urgent. Recently, a novel concept "bio-effectors" raised on to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance and do not belong to fertilizers or pesticides. Agro-Food processing residues are promising materials as bio-effector. Three plant-derived materials: brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as bio-effector candidates. Plant-derived materials were characterized in term of total macro and micronutrients content. Green extraction methodology and solvent choice (aqueous; ethanol; and aqueous: ethanol mixture 1:1) was based on the extraction yield as main factor. Optimum extracts, to be used on the tomato test plant, were determined using phytotoxicity test (seed germination test) as main constraint. Thereafter, selected extracts were characterized and secondary metabolites profiling were detected by NMR technique. Selected extracts were applied on tomato in a growth chamber at different doses in comparison to humic-like substances as positive control (Ctrl+) and to a Hoagland solution as negative control (Ctrl-). At the end of the experiment, agronomical parameters were determined and NMR-metabolomic profiling were conducted on tomato seedlings. Results are summarized as follow: (i) raw showed an interesting content, either at nutritional or biological level; (ii) aqueous extraction resulted higher yield than other used solvent; (iii) at high extraction ratio (1:25 for BSG; 1:100 for FPR; and 1:200 for LPR) aqueous extracts were not phytotoxic on the tomato test plant; (iv) all aqueous extract are differently rich in nutrients, aminoacids, sugars and low molecular weight molecules; (v) all extract exhibited a growth promotion at

  16. Gene expression profiling of Ewing sarcoma tumours reveals the prognostic importance of tumour–stromal interactions: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Andrade, Jorge; Huang, Lei; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Krailo, Mark; Womer, Richard B.; Ranft, Andreas; Potratz, Jenny; Dirksen, Uta; Triche, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Relapse of Ewing sarcoma (ES) can occur months or years after initial remission, and salvage therapy for relapsed disease is usually ineffective. Thus, there is great need to develop biomarkers that can predict which patients are at risk for relapse so that therapy and post‐therapy evaluation can be adjusted accordingly. For this study, we performed whole genome expression profiling on two independent cohorts of clinically annotated ES tumours in an effort to identify and validate prognostic gene signatures. ES specimens were obtained from the Children's Oncology Group and whole genome expression profiling performed using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Lists of differentially expressed genes between survivors and non‐survivors were used to identify prognostic gene signatures. An independent cohort of tumours from the Euro‐Ewing cooperative group was similarly analysed as a validation cohort. Unsupervised clustering of gene expression data failed to segregate tumours based on outcome. Supervised analysis of survivors versus non‐survivors revealed a small number of differentially expressed genes and several statistically significant gene signatures. Gene‐specific enrichment analysis demonstrated that integrin and chemokine genes were associated with survival in tumours where stromal contamination was present. Tumours that did not harbour stromal contamination showed no association of any genes or pathways with clinical outcome. Our results reflect the challenges of performing RNA‐based assays on archived bone tumour specimens. In addition, they reveal a key role for tumour stroma in determining ES prognosis. Future biological and clinical investigations should focus on elucidating the contribution of tumour:micro‐environment interactions on ES progression and response to therapy. PMID:26052443

  17. The importance of location and orientation of male specific lethal complex binding sites of differing affinities on reporter gene dosage compensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schiemann, Anja H; Weake, Vikki M; Li, Fang; Laverty, Corey; Belikoff, Esther J; Scott, Maxwell J

    2010-11-26

    The male specific lethal (MSL) complex is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila. The complex binds to most actively transcribed X-linked genes in males and upregulates expression. High resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have identified over one hundred high affinity binding sites on the X chromosome. One of the first high affinity sites discovered is at cytological location 18D11. The MSL complex binds weakly to a single copy of a 510bp fragment from 18D11 but strongly to a tetramer of the fragment. Here we have investigated the effect of insertion of sites of differing affinities, either upstream or within the transcribed gene, on complex binding and transcription upregulation. Insertion of four copies of the 18D11 fragment upstream or at the 3' end of a reporter gene led to strong MSL complex binding and increased expression in males. In contrast, the MSL complex did not bind consistently to autosomal transgenes that contained a single copy of the 18D11 site upstream of the gene promoter. However, MSL complex binding was observed in all lines if the single 18D11 fragment was inserted into the 3' end of the reporter gene in either orientation. This is consistent with previous studies that showed gene transcription facilitates MSL complex binding. Surprisingly, transcription elevation in males was only observed if the 18D11 fragment was in the forward orientation and only in some lines. Our results suggest that MSL complex binding to weaker sites and transcription enhancement is influenced by gene transcription, binding site orientation and the local chromatin environment. In contrast, strong binding sites do not need to be transcribed to recruit sufficient complex to cause transcription elevation of nearby genes.

