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Sample records for agronomy soil science

  1. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  2. Survey of Mathematics and Science Requirements for Production-Oriented Agronomy Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aide, Michael; Terry, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes course requirements to determine the amount of required mathematics and science for production-oriented agronomy majors. Reports that mathematics requirements center around college algebra and statistics; science requirements generally include chemistry, biology, plant physiology, and genetics; and land-grant institutions have a…

  3. Growing the science of agronomy by growing the profession: a Message from the President of the American Society of Agronomy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We often refer to the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) as being both a scientific and professional society. Membership within the organization includes a wide range of people from diverse regions and cultures of the world working with complex and diverse cropping systems. Yet members are unified...

  4. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  5. Fundamentals of soil science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  6. Teaching Science with Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Albert; Kriebs, Jean Oak

    Prepared primarily for junior high school students and utilizing an integrated science approach, this manual offers activities for examining the ecosystem and environmental problems. With organic aspects of soils as the main subject field, it includes study of soil formation, soil fertility, soil contamination, and edaphic relationships. Most of…

  7. Design of a Soil Science practical exercise to understand the soil carbon sequestration after biochar addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Mendez, Ana; Antón, Jose Manuel; Sánchez, Elena; Moratiel, Ruben; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM, Spain), they must command Soil science, Mathematics or English. Sometimes, There is not a good communication between teachers and it causes that students do not understand the importance of the different subjects of a career. For this reason, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the role of soil on the carbon sequestration. The objective of this paper is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice. Acknowledgement to Universidad Politécnica de Madrid for the Projects in Education Innovation IE12_13-02009 and IE12_13-02012.

  8. Soil Science as a Field Discipline - Experiences in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burras, C. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Effective field understanding of soils is crucial. This is true everywhere but especially so in Iowa, a 15 million hectare state in the central USA's "corn belt." Iowa is intensely farmed and almost exclusively privately owned. Many regions of Iowa have had over 90% of their land area in row crops for the past 60 years. In these regions two very common land management strategies are tile drainage (1.5 million km total) and high rates of fertilization (e.g., 200 kg N/ha-yr for cropland) Iowa also has problematic environmental issues including high rates of erosion, excessive sediment and nutrient pollution in water bodies and episodic catastrophic floods. Given the preceding the Agronomy, Environmental Science and Sustainable Agriculture programs at Iowa State University (ISU) offer a strong suite of soil science classes - undergraduate through graduate. The objective of this presentation is to review selected field based soil science courses offered by those programs. This review includes contrasting and comparing campus-based and immersion classes. Immersion classes include ones offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, as "soil judging" and internationally. Findings over the past 20 years are consistent. Students at all levels gain soil science knowledge, competency and confidence proportional to the amount of time spent in field activities. Furthermore their professional skepticism is sharpened. They are also preferentially hired even in career postings that do not require fieldwork. In other words, field learning results in better soil science professionals who have highly functional and sought after knowledge.

  9. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  10. Relaxometry in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non

  11. Design of a Soil Science practical exercise to understand the carbon sequestration in soil after biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Antón, José Manuel; Grau, Juan; Sánchez, María Elena; Moratiel, Rubén; María Tarquis, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM,Spain), they must command Soil science, Mathematics or English. Sometimes, There is not a good communication between teachers and it causes that students do not understand the importance of the different subjects of a career. For this reason, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the importance of Soil Science and Mathematics in the study of carbon sequestration in a soil treated by biochar. The objective of this paper is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice.

  12. Soils as Sediment database: closing a gap between soil science and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil. Key areas where such an understanding is essential are all issues related to the lateral movement of soil-bound substances that affect the nature of soils itself, as well as water or vegetation downslope from the source area. The redistribution of eroded soil falls several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology. Accordingly, the way sediment is described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil as sediment would represent a step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil as sediment.

  13. Historical Highlights From 75 Years of the Soil Science Society of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    From its official founding on November 18, 1936 to the present day, the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) has developed a rich and diverse history. SSSA began with 190 members grouped into six sections: 1) physics, 2) chemistry, 3) microbiology, 4) fertility, 5) morphology, and 6) technology. Today SSSA has over 6,000 members who can choose from any of 11 divisions, S1 Soil Physics, S2 Soil Chemistry, S3 Soil Biology and Biochemistry, S4 Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, S5 Pedology, S6 Soil and Water Management and Conservation, S7 Forest, Range, and Wildland Soils, S8 Nutrient Management and Soil and Plant Analysis, S9 Soil Mineralogy, S10 Wetland Soils, and S11 Soils and Environmental Quality to represent their primary area(s) of interest. The Society has also gone from being largely agriculturally focused to an eclectic mix of individuals with interests in agriculture, the environment, earth sciences, human interactions, and other diverse areas. At its founding, SSSA sponsored one publication, the Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. Today, SSSA sponsors its descendent, the Soil Science Society of America Journal, as well as Vadose Zone Journal, the Journal of Environmental Quality, Soil Survey Horizons, and the Journal of Natural Resources and Life Science Education. In short, SSSA's history has been one of continued growth over the last 75 years. The future holds many challenges for SSSA and the field of soil science. There are increasing calls to meet with groups other than or in addition to the American Society of Agronomy and the Crop Science Society of America, groups like the Geological Society of America and the Ecological Society of America. Members in SSSA now work in university departments, government agencies, and businesses representing the fields of biology, geology, geography, and archeology, among others, in addition to the traditional agricultural sector. How SSSA handles this diversification of the field and its membership will

  14. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  15. Usable science: soil health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy soils are fundamental to sustainable rangelands, but soils toil in obscurity and this is reflected in the belowground “black-box” mentality often attributed to soils. Transformational changes get attention for land managers and public. For example, soil erosion associated with Dust Bowl of 1...

  16. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  17. Soils in Schools: Embedding Soil Science in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Soil science, though relevant to a variety of subjects including science, geography, mathematics, social sciences and history, is typically perceived as a subgenre of agriculture. With a global need for soil scientists, and declining numbers in university soil courses, there's a growing gap between science needs and providers. One way to promote…

  18. Comparison between teacher grading and student self-grading in different modules of agronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.

    2012-04-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  19. Recent Enrollment Trends in American Soil Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Abit, Sergio; Brown, David; Dolliver, Holly; Hopkins, David; Lindbo, David; Manu, Andrew; Mbila, Monday; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Schulze, Darrell; Shaw, Joey; Weil, Ray; Weindorf, David

    2015-04-01

    institution was not masking an overall declining enrollment trend, the regression was also run with that institution removed. This gave a linear trend line with a slope of 6.6 students/year (R2 = 0.90), indicating more moderate growth but still a trend towards growth in undergraduate enrollment. Four of the 10 graduate programs showed enrollment gains, five of the 10 showed stable enrollments, and one of the 10 showed declining enrollments. The linear regression trend line for the composite graduate school data had a slope of 12.0 students/year (R2 = 0.97), indicating an overall trend of enrollment growth at these schools. As a whole, both the undergraduate and graduate programs investigated showed moderate growth trends, which represent a reversal of enrollment trends reported at the beginning of the 21st Century. Challenges in obtaining the data used for this study included 1) differences in data collection and archiving by institutions and 2) only some schools still offer a soil science degree; many schools offer another degree (e.g., agricultural studies, agronomy, environmental resource science, environmental science, plant and soil science, etc.) with a soils option or emphasis. In the second case it was necessary to identify which students in these other degree programs pursued the soil science option or emphasis.

  20. A Brief History of the Soil Science Society of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) was officially born on November 18, 1936 at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C. with Richard Bradfield as the first President. SSSA was created from the merger of the American Soil Survey Association and the Soils Section of American Society of Agronomy (ASA). Six sections were established: 1) physics, 2) chemistry, 3) microbiology, 4) fertility, 5) morphology, and 6) technology, and total membership was less than 200. The first issue of SSSA Journal, then called SSSA Proceedings, published 87 items totaling 526 pages. The first recorded bank balance for SSSA was at the end of the 1937-38 fiscal year, and showed the Society to be worth 1,300.03. The Soils Section of ASA became the official American section of the International Society of Soil Science in 1934, and the new SSSA inherited that distinction which it retains to this day. SSSA has grown significantly since those early days. The original six sections have grown to 11 divisions, and some of those divisions have changed their names to reflect changes occurring within soil science. For example, the original section 5, morphology, is now Division S05 - Pedology after spending many years under other names such as Division V - Soil Classification and Division S-5 - Soil Genesis, Morphology, and Classification. SSSA was incorporated in the State of Wisconsin, USA on 22 January, 1952. Several awards have been developed to recognize achievement in the field of soil science, including the SSSA Presidential Award, Don and Betty Kirkham Soil Physics Award, Emil Truog Soil Science Award, International Soil Science Award, Irrometer Professional Certification Service Award, L.R. Ahuja Ag Systems Modeling Award, Marion L. and Chrystie M. Jackson Soil Science Award, Soil Science Applied Research Award, Soil Science Distinguished Service Award, Soil Science Education Award, Soil Science Industry and Professional Leadership Award, Soil Science Research Award, and SSSA Early

  1. An "Environmental Issues in Agronomy" Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the format and grading procedure of an Environmental Agronomy course offered at Colorado State University. Teaching methods include videotape use, field trips, and lectures addressing topics such as integrated pest management, land application of sewage sludge, pesticide degradation, and organic farming. Standard course…

  2. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  3. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  4. Victor Kovda, Soil Science and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I.

    2012-04-01

    Victor Kovda (1904-1991) was one of the most famous soil scientists at the national and international soil science community. He published more than 500 scientific works including about 400 papers, 17 collective monographs, 30 personal monographs, and more than 200 interviews and popular papers describing the role of soils not only for food production, but for the functioning of the biosphere. Victor Kovda was a talented organizer, who founded the new Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (known at the present time as the Institute of physico-chemical and biological problems of soil science in Pushchino, Russia). During six years from 1959 to 1964 he was the head of Science Department in UNESCO, where he initiated a set of international projects (ex. Soil World Map of FAO-UNESCO, Source-book on irrigation and drainage). He continued his international activity after UNESCO as a President of the International Soil Science Society (1968-1974), organizer of the X international Soil Science Congress in Moscow (1974), president of SCOPE (1973-1976), working for ICSU. The last three decades of his national and international activities Victor Kovda initiated and was strongly involved in the popularization of biosphere role and functions of soils and soil cover. The start point for this activity was his special talk "Biosphere and man" presented during the intergovernmental conference in the framework of the international program "Man and Biosphere" organized by UNESCO in 1968 in Paris. The next key presentation "Soil as a component of biosphere" Victor Kovda gave as a plenary lecture during the X International congress of soil scientists. This presentation determined the focus of soil science for the next decades: at least Russian soil science became oriented towards the investigation of biosphere functions and role of soils. Soils science was accepted not only for agriculture and food production, but also as a fundamental science with a large environmental

  5. Effects of soil physical nonuniformity on chamber-based gas flux estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of soil-to-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases using chamber-based techniques is commonly applied to a wide range of research topics in agronomy, soil science, biogeochemistry, and ecology, including studies addressing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in regulating atmospheric ...

  6. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  7. Mathematical modeling in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, Ana M.; Gasco, Gabriel; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Méndez, Ana; Andina, Diego; Sánchez, M. Elena; Moratiel, Rubén; Antón, Jose Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Teaching in context can be defined as teaching a mathematical idea or process by using a problem, situation, or data to enhance the teaching and learning process. The same problem or situation may be used many times, at different mathematical levels to teach different objectives. A common misconception exists that assigning/teaching applications is teaching in context. While both use problems, the difference is in timing, in purpose, and in student outcome. In this work, one problem situation is explored thoroughly at different levels of understanding and other ideas are suggested for classroom explorations. Some teachers, aware of the difficulties some students have with mathematical concepts, try to teach quantitative sciences without using mathematical tools. Such attempts are not usually successful. The answer is not in discarding the mathematics, but in finding ways to teach mathematically-based concepts to students who need them but who find them difficult. The computer is an ideal tool for this purpose. To this end, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the role of soil on the carbon sequestration. The objective of this work is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice. Acknowledgement Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) for the Projects in Education Innovation IE12_13-02009 and IE12_13-02012 is gratefully acknowledge.

  8. Working with Soil - Soil science in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Lacelles, Bruce; Owen, Jason; Thompson, Dick; Jones, Bob; Towers, Willie

    2015-04-01

    Working with Soil is the Professional Competency Scheme developed by the British Society of Soil Science's Professional Practice Committee, formerly the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists. Ten competency documents cover the required qualifications, skills and knowledge for different aspects of applied soil science. The Society is currently engaged in a five year plan to translate the competency documents into a comprehensive set of training courses. Foundation skills in field-based science are covered by three separate training courses - Exposing and describing a soil profile (Course 1), Soil classification (Course 2), and Soil survey techniques (Course 3). Course 1 has run successfully twice a year since 2013. The other two courses are under development and are scheduled to start in 2015. The primary objective of Foundation Skills Course 1 is to develop confidence and familiarity with field soil investigation and description, understanding the soil underfoot and putting soils into a wider landscape context. Delegates excavate a soil profile pit, and describe and sample the exposed soil to standard protocols. Delegates work in teams of 4 or 5 so that an element of shared learning is part of the process. This has been a very positive aspect of the courses we have run to date. The course has attracted professionals from agricultural and environmental consultancies but is also very popular with research students and has formed a part of an Advanced Training Programme in Soil Science for postgraduates. As there is only one soil science degree course remaining in the UK, many students on their admission do not have a background in field-based pedology and lack an understanding of soil in the context of landscape scale soil functions. Feedback to date has been very positive.

  9. The History of Soil Science in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Ventura, E., Jr.; Castellanos, J. Z.; Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the history of soil science in developing countries such as Mexico. Soil knowledge in the pre-Colombian era was a notable attribute of indigenous people in Mexico. Mayas and Aztecs classified soils based on properties and land use and developed a terminology still used by locals. International organizations and institutions advocating modern agricultural practices have played an important role in the development of soil science in Mexico, in conjunction with the Green Revolution in which the use of fertilizers for crop production was implemented. Soil fertility, as an area of study, has developed significantly in the country. One of the most significant impacts of the Green Revolution on the development of soil science in Mexico was through academic exchange, in which Mexican soil scientists obtained graduate-level degrees in the United States and later returned to Mexico to conduct research programs. Although Mexico has a long history of soil knowledge, soil scientists are facing several challenges today, including a lack of communication between farmers and scientists, soil erosion, soil contamination, and water usage. Some researchers have suggested that ethnopedological knowledge should be incorporated into modern Mexican soil science.

  10. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  11. Developments and departures in the philosophy of soil science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional soil science curriculums provide comprehensive instruction on soil properties, soil classification, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in soils. This reductionist perspective is sometimes balanced with a more holistic perspective that focuses on soils as natu...

  12. Opening doors for geophysics in soil sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Martin

    Urban soils are subject to strong variations in environmental conditions such as water flow, solute transport, and heat budget. For soil scientists, the effects of the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil moisture distribution on the sorption and release of contaminants is crucial for understanding soil processes.The INTERURBAN research project was formed in 2001 in Berlin, Germany, to study the dynamics of water and materials at urban locations while giving special consideration to spatial heterogeneity organic soil substance, and soil-biological transformation processes. The project is the cooperative effort of six departments of the Technical University of Berlin and the Free University of Berlin; namely, the departments of soil sciences, water quality control, environmental chemistry microbiology soil zoology, and applied geophysics.

  13. Marketing and Branding the Agronomy Major at Iowa State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    The decline of enrollments in agronomy programs across the United States has been a concern for more than a decade. In an effort to reverse this trend, the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University (ISU) launched the "I'm An Agronomist" marketing campaign in 2006. This article reports on these efforts and the change in the…

  14. A Core Curriculum for Soil Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montagne, Cliff

    1987-01-01

    Reported are the results of a survey of 60 professional soil scientists which was designed to rate and rank courses that should be required for a baccalaureate degree in soil science. Lists the rankings and ratings, along with the resulting core courses and a proposed year-by-year sequence. (TW)

  15. Current developments in soil water sensing for climate, environment, hydrology and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the four dimensional spatio-temporal status and dynamics of soil water content is becoming indispensable to solutions of agricultural, environmental, climatological and engineering problems at all scales. In agronomy alone, science is severely limited by scant or inaccurate knowledge of...

  16. Soil Science and Global Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and

  17. The Science of Soil Textures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigham, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  18. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  19. EuroSoil2012: Soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EuroSoil2012 was convened in Bari ITALY from 2-6 July 2012 as the 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). The theme of EuroSoil2012 as “soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment” aimed to cover several broad aspects of soil science w...

  20. Teaching with Moodle in Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soil is a 3-dimensional body with properties that reflect the impact of climate, vegetation, fauna, man and topography on the soil's parent material over a variable time span. Therefore, soil is integral to many ecological and social systems and it holds potential solutions for many of the world's economic and scientific problems as climate change or scarcity of food and water. The teaching of Soil Science, as a natural science in its own right, requires principles that reflect the unique features and behaviour of soil and the practices of soil scientists. It could be argued that a unique set of teaching practices applies to Soil Science; however specific teaching practices are scarce in literature. The present work was triggered by the need to develop new techniques of teaching to speed up the learning process and to experiment with new methods of teaching. For such, it is necessary to adopt virtual learning environment to new learning requirements regarding Soil Science. This paper proposes a set of e-teaching techniques (as questionnaires, chats as well as forums) introduced in Moodle virtual learning Environment in order to increase student motivation and interest in Soil Science. Such technologies can be used to: a)Increase the amount of time a teacher allots for student reflection after asking a question and before a student responds (wait-time). This practice increases the quantity and quality of students' answers. The students give longer responses, students give more evidence for their ideas and conclusions, students speculate and hypothesize more and more students participated in responding. Furthermore, students ask more questions and talk more to other students. b)Improve active learning, an essential paradigm in education. In contrast to learning-before-doing, we propose to focus on learning-in-doing, a model where learners are increasingly involved in the authentic practices of communities through learning conversations and activities involving expert

  1. New strategies to strengthen the soil science knowledge of student during field activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Marta; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá; Masaguer, Alberto; Diéguez, Carmen; Almorox, Javier; Pérez, Juana; Santano, Jesús; Mariscal, Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Jesús; Moliner, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Soil Science can be considered a discipline that serves as a fundamental base for other disciplines such as ecology, agronomy, plant production, etc. In order to demonstrate the relevance and connection to real world it is important to develop field and practical activities. Field activities help student to comprehend soil as part of the landscape and the natural ecosystems. These activities also help them to realize the importance of historical soil use on the quality of todaýs soil and landscapes. It is well known that fieldwork practices are essential to strengthen the soil science knowledge of students and their learning process. These fieldwork practices involve doing a physical activity rather than passively attending lectures or watching demonstrations. The simple visual and tactile observations in the field could be used to predict soil behavior and these direct observations are best made in the field. Students who learned in the field using an active work are more motivated, have more positive attitudes, and place more value in their work than those that learn passively. Therefore, when scheduling the coursework an important time is assigned to field work, which sometimes is not sufficiently profited from the standpoint of student learning taking into consideration the economic effort involved. We are aware that part of the students are simple spectators in the field so we encourage their participation by making them responsible for obtaining part of the information about the place and the types of soils that will be visited. On the other hand, we will invite the students to do some game based exercises, which are fun and force them to work in groups and to pay attention to explanations. Our objective is to present the information in a more attractive way, making the learning of soil profile description and easier task. The exercises that we propose are both field and problem-based learning to make sure that the knowledge is more memorable (non

  2. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  3. Soil moisture needs in earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.

  4. Global Prospects Rooted in Soil Science

    SciTech Connect

    Janzen, H. H.; Fixen, P.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; Hattey, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Ketterings, Q. M.; Lobb, D. A.; Schlesinger, W.

    2010-11-17

    Th e biosphere, our fragile and exquisite home, is changing abruptly and irrevocably, largely from human interference. Most or all of the coming stresses have links to the land, so fi nding hopeful outcomes depend on wide and deep understanding of soils. In this review, we pose eight urgent issues confronting humanity in coming decades: demands for food, water, nutrients, and energy; and challenges of climate change, biodiversity, “waste” reuse, and global equity. We then suggest some steps soil scientists might take to address these questions: a refocusing of research, a broadening of vision, a renewed enticement of emerging scientists, and more lucid telling of past successes and future prospects. Th e questions posed and responses posited are incomplete and not yet fully refi ned. But the conversations they elicit may help direct soil science toward greater relevance in preserving our fragile home on this changing planet.

  5. SOIL INGESTION COLLOQUIUM (2005) | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On May 24-25, 2005, the U.S. EPA Colloquium on Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates and Mouthing Behavior for Children and Adults (Colloquium) was held at the Holiday Inn National Airport in Crystal City, Virginia. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults. Because mouthing behavior is closely related to childrens soil and dust ingestion, mouthing behavior research also was included as a major topic. The Colloquium was designed to assist EPA in answering the following questions:What is the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion and mouthing behavior?Where should the state of knowledge be in order for EPA to make better decisions for the protection of children and adults from these pathways?How can EPA and the scientific community advance the science (i.e., what research is needed)?This summary report captures the major content of the presentations, breakout groups, and discussions/recommendations that occurred at the Colloquium. Presentation slides, organized sequentially by the order of presentation, the Colloquium agenda, and contact information of all the participants are included in this report as Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults.

  6. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website www.soil.org/IYS. The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  7. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: history and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinfante, Nicolás; Arbelo, Dolores; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS; http://www.secs.com.es) has reached sixty years of existence, after being established in 1947 at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) as an initiative of renowned scientists including José María Albareda, Salvador Rivas Goday, Fernando Burriel, Tomás Alvira and others. However, soil studies in Spain began in the first third of XX century, coordinated by Emilio Huguet del Villar, internationally outstanding researcher who was the President of the Subcommittee for the Mediterranean Region of the International Society Soil Science, with the activities of the Forest Research Institute and the Institute of Mediterranean Soils of the Regional Catalonian Government. With the creation of the CSIC and the Spanish Institute of Soil Science and Agrobiology, directed by José M. Albareda, Soil Science research was promoted in all scientific fields and through the Spanish geography. The SECS is considered equally heiress of previously existing organizations, in particular the Spanish Commission of Soil Science and Phytogeography, created in 1925, which was the Spanish voice in various international organizations and meetings related with Soil Science. After these years, Soil Science has developed considerably, showing a great diversification of fields of study and research and its applications, as well as a growing social awareness of the soil degradation processes and the need to implement measures to protect natural resources nonrenewable on a human scale, and an increasing role of universities and CSIC in Soil Science research. Currently, the SECS is a scientific organization dedicated to promoting the study, knowledge, research and protection of soil resources; spread the scientific importance of soil functions as nonrenewable natural resource in society and promote the interest in its protection; and preserve the knowledge about soils, their management and use, both from productive and environmental perspectives

  8. Generating Interest in Soil Science through Collegiate Soils Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Christopher; Valentine, Joe

    2015-04-01

    The inaugural National Collegiate Soils Contest (NCSC) was hosted by the University of Kentucky in Lexington, KY in 1961 and has been held every year since. Initially the NCSC was an open contest in which any team could participate, but due to increased interest, it became an event which only qualifying teams are invited to participate. To facilitate qualification, the U.S. was divided up into seven regions. Teams qualify for the NCSC by placing among the top teams within their regional contests, which are held in the fall prior to the NCSC. Typically 18-22 institutions and 80-100 students attend the NCSC each year. The NCSC is sponsored by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) and is organized by a committee of SSSA members that include previous and future hosts of the NCSC. The committee maintains the official rules for the NCSC and makes any necessary changes during an annual meeting. The NCSC host rotates among the seven regions and among teams within the respective regions. In 2014, the NCSC hosted by Delaware Valley College in Doylestown, PA served as qualifying contest for the team representing the U.S. at the inaugural International Soil Judging Contest in JeJu, South Korea.

  9. A short history of the soil science discipline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Hartemink, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Since people have cultivated the land they have generated and created knowledge about its soil. By the 4th century most civilizations around had various levels of soil knowledge and that includes irrigation, the use of terraces to control soil erosion, methods to maintain and improve soil fertility. The early soil knowledge was largely empirical and based on observations. Many famous scientists, for example, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Charles Darwin, and Leonardo da Vinci worked on soil issues. Soil science became a true science in the 19th century with the development of genetic soil science, lead by the Russian Vasilii V. Dokuchaev. In the beginning soil science had strong ties to both geology and agriculture but in the 20th century, soil science is now being applied in residential development, the planning of highways, building foundations, septic systems, wildlife management, environmental management, and many other applications. The discipline is maturing and soil science plays a crucial role in many of the current issues that confront the world like climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity and environmental degradation.

  10. Soil Science in Space: Thinking Way Outside the Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Mars is a perfect laboratory to reconsider the future of pedology across the universe. By investigating the soils and geology through our Curiosity and further endeavors, we find ourselves able to learn about the past, present, and possibly the future. Imagine what we could learn about the early Earth if we could have explored it without vegetation and clouds in the way. The tools and techniques that are used to probe the Martian soil can teach us about exploring the soils on Earth. Although many may feel that soil science has learned all that it can about the soils on Earth, we know differently. Deciding what the most important things to know about Martian soils can help us focus on the fundamentals of soil science on Earth. Our soil science knowledge and experience on Earth can help us learn more about the angry red planet. Why is it so angry with so many fascinating secrets it can tell?

  11. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  12. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  13. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  14. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  15. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  16. The policy and science of soil change - a Victorian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jane; Crawford, Michael C.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding and managing soil change is an important component of maintaining soil health and soil security which is important for the future of agricultural productivity in Victoria. Historically, soil policy in Victoria has been dealt with on the basis of a single issue. With the emergence of farming systems thinking, and the concept of soil health and soil security, a more holistic approach is now being taken. A seven-step policy framework has been developed that promotes dialogue between scientist and policy makers. The questions it asks (what is the problem and how can it be solved?) clarify the role of government investment, and developing partnerships between science and policy, enables early identification of potential policy problems and development of appropriate policy interventions to manage soil change and ultimately soil health, soil security and soil productivity.

  17. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  18. Soil Science Education for Primary and Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Kopplin, Martha

    2013-04-01

    Soils is one of the science investigation areas in the Global learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), an international science and education program (112 countries) that teaches primary and secondary students to learn science by doing science. For each area of investigation GLOBE provides background information, measurement protocols and learning activities compiled as a chapter in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. Also provided are data sheets and field guides to assist in the accurate collection of data as well as suggestions of scientific instruments and calibration methods. Teachers learn GLOBE scientific measurement protocols at professional development workshops led by scientists and educators, who then engage their students in soil studies that also contribute to ongoing science investigations. Students enter their data on the GLOBE website and can access their data as well as other data contributed by students from other parts of the world. Soil characterization measurements carried out in the field include site description, horizon depths, soil structure, soil color, soil consistence, soil texture, roots, rocks and carbonates. Other field measurements are soil temperature and soil moisture monitoring while the following measurements are carried out in the classroom or laboratory: gravimetric soil moisture, bulk density, particle density, particle size distribution, pH and soil fertility (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Learning activities provide support for preparing students to do the measurements and for better understanding of science concepts. Many countries in GLOBE have adopted standards for education including science education with commonalities among them. For the Teacher's Guide, the National Science Education Standards published by the US National Academy of Sciences, selected additional content standards that GLOBE scientists and educators feel are appropriate and the National Geography Standards prepared by the (US

  19. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  20. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  1. kNOw Soil - kNOw Life: Integrating soil science across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, D. L.; Kozlowski, D.; Robinson, C.; Chapman, S.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee and our International Year of Soil website.

  2. Frontiers in Soil Science Research: Report of a Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Committee for Frontiersin Soil Science Research

    2009-01-01

    Referred to as Earth’s living skin, soil provides support for both natural and human systems. Soil is a biogeochemically dynamic natural resource that supports all critical components of ecosystems. There has been renewed interest in soil and soil science in recent years because of its role in global climate change, land degradation and remediation, the fate and transport of nutrients and contaminants, soil and water conservation, soil and water quality, food sufficiency and safety, global carrying capacity, wetlands function, and many other issues pertinent to the stewardship and conservation of land and water resources. Despite this attention, soil remains an undervalued and underappreciated resource. Understanding the long-term implications of decreased soil quality and addressing the aforementioned challenges will require new information based on advances and breakthroughs in soil science research that need to be effectively communicated to stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. A challenge for soil science is the need for interdisciplinary research involving classical soil science subdisciplines—soil chemistry, soil physics, soil biology, soil mineralogy, and pedology. While basic research provides an understanding of fundamental soil processes, increasing trends in land transformations, environmental challenges, and policy issues require interdisciplinary approaches. To successfully address major research needs, soil scientists will have to collaborate with each other and with scientists in related disciplines. In December 2005 the National Academies convened a workshop, Frontiers in Soil Science Research, consisting of experts in soil science and associated disciplines to identify emerging research opportunities and expected advances in soil science, particularly in the integration of biological, geological, chemical, and information technology sciences. More than 120 people from around the world attended the workshop. OVERARCHING

  3. Secrets of the Soil (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin; Northen, Trent; Jansson, Janet; Torn, Margaret

    2011-11-07

    Four Berkeley Lab scientists unveil the "Secrets of the Soil"at this Nov. 7, 2011 Science at the Theater event. Eoin Brodie, Janet Jansson, Margaret Torn and Trent Northen talk about their research and how soil could hold the key to our climate and energy future.The discussion was moderated by John Harte, who holds a joint professorship in the Energy and Resources Group and the Ecosystem Sciences Division of UC Berkeley's College of Natural Resources

  4. Soil science in Mexico: history, challenges, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information on the history of soil science in developing countries, such as Mexico. Scientists, farmers, and government agencies can use this type of information to identify the benefits, current state of understanding, and recognize the challenges associated with managing soil r...

  5. Crossword Puzzles as Learning Tools in Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…

  6. Desert soil collection at the JPL soil science laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Collection contains desert soils and other geologic materials collected from sites in the United States and foreign countries. Soils are useful for test purposes in research related to extraterrestrial life detection, sampling, harsh environmental studies, and determining suitable areas for training astronauts for lunar exploration.

  7. Online Soil Science Lesson 3: Soil Forming Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This lesson explores the five major factors of soil formation, namely: 1) climate; 2) organisms; 3) time; 4) topography; and 5) parent material and their influence in forming soil. The distinction between active and passive factors, moisture and temperature regimes, organism and topographic influen...

  8. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  9. A multimedia and interactive approach to teach soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Villas, D.; Martí-Dalmau, C.; Iñiguez-Remón, E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Science is a discipline concerned with a material that has unique features and behaviours (Churchman, 2010). Thus, teachers of Soil Science need to be experienced with Soil Science practices and must appreciate the complexities and relationships inherent within the discipline (Field et al, 2011). But when soil science had to be taught not by specialists, for instance in the introductory courses of earth and environmental sciences Degrees or in Secondary School, adequate material cannot be found. For this reason, multimedia and interactive programmes have been developed and showed here. EDAFOS is an e-learning resource that provides a comprehensive review of the fundamental concepts on soil science and reveals it as the living skin of planet Earth (European Commission, 2006). This programme is available via website (www.cienciadelsuelo.es) both in Spanish and, more recently, also in English. Edafos is a programme with different modules, which after outlining the study of soil components goes on to examine the main factors and processes of soil genesis explaining the mechanisms of soil processes. By the use of animations, the vital functions of soil are explained. The program ends with a section of multiple-choice exercises with self-assessment. To complement this program, virtual visits to the field are showed in the program iARASOL (www.suelosdearagon.es), in a time when field trips are gradually diminishing due to insufficiency in time and budget, as well as safety concerns (Çaliskan, 2011). In this case, the objective of iARASOL is to set out that soil vary from place to place not randomly, but in a systematic way, according to landscape units; therefore, graduates can classify the soils using the WRB system (IUSS, 2007). It presents diverse types of data and images instantly, from a variety of viewpoints, at many different scales and display non-visual information in the field. Both programs provide an additional source of information to supplement

  10. Soils. Science Education Research Unit. Working Paper 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happs, John C.

    The Learning in Science Project has adopted the view that science teaching might be improved if teachers can be given some appreciation of students' views of the world and the beliefs, expectations, and language that learners bring to new learning situations. This investigation looks at the topic of soil, one of the basic resources of New Zealand…

  11. Fluorescent probes for understanding soil water repellency: the novel application of a chemist's tool to soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balshaw, Helen M.; Davies, Matthew L.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Douglas, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals, and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount, and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Fluorescent and phosphorescent probes are widely used in chemistry and biochemistry due to their sensitive response to their physical and chemical environment, such as polarity, and viscosity. However, they have to-date not been used to study soil water repellency. Here we present preliminary work on the evaluation of fluorescent probes as tools to study two poorly understood features that determine the degree of wettability for water repellent soils: (i) the distribution of organics on soils; (ii) the changes in polarity at soil surfaces required for water drops to infiltrate. In our initial work we have examined probes adsorbed onto model soils, prepared by adsorption of specific organics onto acid washed sand

  12. Soil science: Heat-proof carbon compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Cindy

    2008-12-01

    Two-thirds of terrestrial carbon is stored as organic matter in soils, but its response to warming has yet to be resolved. A soil warming experiment in a Canadian forest has revealed that the leaf-derived compound cutin is resistant to decomposition under elevated temperatures.

  13. Soil science in the tropics - the next 75 years

    SciTech Connect

    Theng, B.K.G. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper does not describe the future course of soil science in the tropics. Rather, it is concerned with some soil-related issues that tropical countries will have to face, and resolve, in the short and medium term. The tropics chosen for discussion here are deforestation, the resultant degradation of the soil resource, and soil management for continuous crop production, with particular reference to the humid tropics. The development and implementation of sustainable farming systems in order to arrest, if not reverse, soil degradation must rest on the willing cooperation of the people involved. Soil conservation programs should not only be acceptable to, but also be compatible with the socio-economic aspirations and conditions of the local community.

  14. Teaching Soil Science in Primary and Secondary Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa R.

    1998-01-01

    Earth's thin layer of soil is a fragile resource, made up of minerals, organic materials, air, water, and billions of living organisms. Soils plays a variety of critical roles that sustain life on Earth. If we think about soil, we tend to see it first as the source of most of the food we eat and the fibers we use, such as wood and cotton. Few students realize that soils also provide the key ingredients to many of the medicines (including antibiotics), cosmetics, and dyes that we use. Fewer still understand the importance of soils in integrating, controlling, and regulating the movement of air, water, materials, and energy between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Because soil sustains life, it offers both a context and a natural laboratory for investigating these interactions. The enclosed poster, which integrates soil profiles with typical landscapes in which soils form, can also help students explore the interrelationships of Earth systems and gain an understanding of our soil resources. The poster, produced jointly by the American Geological Institute and the Soil Science Society of America, aims to increase awareness of the importance of soil, as does the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations To Benefit the Environment) Program. Vice President Al Gore instituted the GLOBE Program on Earth Day of 1993 to increase environmental awareness of individuals throughout the world, contribute to a better scientific understanding of the Earth, and help all students reach higher levels of achievement in science and mathematics. GLOBE functions as a partnership between scientists, students, and teachers in which scientists design protocols for specific measurements they need for their research that can be performed by K-12 students. Teachers are trained in the GLOBE protocols and teach them to their students. Students make the measurements, enter data via the Internet to a central data archive, and the data becomes available to scientists and the

  15. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  16. Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

  17. Scientific support, soil information and education provided by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil

  18. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  19. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    In 1955 a resolution, "that the Australian Society of Soil Science be inaugurated as from this meeting" was recorded in Melbourne Australia. The following year in Queensland, the first official meeting of the Society took place with a Federal Executive and Presidents from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian branches forming the Federal Council. In later years the executive expanded with the addition of the Western Australia branch in 1957, the Riverina Branch in 1962 and most recently the Tasmania Branch in 2008. The objects of the Society were 1) the advancement of soil science and studies therein with particular reference to Australia and 2) to provide a link between soil scientists and kindred bodies within Australia and between them and other similar organisations in other countries. Membership was restricted to persons engaged in the scientific study of the soil and has grown steadily from to 147 members in 1957 to 875 members in 2012. The first issue of the Society newsletter, Soils News, was published in January 1957 and continued to be published twice yearly until 1996. A name change to Profile and an increase to quarterly publication occurred in 1997; circulation remained restricted to members. The Publications Committee in 1968 determined the Publication Series would be the medium for occasional technical papers, reviews and reports but not research papers and in 1962 the Australian Journal of Soil Research was established by CSIRO in response to continued representations from the Society. By 1960 a draft constitution was circulated to, and adopted by members. The first honorary life membership of the Society was awarded to Dr. J A Prescott. Honorary memberships are still awarded for service to the Society and to soil science and are capped at 25. In 1964 the ISSS awarded honorary membership to Dr. Prescott. Now known as IUSS Honorary members other Australians recognised have been EG Hallsworth

  20. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia D.; Bouma, Johan; Wallinga, Jakob; Tittonell, Pablo; Smith, Pete; Cerdà, Artemi; Montanarella, Luca; Quinton, John N.; Pachepsky, Yakov; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Moolenaar, Simon; Mol, Gerben; Jansen, Boris; Fresco, Louise O.

    2016-04-01

    In this forum paper we discuss how soil scientists can help to reach the recently adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the most effective manner. Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has important links to several of the SDGs, which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and the ecosystem services that are linked to those functions (see graphical abstract in the Supplement). We explore and discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally, in terms of our procedures and practices, and externally, in terms of our relations with colleague scientists in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the following steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole: (i) embrace the UN SDGs, as they provide a platform that allows soil science to demonstrate its relevance for realizing a sustainable society by 2030; (ii) show the specific value of soil science: research should explicitly show how using modern soil information can improve the results of inter- and transdisciplinary studies on SDGs related to food security, water scarcity, climate change, biodiversity loss and health threats; (iii) take leadership in overarching system analysis of ecosystems, as soils and soil scientists have an integrated nature and this places soil scientists in a unique position; (iii) raise awareness of soil organic matter as a key attribute of soils to illustrate its importance for soil functions and ecosystem services; (iv) improve the transfer of knowledge through knowledge brokers with a soil background; (v) start at the basis: educational programmes are needed at all levels, starting in primary schools, and emphasizing practical, down-to-earth examples; (vi) facilitate communication with the policy arena by framing research in terms that resonate with politicians in terms of the policy cycle or by considering drivers, pressures and responses affecting impacts of land

  1. Soil Science Society of America - K-12 Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Loynachan, Tom; Mblia, Monday; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Science Society of America created its K12 Committee in 2006 in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers. The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has cooperated and contributed to the American Geologic Institutes' Earth Science Week materials with brochures and lesson plans and with National Association of Conservation Districts by providing peer-review and distribution of materials. The most recent developments from the committee include a web redesign that is more student and teacher friendly, the development of a peer-review system to publish K12 Lesson Plans, and finally the publication of a new soils

  2. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  3. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  4. Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

  5. Soil Science in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Vance; VanHorn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    With the pervasiveness of digital technology, elementary students almost instinctively begin inquiry-based instruction with a bias. Visual information from digital devices competes with elementary science inquiry. To counteract this effect, teachers can use advance organizers. The advance organizer is a tool or a mental learning aid to help…

  6. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2013-01-01

    Saving energy in buildings is top of mind with today s building professionals. Although designing energy-efficient walls and roofs is mostly a no-brainer, ensuring that below-grade foundations do not generate moisture problems has become even more complex, particularly because of how soil is involved. Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well-defined, and simplified methods have been developed. These approaches, however, generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible. The intention of an ongoing study at Oak Ridge (TN) National Laboratory, therefore, is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from soil science as well. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in building science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools, where additional plugins to the existing software code WUFI (an acronym for Warme unde Felichte Instructionar, which translates to unsteady heat and moisture) are required. (See the sidebar, opposite page, for specifics on WUFI.)Simulation results from WUFI are being compared with existing thermal-only measurements and are being accomplished with ongoing hygrothermal measurements. The final outcome of the study will be the evaluation of several soil types in several climate zones for a number of basement assembly types. The study will define the type of soil, together with the type of building construction considered most and least reliable with respect to energy consumption and moisture safety. Furthermore, the study will determine the influences that different soils have on total energy loss through the ground.