  18. SPT5, an essential gene important for normal transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes an acidic nuclear protein with a carboxy-terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Malone, E A; Winston, F

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT5 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated previously as suppressors of delta insertion mutations at HIS4 and LYS2. In this study we have shown that spt5 mutations suppress the his4-912 delta and lys2-128 delta alleles by altering transcription. We cloned the SPT5 gene and found that either an increase or a decrease in the copy number of the wild-type SPT5 gene caused an Spt- phenotype. Construction and analysis of an spt5 null mutation demonstrated that SPT5 is essential for growth, suggesting that SPT5 may be required for normal transcription of a large number of genes. The SPT5 DNA sequence was determined; it predicted a 116-kDa protein with an extremely acidic amino terminus and a novel six-amino-acid repeat at the carboxy terminus (consensus = S-T/A-W-G-G-A/Q). By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy we showed that a bifunctional SPT5-beta-galactosidase protein was located in the yeast nucleus. This molecular analysis of the SPT5 gene revealed a number of interesting similarities to the previously characterized SPT6 gene of S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that SPT5 and SPT6 act in a related fashion to influence essential transcriptional processes in S. cerevisiae. Images PMID:1840633

  19. Importance of input perturbations and stochastic gene expression in the reverse engineering of genetic regulatory networks: insights from an identifiability analysis of an in silico network.

    PubMed

    Zak, Daniel E; Gonye, Gregory E; Schwaber, James S; Doyle, Francis J

    2003-11-01

    Gene expression profiles are an increasingly common data source that can yield insights into the functions of cells at a system-wide level. The present work considers the limitations in information content of gene expression data for reverse engineering regulatory networks. An in silico genetic regulatory network was constructed for this purpose. Using the in silico network, a formal identifiability analysis was performed that considered the accuracy with which the parameters in the network could be estimated using gene expression data and prior structural knowledge (which transcription factors regulate which genes) as a function of the input perturbation and stochastic gene expression. The analysis yielded experimentally relevant results. It was observed that, in addition to prior structural knowledge, prior knowledge of kinetic parameters, particularly mRNA degradation rate constants, was necessary for the network to be identifiable. Also, with the exception of cases where the noise due to stochastic gene expression was high, complex perturbations were more favorable for identifying the network than simple ones. Although the results may be specific to the network considered, the present study provides a framework for posing similar questions in other systems.

  20. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used.

  1. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-03

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  2. Comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE identifies novel candidate genes for controlling potato quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity

    PubMed Central

    Draffehn, Astrid M.; Li, Li; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Ding, Jia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Muktar, Meki S.; Walkemeier, Birgit; Rotter, Björn; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to pathogens is essential for survival of wild and cultivated plants. Pathogen susceptibility causes major losses of crop yield and quality. Durable field resistance combined with high yield and other superior agronomic characters are therefore, important objectives in every crop breeding program. Precision and efficacy of resistance breeding can be enhanced by molecular diagnostic tools, which result from knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility. Breeding uses resistance conferred by single R genes and polygenic quantitative resistance. The latter is partial but considered more durable. Molecular mechanisms of plant pathogen interactions are elucidated mainly in experimental systems involving single R genes, whereas most genes important for quantitative resistance in crops like potato are unknown. Quantitative resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans causing late blight is often compromised by late plant maturity, a negative agronomic character. Our objective was to identify candidate genes for quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late plant maturity. We used diagnostic DNA-markers to select plants with different field levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight and compared their leaf transcriptomes before and after infection with P. infestans using SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) technology and next generation sequencing. We identified 2034 transcripts up or down regulated upon infection, including a homolog of the kiwi fruit allergen kiwellin. 806 transcripts showed differential expression between groups of genotypes with contrasting MCR levels. The observed expression patterns suggest that MCR is in part controlled by differential transcript levels in uninfected plants. Functional annotation suggests that, besides biotic and abiotic stress responses, general cellular processes such as photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and degradation play a role in MCR. PMID