  7. Expanding the horizons of soil science to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Soils are critical to all life on the planet yet most individuals treat soil like dirt. As soil scientist we have long recognized this and have struggled to find ways to communicate the importance of soils to the public. The goal is not purely altruistic as we recognize that society funds or research and provides the workforce in soils that we need to continue to gain knowledge and expertise in soil science. In 2006 the Soil Science Society of America took a bold move and created its K12 Committee in part to compliment the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit that opened in July 2008 at the Smithsonian's Institution's Nation Museum of Natural History (of which SSS was a founding sponsor). The committee's work began quickly with a website designed to provide resources for K12 teachers (primary and school teachers). The first accomplishments included reviewing and posting links to web based information already available to teachers. These links were sorted by subject and grade level to make it easier for teachers to navigate the web and find what they needed quickly. Several presentations and lessons designed for K12 teachers were also posted at this time. Concurrent with this effort a subcommittee review and organized the national teaching standards to show where soils could fit into the overall K12 curriculum. As the website was being developed another subcommittee developed a soils book (Soil! Get the Inside Scoop, 2008) to further compliment the Dig It! exhibit. This was a new endeavor for SSSA having never worked with the non-academic audience in developing a book. Peer-reviews of this book included not only scientist but also students in order to make sure the book was attractive to them. Once the book was published and the website developed it became clear more outreach was needed. SSSA K12 Committee has attended both the National Science Teachers Association (since 2008) the USA Science and Engineering Festival (since 2010) with exhibits and workshops. It has

  8. Big Data in Soil Science - Pandora's Box or Treasure Chest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last two decades, new developments in sensing technologies resulted in a massive increase of available data in environmental science and the increase is still ongoing. In the very near future, new satellite missions will provide data of global coverage in a hitherto unknown degree of detail. Wireless sensing technologies offer today the possibility to observe dynamics of soil-related state variables in highest spatial and temporal resolution. Mobile sensing technologies allow the exploration of larger areas in shorter times. On the other hand, the Open Data movement removes permission barriers and data become more and more freely available, opening up new possibilities for data integration. All this fosters new ambitions but also new challenges for environmental science. Bigger data allows us to ask bigger questions. But, a larger amount of data on its own is worthless. New approaches and methods to handle, structure, analyze, visualize, and to integrate the data into models are needed. And, many of the potential answers are no longer accessible analytically or experimentally. Big Data mining in soil science has specific challenges on its own. The data are often highly heterogeneous, resulting from observations at different spatial and temporal scales, representing the result of highly complex interactions and feedbacks between different environmental compartments. In view of this complexity, asking the "right" question can become a very challenging task. Big Data mining does not replace the need for profound understanding of processes. Collaboration across different scientific disciplines might be crucial to include all relevant knowledge. From this perspective, Big Data science is a supplement but not a substitute for traditional process-related studies and data-collection. The talk will attempt to shed some light on challenges and potentials of Big Data science from the perspective of traditional soil hydrological science.

  9. Soil physics: a Moroccan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Sabah; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouadia, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    Research on environmental pollution and degradation of soil and water resources is now of highest priority worldwide. To address these problems, soil physics should be conceived as a central core to this research. This paper objectives are to: (1) address the role and importance of soil physics, (2) demonstrate progress in this discipline, and (3) present various uses of soil physics in research, environment and industry. The study of dynamic processes at and within the soil vadose zone (flow, dispersion, transport, sedimentation, etc.), and ephemeral phenomena (deformation, compaction, etc.), form an area of particular interest in soil physics. Soil physics has changed considerably over time. These changes are due to needed precision in data collection for accurate interpretation of space and time variation of soil properties. Soil physics interacts with other disciplines and sciences such as hydro(geo)logy, agronomy, environment, micro-meteorology, pedology, mathematics, physics, water sciences, etc. These interactions prompted the emergence of advanced theories and comprehensive mechanisms of most natural processes, development of new mathematical tools (modeling and computer simulation, fractals, geostatistics, transformations), creation of high precision instrumentation (computer assisted, less time constraint, increased number of measured parameters) and the scale sharpening of physical measurements which ranges from micro to watershed. The environment industry has contributed to an enlargement of many facets of soil physics. In other words, research demand in soil physics has increased considerably to satisfy specific and environmental problems (contamination of water resources, global warming, etc.). Soil physics research is still at an embryonic stage in Morocco. Consequently, soil physicists can take advantage of developments occurring overseas, and need to build up a database of soil static and dynamic properties and to revise developed models to meet

  10. Studies from the history of soil science and geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward R.; Cohen, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations proclaimed the year 2008 as the official International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), with science and outreach activities spanning 2007–2009. IYPE-sponsored outreach helped focus the attention of the general public on topics such as human health and the environment; ocean and natural resources sustainability; mitigating natural hazards and community resilience; and the effects of climate change. Within the earth science community, the IYPE was a stimulus for retrospection, and for efforts aimed at bridging divides within the community. One such effort was the first joint meeting of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), held in Houston, Texas, 5–9 October 2008.

  11. Three-Dimensional Soil Landscape Modeling: A Potential Earth Science Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Brian M.; Manu, Andrew; Norton, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization is helpful in understanding soils, and three dimensional (3-D) tools are gaining popularity in teaching earth sciences. Those tools are still somewhat underused in soil science, yet soil properties such as texture, color, and organic carbon content vary both vertically and horizontally across the landscape. These…

  12. Three Simple Hands-On Soil Exercises Extension Professionals Can Incorporate into Natural Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinschmidt, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The importance of healthy soil and of conveying the importance of soils starts by conveying a few basic concepts of soil science cannot be overstated. This article provides three hands-on exercises Extension professionals can add to natural resources or Master Gardener education curricula. These natural sciences exercises are easy to prepare for…

  13. The British Society of Soil Science in the International Year of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; Baggs, Liz; Towers, Willie; Black, Helaina

    2015-04-01

    During the IYS, the British Society of Soil Science is engaging in a large number of activities aimed at raising the awareness of soil within society. Regional Groups are organising Society participation in a number of events, a numberof which are large, annual events providing access to a mixed audience of stakeholders. The success of the Society in raising awareness in soil during the IYS will not lie solely in developing new events which take time and money to organise, advertise and host, but primarily in linking up with existing events that are already featured with the UK's annual calendar of trade shows, agricultural meetings and scientific conferences. Examples of such events include the Royal Highland Show in Edinburgh in June, the World Water Congress in May, and internationally Expo15 in Milan with other societies across Europe. In addition, BSSS is aware of many soil-related activities being organised by research organisations (e.g. Lancaster University, James Hutton Institute, CEH, University of Aberdeen) and is working with these organisations to provide a synergy of activities. This has the combined effects of reducing costs, increasing access to potential audiences and stakeholders, and avoiding overlap with events that were already organised. The IYS also finds BSSS one year on from their success in bidding to host the World Congress of Soil Science in 2022 in Glasgow. Activities by BSSS during 2015 are intended to develop a momentum towards this Congress and to raise awareness of British Soil Science and the Congress amongst industry, researchers, policymakers and the general public. This will provide a springboard for increasing sponsorship and funding for the World Congress, and will hopefully result in increased attendance and quality of experience for the delegates at the Congress.

  14. Soil Science Education: Philosophy and Perspectives. SSSA Special Publication Number 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baveye, Philippe, Ed.; And Others

    Soil science provides the educational framework to integrate components of earth science systems, to understand the causes and consequences of spatial variability, and view dynamic processes impacting ecosystems in a holistic perspective. This book, a special publication of the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), identifies and analyzes…

  15. Field Research in the Teaching of Undergraduate Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. Benefits of undergraduate research include 1) personal and intellectual development, 2) more and closer contact with faculty, 3) the use of active learning techniques, 4) creation of high expectations, 5) development of creative and problem-solving skills, 6) greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn, and 7) exposure to practical skills. The scientific discipline also benefits, as studies have shown that undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program (Lopatto, 2007). Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline. Soils form in the field, therefore, field experiences are very important in developing a complete and holistic understanding of soil science. Combining undergraduate research with field experiences can provide extremely beneficial outcomes to the undergraduate student, including increased understanding of and appreciation for detailed descriptions and data analysis as well as an enhanced ability to see how various parts of their undergraduate education come together to understand a complex problem. The experiences of the authors in working with undergraduate students on field-based research projects will be discussed, along with examples of some of the undergraduate research projects that have been undertaken. In addition, student impressions of their research experiences will be presented. Reference Lopatto, D. 2007. Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning. CBE -- Life Sciences Education 6:297-306.

  16. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  17. Environmental Resource Management Issues in Agronomy: A Lecture/Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Sciences Technology T272 is a course with a laboratory addressing problems in soil and water quality and organic wastes utilization to serve students from associate degree programs in laboratory science and environmental resources management at a 2-year technical college. Goals are to build basic lab skills and understand the role…

  18. PRE-COLLEGE EXPERIENCES AS PREPARATION FOR COLLEGE COURSES IN AGRONOMY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEEKS, JOHN C.

    TO DETERMINE THE KNOWLEDGE OF AGRONOMY POSSESSED BY ENTERING FRESHMEN IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE REQUIRED COURSE AGRICULTURE IN THE ECONOMY DURING THE YEARS 1962 AND 1963 RESPONDED TO A 100-ITEM MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUMENT. A TOTAL OF 310 USABLE ANSWER SHEETS FURNISHED DATA ON STUDENTS--(1)…

  19. Using Alumni Input as a Reality Check of Agronomy Teaching and Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graveel, John G.; Vorst, James J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a systematic review of the undergraduate curricula and courses, the perceptions of Purdue agronomy alumni who graduated between 1960 and 2003 were obtained. A survey was administered to assess outcomes, identify gaps in the curriculum, measure how well the program addresses current and future needs, and provide a direction for change.…

  20. Effect of soil water content on soil thermal conductivity under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, G.; Daly, E.; Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.

    2008-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermal properties of soils is required in many areas of engineering, meteorology, agronomy, and ecosystem and soil science. Soil thermal conductivity varies in time and space, since it is influenced by soil properties as well as soil temperature and moisture conditions. We use the one dimensional heat conduction equation in conjunction with two-year data measured in a grass-covered field in North Carolina Piedmont to estimate soil thermal conductivity and to investigate how it is impacted by water content. In agreement with laboratory experiments reported in the literature, our results suggest that under dry conditions soil thermal conductivity increases across a relatively narrow range of soil water contents, above which a further increase in water content does not significantly change thermal conductivity. However, when soil approaches saturation, heat transfer is further improved, a fact not previously noted. This nonlinear behavior is consistent with the formation at high water contents of a continuous film of liquid water in soil aggregates of mineral and organic matter.

  1. Does Formative Assessment Improve Student Learning and Performance in Soil Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Wehr, J. Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil science students are required to apply knowledge from a range of disciplines to unfamiliar scenarios to solve complex problems. To encourage deep learning (with student performance an indicator of learning), a formative assessment exercise was introduced to a second-year soil science subject. For the formative assessment exercise, students…

  2. A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Teaching Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Jose A.; Gorres, Josef H.

    2004-01-01

    At most land-grant universities in the USA, Introduction to Soil Science is traditionally taught using a combination of lecture and laboratory formats. To promote engagement, improve comprehension, and enhance retention of content by students, we developed a problem-based learning (PBL) introductory soil science course. Students work in groups to…

  3. Developing a Foundation for Constructing New Curricula in Soil, Crop, and Turfgrass Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Holly D.; Collett, Ryan; Wingenbach, Gary; Heilman, James L.; Fowler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Some soil and crop science university programs undergo curricula revision to maintain relevancy with their profession and/or to attract the best students to such programs. The Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University completed a thorough data gathering process as part of its revision of the undergraduate curriculum and…

  4. Proposal for a Spatial Organization Model in Soil Science (The Example of the European Communities Soil Map).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the computational problems of automating paper-based spatial information. A new relational structure for soil science information based on the main conceptual concepts used during conventional cartographic work is proposed. This model is a computerized framework for coherent description of the geographical variability of soils, combined…

  5. Experimental stations as a tool to teach soil science at the University of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi

    2010-05-01

    This paper shows the strategies used at the University of Valencia (Department of Geography. Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group) to teach soil science at the Geography and Enviromental Science Degrees. The use of the Montesa and El Teularet research stations contribute with a better knowledge on soil science for the students as they can see the measurements carried out in the field. Students visit the stations and contribute to measurements and sampling every season. The use of meteorological stations, erosion plots, soil moisture and soil temperatures probes, and sampling give the students the chances to understand the theoretical approach they use to have. This presentation will show how the students evolve, and how their knowledge in soil science is improved.

  6. An Exercise to Demonstrate Soil Microbial Diversity in Introductory Environmental Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    High diversity of microorganisms in the soil matrix has been the focus of extensive research in the fields of soil biology and microbial ecology, and is a key concept that students in the environmental or biological sciences should understand. Two activities to demonstrate diversity and highlight the challenges faced in studying soil microbial…

  7. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  8. Soil science and geology: Connects, disconnects and new opportunities in geoscience education

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Despite historical linkages, the fields of geology and soil science have developed along largely divergent paths in the United States during much of the mid- to late- twentieth century. The shift in recent decades within both disciplines to greater emphasis on environmental quality issues and a systems approach has created new opportunities for collaboration and cross-training. Because of the importance of the soil as a dynamic interface between the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere, introductory and advanced soil science classes are now being taught in a number of earth and environmental science departments. The National Research Council's recent report, Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, highlights the soil zone as part of the land surface-to-groundwater "critical zone" requiring additional investigation. To better prepare geology undergraduates to deal with complex environmental problems, their training should include a fundamental understanding of the nature and properties of soils. Those undergraduate geology students with an interest in this area should be encouraged to view soil science as a viable earth science specialty area for graduate study. Summer internships such as those offered by the National Science Foundation-funded Integrative Graduate Education, Research, and Training (IGERT) programs offer geology undergraduates the opportunity to explore research and career opportunities in soil science.

  9. Teaching Environmental Soil Science to Students older than 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Civera, Cristina; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Burguet, María

    2014-05-01

    The life expectancy growth is a general trend for the world population, which translates into an increase of people older than 55 years in Western societies. This entails to the rise of health problems as well as large investments in healthcare. In general, we are spectators Y tambe voldria saber si ens pots fer una asse of how a large group of citizens have a new life after retirement. The XXI century societies are facing the problem of the need of a healthy population, even after retirement. There is a need in developing new strategies to allow those citizens to improve their knowledge of the environmental changes. The research in Soil Science and related disciplines is the strategy we are using on the Geograns program to inform the students (older than 55) about the changes the Earth and the Soil System are suffering. And this should be done in a healthy and active teaching environment. The NAUGRAN program is being developed by the University of Valencia for more than 10 years and shows the advances on education for senior students. Within this program, Geograns is bringing the environmentalist ideas to the students. This is a difficult task as those students were born in a society were nature was created to be exploited and not to be conserved (e.g. Green Revolution, agricultural transformations of the 60's in Spain). This is the reason why the University of Valencia developed at the end of the 90's a program to teach students older than 55. This paper shows the advances on new strategies developed during 2013 with a group of these senior students. The main strategy was to take the students to visit the nature and to explain the functioning of the Earth and Soil System. Those visits were organized with the collaboration of scientist, environmentalist, farmers and technicians; and the guiding thread was trekking. This mix showed our students different views and sides of the same phenomena (e.g. tillage operations, soil erosion problems, water quantity and

  10. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  11. Soil science in the understanding of the security of food systems for health.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a basic natural resource for food production, the vast majority of food we consume is either directly or indirectly derived from soil. Soil quality determines the quantity (calories) and quality (nutritional value and safety) of the foods grown. Protecting the soil's physical, chemical and biological integrity is therefore of vital importance in safeguarding global food security. Soil science, as a discipline, will contribute to new knowledge related to soil quality and its sustainable management. However, soil scientists are not alone in securing the global food production system, instead they shall work with environmental engineers, agronomists, nutritionists, animal scientists and social scientists in developing integrative approaches to soil conservation, material cycling and environmental protection.

  12. Teaching About the Links Between Soils and Climate: An International Year of Soil Outreach by the Soil Science Society of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil scientists are well aware of the intimate links that exist between soils and climate, but the same is not always true of the broader population. In an attempt to help address this, the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) has designated the theme "Soils and Climate" for the month of November, 2015 as part of the SSSA International Year of Soil (IYS) celebration. The topic has been further subdivided into three subthemes: 1) carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases, 2) Soils and past environments, and 3) Desertification and drought. Each subtheme outreach has two parts 1) lesson plans that K-12 educators can use in their classrooms, and 2) materials that a trained soil scientist can present to the general public. Activities developed for the theme include classroom activities to accompany an online game that students can play to see how farm management choices influence greenhouse gas emissions, questions to go with a vermicomposting activity, and discussion session questions to go with a movie on the USA Dust Bowl. All materials are available online free of charge. The Soils and Climate materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys/12-month-resources/november; all of the SSSA IYS materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys.

  13. FORUM paper: The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This FORUM paper discusses how the soil science profession can address the challenges of the recently adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals in the most effective manner. The broad Sustainable Development Goals are intended to be a guideline for all governments. Some Goals are mainly socio-economi...

  14. Using Field Trips and Field-Based Laboratories to Teach Undergraduate Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua; Hopkins, David

    2015-04-01

    Classroom activities can provide important background information allowing students to understand soils. However, soils are formed in nature; therefore, understanding their properties and spatial relationships in the field is a critical component for gaining a comprehensive and holistic understanding of soils. Field trips and field-based laboratories provide students with the field experiences and skills needed to gain this understanding. Field studies can 1) teach students the fundamentals of soil descriptions, 2) expose students to features (e.g., structure, redoximorphic features, clay accumulation, etc.) discussed in the classroom, and 3) allow students to verify for themselves concepts discussed in the more theoretical setting of the classroom. In each case, actually observing these aspects of soils in the field reinforces and improves upon classroom learning and comprehension. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service has identified a lack of fundamental field skills as a problem when they hire recent soil science graduates, thereby demonstrating the need for increased field experiences for the modern soil science student. In this presentation we will provide examples of field trips and field-based laboratories that we have designed for our undergraduate soil science classes, discuss the learning objectives, and provide several examples of comments our students have made in response to these field experiences.

  15. 3D Visualisation and Artistic Imagery to Enhance Interest in "Hidden Environments"--New Approaches to Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke "soil atlas" was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets…

  16. Hydropedology: Synergistic integration of soil science and hydrology in the Critical Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, H.S.; McDonnell, J. J.; Nimmo, John R.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water are the two critical components of theEarth’s Critical Zone (Figure 1): Soil modulates the connection between bedrock and the atmospheric boundary layer and water is a major driving force and transport agent between these two zones. The interactions between soil and water are so intimate and complex that they cannot be effectively studied in a piecemeal manner; they require a systems approach. In this spirit, hydropedology has emerged in recent years as a synergistic integration of soil science and hydrology that offers a renewed perspective and an integrated approach to understanding interactive pedologic and hydrologic processes and their properties in the Critical Zone.

  17. Soil moisture remote sensing: State of the science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellites (e.g., SMAP, SMOS) using passive microwave techniques, in particular at L band frequency, have shown good promise for global mapping of near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 25-40 km and temporal resolution of 2-3 days. C- and X-band soil moisture records date bac...

  18. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  19. SSSA Outreach: Dig It: The Secrets of Soil, Public Service Announcements, and Science Policy Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierzynski, Gary M.; Megonigal, Patrick; Glasener, Karl; Bergfeld, Ellen; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Science Society of America has invested heavily in two significant outreach efforts to help raise awareness of the soil resource among the general public and with elected officials and relevant federal agencies in Washington DC. Dig It: The Secrets of Soil began as an exhibit at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and ran from July 2008 through January 2010. The exhibit was rich in the use of audio-visual elements and contained a collection of the state soils from all 50 states and numerous interactive displays for all ages. Variations of the exhibit have been on display at three locations outside of Washington DC with the current location being the Bell Museum of Natural History in Minneapolis. The exhibit has been extremely successful in elevating awareness of soils to audiences with little preconceived knowledge on the subject. The success of the Dig It exhibit encouraged SSSA to further invest in three public service announcements that have been widely distributed with 570 downloads and >17,000 views (in English and Spanish) on YouTube and the I "Heart" Soil web site. In addition, I "Heart" Soil stickers were developed and >50,000 have been requested and distributed. Our Science Policy Office has recently been expanded based on evidence of positive impact in Washington DC. The formation of the Congressional Soils Caucus has increased awareness of soils within the House of Representatives and is being expanded to the Senate. A new Urban Lands Coalition has been developed that will greatly expand awareness of the value of soils in urban environments, particularly for elected officials. The Science Policy office organizes member visits with elected officials to advocate for science funding, agency visits to promote awareness of the discipline among a wide ranging of funding sources for research, has had substantial impact on a number of high profile reports, and works closely with allied scientific and professional organizations with common

  20. The Living Soil: Exploring Soil Science and Sustainable Agriculture with Your Guide, The Earthworm. Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.; And Others

    This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…

  1. The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.

    2009-12-01

    -landfall lifespan of these MDs was found significantly smaller compared to those formed under wetter inland conditions. Interestingly, the formation of a considerably larger number of MDs was associated with axially concentrated (around monsoon trough) patterns of pre-storm rainfall than the wide-spread patterns. The inland rainfall patterns are possibly the manifestation of the strength and orientation of Tropical Convergence Zone (TCZ) that also supports the genesis of MDs through the enhancement of barotropic instability. References Chen T.C., J.H. Yoon, and S.Y. Wang, 2005 : Westward propagation of the Indian monsoon depression. Tellus, 57A, 758-769. Dastoor A., and T.N. Krishnamurti, 1991: The landfall and structure of a tropical cyclone : The sensitivity of model predictions to soil moisture parameterizations. Boundary Layer Meteorol., 55, 345-380. Kohenen, T., 1990 : The self organizing map. Proc IEEE .78(9):1464-1480.