  3. Gene expression in bryozoan larvae suggest a fundamental importance of pre-patterned blastemic cells in the bryozoan life-cycle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryozoa is a clade of aquatic protostomes. The bryozoan life cycle typically comprises a larval stage, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult that proliferates by asexual budding to form colonies. The homology of bryozoan larvae with other protostome larvae is enigmatic. Bryozoan larvae exhibit blastemic tissues that contribute to build the adult during morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if the cells of these tissues are pre-determined according to their future fate or if the cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells. Gene expression studies can help to identify molecular patterning of larval and adult tissues and enlighten the evolution of bryozoan life cycle stages. Results We investigated the spatial expression of 13 developmental genes in the larval stage of the gymnolaemate bryozoan Bugula neritina. We found most genes expressed in discrete regions in larval blastemic tissues that form definitive components of the adult body plan. Only two of the 13 genes, BnTropomyosin and BnFoxAB, were exclusively expressed in larval tissues that are discarded during metamorphosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that the larval blastemas in Bugula are pre-patterned according to their future fate in the adult. The gene expression patterns indicate that some of the bryozoan blastemas can be interpreted to correspond to homologous adult tissues of other animals. This study challenges an earlier proposed view that metazoan larvae share homologous undifferentiated "set-aside cells", and instead points to an independent origin of the bryozoan larval stage with respect to other lophotrochozoans. PMID:21645327

  4. Network analysis of human post-mortem microarrays reveals novel genes, microRNAs, and mechanistic scenarios of potential importance in fighting huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive decline, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this study, we utilized network-based analysis in an attempt to explore and understand the underlying molecular mechanism and to identify critical molecular players of this disease condition. Using human post-mortem microarrays from three brain regions (cerebellum, frontal cortex and caudate nucleus) we selected in a four-step procedure a seed set of highly modulated genes. Several protein-protein interaction networks, as well as microRNA-mRNA networks were constructed for these gene sets with the Elsevier Pathway Studio software and its associated ResNet database. We applied a gene prioritizing procedure based on vital network topological measures, such as high node connectivity and centrality. Adding to these criteria the guilt-by-association rule and exploring their innate biomolecular functions, we propose 19 novel genes from the analyzed microarrays, from which CEBPA, CDK1, CX3CL1, EGR1, E2F1, ERBB2, LRP1, HSP90AA1 and ZNF148 might be of particular interest for experimental validation. A possibility is discussed for dual-level gene regulation by both transcription factors and microRNAs in Huntington's disease mechanism. We propose several possible scenarios for experimental studies initiated via the extra-cellular ligands TGFB1, FGF2 and TNF aiming at restoring the cellular homeostasis in Huntington's disease.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and P53 genes in a unique Siberian population of Tundra Nentsi and its pharmacogenetic importance.

    PubMed

    Duzhak, T G; Osipova, L P; Posukh, O L; Chasovnikova, O B; Ostashevskii, V I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2001-04-01

    Complete data on the polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and p53 genes in Tundra Nentsi population, with known genealogical history are essential for the analysis of the "cancer susceptibility gene markers" distribution among different Oriental populations. The cytochrome P4501A subfamily is known to be responsible for the metabolic activation of aromatic compounds occurring in the products of gas mixture combustion, the main environmental pollutants in the north of western Siberia. Recently a close correlation was reported between development of some types of cancer and polymorphisms of human CYP1A1, GSTM1 and p53 genes. The frequency of the CYP1A1 Vol allele in the healthy part of the Tundra Nentsi population differs from those previously reported for Japanese and is more than 1.5 times higher. It is necessary to underline that homozygote Val genotype was present in 26% of non-healthy Tundra Nentsi, the incidence being 2.7-times higher in comparison with healthy population. GSTM1 gene deletion is present in 40% of Orientals and in 39% of Tundra Nentsi. Moreover, the share of individuals with null genotype among a group with chromosomal abnormalities and cancer was 63%, or 1.5 fold higher. Thus the prevalence of two polymorphic genes CYP1A1 and GSTM1 responsible for the biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was too high in the non-healthy group.