  2. A selected bibliography of remote sensing applications to soil science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Carter, Daniel B.; Draeger, William C.

    1979-01-01

    The bibliography contains approximately 200 references dealing with the application of remote sensing technology to the identification and analysis of soils. The scientific papers and reports listed describe procedures and methods used in data collection and include specific applications of those data to soil studies. Most citations discuss current work from 1970 to 1978 and all references are categorized according to the type of remotely sensed data used and their application.

  3. Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rob W; Bennett, Alison E; Cong, Wen-Feng; Daniell, Tim J; George, Timothy S; Hallett, Paul D; Hawes, Cathy; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Jones, Hamlyn G; Karley, Alison J; Li, Long; McKenzie, Blair M; Pakeman, Robin J; Paterson, Eric; Schöb, Christian; Shen, Jianbo; Squire, Geoff; Watson, Christine A; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling; White, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping is a farming practice involving two or more crop species, or genotypes, growing together and coexisting for a time. On the fringes of modern intensive agriculture, intercropping is important in many subsistence or low-input/resource-limited agricultural systems. By allowing genuine yield gains without increased inputs, or greater stability of yield with decreased inputs, intercropping could be one route to delivering ‘sustainable intensification’. We discuss how recent knowledge from agronomy, plant physiology and ecology can be combined with the aim of improving intercropping systems. Recent advances in agronomy and plant physiology include better understanding of the mechanisms of interactions between crop genotypes and species – for example, enhanced resource availability through niche complementarity. Ecological advances include better understanding of the context-dependency of interactions, the mechanisms behind disease and pest avoidance, the links between above- and below-ground systems, and the role of microtopographic variation in coexistence. This improved understanding can guide approaches for improving intercropping systems, including breeding crops for intercropping. Although such advances can help to improve intercropping systems, we suggest that other topics also need addressing. These include better assessment of the wider benefits of intercropping in terms of multiple ecosystem services, collaboration with agricultural engineering, and more effective interdisciplinary research.

  4. History, achievements, and future challenges of Japanse Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Modern soil science was introduced just after the reformation of Japan in 1867 by Max Fesca, Oskar Kellner and other German teachers together with their Japanese students, who were traced back to Justus von Liebig and thus started studying and teaching soils based on agrogeology and agricultural chemistry. After the German teachers left, the graduates from agricultural colleges formed the Foundation of Agricultural Sciences in 1887, based on which the Society of the Science of Soil and Manure, Japan, was established in 1927. The research, education and extension activities then expanded to Korea, Manchuria and Inner Mongolia as well as Taiwan and Sakhalin in accordance with a military invasion to China and Southeast Asian countries until the end of WWII. After WWII together with the reformation guided by the General Headquarters (GHQ) of the Allied Forces, soils research and educational units increased in number in the universities and governmental institutions. The society started publication of the journal in English, "Soils and Plant Food" in 1955, which was renamed to "Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (SSPN)" in 1961. There formed a variety of discussion groups in the society such as soil microbiology, pedology, clay science, soil physics, plant physiology, and forest environment, which became independent in the 1960s. Economic growth of Japan in the 1970s accomplished self-sufficiency in rice production and extended the range of crop to grow, however, a variety of environmental issues came out. A new division was established in the society for solving soil-related environmental problems. The society became more involved in international activities and hosted a number of international conferences, workshops, etc., the most significant of which was the 14th International Congress of Soil Science at Kyoto in 1990. The society proposed there a regional organization to cope with the unique issues, e.g. improvement of paddy rice cultivation, for Asian countries and

  5. Magnetic properties of soils in boreal regions. Case study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of soil magnetism is a part of the general soil researching for solving soil science and agronomy tasks. Soils are rather magnetic and sometimes they are the main near-surface object, which generates local magnetic anomalies. Soils have been studied within the main soil-climatic zones of Ukraine: Polesie, Forest Steppe, Steppe, Dry Steppe, Crimean and Carpathian mountains. The investigated soils types are: soddy-podsolic, gray forest, chestnut, chernozems leached, typical, ordinary, southern, and meadow, turf, bog soils, brawn and mountains soils. A part of Ukraine soils are from boreal regions. Among them are chernozems of Polesie soil-climatic zone. This territory was under influence of ice age. Another part of Ukraine boreal region is Carpathian maintains with special type of climate, landscapes and soils. The comprehensive analyze of Ukraine soils from the boreal territories and other parts is presented. Soil magnetism increases from North to South in the transition between the soil-climatic zones of Ukraine. The most magnetic are ordinary and south chernozems. The least magnetic are soddy-podzolic, meadaw and bog soils. The maximal values of the magnetic parameters are fixed in the watersheds, plateaus of the landscapes, minimal values are fixed in the floods, ravines, bor terraces. Magnetic susceptibility mapping is useful for agricultural mapping of lands, investigation of erosion, soil fertility, the necessity for mineral and organic fertilizers. Magnetic methods of investigations are high speed, effective and low-cost. Moreover, the magnetic methods a very important if the dangerous soil processes could not be fixed with visual image. In the same time, these hazards effect on the conditioning and the productivity of agricultural land. We have marked the decreasing of the magnetic susceptibility values within the risk of erosion sections of the catena.

  6. Soil science. Soil and human security in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Ronald; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Hopmans, Jan W; Olson, Carolyn; Sztein, A Ester; Sparks, Donald L

    2015-05-08

    Human security has and will continue to rely on Earth's diverse soil resources. Yet we have now exploited the planet's most productive soils. Soil erosion greatly exceeds rates of production in many agricultural regions. Nitrogen produced by fossil fuel and geological reservoirs of other fertilizers are headed toward possible scarcity, increased cost, and/or geopolitical conflict. Climate change is accelerating the microbial release of greenhouse gases from soil organic matter and will likely play a large role in our near-term climate future. In this Review, we highlight challenges facing Earth's soil resources in the coming century. The direct and indirect response of soils to past and future human activities will play a major role in human prosperity and survival.

  7. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  8. Effect of aggregation on SOC transport: linking soil properties to sediment organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil and the associated organic matter. Understanding the redistribution of eroded soil organic matter falls into several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology, and recently into biogeochemistry. Accordingly, the way soil and sediment are described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment and the associated organic matter is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil/sediment organic while moving in water across landscapes and into the aquatic system would represent a major step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil, organic matter and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil and organic matter as sediment.

  9. Field research on the spectral properties of crops and soils, volume 1. [Purdue Agronomy Farm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    The experiment design, data acquisition and preprocessing, data base management, analysis results and development of instrumentation for the AgRISTARS Supporting Research Project, Field Research task are described. Results of several investigations on the spectral reflectance of corn and soybean canopies as influenced by cultural practices, development stage and nitrogen nutrition are reported as well as results of analyses of the spectral properties of crop canopies as a function of canopy geometry, row orientation, sensor view angle and solar illumination angle are presented. The objectives, experiment designs and data acquired in 1980 for field research experiments are described. The development and performance characteristics of a prototype multiband radiometer, data logger, and aerial tower for field research are discussed.

  10. Secrets of the Soil: Promotion of the Nov. 7 Science at the Theater Event

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Eoin

    2011-01-01

    There are billions of microbes in a handful of soil, some of which could hold the key to our climate and energy future. Find out how at Secrets of the Soil, our next Science at the Theater Nov. 7 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre. At the event, four Berkeley Lab scientists will reveal how our scientists travel the globe -- to deserts, rainforests, and the Arctic tundra -- to explore the secret world of soil microbes -- and what they mean to you. More info: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  11. Secrets of the Soil: Promotion of the Nov. 7 Science at the Theater Event

    ScienceCinema

    Brodie, Eoin

    2016-07-12

    There are billions of microbes in a handful of soil, some of which could hold the key to our climate and energy future. Find out how at Secrets of the Soil, our next Science at the Theater Nov. 7 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre. At the event, four Berkeley Lab scientists will reveal how our scientists travel the globe -- to deserts, rainforests, and the Arctic tundra -- to explore the secret world of soil microbes -- and what they mean to you. More info: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  12. Microbial soil community analyses for forensic science: Application to a blind test.

    PubMed

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Schauser, Leif; Dawson, Lorna; Franqueville, Laure; Simonet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science. To evaluate the relevance of this approach, a blind test was performed to determine the origin of two questioned samples (one from the mock crime scene and the other from a 50:50 mixture of the crime scene and the alibi site) compared to three control samples (soil samples from the crime scene, from a context site 25m away from the crime scene and from the alibi site which was the suspect's home). Two biological methods were used, Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing with Illumina Miseq, to evaluate the discriminating power of soil bacterial communities. Both techniques discriminated well between soils from a single source, but a combination of both techniques was necessary to show that the origin was a mixture of soils. This study illustrates the potential of applying microbial ecology methodologies in soil as an evaluative forensic tool.

  13. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  14. Soil and Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the structure of the two main soil types in Seychelles; (2) the role of roots in…

  15. Crop and Soil Science. A Curriculum Guide for Idaho Vocational Agriculture Instructors. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledington, Richard L.

    The 24 units that comprise this crop and soil science curriculum guide are not geared to a particular age level and must be adapted to the students for whom they are used. Units 1 through 6 are general units covering topics common to soil science. Units 7 through 24 are units covering topics common to crop production. Each unit includes objectives…

  16. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials.

  17. Soil Carbon Sequestration - Science for Enhancement and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metting, F. B.; Post, W. M.; Amonette, J. E.; Bailey, V. L.; Garten, C. T.; Graham, R. L.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jardine, P. M.; Jastrow, J.; Lal, R.; Marland, G.; McCarl, B. A.; Sands, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Tyler, D.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction Fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change have elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 280 ppmv at the beginning of the industrial era to more than 381 ppmv in 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement rose 71% during 1970-2000 to a rate of 7.0 PgC/y. It is estimated that CO2 emissions rose at a rate at 1.3% per year during 1990-1999, but have been growing since 2000 at a rate of3.3% per year, reaching 8.4 PgC in 2006. It is likely that the current 2-ppm annual increase will accelerate as the global economy expands, increasing the risk of climate system impacts. There is good agreement that photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in above- and belowground biomass and in soil could be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Nevertheless, soil C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has been a source of contention before and since the drafting of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Concerns have been raised that soil C sequestration is not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that it is a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. A decade after drafting the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that international accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to re-evaluate options with potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Soil sequestration is one option large enough to make a difference in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity. This presentation will review progress on key scientific, economic, and social issues, postulate

  18. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, D. ); Anderson, S. ); Mattigod, S. )

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography.

  19. Unit The World of the Soil, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Education project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7 - 10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit expected to take about 20 40-minute periods to complete. Included are a teacher's guide to the unit, four pupil booklets ("Looking at Soils,""Things to do With…

  20. Incorporating a Soil Science Artifact into a University ePortfolio Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, Elena; Werts, Joshua; Post, Christopher; Ring, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The ePortfolio is a useful educational tool that is utilized in many educational institutions to showcase student accomplishments and provide students with an opportunity to reflect on their educational progress. The objective of this study was to develop and test an artifact from an introductory soil science course to be included in the…

  1. Undergraduate Education in the Plant and Soil Sciences, Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Education in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of the 1967 Conference on Undergraduate Teaching in the Plant and Soil Sciences are presented in this publication. Seven individual presentations and reports from ten working groups review the adequacy and effectiveness of courses and curricula for undergraduate students; discuss instructional materials, methods, and equipment that…

  2. The Metaproteome of "Park Grass" soil - a reference for EU soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Gerry; Dudley, Ed; Doerr, Stefan; Matthews, Peter; Halen, Ingrid; Walley, Richard; Ashton, Rhys; Delmont, Tom; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, Salvatore Andrea; Van Keulen, Geertje

    2016-04-01

    Soil metaproteomics, the systemic extraction and identification of proteins from a soil, is key to understanding the biological and physical processes that occur within the soil at a molecular level. Until recently, direct extraction of proteins from complex soils have yielded only dozens of protein identifications due to interfering substances, such as humic acids and clay, which co-extract and/or strongly adsorb protein, often causing problems in downstream processing, e.g. mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the current most successful, direct, proteomic extraction protocol favours larger molecular weight and/or heat-stable proteins due to its extraction protocol. We have now developed a novel, faster, direct soil protein extraction protocol which also addressed the problem of interfering substances, while only requiring less than 1 gram of material per extraction. We extracted protein from the 'Genomic Observatory' Park Grass at Rothamsted Research (UK), an ideally suited geographic site as it is the longest (>150 years) continually studied experiment on ungrazed permanent grassland in the world, for which a rich history of environmental/ecological data has been collected, including high quality publically available metagenome DNA sequences. Using this improved methodology, in conjunction with the creation of high quality, curated metagenomic sequence databases, we have been able to significantly improve protein identifications from one soil due to extracting a similar number of proteins that were >90% different when compared to the best current direct protocol. This optimised metaproteomics protocol has now enabled identification of thousands of proteins from one soil, leading therefore to a deeper insight of soil system processes at the molecular scale.

  3. The moral basis of soil science and geology: What antebellum farmers knew and why anyone cared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin R.

    Soil science and geology had common historical origins in the “internal improvement” era of the early American Republic that sought both cultural and material progress. This paper draws from the rural press, regional agricultural societies, and the first wave of state scientific surveys in that era to discuss the early Republic foundations of those new sciences. It discusses the dynamic and productive circulation of soil-based studies in an era that made it possible for later professional scientific activities to gain influence. It also suggests by way of conclusion that soil scientists and geologists of the twenty-first century can culturally ground their own activities more fully by articulating the purposes of their work as part of broader moral imperatives. To do this, they can treat new calls for sustainability science as a current version of improvement. By recognizing the fundamentally dual aims of sustainability-materially, to achieve the protection of resources and, culturally, to make progress toward more sustainable social structures-soil scientists and geologists can recall the common purpose of their work and avoid the distance from collective cultural activity that professional specialization of the last century and a half has brought.

  4. Get immersed in the Soil Sciences: the first community of avatars in the EGU Assembly 2015!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Sebastian; Alarcón, Purificación; Beato, Mamen; Emilio Guerrero, José; José Martínez, Juan; Pérez, Cristina; Ortiz, Leovigilda; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Virtual reality and immersive worlds refer to artificial computer-generated environments, with which users act and interact as in a known environment by the use of figurative virtual individuals (avatars). Virtual environments will be the technology of the early twenty-first century that will most dramatically change the way we live, particularly in the areas of training and education, product development and entertainment (Schmorrow, 2009). The usefulness of immersive worlds has been proved in different fields. They reduce geographic and social barriers between different stakeholders and create virtual social spaces which can positively impact learning and discussion outcomes (Lorenzo et al. 2012). In this work we present a series of interactive meetings in a virtual building to celebrate the International Year of Soil to promote the importance of soil functions and its conservation. In a virtual room, the avatars of different senior researchers will meet young scientist avatars to talk about: 1) what remains to be done in Soil Sciences; 2) which are their main current limitations and difficulties and 3) which are the future hot research lines. The interactive participation does not require physically attend to the EGU Assembly 2015. In addition, this virtual building inspired in Soil Sciences can be completed with different teaching resources from different locations around the world and it will be used to improve the learning of Soil Sciences in a multicultural context. REFERENCES: Lorenzo C.M., Sicilia, M.A., Sánchez S. 2012. Studying the effectiveness of multi-user immersive environments for collaborative evaluation tasks. Computers & Education 59 (2012) 1361-1376 Schmorrow D.D. 2009. "Why virtual?" Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 10(3): 279-282.

  5. Soil Science self-learning based on the design and conduction of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, A.; Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an experience for introducing the methodology of project-based learning (PBL) in the area of Soil Science in the University of Sevilla (Spain). Currently, teachers try to enhance practical experience of university students in a complementary manner to theoretical knowledge. However, many times this is a difficult process. Practice is an important part of personal work in the vast majority of subjects that degree students receive, since the implementation of the EHEA. In most cases, these experiences are presented as partial small experiments or projects, assigned to the area-specific knowledge agenda. Certain sciences, such as Soil Science, however, require synthesis and integration capabilities of previous knowledge. It is therefore necessary to develop practical programs that address the student not only to the performance of laboratory determinations, but to the formulation of hypotheses, experimental design and problem solving, whether in groups or individually, situated in a wide context and allowing students to make connections with other areas of knowledge. This project involves the development of teamwork experiments, for the study real cases and problems and making decisions in the field of Soil Science. The results of the experimental work were publicly exposed as posters and oral presentations and were discussed during a mini-congress open to students and a general audience. The open and dynamic nature of the project substantially improves student motivation, which adds value to our project. Due to the multidisciplinary character of Soil Science it is relatively easy to propose projects of some complexity, and therefore, provides good conditions for introducing the PBL methodology. The teacher's role is also important and is not limited to observe or qualify the students, but it is a catalyst for learning. It is important that teacher give the leadership of the process and make the students themselves feel the protagonists of the

  6. Education and Awareness Raising Activities of the British Society of Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towers, Willie; Allton, Kathryn; Hallett, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The British Society for Soil Science (BSSS) http://www.soils.org.uk is an international membership organisation and UK based charity committed to promoting the study and profession of soil science in its widest aspects. The Society is committed to reaching out to the public at large to educate and inform on the importance of soils to us all. The Society has adopted a range of approaches to soil education, tailored to the needs and aims of different audience types. We have developed the 'Working with Soil' initiative http://www.soilscientist.org/workingwithsoil which provides practicing soil scientists and potential funders with a set of professional competencies aligned to specific aspects of work. From 2013 The Society has developed a program of courses aligned to these documents aimed at meeting the professional development needs of those undertaking such work. So far these have focused on fundamentals of field characterisation, sampling and mapping which have been very well received, especially by early career practitioners who have had less exposure to field work. We have also produced posters and leaflets that demonstrate a range of soil functions which support human society, for example 'Soils in the City' and 'Soils of Britain'. These were originally developed in a more traditional formal style. The materials have also proved popular with local authorities, regional horticultural clubs and higher education establishments, notably agricultural colleges where they have been used to support student learning in both timetabled and project work. We have subsequently produced a further set of materials aimed at a much younger audience. We deliberately chose slightly quirkier names for these, for example 'Soils and Time Travel' and 'Soils and Spaceship Earth' as a hook to capture the child's imagination. These were designed by a specialist company who used a less formal language, the use of cartoons and alternative images and a wider range of font styles and sizes

  7. The Cook Agronomy Farm LTAR: Knowledge Intensive Precision Agro-ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.

  8. Unified Science Information Model for SoilSCAPE using the Mercury Metadata Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Lu, Kefa; Palanisamy, Giri; Cook, Robert; Santhana Vannan, Suresh; Moghaddam, Mahta Clewley, Dan; Silva, Agnelo; Akbar, Ruzbeh

    2013-12-01

    methods including OAI-PMH [3]. The Mercury search interface then allows users to perform simple, fielded, spatial and temporal searches across a central harmonized index of metadata. Mercury supports various metadata standards including FGDC, ISO-19115, DIF, Dublin-Core, Darwin-Core, and EML. This poster describes in detail how Mercury implements the Unified Science Information Model for Soil moisture data. References: [1]Devarakonda R., et al. Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system. Earth Science Informatics (2010), 3(1): 87-94. [2]Devarakonda R., et al. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. http://daymet.ornl.gov/singlepixel.html (2012). Last Accesses 10-01-2013 [3]Devarakonda R., et al. Data sharing and retrieval using OAI-PMH. Earth Science Informatics (2011), 4(1): 1-5.

  9. Games in an Introductory Soil Science Course: A Novel Approach for Increasing Student Involvement with Course Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

    2004-01-01

    An optional 1-credit recitation course was developed to supplement a traditionally taught 4-credit lecture-plus-laboratory course in soil science at Oregon State University. Popular, competitive games that would be familiar to students were revised to be "soils-based" and were employed in the recitation class. These games were seen as a…

  10. “Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

  11. Practical Application of Synchrotron Based Hard Xray Micorprobes in Soil Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzirotti, A.; Tappero, R.; Schulze, D.