  6. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (p > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  7. Combining Ability of Different Agronomic Traits and Yield Components in Hybrid Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Guo, Baojian; Xu, Rugen

    2015-01-01

    Selection of parents based on their combining ability is an effective approach in hybrid breeding. In this study, eight maintainer lines and nine restorer lines were used to obtain 72 crosses for analyzing the general combining ability (GCA) and special combining ability (SCA) for seven agronomic and yield characters including plant height (PH), spike length excluding awns (SL), inter-node length (IL), spikes per plant (SP), thousand kernel weight (TKW), kernel weight per plant (KWP) and dry matter weight per plant (DWP). The results showed that GCA was significantly different among parents and SCA was also significantly different among crosses. The performance of hybrid was significantly correlated with the sum of female and male GCA (TGCA), SCA and heterosis. Hu1154 A, Mian684 A, 86F098 A, 8036 R and 8041 R were excellent parents with greater general combining ability. Five crosses, Hu1154 A×8032 R, Humai10 A×8040 R, Mian684 A×8037 R, Mian684 A×8041 R and 86F098 A×8037 R, showed superior heterosis for most characters. PMID:26061000

  8. Evaluation of potential herbaceous biomass crops on marginal crop lands: 1, Agronomic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Kladivko, E.J.; Greene, D.K. . Dept. of Agronomy)

    1990-07-01

    Management of herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. Our objective was to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland. Soil organic matter and aggregate stability were not adversely affected by any of the management options. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass candidate. It has minimum fertilizer inputs, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive, but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Photoperiod-sensitive and hybrid sorghums able to utilize an entire growing season were very productive, with yields up to 39 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}. Two harvest per season resulted in low yields, such that lodging resistance must be incorporated into desirable genotypes through breeding, instead of using multiple harvests to prevent lodging. Plant composition was greatly affected by species, with a wide range in composition across sorghum genotypes. Of all species evaluated, switchgrass and sorghum have the greatest biomass potential, and both of these species can be improved to produce higher yields of a more desirable chemical composition through plant breeding. 13 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260˚C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an

  10. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Islam, Aminul M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility. PMID:24971378

  11. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    PubMed

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding.

  12. Tropical legume crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on agronomic and nitrogen efficiency of rice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Motior M; Islam, Aminul M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m(-2) preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m(-2). No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13-23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m(-2). The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m(-2). The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  13. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.))

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A. I.; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26110423

  14. Reduction of the movement and persistence of pesticides in soil through common agronomic practices.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted in order to determine the leaching potential of eight pesticides commonly used during pepper cultivation by use of disturbed soil columns and field lysimeters, respectively. Two soils with different organic matter content (soils A and B) were used. Additionally, soil B was amended with compost (sheep manure). The tested compounds were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, endosulfan, malathion and tolclofos-methyl. In soil B (lower organic matter content), only endosulfan sulphate, malathion and tolclofos-methyl were found in leachates. For the soil A (higher organic matter content) and amended soil B, pesticide residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, this paper reports on the use of common agronomic practices (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance degradation of these pesticides from polluted soil A. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced the degradation rates of endosulfan, bifenthrin and tolclofos-methyl compared with the control. Most of the studied pesticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, chlorpyrifos was degraded to a greater extent in the solarization than in biosolarization treatment. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic amendment in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage and in the use of solarization and biosolarization in reducing the persistence of pesticides in soil.

  15. Combining abilities for agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection for Potato virus X and Potato virus Y resistance.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M L; Pinto, C A B P; Ribeiro, G H M R; Lyra, D H; Carneiro, O L G

    2016-09-16

    Disease-resistant potato cultivars with good tuber appearance and desirable agronomic traits are essential for meeting the demands of producers and the market. Attaining these cultivars is the focus of potato breeding programs whose aim is to benefit the productive chain. The purpose of this study was to estimate combining abilities and evaluate potato clones based on tuber appearance, yield, and resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses. Crosses between four commercial cultivars of potato with good tuber appearance were performed, using eight clones with proven resistance to PVY and PVX from the breeding program of UFLA. The clones obtained were evaluated for agronomic traits, tuber appearance, and the presence of both Ryadg and Rx1 alleles, which confer extreme resistance to the PVY and PVX viruses, respectively. The independent culling level method was used to select genotypes of commercial interest, as well as to estimate the combining abilities of the parents. We identified clones carrying the Ryadg and Rx1 alleles with agronomic traits suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The BRS Ana cultivar and CMA-399 and CMA-385 clones showed positive effects on general combining ability (GCA) for tuber yield, while the Monalisa cultivar showed positive effects on GCA for general tuber appearance.

  16. A Gene-Phenotype Network Based on Genetic Variability for Drought Responses Reveals Key Physiological Processes in Controlled and Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, David; Arribat, Sandrine; Maury, Pierre; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Hourlier, Thibaut; Laporte, Marion; Varès, Didier; Carrère, Sébastien; Grieu, Philippe; Balzergue, Sandrine; Gouzy, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the connections between molecular and physiological processes underlying the diversity of drought stress responses in plants is key for basic and applied science. Drought stress response involves a large number of molecular pathways and subsequent physiological processes. Therefore, it constitutes an archetypical systems biology model. We first inferred a gene-phenotype network exploiting differences in drought responses of eight sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genotypes to two drought stress scenarios. Large transcriptomic data were obtained with the sunflower Affymetrix microarray, comprising 32423 probesets, and were associated to nine morpho-physiological traits (integrated transpired water, leaf transpiration rate, osmotic potential, relative water content, leaf mass per area, carbon isotope discrimination, plant height, number of leaves and collar diameter) using sPLS regression. Overall, we could associate the expression patterns of 1263 probesets to six phenotypic traits and identify if correlations were due to treatment, genotype and/or their interaction. We also identified genes whose expression is affected at moderate and/or intense drought stress together with genes whose expression variation could explain phenotypic and drought tolerance variability among our genetic material. We then used the network model to study phenotypic changes in less tractable agronomical conditions, i.e. sunflower hybrids subjected to different watering regimes in field trials. Mapping this new dataset in the gene-phenotype network allowed us to identify genes whose expression was robustly affected by water deprivation in both controlled and field conditions. The enrichment in genes correlated to relative water content and osmotic potential provides evidence of the importance of these traits in agronomical conditions. PMID:23056196

  17. A transgenic approach to controlling wheat seed dormancy level by using Triticeae DOG1-like genes.

    PubMed

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Mori, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka

    2014-08-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait: low levels can cause premature germination, while too much can inhibit uniform germination. As an approach to controlling the seed dormancy level in crops, we used Triticeae DOG1-like genes as transgenes. DOG1 is an Arabidopsis gene that underlies natural variation in seed dormancy. We previously showed that although their sequence similarities to DOG1 were low, some cereal DOG1-like genes enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, we introduced two DOG1-like genes, TaDOG1L4 from wheat and HvDOG1L1 from barley, individually into the wheat cultivar Fielder. Their overexpression under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter enhanced the seed dormancy level while leaving other traits unchanged. TaDOG1L4 was more effective than HvDOG1L1, which accords with the previously revealed difference in the effectiveness of these two genes in Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Knockdown of endogenous TaDOG1L4 in Fielder using double-strand RNA interference decreased the seed dormancy level by several tens of percent. This result indicates that some degree of seed dormancy inherent in wheat is imparted by DOG1-like genes.

  18. The CHL 1 (CTF 1) gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for chromosome transmission and normal cell cycle progression in G2/M.

    PubMed Central

    Gerring, S L; Spencer, F; Hieter, P

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the CTF1 gene, identified in a screen for mutants with decreased chromosome transmission fidelity and shown to correspond to the previously identified chl1 mutation. Chl1 null mutants exhibited a 200-fold increase in the rate of chromosome III missegregation per cell division, and near wild-type rates of marker homozygosis on this chromosome by mitotic recombination. Analysis of the segregation of a marker chromosome indicated that sister chromatid loss (1:0 segregation) and sister chromatid non-disjunction (2:0 segregation) contributed equally to chromosome missegregation. A genomic clone of CHL1 was isolated and used to map its physical position on chromosome XVI. Nucleotide sequence analysis of CHL1 revealed a 2.6 kb open reading frame with a 99 kd predicted protein sequence that contained two PEST sequences and was 23% identical to the coding region of a nucleotide excision repair gene, RAD3. Domains of homology between these two predicted protein sequences included a helix-turn-helix motif and an ATP binding site containing a helicase consensus. Mutants lacking the CHL1 gene product are viable and display two striking, and perhaps interrelated, phenotypes: extreme chromosome instability and a delay in cell cycle progression in G2/M. This delay is independent of the cell cycle checkpoint that requires the function of the RAD9 gene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2265610

  19. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like...