    2009-12-26

    Many of the most pressing questions in soil sciences require characterization of elemental abundances and speciation in minute samples that are heterogeneous at the submicrometer scale. This science addresses a wide gamut of environmental and health issues of high societal impact. Synchrotron radiation sources are ideal for developing high-intensity, highly focused X-ray probes and those that have been developed to deliver high-energy photons, so-called hard X-ray microprobes (HXRM), have had a major impact in advancing our understanding of the speciation, transport, and reactions of chemical species in soils. X-ray microprobe techniques offer distinct advantages over other analytical techniques by allowing analyses to be done in situ, an important example being the ability to determine chemical speciation of a wide variety of toxic elements in moist soils and biological specimens with little or no chemical pretreatment and low detection limits. In particular, coupled microfocused X-ray fluorescence, spectroscopy, and diffraction analysis allows one to quantify the abundance and speciation of elements in these materials at trace element concentrations and evaluate the mineralogy to which they are adsorbed or bound. Increasingly, these analyses are being done as imaging experiments not only in two dimensions but three dimensionally (3D) using tomographic techniques as well. Such information is crucial in understanding the toxicity, mobility, and containment of contaminating metals in the environment, mechanisms of trace element partitioning, and paths of strategic metal enrichment in nature.

  12. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Science and Data Product Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nloku, E.; Entekhabi, D.; O'Neill, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has the objective of frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. The SMAP measurement system utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate on a spacecraft in a 685 km polar orbit with 6am/6pm nodal crossings, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments will yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively, every two to three days. The 10-km soil moisture product will be generated using a combined radar and radiometer retrieval algorithm. SMAP will also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution and a radar-only soil moisture product at 3-km resolution. The relative accuracies of these products will vary regionally and will depend on surface characteristics such as vegetation water content, vegetation type, surface roughness, and landscape heterogeneity. The SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of the fluxes of water, energy and carbon between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture and freeze/thaw controls of these fluxes are key factors in the performance of models used for weather and climate predictions and for quantifYing the global carbon balance. Soil moisture measurements are also of importance in modeling and predicting extreme events such as floods and droughts. The algorithms and data products for SMAP are being developed in the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) Testbed. In the Testbed algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated SMAP observations as well as observational data from current airborne and spaceborne L-band sensors including data from the SMOS and Aquarius missions. We report here on the development status

  13. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  14. NSF RET in Southern Africa: community and research experiences in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Pollard, A.; Wellbeloved-Stone, R.; Riffel, H.; Chavarro, D.; D'Odorico, P.

    2010-12-01

    Collaborative research on belowground carbon storage in the Kalahari Desert has provided opportunities for international research experience for US middle and high school teachers, funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program. This presentation will highlight the field research experiences, international high school visit, relationships fostered with Botswana high school teachers, and new soil science curricula developed by three US environmental science teachers. New lesson plans and activities on carbon sequestration, fine and coarse root mapping, and soil organic carbon cycling and other learning tools have been incorporated into the existing Underground Safari webpage (instaar.colorado.edu/undergroundsafari) (Figure 1). An interactive blog, undergroundsafari.edublogs.org, has been developed to allow dynamic discourse between students, teachers and researchers on this project. Lessons learned from classroom trials of curriculum and use of other RET experience-motivated activities in the classroom will be discussed. Figure 1. Screen capture of the "Videos" page from the Underground Safari website for NSF DEB project, "Collaborative Research: Distribution and dynamics of belowground carbon in savannas."

  15. AGU signs memorandum of agreement with Soil Science Society of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2011-08-01

    I am pleased to announce that AGU has taken another step in our effort to build strategic alliances with partner groups by signing a memorandum of agreement with the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). This agreement is based on the common interests of our members and will allow us to strengthen our respective organizations by Exchanging information on key programs and initiatives.Expanding membership of both our organizations through possible joint programs.>Exchanging information and possible joint activities concerning educational opportunities, student programs, and professional services.Exchanging information and possible co-organization of scientific conferences.

  16. Application of DRIFTS, (13)C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent.

    PubMed

    Margenot, Andrew J; Calderón, Francisco J; Magrini, Kimberly A; Evans, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm(-1) (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil

  17. Amending soils with phosphate as means to mitigate soil lead hazard: a critical review of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Scheckel, Kirk G; Diamond, Gary L; Burgess, Michele F; Klotzbach, Julie M; Maddaloni, Mark; Miller, Bradley W; Partridge, Charles R; Serda, Sophia M

    2013-01-01

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils conducted in humans and animal models. Practical implementation issues, such as criteria and methods for evaluating efficacy, and potential effects of phosphate on mobility and bioavailability of co-contaminants in soil are also discussed.

  18. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  19. Reactivity of TNT & TNT - Microbial Reduction Products with Soil Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    1977). Stevenson , F.J. Role and function of humus in soil with emphasis on adsorptior of herbicides and chelation of micronutrients. Biosci. 22(11): 643...Analysis, Part 2, C.A. Black Ed. Am. Soc. of Agronomy, Inc., *1 Madison, WI. 1409-1421 (1965). -* Stevenson , F.J. Role and Function of humus in soil...minerals and the organic humus and nonhumus materials. The nonhumic organic matter includes basic biomacromolecules, such as carbo- hydrates, proteins, and

  20. 3D visualisation and artistic imagery to enhance interest in `hidden environments' - new approaches to soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke 'soil atlas' was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets of artistic illustrations were produced, each set showing the effects of soil organic-matter density and water content on fungal density, to determine potential for visualisations and interactivity in stimulating interest in soil and soil illustrations, interest being an important factor in facilitating learning. The illustrations were created using 3D modelling packages, and a wide range of styles were produced. This allowed a preliminary study of the relative merits of different artistic styles, scientific-credibility, scale, abstraction and 'realism' (e.g. photo-realism or realism of forms), and any relationship between these and the level of interest indicated by the study participants in the soil visualisations and VE. The study found significant differences in mean interest ratings for different soil illustration styles, as well as in the perception of scientific-credibility of these styles, albeit for both measures there was considerable difference of attitude between participants about particular styles. There was also found to be a highly significant positive correlation between participants rating styles highly for interest and highly for scientific-credibility. There was furthermore a particularly high interest rating among participants for seeing temporal soil processes illustrated/animated, suggesting this as a particularly promising method for further stimulating interest in soil illustrations and soil itself.

  1. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF

  2. Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Smith, Ashly P.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-07-29

    Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed--by funders, journals, governments, and their peers--to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits of, making their data and fully-reproducible analyses publicly available. Here we describe a recent "open experiment", in which we documented every aspect of a soil incubation online, making all raw data, scripts, diagnostics, final analyses, and manuscripts available in real time. We found that using tools such as version control, issue tracking, and open-source statistical software improved data integrity, accelerated our team's communication and productivity, and ensured transparency. There are many avenues to improve scientific reproducibility and data availability, of which is this only one example, and it is not an approach suited for every experiment or situation. Nonetheless, we encourage the communities in our respective fields to consider its advantages, and to lead rather than follow with respect to scientific reproducibility, transparency, and data availability.

  3. Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Peyton Smith, A.; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-01

    Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed—by funders, journals, governments, and their peers—to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits of, making their data and fully-reproducible analyses publicly available. Here we describe a recent ‘open experiment’, in which we documented every aspect of a soil incubation online, making all raw data, scripts, diagnostics, final analyses, and manuscripts available in real time. We found that using tools such as version control, issue tracking, and open-source statistical software improved data integrity, accelerated our team’s communication and productivity, and ensured transparency. There are many avenues to improve scientific reproducibility and data availability, of which is this only one example, and it is not an approach suited for every experiment or situation. Nonetheless, we encourage the communities in our respective fields to consider its advantages, and to lead rather than follow with respect to scientific reproducibility, transparency, and data availability.

  4. Field Guide to Soils. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foth, Henry; Jacobs, Hyde S.

    Discussed are the importance of soil to plant and animal life, the evolution of a soil profile, and the major kinds of soil in the United States. On a suggested field trip, students examine different kinds of soil profiles; they also measure soil acidity and water-holding capacity. Suggestions for further study are provided along with references…

  5. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO MITIGATE SOIL LEAD HAZARD: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE STATE OF THE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feas...

  6. VegeSafe: A community science program measuring soil-metal contamination, evaluating risk and providing advice for safe gardening.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Marek; Harvey, Paul J; Kristensen, Louise J; George, Steven G; Taylor, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the three-year study period, >5200 soil samples, primarily from vegetable gardens, were collected from >1200 Australian homes. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead; mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front yard), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential gardens was exceeded at 40% of Sydney homes, while concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified at 15% of homes. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks; owners building raised beds containing uncontaminated soil and in numerous cases, owners replacing all of their contaminated soil.

  7. Soil nitrogen balance under wastewater management: Field measurements and simulation results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, L.; KC, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops could result in high nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in the vadose zone and ground water. The goal of this 2-yr field-monitoring study in the deep silty clay loam soils south of Dodge City, Kansas, was to assess how and under what circumstances N from the secondary-treated, wastewater-irrigated corn reached the deep (20-45 m) water table of the underlying High Plains aquifer and what could be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep soil cores for characterization of physical and chemical properties; installed neutron probe access tubes to measure soil-water content and suction lysimeters to sample soil water periodically; sampled monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells in the area; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N application rate records for two wastewater-irrigated study sites. These data and additional information were used to run the Root Zone Water Quality Model to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that NO3-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the vadose zone and that NO3-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time. Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations for two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing levels of corn N fertilization by more than half to 170 kg ha-1 substantially increases N-use efficiency and achieves near-maximum crop yield. Combining such measures with a crop rotation that includes alfalfa should further reduce the accumulation and downward movement of NO3-N in the soil profile. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2006-05-31

    Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

  9. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  10. Raising awareness about soil diversity: The Education Programme of the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are usually overlooked as part of geodiversity and geoheritage. Increasing the public awareness about soils is a key issue in our changing world. Furthering public awareness involves developing a better understanding of soils, their functions, importance for environment and society, as well as a personal and collective commitment in the stewardship and protection from degradation and loss. This presentation describes the Soil and Environmental Education and Outreach Programme of the Alexis Dorofeef Earth Sciences Museum of the Soil University Department in Viçosa, Brazil. The program has developed different activities linked to formal and non formal education and its main audience are basic education teachers, school children and the general public. The museum acts in different and diverse fronts, supported on a pedagogical background based on Paulo Freire's educational approach, the social-constructivism, which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. In its early years, the museum was mainly focused on formal education and this changed with time as our action was reshaped into a broader outreach action stimulated by the new Brazilian government. The museum's indoor activities consist of accompanied thematic visits, hands on experiments, basic school teacher's courses, development of learning materials and methods and professional training. Beyond of the Museum space local interdisciplinary projects with basic education schools are run along with temporary expositions coupled with short courses and workshops with farmers and social movements. We present the results of the changes in awareness about soils among three main groups: school teachers, basic education children and general public. After 10 years of activities, the Soil Education action of the Museum is recognized and well spread among school communities in the town and its neighbourhood. Many school teachers approach the contents and methodologies

  11. Understanding Variations of Soil Mapping Units and Associated Data for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Melissa D; Southard, Randal J; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples have potential to be useful in forensic investigations, but their utility may be limited due to the inherent variability of soil properties, the wide array of analytical methods, and complexity of data analysis. This study examined the differentiation of similar soils based on both gross (texture, color, mineralogy) and explicit soil properties (elemental composition, cation exchange, Fe-oxyhydroxides). Soils were collected from Fallbrook and adjacent map units from Riverside and San Diego Counties in California. Samples were characterized using multiple techniques, including chemical extracts, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results were analyzed using multiple analytical approaches to compare counties and land uses. Some analyses (XRD, extractions) were better at distinguishing among samples than others (color, texture). Ratios of rare earth elements were particularly useful for distinguishing samples between counties. This potential to "fingerprint" soils illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive soil database for criminal investigators.

  12. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  13. Citations and the h index of soil researchers and journals in the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar.

    PubMed

    Minasny, Budiman; Hartemink, Alfred E; McBratney, Alex; Jang, Ho-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Citation metrics and h indices differ using different bibliometric databases. We compiled the number of publications, number of citations, h index and year since the first publication from 340 soil researchers from all over the world. On average, Google Scholar has the highest h index, number of publications and citations per researcher, and the Web of Science the lowest. The number of papers in Google Scholar is on average 2.3 times higher and the number of citations is 1.9 times higher compared to the data in the Web of Science. Scopus metrics are slightly higher than that of the Web of Science. The h index in Google Scholar is on average 1.4 times larger than Web of Science, and the h index in Scopus is on average 1.1 times larger than Web of Science. Over time, the metrics increase in all three databases but fastest in Google Scholar. The h index of an individual soil scientist is about 0.7 times the number of years since his/her first publication. There is a large difference between the number of citations, number of publications and the h index using the three databases. From this analysis it can be concluded that the choice of the database affects widely-used citation and evaluation metrics but that bibliometric transfer functions exist to relate the metrics from these three databases. We also investigated the relationship between journal's impact factor and Google Scholar's h5-index. The h5-index is a better measure of a journal's citation than the 2 or 5 year window impact factor.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the Canadian River floodplain in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sartori, F.; Wade, T.L.; Sericano, J.L.; Mohanty, B.P.; Smith, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil, plants, and water may impart negative eff ects on ecosystem and human health. We quantified the concentration and distribution of 41 PAH (n = 32), organic C, total N, and S (n = 140) and investigated PAH sources using a chronosequence of floodplain soils under a natural vegetation succession. Soil samples were collected between 0- and 260-cm depth in bare land (the control), wetland, forest, and grassland areas near a closed municipal landfill and an active asphalt plant (the contaminant sources) in the north bank of the Canadian River near Norman, OK. Principal component, cluster, and correlation analyses were used to investigate the spatial distribution of PAH, in combination with diagnostic ratios to distinguish pyrogenic vs. petrogenic PAH suites. Total PAH concentration (??PAH) had a mean of 1300 ng g-1, minimum of 16 ng g-1, and maximum of 12,000 ng g-1. At 0- to 20-cm depth, ??PAH was 3500 ?? 1600 ng g-1 (mean ?? 1 SE) near the contaminant sources. The most common compounds were nonalkylated, high molecular weight PAH of pyrogenic origin, i.e., fluoranthene (17%), pyrene (14%), phenanthrene (9%), benzo(b)fluoranthene (7%), chrysene (6%), and benzo(a)anthracene (5%). ??PAH in the control (130 ?? 23 ng g -1) was comparable to reported concentrations for the rural Great Plains. Perylene had a unique distribution pattern suggesting biological inputs. The main PAH contamination mechanisms were likely atmospheric deposition due to asphalt production at the 0- to 20-cm depth and past landfill operations at deeper depths. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  16. A Review of Developments in Agricultural Science Applicable to Military Soil Moisture Prediction Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    horizontally into untapped soil volumes. Resistance to vapor diffusion from leaf stomata is increased as moisture stress increases due to a change of...distributed root, branch, and leaf systems. The roots access water from deeper soil layers than is available for surface evapora- tion, while the

  17. Application of soil in forensic science: residual odor and HRD dogs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Bytheway, Joan; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2015-04-01

    Decomposing human remains alter the environment through deposition of various compounds comprised of a variety of chemical constituents. Human remains detection (HRD) dogs are trained to indicate the odor of human remains. Residual odor from previously decomposing human remains may remain in the soil and on surfaces long after the remains are gone. This study examined the ability of eight nationally certified HRD dogs (four dual purpose and four single purpose) to detect human remains odor in soil from under decomposing human remains as well as soils which no longer contained human remains, soils which had been cold water extracted and even the extraction fluid itself. The HRD dogs were able to detect the odor of human remains successfully above the level of chance for each soil ranging between 75% and 100% accurate up to 667 days post body removal from soil surface. No significant performance accuracy was found between the dual and single purpose dogs. This finding indicates that even though there may not be anything visually observable to the human eye, residual odor of human remains in soil can be very recalcitrant and therefore detectible by properly trained and credentialed HRD dogs. Further research is warranted to determine the parameters of the HRD dogs capabilities and in determining exactly what they are smelling.

  18. Examining the sediments and soils of Gusev Crater with the Athena science payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Zent, Aaron P.

    2004-04-01

    Gusev Crater has been proposed to contain lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments; however, eolian or volcanic sediments, global dust, and locally produced soils may also be present. This work describes the use of the Athena instrument package to evaluate the environment in which sampled materials were deposited in Gusev Crater. Sedimentary or soil deposits can be sampled by examining materials that were (1) excavated by impact events, (2) revealed by wind deflation, or (3) exposed by spinning the rover wheels. Specific observations can be diagnostic of a depositional environment. For instance, Pancam images of thin (e.g., 5 cm) planar layers of phyllosilicates and/or evaporites (as determined by Mini-TES) would suggest lacustrine sediments. Layered sediments (e.g., trough cross bed) with rounded particles (>4 mm) would suggest fluvial activity. Eolian sediments may have planar or cross-planar layers of well-sorted grains (~200 μm). Parallel bed deposits consisting of glass observable by Microscopic Imager would indicate volcanic ash. Soil bulk chemistry reported by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer that is similar to the Viking and Mars Pathfinder soils would indicate global dust. Mini-TES should only detect primary mineralogies in physically weathered soils, whereas chemically weathered soils may contain carbonates, sulfates, and/or phyllosilicates. Although some characteristics are unique to a sediment or soil deposit, different deposit types can have similar characteristics (e.g., planar layering). Determining the depositional history of material in Gusev will require the integration of measurements from several instruments and careful geologic reasoning by the investigators.

  19. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer, that share a deployable-mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological (10 km) and hydroclimatological (40 km) spatial scales. The rotating antenna configuration provides conical scans of the Earth surface at a constant look angle. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state with 2-3 days revisit. Freeze/thaw in boreal latitudes will be mapped using the radar at 3 km resolution with 1-2 days revisit. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit.

  20. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  1. Sources, interactions, and ecological impacts of organic contaminants in water, soil, and sediment: an introduction to the special series.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, Joseph J; Katz, Brian G; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and urban activities result in the release of a large number of organic compounds that are suspected of impacting human health and ecosystems: herbicides, insecticides, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic hormones, personal care products, surfactants, plasticizers, fire retardants, and others. Sorbed reservoirs of these compounds in soil represent a potentially chronic source of water contamination. This article is an introduction to a series of technical papers stemming from a symposium at the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting, which was held jointly with The Geological Society of America, The Gulf Coast Association of Geological Scientists, and the Houston Geological Society, under one of the Joint Meeting's overarching themes: Emerging Trace Contaminants in Surface and Ground Water Generated from Waste Water and Solid Waste Application. The symposium emphasized the role of soils as sources, sinks, and reaction catalysts for these contaminants and the occurrence and fate of these contaminants in surface and underground water supplies. Topics covered included novel advances in analytical techniques, transport of infectious agents, occurrence and fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals, characterization of sorption mechanism, biotic and abiotic transformation reactions, the role of soil components, occurrence and fate in wastewater treatment systems, transport of engineered nanoparticles, groundwater contamination resulting from urban runoff, and issues in water reuse. Overviews of the reports, trends, gaps in our knowledge, and topics for further research are presented in this special series of papers. The technical papers in this special series reflect current gains in knowledge and simultaneously underscore how poorly we are able to predict the fate and, hence, the associated risk to ecological and human receptors of these contaminants.

  2. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  3. Hydrologic and Soil Science in a Mediterranean Critical Zone Observatory: Koiliaris River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Stamati, Fotini; Schnoor, Jerald; Moraetis, Daniel; Kotronakis, Manolis

    2010-05-01

    The Koiliaris River watershed is situated 25km east from the city of Chania, Crete, Greece. The total watershed area is 145km2 and the main supply of water originates in the White Mountains. At high elevations (altitude 2014 m), the maximum slope is 43% while at the lower elevations the slope measures 1-2%. Land use includes heterogeneous agricultural areas (25.4%), olive and orange groves (15.6%), and scrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations (57.6%). The geology of the Basin consists of 23.8% Plattenkalk (dolomites, marbles, limestone and re-crystallized limestone with cherts); 31% of Trypali units (re-crystallized calcaric breccias); 9.4% limestones with marls in Neogene formations; 13% marls in Neogene formations; 12.8% schists, and 10% quaternary alluvial deposits. Intensive hydrologic and geochemical monitoring has been conducted since 2004 while the site has historical data since the ‘60s. In addition, a telemetric high-frequency hydrologic and water quality monitoring station has been deployed to obtain data for the characterization of the hydrologic and biogeochemical processes with varying process response-times. Hydrologic and geochemical modeling confirms the estimation of characteristic times of these processes. The main type of soil degradation in the basin as well as in other arid and semi-arid regions is water erosion, which is due to the clearing of forests and natural vegetation for cropping and livestock grazing. De-vegetation and inappropriate cultivation practices induces soil organic matter (SOM) losses making soils susceptible to erosion and desertification with global consequences for food security, climate change, biodiversity, water quality, and agricultural economy. Cropland plowing breaks-up water stable aggregates making the bio-available pool bio-accessible; which could be microbially attacked and oxidized resulting in SOM decline. Chronosequence data analysis suggested first-order kinetic rate of decline of the bio

  4. Gamma-ray methods for determining natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental and soil science

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.; Evans, C.V.

    1997-05-01

    Gamma-ray methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental materials are convenient because they generally require less bench-top preparation time than, for example, determinations based on alpha-particle pulse-height analysis. Also, parallel measurements of chemical yield are not needed, and typically several radionuclides can be determined simultaneously. In this paper, the authors review gamma-ray methods currently in use at Brookhaven, and present a new method for the determination of the radionuclide protactinium-231 in soils and other environmental materials, using the gamma-ray deconvolution package in the EG&G Ortec {open_quotes}Gammavision{close_quotes} software.

  5. Harmonising conflicts between science, regulation, perception and environmental impact: the case of soil conditioners from bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Riding, Matthew J; Herbert, Ben M J; Ricketts, Lois; Dodd, Ian; Ostle, Nick; Semple, Kirk T

    2015-02-01

    As the global population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, humanity needs to balance an ever increasing demand for food, energy and natural resources, with sustainable management of ecosystems and the vital services that they provide. The intensification of agriculture, including the use of fertilisers from finite sources, has resulted in extensive soil degradation, which has increased food production costs and CO2 emissions, threatening food security. The Bioenergy sector has significant potential to contribute to the formation of a circular economy. This paper presents the scientific, regulatory and socioeconomic barriers to the use of the nutrient waste streams from biomass thermal conversion (ash) and anaerobic digestion (digestate) as sustainable soil amendments for use in place of traditional fertilisers. It is argued that whilst the ability of combined ash and digestate to remedy many threats to ecosystems and provide a market to incentivise the renewable bio-energy schemes is promising, a step-change is required to alter perceptions of 'waste', from an expensive problem, to a product with environmental and economic value. This can only be achieved by well-informed interactions between scientists, regulators and end users, to improve the spread and speed of innovation with this sector.

  6. Soil-test N recommendations augmented with PEST-optimized RZWQM simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, R.W.; Jaynes, D.B.; Ma, L.; Nolan, B.T.; Meek, D.W.; Karlen, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Improved understanding of year-to-year late-spring soil nitrate test (LSNT) variability could help make it more attractive to producers. We test the ability of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to simulate watershed-scale variability due to the LSNT, and we use the optimized model to simulate long-term field N dynamics under related conditions. Autoregressive techniques and the automatic parameter calibration program PEST were used to show that RZWQM simulates significantly lower nitrate concentration in discharge from LSNT treatments compared with areas receiving fall N fertilizer applications within the tile-drained Walnut Creek, Iowa, watershed (>5 mg N L-1 difference for the third year of the treatment, 1999). This result is similar to field-measured data from a paired watershed experiment. A statistical model we developed using RZWQM simulations from 1970 to 2005 shows that early-season precipitation and early-season temperature account for 90% of the interannual variation in LSNT-based fertilizer N rates. Long-term simulations with similar average N application rates for corn (Zea mays L.) (151 kg N ha-1) show annual average N loss in tile flow of 20.4, 22.2, and 27.3 kg N ha -1 for LSNT, single spring, and single fall N applications. These results suggest that (i) RZWQM is a promising tool to accurately estimate the water quality effects of LSNT; (ii) the majority of N loss difference between LSNT and fall applications is because more N remains in the root zone for crop uptake; and (iii) year-to-year LSNT-based N rate differences are mainly due to variation in early-season precipitation and temperature. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Holger; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas; Cohen, Yariv

    2017-03-01

    The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology. Despite this Swedish success story, organic waste recycling from Swedish towns and cities to arable land is still limited to only about 20 % of the total amount produced. Resistance among industries and consumers to products grown on land treated with sewage sludge may not always be scientifically grounded; however, there are rational obstacles to application of sewage sludge to land based on its inherent properties rather than its content of pollutants. We argue that application of urban organic wastes to soil is an efficient form of recycling for small municipalities, but that organic waste treatment from large cities requires other solutions. The large volumes of sewage sludge collected in towns and cities are not equitably distributed back to arable land because of the following: (i) The high water and low nutrient content in sewage sludge make long-distance transportation too expensive; and (ii) the low plant availability of nutrients in sewage sludge results in small yield increases even after many years of repeated sludge addition. Therefore, nutrient extraction from urban wastes instead of direct organic waste recycling is a possible way forward. The trend for increased combustion of urban wastes will make ash a key waste type in future. Combustion not only concentrates the nutrients in the ash but also leads to metal enrichment; hence, direct application of the ash to land is most often not possible. However, inorganic

  8. Building Interdisciplinary Research and Communication Skills in the Agricultural and Climate Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Maynard, J.; Borrelli, K.; Wolf, K.; Bernacchi, L.; Eigenbrode, S.; Daley Laursen, D.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing scientists and educators to create and promote practical science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation is a main focus of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project. Social, political and environmental complexities and interactions require that future scientists work across disciplines rather than having isolated knowledge of one specific subject area. Additionally, it is important for graduate students earning M.S. or Ph.D. degrees in agriculture and climate sciences to be able to communicate scientific findings effectively to non-scientific audiences. Unfortunately, university graduate curricula rarely adequately prepare students with these important skills. REACCH recognizes the need for graduate students to have thorough exposure to other disciplines and to be able to communicate information for outreach and education purposes. These priorities have been incorporated into graduate training within the REACCH project. The interdisciplinary nature of the project and its sophisticated digital infrastructure provide graduate students multiple opportunities to gain these experiences. The project includes over 30 graduate students from 20 different disciplines and research foci including agronomy, biogeochemistry, soil quality, conservation tillage, hydrology, pest and beneficial organisms, economics, modeling, remote sensing, science education and climate science. Professional develop workshops were developed and held during annual project meetings to enhance student training. The "Toolbox" survey (http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/toolbox/) was used to achieve effective interdisciplinary communication. Interdisciplinary extension and education projects were required to allow students to gain experience with collaboration and working with stakeholder groups. Results of student surveys and rubrics developed to gauge success in interdisciplinary research and communication may provide a helpful starting point for

  9. Promoting Learning by Inquiry Among Undergraduates in Soil Sciences: Scaffolding From Project-based Courses to Student-Staff Research Grants by the National Research Agency in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ismaily, Said; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Three strategies in a soil science undergraduate programme with inquiry-based learning (IBL) principles at Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, are presented. The first strategy scaffolds courses into three phases: with direct instructional guidance, structured IBL, and finally, guided to open IBL. The second strategy involves extra-curricular activities of undergraduates, viz. conducting workshops on soils for pupils in grades 7-9 with their teachers. The third strategy promotes the teaching-research nexus through collaboration between the undergraduates and faculty within a student-supporting, government-funded programme through 1-year long research grants of up to 5,500 US/project. The efficiency of the strategies was evaluated by students' evaluations of courses and instructors and questionnaire-based surveys. Statistics of students' responses in teaching evaluations of IBL courses showed a significantly higher level of satisfaction compared with regular courses taught in the department and college. In surveys of other constituencies of the program, viz. the secondary schools, more than 90% of respondents "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that they had learned new information/secrets about soils. The indicators of success in the third strategy are: winning a highly competitive grant and, moreover, earning an even more competitive annual national award for the best executed research project. The two top graduates of the IBL soil programme progressed into the MSc programme with the university and national scholarships. Key words: inquiry based learning, soil science undergraduate program, scaffold of courses, outreach activities, teaching-research nexus, evaluation of program's efficiency

  10. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 μmol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 μmol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 μmol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzyńska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepański M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

  11. Integration into plant biology and soil science has provided insights into the total environment.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongbo; Lu, Haiying; Xu, Gang; Marian, Brestic

    2017-02-01

    The total environment includes 5 closely-linking circles, in which biosphere and lithosphere are the active core. As global population increases and urbanization process accelerates, arable land is gradually decreasing under global climate change and the pressure of various types of environmental pollution. This case is especially for China. Land is the most important resources for human beings' survival. How to increase and manage arable land is the key for sustainable agriculture development. China has extensive marshy land that can be reclamated for the better potential land resources under the pre- condition of protecting the environment, which will be a good way for enlarging globally and managing arable land. Related studies have been conducted in China for the past 30years and now many results with obvious practical efficiency have been obtained. For summarizing these results, salt-soil will be the main target and related contents such as nutrient transport, use types, biodiversity and interactions with plants from molecular biology to ecology will be covered, in which the interactions among biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere will be focused on.

  12. Watershed Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities from an interdisciplinary project studying local watersheds that incorporate a broad spectrum of disciplines including science, math, geography, English, computer science, and political science. Enables students to understand how precipitation changes chemically as it interacts with the soils and human-altered landscape as it…

  13. Experimental evidence shows no fractionation of strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) among soil, plants, and herbivores: implications for tracking wildlife and forensic science.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Kyser, T Kurt; Chipley, Don; Miller, Nathan G; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) can be useful biological markers for a wide range of forensic science applications, including wildlife tracking. However, one of the main advantages of using (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, that there is no fractionation from geological bedrock sources through the food web, also happens to be a critical assumption that has never been tested experimentally. We test this assumption by measuring (87)Sr/(86)Sr values across three trophic levels in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Adult monarch butterflies were raised on obligate larval host milkweed plants that were, in turn, grown on seven different soil types collected across Canada. We found no significant differences between (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in leachable Sr from soil minerals, organic soil, milkweed leaves, and monarch butterfly wings. Our results suggest that strontium isoscapes developed from (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in bedrock or soil may serve as a reliable biological marker in forensic science for a range of taxa and across large geographic areas.

  14. Soils regulate and mitigate climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods: The interaction of soil science and ecology can be traced back to the origins of soil science as an independent discipline within the natural sciences. Vasili Dokuchaev, the founder of modern soil science, identified five soil forming factors: parent material, climate, o...

  15. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    participation of people on the days when we started field research with installation of plots and soil samplings, field trips with volunteers of some NGO's, etc., are some of examples of what we will show in this presentation of how to bring soil science to society. Acknowledgements: to the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), FUEGORED, Spanish Soil Science Society, Alcoi and Javea councils, Botánica Mediterrànea, ACIF Alcoi, ACIF Marina Alta, Xàbia Viva, Montgó Viu, and Sierra de Mariola and Montgó Natural Parks for their collaboration.

  16. Is the geological concept of clay minerals appropriate for soil science? A literature-based and philosophical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchman, G. Jock

    Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, ‘geological’ environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment

  17. Soil Column Evaluation of Factors Controlling Biodegradation of DNT in the Vadose Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 3382-3391 3382 9 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / VOL. 37, NO. 15, 2003 10.1021/es021066s CCC: $25.00  2003 American...American Society of Agronomy: Madison, WI, 1986; pp 363-375. c EPA 600/2-78-054. VOL. 37, NO. 15, 2003 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 9 3383...initial concentration of 2,4-DNT was 5 mM 3384 9 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / VOL. 37, NO. 15, 2003 To ensure accurate quantification of

  18. Soil and hydrology sciences need laboratory and field experiments in the classroom. An example from the SEDER (Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group) from the University of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The use of experimental stations and long-term measurements in the field and in the laboratory contributed to large datasets and key information to understand the soil system and the hydrological cycle (Neal et al., 2011; García Orenes et al., 2012; López-Garrido et al., 2012; Kröpf et al., 2013; Nadal-Romero, 2013; Taguas et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However, teaching in high schools and colleagues require simple experiments to help the students to understand the soil and water resources and management. We show here the experiments and measurements we conduct within the teaching program of the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group at the University of Valencia to help the students in the understanding of the soil and hydrologic processes. The expereriments and measurements developed are the following: (i) Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) to determine the soil water repellency; (ii) Leaves water retention capacity measured in the field; (iii) soil infiltration capacity measured with simple ring infiltrometers; (iv) measurement of the soil bulk density; and (v) measurement of the soil water content. Those experiments and measurements are applied to agriculture, rangeland and fire affected soils. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012 Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Kröpfl, A. I., Cecchi, G. A., Villasuso, N. M., Distel, R. A. 2013. Degradation and recovery processes

  19. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Plant Wax n-Alkanes: A Tool for Characterizing Soil Provenance in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Wagner, T.; Jones, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science is an integrative discipline that requires material evidence from diverse sources. Geochemical evidence derived from inorganic and organic substances is becoming increasingly popular among law enforcement agencies in industrialized countries. Previous investigations indicate that the relative distributions of individual plant-derived biomarkers found in soils are linked to the biomarker patterns found in the overlying vegetation. However, identification of soil provenance based on the distribution of plant-derived biomarkers for forensic purposes is inhibited by the fact that a significant number of terrestrial plant species have overlapping biomarker distributions. In order to enhance the resolving power of plant-derived biomarker signal, we propose to enhance the molecular approach by adding a stable isotope component, i.e. the delta13C/deltaD values of individual biomarkers. The first objective of this project is to determine the delta13C/deltaD signatures of n-alkanes derived from various higher plant types commonly growing in the UK. The second objective is to investigate whether the same species/plant types differ isotopically between two locations affected by different weather patterns in the UK: a relatively warmer and drier Norwich, Norfolk and a cooler and wetter Newcastle-upon-Tyne in NE England. The n-C29 alkane data from 14 tree species sampled during July 2007 and August 2008 in Newcastle show a clear negative trend between delta13C and deltaD values. When these data are plotted against each other, the six deciduous angiosperms (delta13C: c. -39 to -35 per mil; deltaD: c. -155 to -130 per mil) are completely separated from four evergreen angiosperms (delta13C: c. -33 to -28 per mil; deltaD: c. -195 to -165 per mil). The four gymnosperm species data plot between those of the deciduous and evergreen angiosperms. Because all 14 species in Newcastle experience the same environmental conditions, we suggest that the observed isotopic

  20. Effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth, yield and reflectance characteristics of corn canopies. [Purdue Agronomy Farm, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Walburg, G.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Spectral and agronomic measurements were collected from corn (Zea mays L.) canopies under four nitrogen treatment levels (0, 67, 134, and 202 kg/ha) on 11 dates during 1978 and 12 dates during 1979. Data were analyzed to determine the relationship between the spectral responses of canopies and their argonomic characteristics as well as the spectral separability of the four treatments. Red reflectance was increased, while the near infrared reflectance was decreased for canopies under nitrogen deprivation. Spectral differences between treatments were seen throughout each growing season. The near infrared/red reflectance ratio increased spectral treatment differences over those shown by single band reflectance measures. Of the spectral variables examined, the near infrared/red reflectance ratio most effectively separated the treatments. Differences in spectral response between treatments were attributed to varying soil cover, leaf area index, and leaf pigmentation values, all of which changed with N treatment.

  1. Hands-in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Vickie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an earth science unit in which students study soil from their own backyards through a series of integrated activities. Introduces several earth science concepts, including local geology and the development of different types of geological regions. Presents activities to make a county soil map, measure moisture in soil, and measure the…

  2. Field-scale soil moisture space-time geostatistical modeling for complex Palouse landscapes in the inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, M. K.; Brown, D. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Campbell, C.; Cobos, D. R.; Vierling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating soil moisture content continuously over space and time using geo-statistical techniques supports the refinement of process-based watershed hydrology models and the application of soil process models (e.g. biogeochemical models predicting greenhouse gas fluxes) to complex landscapes. In this study, we model soil profile volumetric moisture content for five agricultural fields with loess soils in the Palouse region of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho. Using a combination of stratification and space-filling techniques, we selected 42 representative and distributed measurement locations in the Cook Agronomy Farm (Pullman, WA) and 12 locations each in four additional grower fields that span the precipitation gradient across the Palouse. At each measurement location, soil moisture was measured on an hourly basis at five different depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm) using Decagon 5-TE/5-TM soil moisture sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA, USA). This data was collected over three years for the Cook Agronomy Farm and one year for each of the grower fields. In addition to ordinary kriging, we explored the correlation of volumetric water content with external, spatially exhaustive indices derived from terrain models, optical remote sensing imagery, and proximal soil sensing data (electromagnetic induction and VisNIR penetrometer)

  3. Towards a rigorous mesoscale modeling of reactive flow and transport in an evolving porous medium and its applications to soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Nadja; Rupp, Andreas; Knabner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    elements and potentially random initial data, e.g. that of porosity, complement our theoretical results. Our investigations contribute to the theoretical understanding of the link between soil formation and soil functions. This general framework may be applied to various problems in soil science for a range of scales, such as the formation and turnover of microaggregates or soil remediation.

  4. Soil colloidal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent understanding that organic and inorganic contaminants are often transported via colloidal particles has increased interest in colloid science. The primary importance of colloids in soil science stems from their surface reactivity and charge characteristics. Characterizations of size, shape,...

  5. Geophysics and nutritional science: toward a novel, unified paradigm.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gidon; Martin, Pamela A

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses a few basic geophysical processes, which collectively indicate that several nutritionally adverse elements of current Western diets also yield environmentally harmful food consumption patterns. We address oceanic dead zones, which are at the confluence of oceanography, aquatic chemistry, and agronomy and which are a clear environmental problem, and agriculture's effects on the surface heat budget. These exemplify the unknown, complex, and sometimes unexpected large-scale environmental effects of agriculture. We delineate the significant alignment in purpose between nutritional and environmental sciences. We identify red meat, and to a lesser extent the broader animal-based portion of the diet, as having the greatest environmental effect, with clear nutritional parallels.

  6. Soil moisture estimation with limited soil characterization for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, A.; Richard, G.; Boizard, H.; Défossez, P.

    2009-04-01

    Ross model [Ross, 2003, Crevoisier et al, 2009]. To meet the decision support context, we evaluated the model ability of evaluating the soil moisture level in comparison to a moisture threshold that splits soil conditions into desirable and undesirable cases. This threshold depends on soil properties, the farming operation and equipment characteristics. We evaluate the rate of making good decisions using either the TEC model with and without soil moisture measurements or an empirical algorithm that simulate the decision processes followed by farmers, currently. This later is a reference case that allows appreciating the adding value of using soil water transfer models. We found a significant improvement with a rate of success, which increases from 65% with the reference case to 90% when using the model with soil moisture assimilation. Chanzy, A., Mumen M., Richard, G.. (2008), Accuracy of top soil moisture simulation using a mechanistic model with limited soil characterization, Water Resources Research, 44(3), W03432. Crevoisier, D., Chanzy, A., Voltz M. (2009), Evaluation of the Ross Fast Solution of Richards' Equation in Unfavourable Conditions for Standard Finite Element Methods, Advances in Water Ressources, In revision. Ross, P. J. (2003). Modeling soil water and solute transport - Fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agronomy Journal 95:1352-1361.

  7. Applying soil science for restoration of post mining degraded landscapes in semi-arid Australia: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction Current challenges in ecological restoration of post mining environments include the deficit of original topsoil which is frequently lost or damaged, and the lack of soil forming materials. A comprehensive knowledge of soil properties and processes and an adequate management of soil resources are critical to improve the restoration success of these degraded areas. In particular, understanding soil physical, chemical and biological parameters is decisive in environments where water is a limiting factor for seedling establishment and plant survival. To improve the restoration success of biodiverse semi-arid areas disturbed by mining activities (Pilbara region, Western Australia), we conducted experiments to (i) analyse changes in soil physico-chemical properties and soil microbial activity of topsoil stockpiles to optimise its handling and minimise deterioration of nutrients and soil biota, (ii) test climate effects on seedling emergence of native plant species and (iii) assess the potential of mine waste materials as a suitable growth medium for seedling emergence of native plant species under various water regimes. Methods The experimental studies were conducted in controlled environment facilities where air temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture were monitored routinely. Watering regimes were selected to represent rainfall patterns of the area. As a growth media we used material obtained from topsoil stockpiles and waste materials from an active mine site, which were mixed at different ratios. Samples were collected from different parts of the topsoil stockpiles and analysed to determine physical, chemical and biological properties. Results No large discrepancies in physical and chemical values were detected at different positions of the stockpiles. However, microbial activity was highly variable, particularly inside the stockpiles. Seedling emergence on topsoil growth media was highly dependent on climate factors with emergence rates

  8. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

    2009-04-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Shallow organic soils occupy the ombrotrophic sites of a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland. The variety of organic soil throphism in the object resulted from the placement on the base sandstone, partial mixing of soil horizons as well as from muddy and fluvial processes. Peat horizons present in the studied profiles were generally classified as hemic and sapric, sometimes as fibric. Soil horizons exhibited differed thickness and ash content. Forest management strongly changed the properties of organic soil. REFERENCES Bogacz, A. (2000). Physical properties of organic soil in Stolowe Mountains National Park (Poland). Suo 51,3; pp.105-113. Gee, G.W. and Bauder, J.W. (1986). Particle-size analysis. In: Klute, A.(ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis Part I. Agronomy series No. 9. Am. Soc. Agronomy Soil Sci. Am, Inc., Publ., Madison, WI.pp. 383-411. Horawski, M. (1987). Torfoznawstwo dla meliorantow. Pojecia podstawowe.[Peat science for melioration. Basic definitions.]. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Krakowie. pp.37-39.[In Polish]. Lubliner - Mianowska, K. (1951). Wskazowki do badania torfu. Metody geobotaniczne, polowe i laboratoryjne [Hints to peat research. In: Geobotanical, field and laboratory methods] Państwowe Wydawnictwo Techniczne, Katowice.pp.58-60. [In Polish]. Lynn, W.C., Mc Kinzie, W.E., Grossman, R.B. (1974). Field Laboratory Test for characterization of Histosols. In: Histosols, their characteristics, classification and use. pp. 11-20. Oznaczanie gatunku, rodzaju i typu torfu. (1977). [Peat and peat varies. Determination of classes, sort and types of peat]. Polish standard PN-76/G-02501, [Polish Normalization Commitee]. pp.1-11.[In Polish]. Word Reference Base for Soil Resources. 1998. Word Soil Resources Report, 84. FAO-ISRIC-ISSS, Rome, pp.1-88. Zawadzki, S. (1970). Relationship between the content of organic matter and physical properties of hydrogenic soils. Polish Journal of Soil Science Vol.III, 1; pp.3-9.