  20. Trichodiene production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-silenced strain provides evidence of the importance of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in inducing plant defense-related gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both ...

  1. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  2. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies. PMID:26734043

  3. Development of molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes in common bean based on whole genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Meziadi, Chouaïb; Richard, Manon M S; Derquennes, Amandine; Thareau, Vincent; Blanchet, Sophie; Gratias, Ariane; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Geffroy, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world, particularly in developing countries where it constitutes the main source of protein. Unfortunately, common bean yield stability is constrained by a number of pests and diseases. As use of resistant genotypes is the most economic and ecologically safe means for controlling plant diseases, efforts have been made to genetically characterize resistance genes (R genes) in common bean. Despite its agronomic importance, genomic resources available in common bean were limited until the recent sequencing of common bean genome (Andean genotype G19833). Besides allowing the annotation of Nucleotide Binding-Leucine Rich Repeat (NB-LRR) encoding gene family, which is the prevalent class of disease R genes in plants, access to the whole genome sequence of common bean can be of great help for intense selection to increase the overall efficiency of crop improvement programs using marker-assisted selection (MAS). This review presents the state of the art of common bean NB-LRR gene clusters, their peculiar location in subtelomeres and correlation with genetically characterized monogenic R genes, as well as how the availability of the whole genome sequence can boost the development of molecular markers for MAS.

  4. Identification of hypoxia-inducible target genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by transcriptome analysis reveals cellular respiration as an important contributor to hypoxic survival.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Kristin; Pähtz, Vera; Hillmann, Falk; Vaknin, Yakir; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Roth, Martin; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Osherov, Nir; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, airborne pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During the infection process, A. fumigatus is challenged by hypoxic microenvironments occurring in inflammatory, necrotic tissue. To gain further insights into the adaptation mechanism, A. fumigatus was cultivated in an oxygen-controlled chemostat under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a significant increase in transcripts associated with cell wall polysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and metal ion transport, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolysis. A concomitant reduction in transcript levels was observed with cellular trafficking and G-protein-coupled signaling. To learn more about the functional roles of hypoxia-induced transcripts, we deleted A. fumigatus genes putatively involved in reactive nitrogen species detoxification (fhpA), NAD(+) regeneration (frdA and osmA), nitrogen metabolism (niaD and niiA), and respiration (rcfB). We show that the nitric oxygen (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoprotein gene fhpA is strongly induced by hypoxia independent of the nitrogen source but is dispensable for hypoxic survival. By deleting the nitrate reductase gene niaD, the nitrite reductase gene niiA, and the two fumarate reductase genes frdA and osmA, we found that alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate and fumarate, do not have a significant impact on growth of A. fumigatus during hypoxia, but functional mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are essential under these conditions. Inhibition studies indicated that primarily complexes III and IV play a crucial role in the hypoxic growth of A. fumigatus.

  5. Gene silencing of BnTT10 family genes causes retarded pigmentation and lignin reduction in the seed coat of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Lu, Kun; Qu, Cunmin; Liang, Ying; Wang, Rui; Chai, Yourong; Li, Jiana

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-seed (i.e., yellow seed coat) is one of the most important agronomic traits of Brassica plants, which is correlated with seed oil and meal qualities. Previous studies on the Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis and Brassica species, proposed that the seed-color trait is correlative to flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, at the molecular level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the oxidative polymerization of flavonoid and biosynthesis of lignin has been demonstrated to be catalyzed by laccase 15, a functional enzyme encoded by the AtTT10 gene. In this study, eight Brassica TT10 genes (three from B. napus, three from B. rapa and two from B. oleracea) were isolated and their roles in flavonoid oxidation/polymerization and lignin biosynthesis were investigated. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, these genes could be divided into two groups with obvious structural and functional differentiation. Expression studies showed that Brassica TT10 genes are active in developing seeds, but with differential expression patterns in yellow- and black-seeded near-isogenic lines. For functional analyses, three black-seeded B. napus cultivars were chosen for transgenic studies. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing antisense TT10 constructs exhibited retarded pigmentation in the seed coat. Chemical composition analysis revealed increased levels of soluble proanthocyanidins, and decreased extractable lignin in the seed coats of these transgenic plants compared with that of the controls. These findings indicate a role for the Brassica TT10 genes in proanthocyanidin polymerization and lignin biosynthesis, as well as seed coat pigmentation in B. napus.