  9. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Long-term Soil, Water, and Vegetation Monitoring: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of soils, water, and vegetation is crucial in understanding sustainability-related issues faced by society in our changing environment. Promoting buy in through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges is a key goal of the InTeGrate project. The InTeGrate project is an NSF STEP Center that endeavors to infuse teaching about the Earth into undergraduate courses across the curriculum. The project aims to connect this knowledge to societal issues that students can relate to and opens the door to interdisciplinary problem-solving that is needed to face the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features publicly-available interdisciplinary, faculty-contributed teaching materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics. These topics include water, food resources, energy, and hazards. Further, web pages built around teaching methods such as service learning, working with data, and teaching in the field, help engage students in active learning and making meaningful connections to their coursework. In addition, teams of interdisciplinary faculty are creating project-developed courses and modules designed to engage and promote students' literacy in sustainability and global change issues. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include sustainable agriculture, soil and society, climate change, critical zone science, water resources, and more. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include contributing to the community collections by creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, designing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  10. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  11. Soil microscopy and micromorphology

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    This book is a valuable resource to help geologists integrate knowledge of soil science into the endeavor of identifying paleosols. Attention is focused on the following: soil micromorphology, including sample preparation techniques; and physical and chemical properties. Various applications are presented of micromorphological soil study. Included is coverage on the disciplines of agriculture, archeology, engineering, geomorphology, paleoclimatology, paleopedology, and microbiology.

  12. Conserving Soil. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

  13. Influence of management history and landscape variables on soil organic carbon and soil redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venteris, E.R.; McCarty, G.W.; Ritchie, J.C.; Gish, T.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled studies to investigate the interaction between crop growth, soil properties, hydrology, and management practices are common in agronomy. These sites (much as with real world farmland) often have complex management histories and topographic variability that must be considered. In 1993 an interdisiplinary study was started for a 20-ha site in Beltsville, MD. Soil cores (271) were collected in 1999 in a 30-m grid (with 5-m nesting) and analyzed as part of the site characterization. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and 137Cesium (137Cs) were measured. Analysis of aerial photography from 1992 and of farm management records revealed that part of the site had been maintained as a swine pasture and the other portion as cropped land. Soil properties, particularly soil redistribution and SOC, show large differences in mean values between the two areas. Mass C is 0.8 kg m -2 greater in the pasture area than in the cropped portion. The pasture area is primarily a deposition site, whereas the crop area is dominated by erosion. Management influence is suggested, but topographic variability confounds interpretation. Soil organic carbon is spatially structured, with a regionalized variable of 120 m. 137Cs activity lacks spatial structure, suggesting disturbance of the profile by animal activity and past structures such as swine shelters and roads. Neither SOC nor 137Cs were strongly correlated to terrain parameters, crop yields, or a seasonal soil moisture index predicted from crop yields. SOC and 137Cs were weakly correlated (r2 ???0.2, F-test P-value 0.001), suggesting that soil transport controls, in part, SOC distribution. The study illustrates the importance of past site history when interpreting the landscape distribution of soil properties, especially those strongly influenced by human activity. Confounding variables, complex soil hydrology, and incomplete documentation of land use history make definitive interpretations of the processes behind the spatial distributions

  14. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

  15. The use of cover crops to increase soil organic carbon in Mediterranean vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, Andrés; Bienes Allas, Ramón; Sastre Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-04-01

    In Central Spain the vineyards are commonly managed with conventional tillage (CT) to remove water and nutrient competition between the spontaneous vegetation and the vine plants. The continuous tillage promotes high mineralization rates resulting in soils with low organic matter content and prone to erosion. Consequently the increase of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Mediterranean soils has been a main concern in the last years. It is necessary to carry out different soil managements to enhance soil fertility and reduce erosion through the increase of SOC. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of cover crops (CC) to increase SOC in vineyards in Mediterranean climate. The experiment consisted in four vineyards in four different locations (different type of soil and microclimate), in the same region, to analyze the influence of CC on different conditions. A seeded CC (Brachypodium distachyon L. P. Beauv) and spontaneous vegetation were performed to compare to CT. The Brachypodium distachyon cover was seeded in December, 2012. We analyzed the organic carbon content and bulk density after three agronomy seasons. The samples were taken in the summer of 2015 at the depth of 0-5 cm. The bulk density of Brachypodium distachyon was 1.42 t•m-3, which was statistically significant comparing to both CT (1.33 t•m-3) and spontaneous vegetation (1.34 t•m-3). The SOC percentage of CT, Brachypodium distachyon and spontaneous vegetation was 0.82, 0.96 and 1.10 respectively. Only spontaneous vegetation showed statistically significant differences compared to CT. The results were highly variable depending on the vineyard. The spontaneous vegetation was the most effective CC increasing SOC with an average of 2 t•ha-1 more than CT in three agronomy seasons. These results point out the different efficiency of CC and the high influence of local conditions on SOC increase.

  16. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  17. Defining and quantifying the resilience of responses to disturbance: a conceptual and modelling approach from soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Fraser, F. C.; Corstanje, R.; Deeks, L. K.; Harris, J. A.; Pawlett, M.; Ritz, K.; Whitmore, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    There are several conceptual definitions of resilience pertaining to environmental systems and, even if resilience is clearly defined in a particular context, it is challenging to quantify. We identify four characteristics of the response of a system function to disturbance that relate to “resilience”: (1) degree of return of the function to a reference level; (2) time taken to reach a new quasi-stable state; (3) rate (i.e. gradient) at which the function reaches the new state; (4) cumulative magnitude of the function (i.e. area under the curve) before a new state is reached. We develop metrics to quantify these characteristics based on an analogy with a mechanical spring and damper system. Using the example of the response of a soil function (respiration) to disturbance, we demonstrate that these metrics effectively discriminate key features of the dynamic response. Although any one of these characteristics could define resilience, each may lead to different insights and conclusions. The salient properties of a resilient response must thus be identified for different contexts. Because the temporal resolution of data affects the accurate determination of these metrics, we recommend that at least twelve measurements are made over the temporal range for which the response is expected.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  19. Soil in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Bacon, Allan R.; Brecheisen, Zachary; Mobley, Megan L.

    2015-07-01

    With scholars deliberating a new name for our geologic epoch, i.e., the Anthropocene, soil scientists whether biologists, chemists, or physicists are documenting significant changes accruing in a majority of Earth's soils. Such global soil changes interact with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere (i.e., Earth's Critical Zone), and these developments are significantly impacting the Earth's stratigraphic record as well. In effect, soil scientists study such global soil changes in a science of anthropedology, which leads directly to the need to transform pedostratigraphyinto an anthro-pedostratigraphy, a science that explores how global soil change alters Earth's litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphy. These developments reinforce perspectives that the planet is indeed crossing into the Anthropocene.

  20. Development of Deterministic Disaggregation Algorithm for Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture near the land surface and in the subsurface profile is an important issue for hydrology, agronomy, and meteorology. Soil moisture data are limited in the spatial and temporal scales. Till now, point-scaled soil moisture measurements representing regional scales are available. Remote sensing (RS) scheme can be an alternative to direct measurement. However, the availability of RS datasets has a limitation due to the scale discrepancy between the RS resolution and local-scale. A number of studies have been conducted to develop downscaling/disaggregation algorithm for extracting fine-scaled soil moisture within a remote sensing product using the stochastic methods. The stochastic downscaling/disaggregation schemes provide us only for soil texture information and sub-area fractions contained in a RS pixel indicating that their specific locations are not recognized. Thus, we developed the deterministic disaggregation algorithm (DDA) with a genetic algorithm (GA) adapting the inverse method for extracting/searching soil textures and their specific location of sub-pixels within a RS soil moisture product under the numerical experiments and field validations. This approach performs quite well in disaggregating/recognizing the soil textures and their specific locations within a RS soil moisture footprint compared to the results of stochastic method. On the basis of these findings, we can suggest that the DDA can be useful for improving the availability of RS products.

  1. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  2. Impact of macroporosity on pesticide losses from tile-drained soils in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, A.; Hendriks, R. F. A.; Boesten, J. J. T. I.

    2009-04-01

    that preferential flow through tile-drains is the dominant pathway of pesticide losses in tile-drained soils. In 20-years simulations, the variability between the years is large. Comparison of the preferential flow version of GeoPEARL with the matrix flow version suggests a relatively small impact on the mass fraction lossed to surface waters and groundwater. Main differences were in the timing: the matrix flow version of GeoPEARL was not able to simulate the peak adequately. Jarvis, N.D. 2007. The role of soil properties in regulating non-equilibrium macropore flow and solute transport in agricultural topsoils. European Journal of Soil Science (58):282-292 Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, P. Groenendijk, R.F.A. Hendriks, and C.M.J. Jacobs. 2008. SWAP version 3.2. Theory, description and user manual. Alterra report 1649, Alterra, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Tiktak, A., D.S. De Nie, A.M.A. van der Linden and R. Kruijne. 2002. Modelling the leaching and drainage of pesticides in the Netherlands: The GeoPEARL model. Agronomie (22):373-387.

  3. Putting Science into Elementary Science Fairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    In a world where science has become too confined to books and too reliant on technology, and science fairs have been taken over by parents, this paper offers suggestions to help young people have actual hands-on experience with nature. Topics include soil formation; ants; earthworms; temperature; weather predictions; rain acidity; physical science…

  4. The Changing Model of Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  5. Stabilization of organic matter in soils: role of amorphous mineral phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewde Tamrat, Wuhib; Rose, Jérôme; Levard, Clément; Chaurand, Perrine; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    probed by XAS as a proxy of nCOMx polymerization state. Results showed the Fe atomic structure within the nCOMx was strongly affected by the presence of carbon and the final pH state. Higher pH allowed Fe to polymerize even at a relatively higher carbon content. The increase in concentration of OM led to a decrease in the polymerisation level of Fe amorphous polymers. High carbon composition (M:C=0.1) totally hindered development of Fe-Fe polymers. Whereas, in relatively lower carbon concentrations (M:C=1) iron polymers were exhibited for only highest pH values of 7. For an even lower concentration (M:C=10) iron polymers started to form at lower pH values of 5 and also higher. These suggest the strong dependence of soil OM complexation to inorganic amorphous polymers on pH state and relative availability of these counter parts; and thus giving a better understanding of protection of the carbon from various forms of mineralization. 1-Basile-Doelsch, I., 2015 Environmental Science & Technology, 49(7). 2-Keiluweit, M. et al., 2015. Nature Clim. Change, 5(6). 3-Kleber, M. et al., 2015. In: Donald, L.S. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy. Key words : soil organic matter (OM), organo-mineral interactions, amorphous minerals, pH

  6. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  7. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  8. The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) Science Data Products: Results of Testing with Field Experiment and Algorithm Testbed Simulation Environment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni E.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Entin, Jared K.

    2010-01-01

    Talk outline 1. Derivation of SMAP basic and applied science requirements from the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey applications 2. Data products and latencies 3. Algorithm highlights 4. SMAP Algorithm Testbed 5. SMAP Working Groups and community engagement

  9. State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major eco...

  10. CMT for soil science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clausnitzer, V.; Hopmans, J.W.

    1997-02-01

    Today, x-ray computed microtomography provides us with the ability to noninvasively measure porous-media properties at a scale approaching 10 {mu}m. In contrast, traditional measurement techniques are either destructive or invasive, while still providing only limited information. Because the output from x-ray CT is directly related to density and atomic number, it is well suited for phase identification and concentration measurements.

  11. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  12. Schoolyard Science. Grades 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Peggy K.

    This book includes 25 science activities in the fields of environmental science, soil science, life science, and physical science. The activities are designed to be used in outdoor settings. Each activity is composed of two parts--an explanatory section for the teacher and a student lab sheet. The teacher explanatory section begins with a brief…

  13. [Desiccation cracking of soil body: a review].

    PubMed

    Pei, Yin-Ge; Xu, Ze-Min; Zhang, Jia-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Desiccation cracking of soil body is a complex physical process, which can affect the strength, stability, and permeability of soil body, and involve in several disciplines such as soil science, agricultural science, engineering geology, and environmental science. This paper introduced the significances of the study on the desiccation cracking of soil body, reviewed the related theoretical and applied researches and the quantitative analysis of crack morphology, and discussed the deficiencies in the research fields, research contents, and research methods. The future research directions about the desiccation cracking of soil body were pointed out.

  14. Soil and sediment chemistry in the Mississippi River Delta following Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 7C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.; Adams, Craig D.; Wang, Jianmin; Shaver, David K.; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef

    2007-01-01

    In October 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center and the University of Missouri-Rolla's (UMR) Environmental Research Center for Emerging Contaminants partnered to collect perishable environmental data along the Mississippi River Delta to catalog the effects of Hurricane Katrina, a category 3 storm that caused nearly complete destruction to the delta's population support structure and industry. The data presented here begin the process of characterizing the chemical composition of sediments and soil along the delta following this significant natural disaster.

  15. Influence of soil pH on properties of the soil-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Doerte

    2010-05-01

    of SWR. Sessile drop and Wilhelmy plate contact angles (CAsess and CAwpm resp.) were measured on the four samples from Germany and the data correlated with those of WDPT. The titratable surface charge of these four soils was measured at selected pH values using a particle charge detector (PCD). Changes in SWR with soil pH were found to be influenced by the density and type of sites able to interact with protons at the available surfaces of organic and mineral materials in soil. The maximum SWR occurred for soil at natural pH and where the charge density was minimal. As pH increased, negative surface charge increased due to deprotonation of sites and WDPT decreased. Two types of behaviour were observed: Those in which (i) WDPT shortened with decreasing pH and ii) WDPT was sensibly constant with decreasing pH. The data suggest that the availability and relative abundance of proton active sites at mineral surfaces, and those at organic functional groups influence the behaviour. Bayer, J. V. and G. E. Schaumann (2007). Hydrological processes 21(17): 2266 - 2275. Cerdà, A. and S. H. Doerr (2007). Hydrological Processes 21(17): 2325-2336. Dekker, L. W. and P. D. Jungerius (1990). Dunes of the European coasts, Catena-Verlag. 18: 173-183. Holzhey, C. S. (1968). Symposium on water repellent soils, Riverside, California. Karnok, K. A., E. J. Rowland, et al. (1993). Agronomy Journal 85(5): 983-986. Mataix-Solera, J., V. Arcenegui, et al. (2007). Hydrological Processes 21(17): 2300-2309. Mataix-Solera, J. and S. H. Doerr (2004). Geoderma 118(1-2): 77-88. Roper, M. M. (2005). Australian Journal of Soil research 43: 803-810.

  16. The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

  17. Discovering the essence of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of

  18. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  19. K-SOIL{trademark}: An IMCO Recycling Inc. development

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    IMCO Recycling Inc. has developed a new, patented technology for the production of fertilizer, K-SOIL{trademark}, as a by-product of its aluminum recycling operations. This new technology can substitute for conventional technology which now results in a saltcake residue that is placed in landfills. Four years of research and development work by IMCO culminated in a US patent issued April 5, 1994. As part of the technology development effort, IMCO engaged the services of a nationally renowned research organization and a prominent university. These two organizations have conducted in-depth agronomy studies in the laboratory, greenhouse, and the field. Results have shown K-SOIL{trademark} to be performance equivalent, on a nutrient content basis, to conventional potash fertilizer. The first field applications on commercial farms were made in the spring of 1994. K-SOIL{trademark} is a potassium-bearing, granular solid which may find use in fertilizer blends, direct application, and other forms of fertilizer products. The overall benefit of this new technology is to create a useful by-product rather than generate a useless residue and, thereby, reduce or eliminate the amount of salt cake now placed in landfills. As such, it is a significant step toward IMCO`s ultimate goal of complete recycle.

  20. Science and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  1. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  2. Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Rutherford, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar is charcoal (similar to chars generated by forest fires) that is made for incorporation into soils to increase soil fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve and enrich soils and also slow the rate at which climate change is affecting our planet. Studies on biochar, such as those cited by this report, are applicable to both fire science and soil science.

  3. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  4. Digging up the Dirt on Soil Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Should middle school science teachers be concerned about students bringing in unknown sources of soil to work on in class as the activity suggests? The science is well intended, but is it safe? What are some possible safety issues that might be of concern in dealing with soil samples? This month's column provides several examples of unsuspecting…

  5. Sampling of technetium-99 in vegetation and soils in the vicinity of operating gaseous facilities. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1550

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Huckabee, J.W.; Lucas, D.M.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Scott, T.G.; Walker, R.L.; Gouge, P.S.; Holmes, C.V.

    1980-10-01

    Technetium-99 was measured in vegetation and soils collected near three operating gaseous diffusion facilities to obtain estimates of the soil-to-vegetation concentration factor. Analyses were performed primarily using radiochemical separations and low-level beta counting techniques with selected samples checked by isotope dilution mass spectroscopy. The concentration factor pooled from all three facilities appeared to be lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 9.5 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.4. These values are comparable to calculated equilibrium concentration factors derived from other field experiments in which concentrations in soil and vegetation were observed to decrease with time subsequent to a single application of/sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. These field values are one to two orders of magnitude less than concentration factors derived from laboratory experiments using potted plants. It is suggested that the radiologic significance of /sup 99/Tc in terrestrial food chains of importance to humans may be substantially lower than indicated by the simple difference between laboratory and field concentration factors if the time dependence of technetium activity in vegetation and soil is taken into consideration in radiological assessment models.

  6. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  7. The pre-history of soil science: Jethro Tull, the invention of the seed drill, and the foundations of modern agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Laura B.

    Eighteenth-century British gentleman farmer Jethro Tull (1674-1741) is popularly regarded as the inventor of the seed drill, widely cited by agricultural historians, soil scientists and school history textbooks alike. Whether Tull was in fact the first to experiment with a mechanical seed drill and the horse-drawn cultivators drilling made possible is doubtful, but he did do much to make their acceptance in the long run more widespread. What is less well known is that Tull’s mechanical innovations were accompanied by a theory of plant nutrition-and a social agenda-that were equally important to the adoption of the new machines. Although he came to be celebrated by later generations, Tull’s work attracted fierce critics in his own day and immediately after, not least because he categorically rejected the value of manures in maintaining soil fertility. Instead, he proposed a mechanistic theory of plant nutrition in which the stirring of the soil with the cultivator could substitute for the processes of decomposition thought to be contributed by manures, with less labor and expense. For Tull, the drill was part of an explicit strategy to minimize reliance on an unruly labor force. He also directly challenged the idea that Virgil and other classical authorities could be of any practical use in farm management. In other words, Tull was an anti-georgic improver, and could only be reinserted into the canon of agricultural history through the efforts of later agriculturists to gloss over the objectionable parts of his work. This paper explores how, a century before Liebig, Tull’s Horse-Hoeing Husbandry ( 1731 and later editions) sparked heated debates over a constellation of issues that are still with us today: no-till vs. tillage, net profits vs. gross yields, soil biology vs. soil chemistry, yield per acre vs. yield per unit of labor, rotation costs vs. input costs.

  8. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  9. Spatio-temporal interpolation of soil moisture in 3D+T using automated sensor network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, C.; Hengl, T.; Magney, T. S.; Brown, D. J.; Gräler, B.

    2014-12-01

    Soil sensor networks provide frequent in situ measurements of dynamic soil properties at fixed locations, producing data in 2- or 3-dimensions and through time (2D+T and 3D+T). Spatio-temporal interpolation of 3D+T point data produces continuous estimates that can then be used for prediction at unsampled times and locations, as input for process models, and can simply aid in visualization of properties through space and time. Regression-kriging with 3D and 2D+T data has successfully been implemented, but currently the field of geostatistics lacks an analytical framework for modeling 3D+T data. Our objective is to develop robust 3D+T models for mapping dynamic soil data that has been collected with high spatial and temporal resolution. For this analysis, we use data collected from a sensor network installed on the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), a 37-ha Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site in Pullman, WA. For five years, the sensors have collected hourly measurements of soil volumetric water content at 42 locations and five depths. The CAF dataset also includes a digital elevation model and derivatives, a soil unit description map, crop rotations, electromagnetic induction surveys, daily meteorological data, and seasonal satellite imagery. The soil-water sensor data, combined with the spatial and temporal covariates, provide an ideal dataset for developing 3D+T models. The presentation will include preliminary results and address main implementation strategies.

  10. Soil screening guidance: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Soil Screening Guidance is a tool that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed to help standardize and accelerate the evaluation and cleanup of contaminated soils at sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) with future residential land use. This guidance provides a methodology for environmental science/engineering professionals to calculate risk-based, site-specific, soil screening levels (SSLs) for contaminants in soil that may be used to identify areas needing further investigation at NPL sites.

  11. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  12. Simulations and field observations of root water uptake in plots with different soil water availability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gaochao; Vanderborght, Jan; Couvreur, Valentin; Javaux, Mathieu; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Root water uptake is a main process in the hydrological cycle and vital for water management in agronomy. In most models of root water uptake, the spatial and temporal soil water status and plant root distributions are required for water flow simulations. However, dynamic root growth and root distributions are not easy and time consuming to measure by normal approaches. Furthermore, root water uptake cannot be measured directly in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate monitoring data of soil water content and potential and root distributions within a modeling framework to explore the interaction between soil water availability and root water uptake. But, most models are lacking a physically based concept to describe water uptake from soil profiles with vertical variations in soil water availability. In this contribution, we present an experimental setup in which root development, soil water content and soil water potential are monitored non-invasively in two field plots with different soil texture and for three treatments with different soil water availability: natural rain, sheltered and irrigated treatment. Root development is monitored using 7-m long horizontally installed minirhizotubes at six depths with three replicates per treatment. The monitoring data are interpreted using a model that is a one-dimensional upscaled version of root water uptake model that describes flow in the coupled soil-root architecture considering water potential gradients in the system and hydraulic conductances of the soil and root system (Couvreur et al., 2012). This model approach links the total root water uptake to an effective soil water potential in the root zone. The local root water uptake is a function of the difference between the local soil water potential and effective root zone water potential so that compensatory uptake in heterogeneous soil water potential profiles is simulated. The root system conductance is derived from inverse modelling using

  13. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  14. Chayanov and Social Agronomy in Russia (1918).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez de Puerta, F.

    1994-01-01

    Chayanov's ideas on rural development (farmer participation in agricultural evolution, increasing the scope and differentiation of extension activities, and using methods adapted to farmers' characteristics) could be usefully applied today in reforming Russian agriculture. (SK)

  15. Contaminated agricultural soils: Trace-elements speciation their phytoavailability and their uptake by flax plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, M.; Kharbouch, F.; Giron, F.; Bert, F.; Llorens, J.-M.

    2003-05-01

    Flax seeds are used in animal food because of their high content in Omega 3. A number of trace-elements (TEs) - essential as micronutrients, however toxic at supraoptimal concentrations - can accumulate in this plant at quantities incompatible with their introduction in food chain. In order to control this risk and evaluate the uptake of TEs, it is necessary to assess the contents of various species of TEs in soils and plants (each organ and total contents). We were mainly interested in evaluating the availability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils on which flax were grown. Two situations have been compared: the first corresponds to fields into which some sewage sludge were brought in agronomie doses and the second corresponds to plots of land irrigated by waste water over a 100 years period. We are currently performing TEs extractions from soils and plants using different methods : the data of sequential and total extractions (assisted by microwaves) are presented. We have studied two flax varieties in four stages of culture (sowing, stage 10cm. tlowering, maturation). The content, speciation of TEs in soils as well as their transfer in flax seeds are discussed.

  16. Environmental Science: High-School Science Fair Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashefsky, H. Steven

    This book contains 23 suggestions for experiments involving environmental science that can be used to create a science fair project. Aimed at grades 10-12, a wide range of environmental topics is covered. These topics include soil ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, applied ecology, global warming and the greenhouse effect, deforestation and…

  17. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  18. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  19. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Pereg, L.; Quinton, J. N.; Six, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artists. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to establish a benchmark for the type of research that we seek to publish in each issue of SOIL, we have outlined the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research we are looking for. This includes a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, a selection of invited review papers are published in this first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the papers in the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.

  20. The Forgotten Majority: Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, A. Miles, III

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives and content of an experience-oriented approach for 9th grade general science students. The emphasis is on the learning of science processes, through field studies and student investigations. Topic areas include measurement, landforms, weather, soil, plants and animals, population relationships, conservation, and pollution.…

  1. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  2. Science and Science Fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Robert

    2006-03-29

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  3. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2016-07-12

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-05

    Biodegradation of Aniline by Alcaligenes Sp. Isolates [T.P. Chekhovskaya, et ai; MIKROBIOLOGICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Nov-Dec 87] 10 Hydrophobicity of Paintwork...Microbiology Biodegradation of Aniline by Alcaligenes Sp. 18400192a Kiev M1KROBIOLOGICHESKIY ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 49, No 6, Nov-Dec 87...Chemistry, Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences, Kiev] [Abstract] An Alcaligenes sp. isolated from the aniline- polluted soil of the Dneproderzhinsk "Azof

  5. Rock and soil mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Derski, W.; Izbicki, R.; Kisiel, I.; Mroz, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Although theoretical in character, this book provides a useful source of information for those dealing with practical problems relating to rock and soil mechanics - a discipline which, in the view of the authors, attempts to apply the theory of continuum to the mechanical investigation of rock and soil media. The book is in two separate parts. The first part, embodying the first three chapters, is devoted to a description of the media of interest. Chapter 1 introduces the main argument and discusses the essence of the discipline and its links with other branches of science which are concerned, on the one hand, with technical mechanics and, on the other, with the properties, origins, and formation of rock and soil strata under natural field conditions. Chapter 2 describes mechanical models of bodies useful for the purpose of the discourse and defines the concept of the limit shear resistance of soils and rocks. Chapter 3 gives the actual properties of soils and rocks determined from experiments in laboratories and in situ. Several tests used in geotechnical engineering are described and interconnections between the physical state of rocks and soils and their rheological parameters are considered.

  6. Soil Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  7. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  8. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  9. PREFACE: Soil Change Matters International Workshop - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwan, R.; Alexander, J.

    2015-07-01

    Soils change in response to land use, land management and climate. Understanding the mechanisms and rates of change in fundamental soil properties, their extent across landscapes, and the drivers of change, is critical for management of soil and land to ensure enduring productivity and the provision of ecosystem services. A reliable evidence base for soil change can be created through research into fundamental soil properties and processes, which coupled with monitoring, can be used to develop models to support management and policy decisions. Soil scientists, land managers and policy makers occupy different intellectual domains and each can contribute to a soil change dialogue focussed on providing the best science for managers, policy and decision-making. Clarity is needed concerning the knowledge needs of policy makers and the latter need to understand what is achievable by science and at what cost. However, communication is often limited by the discipline-specific language used by each group. Facilitated communication would improve the impact of science on policy by enabling scientists to better understand policy maker needs and enabling policy makers to better understand scientific data interpretations, limitations, and gaps. The international workshop 'Soil Change Matters' in Bendigo, Australia 24-27 March 2014, brought together 200 delegates across these intellectual domains to talk to each other, share conclusions, questions and data, and to learn about scenarios for soil change and for soil policies.

  10. Network models of soil porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, M.; Santiago, A.; Cardenas, J. P.; Benito, R. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Mooney, S. J.; Korošak, D.

    2010-05-01

    Soils sustain life on Earth. In times of increasing anthropogenic demands on soils [1] there is growing need to seek for novel approaches to understand the relationships between the soil porous structure and specific soil functions. Recently [2-4], soil pore structure was described as a complex network of pores using spatially embedded varying fitness network model [2] or heterogeneous preferential attachment scheme [3-4], both approaches revealing the apparent scale-free topology of soils. Here, we show, using a large set of soil images of structures obtained by X-ray computed tomography that both methods predict topological similar networks of soil pore structures. Furthermore, by analyzing the node-node link correlation properties of the obtained networks we suggest an approach to quantify the complexity of soil pore structure. [1] R. Lal, Soil science and the carbon civilization, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 71: 1425-1437, 2007. [2] S. J. Mooney, D. Korošak, Using Complex Networks to Model Two- and Three-Dimensional Soil Porous Architecture, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 73: 1094-1100, 2009. [3] A. Santiago, J. P. Cardenas, J. C. Losada, R. M. Benito, A. M. Tarquis, F. Borondo, Multiscaling of porous soils as heterogeneous complex networks, Nonlin. Proc. Geophys., 15: 893-902, 2008. [4] A. Santiago, R. M. Benito, An extended formalism for preferential attachment in heterogeneous complex networks, Eur. Phys. Lett., 82: 58004, 2008.

  11. Determining the Local Abundance of Martian Methane and its 13-C/l2-C and D/H Isotopic Ratios for Comparison with Related Gas and Soil Analysis on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Martian methane will require numerous complementary measurements from both in situ and remote sensing investigations and laboratory work to correlate planetary surface geophysics with atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Three instruments (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), Gas Chromatograph (GC) and Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS)) with sophisticated sample handling and processing capability make up the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) analytical chemistry suite on NASA s 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Leveraging off the SAM sample and gas processing capability that includes methane enrichment, TLS has unprecedented sensitivity for measuring absolute methane (parts-per-trillion), water, and carbon dioxide abundances in both the Martian atmosphere and evolved from heated soil samples. In concert with a wide variety of associated trace gases (e.g. SO2, H2S, NH3, higher hydrocarbons, organics, etc.) and other isotope ratios measured by SAM, TLS will focus on determining the absolute abundances of methane, water and carbon dioxide, and their isotope ratios: 13C/12C and D/H in methane; 13C/12C and 18O/17O/16O in carbon dioxide; and 18O/17O/16O and D/H in water. Measurements near the MSL landing site will be correlated with satellite (Mars Express, Mars 2016) and ground-based observations.

  12. Chemical reactivity of the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Mckay, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Viking life sciences experimental packages detected extraordinary chemical activity in the martian soil, probably the result of soil-surface chemistry. At least one very strong oxidant may exist in the martian soil. The electrochemical nature of the martian soil has figured prominently in discussions of future life sciences research on Mars. Putative oxidants in the martian soil may be responsible for the destruction of organic material to considerable depth, precluding the recovery of reducing material that may be relic of early biological forms. Also, there have been serious expressions of concern regarding the effect that soil oxidants may have on human health and safety. The concern here has centered on the possible irritation of the respiratory system due to dust carried into the martian habitat through the air locks.

  13. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil. PMID:25538691

  14. Soil Searching. Dishing the Dirt on Microbes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This activity attempts to address a lack of emphasis in most science curricula on the microbial activity that determines soil's health. Presents an experiment that involves students in seeing how the enzyme assay is used as an indicator of soil quality and microbial activity. Contains procedures and discussion questions. (LZ)

  15. Where Have All the Soils Students Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Where have all the soils students gone? Several articles have been published recently discussing the decline in undergraduate student enrollment in soil science. Those who work directly with these students have known that this trend has existed for many years. At first we thought this trend was temporary. Now we realize that this declining trend…

  16. Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This is a short chapter to be included in the next edition of the Encyclopedia of Soil Science. The work here describes techniques being developed at PNNL for investigating organic carbon in soils. Techniques discussed include: laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry, laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometry, and nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  17. Dig In! Hands-On Soil Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is geared toward K-4 science teachers, supervisors, and environmental educators. The guide seeks to promote a better understanding and appreciation of soil. Students explore the land around them as they investigate the origins of soil and how it benefits our ecosystems and environment and discover the various habitats characterized by…

  18. Understanding the soil underfoot: building a national postgraduate soils cohort through participative learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil; Black, Helaina; Allton, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    Many of the PhD students starting Soil Science PhDs have only a limited understanding of the wider importance of soils, the state -of-art in other sub disciplines, and have often never seen a soil profile in the field. As the number of students nationally in the UK is also small compared to some other disciplines there is also a need to build a cohort of early career researchers. To address these issues, Lancaster University and the James Hutton Institute together with support from the British Society of Soil Science and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), ran a 5 day residential foundation soil science 'Summer School' in March 2015. The training school was an intense programme for ambitious and energetic post-graduate students. The course was specifically designed for students who were keen to develop skills in the development of inter-disciplinary research ideas and proposals. Specifically the course addressed: • the different functions in land uses and across landscapes • novel approaches for investigating how soils function • the basics of making a soil description and soil sampling in the field; • the current key challenges in soil science research • the requirements of, and approaches to, soil science research that requires multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches • the essentials of developing and planning a research project Our approach was to provide a space for the students to both learn from, but also work with some of the leading UK Soil Science experts. We used workshop style lectures, including some delivered via the internet, combined with student research teams working alongside research mentors to produce research proposals to be 'pitched' to a panel at the end of the course. These proposals formed the focus for engagement with the 'experts' making the time the students spent with them concentrated and productive. Feedback from the students was excellent and a variant of the course will be repeated by Cranfield

  19. Soil management challenges in response to climatic change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture has tremendous potential to help solve global food, feed, fiber, and bioenergy challenges and respond to changing climatic conditions provided we do not compromise our soil, water and air resources. This presentation will examine soil management, defined by the Soil Science Society of Am...

  20. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  1. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  2. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  3. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  4. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  5. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  6. The Mystery Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

    This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

    Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

    The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

  7. Contributions of modern pedological analysis to the history of soils and landscapes application to the study of soils derived from the Continental Terminal in Casamance, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, G.; Chauvel, A.

    The study of the evolution of the soils formed on Continental Terminal in Casamance (Senegal) during the Quaternary shows how modern concepts in structural soil science can be used to understand the history of the morphopedological landscapes.

  8. Making time for soil: Technoscientific futurity and the pace of care.

    PubMed

    de la Bellacasa, Maria Puig

    2015-10-01

    The dominant drive for understanding soil has been to pace its fertility with human demand. Today, warnings about soil's exhaustion and endangered ecology raise concerns marked by fears of gloomy environmental futures, prompting scientists and soil practitioners urgently to develop better ways of taking care of soils. Yet the pace required by ecological soil care could be at odds with the predominant temporal orientation of technoscientific intervention, which is driven by an inherently progressivist, productionist and restless mode of futurity. Through a conceptual and historical approach to the soil sciences and other domains of soil knowledge, this article looks for soil ontologies and relations to soil care that are obscured by the predominant timescape. Contemporary discussions of the future of the soil sciences expose tensions between 'progress as usual'--by intensifying productivity--and the need to protect the pace of soil renewal. The intimate relation of soil science with productionism is being interrogated, as ecology attempts to engage with soil as a living community rather than a receptacle for crops. In this context, and beyond science, the 'foodweb' model of soil ecology has become a figure of alternative human-soil relations that involve environmental practitioners in the soil community. Reading these ways of making time for soil as a form of 'care time' helps to reveal a diversity of more-than-human interdependent temporalities, disrupting the anthropocentric appeal of predominant timescales of technoscientific futurity and their reductive notion of innovation.

  9. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    application of geophysical methods, e.g. GPR on wet loessy soils will result in a high attenuation of signals. Furthermore, with this knowledge we support the development of geophysical pedo-transfer-functions, i.e. the link between geophysical to soil parameters, which is active researched in another work package of the iSOIL project. Acknowledgement: iSOIL-Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  10. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  11. Soapy Science. Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

  12. Baker nominated to Science Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Warren J. Baker to the National Science Board (NSB), according to an announcement by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Baker is the president of California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. A civil engineer by training, his research specialty is soil dynamics.The 24-member NSB is the policy-making body of the NSF. Provided that the Senate confirms his appointment, Baker will serve on the board until May 1988.

  13. Soil biology for resilient healthy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is a resilient healthy soil? A resilient soil is capable of recovering or adapting to stress; the health of the living/biological component of the soil is crucial for soil resiliency. Soil health is tightly coupled to the concept of soil quality (Text Box 1) and the terms are frequently used ...

  14. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. SS 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains three science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil particle size on capillary action; (2) measuring levels of eroded soil particles in streams; and (3) determining the effects of soil cover and texture on surface erosion.…

  15. Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

    2008-01-01

    To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the school…

  16. Sounding out science

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, M.

    1996-10-01

    The Exxon Valdez catastrophe, which soiled Alaska`s Prince William Sound in 1989, was the most studied oil spill in history. But because of how they framed their inquiries, investigators have learned less than they could about how nature heals itself. The studies of Exxon and the state of Alaska - including the departments of Fish and Game and of Environmental Conservation - conducted to prove their respective points, were kept largely secret untill legal settlements were reached. This secrecy reduced most of the pillars of science to rubble: out went scientific dialog, data sharing, and for some parties, peer view. Millions of dollars were shelled out in duplicate studies that reached opposite conclusions. Beyond the quality of science lies the public interpretation of science. Even though NOAA has shown that cleaning up can do more harm than good, demands to clean up persist. 7 figs.

  17. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  18. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  19. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  20. Science Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

  1. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  2. Using soil health to assess ecotoxicological impacts of pollutants on soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Bécaert, Valérie; Deschênes, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms are essential for a properly functioning soil ecosystem. However, few methods allow an ecotoxicological evaluation of pollutant impact on the soil microbial community. This review proposes the use of the concept of soil health as an ecotoxicological evaluation tool for soil microflora. Initially limited to sustainable agriculture, the concept of soil health is now being applied to novel situations including contaminated and remediated soils. A large amount of work has been published in the last few decades on soil health indicators, and a review of the most relevant studies is presented here. The most cited work is that of the S-5518 committee set up in 1997 by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), which proposed to define soil quality as being "the capacity of a soil to function within the limits of an ecosystem, to support biological production, to maintain environmental quality and to support fauna and flora health." The soil health indicators reviewed here are the ones based on this definition because it relates well to sustainability and durability of the soil functions. Several indicators proposed in these studies could be employed in the evaluation of the ecotoxicological impact of pollutants on the soil microbial community, including microbial diversity, microbial activity, and functional stability. However, research is still required to unify the concept, to set threshold values, and to standardize methodologies.

  3. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the

  4. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  5. Soil, Plant, and Crop Science. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains an instructor's manual, an instructor's resource package, and a student workbook for a course in agricultural production and management as it relates to crop production. The module contains 17 units of instruction, each of which contains some or all of the following components: objective sheet, instructor's guide, information…

  6. Agriculture: Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  7. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory-Part 3: A proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil examinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2016-05-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of forensic trace evidence examinations. The apparent need for soil examinations then went through a period of decline and with it the capability of many forensic laboratories to carry out soil examinations. In more recent years, interest in soil examinations has been renewed due-at least in part-to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations. However, much of this renewed interest has been in organisations with a primary interest in soil and geology rather than forensic science. We argue the need to reinstate soil examinations as a trace evidence sub-discipline within forensic science laboratories and present a pathway to support this aim. An examination procedure is proposed that includes: (i) appropriate sample collection and storage by qualified crime scene examiners; (ii) exclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; (iii) inclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; and (iv) higher-level examination of soils by specialist soil scientists and palynologists. Soil examinations conducted by trace evidence scientists will be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Hence, the proposed examination protocol incorporates instrumentation in routine use in a forensic trace evidence laboratory. Finally, we report on an Australian soil scene variability study and a blind trial that demonstrate the utility of the proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil samples by forensic laboratories.

  8. [Utilization rate of fertilizer N and dynamic changes of soil NO3(-)-N in summer maize field in semi-humid area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-ning; Li, Shi-qing; Li, Sheng-xiu

    2008-04-01

    A field experiment on manual loessial soil was conducted to study the dynamic changes of NO3(-)-N in soil profile, utilization rate of fertilizer N, and relationships between N application rate and soil residual N accumulation during the growth period of summer maize under different N application rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg hm(-2)). The results showed that in the whole growth period of summer maize, the NO3(-)-N concentration in the soil profile was the highest in 0-20 cm layer, and increased with increasing N application rate. The NO3(-)-N concentration in 0-60 cm soil layer changed significantly, but no significant change was observed in 60-100 cm soil layer. In the growth season of summer maize, soil NO3(-)-N accumulation presented a fluctuated decreasing trend due to the N uptake by crop and the precipitation. The N utilization rate (NUR) increased with increasing N application rate when the application rate was less than 