  6. Characterization of the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter: evidence of two cis-regulatory regions, LP-alpha and LP-beta, of importance for the differentiation-linked induction of the LPL gene during adipogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Enerbäck, S; Ohlsson, B G; Samuelsson, L; Bjursell, G

    1992-01-01

    When preadipocytes differentiate into adipocytes, several differentiation-linked genes are activated. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is one of the first genes induced during this process. To investigate early events in adipocyte development, we have focused on the transcriptional activation of the LPL gene. For this purpose, we have cloned and fused different parts of intragenic and flanking sequences with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. Transient transfection experiments and DNase I hypersensitivity assays indicate that several positive as well as negative elements contribute to transcriptional regulation of the LPL gene. When reporter gene constructs were stably introduced into preadipocytes, we were able to monitor and compare the activation patterns of different promoter deletion mutants at selected time points representing the process of adipocyte development. We could delimit two cis-regulatory elements important for gradual activation of the LPL gene during adipocyte development in vitro. These elements, LP-alpha (-702 to -666) and LP-beta (-468 to -430), contain a striking similarity to a consensus sequence known to bind the transcription factors HNF-3 and fork head. Results of gel mobility shift assays and DNase I and exonuclease III in vitro protection assays indicate that factors with DNA-binding properties similar to those of the HNF-3/fork head family of transcription factors are present in adipocytes and interact with LP-alpha and LP-beta. We also demonstrate that LP-alpha and LP-beta were both capable of conferring a differentiation-linked expression pattern to a heterolog promoter, thus mimicking the expression of the endogenous LPL gene during adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicate that interactions with LP-alpha and LP-beta could be a part of a differentiation switch governing induction of the LPL gene during adipocyte differentiation. Images PMID:1406652

  7. The functional importance of a cap site-proximal region of the human prointerleukin 1 beta gene is defined by viral protein trans-activation.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G W; Monks, B G; Geist, L J; Monick, M M; Monroy, M A; Stinski, M F; Webb, A C; Dayer, J M; Auron, P E; Fenton, M J

    1992-01-01

    Prointerleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a cytokine that mediates a broad range of biological activities. Genomic sequences that regulate IL-1 beta transcription include both inducible regulatory elements located more than 2,700 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (cap site) and proximal elements located near the TATA box of this gene. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of trans-acting nuclear regulatory proteins that bind to the cap site-proximal region of the human IL-1 beta gene. We identified a protein, termed NFIL-1 beta A (NF beta A), that binds to a highly conserved 12-bp DNA sequence (-49 to -38) located upstream of the TATA box motif in both the human and murine IL-1 beta genes. The IL-1 alpha gene, which lacks a TATA motif, does not possess an NF beta A-binding sequence within the promoter region, suggesting that NF beta A may selectively regulate IL-1 beta expression. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified several distinct DNA-protein complexes that are expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. In monocytic cell lines, the relative abundance of these complexes varies rapidly following stimulation of the cells with phorbol esters or lipopolysaccharide. UV cross-linking analysis identified two distinct DNA-binding polypeptides that comprise distinct complexes. The functional role of NF beta A was assessed in transient transfection assays. These data indicate that NF beta A is required for both basal and inducible promoter activity in monocytic cells. Furthermore, the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 gene product requires the presence of NF beta A in order to trans-activate the proximal IL-1 beta promoter in a monocytic cell line. We propose that NF beta A is a factor that mediates either direct or indirect activation by the immediate-early 1 gene product. The proximity of this essential factor to the TATA motif suggests a possible role in transcriptional initiation. Images PMID:1630455

  8. Imported malaria.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1974-01-01

    There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail.Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelih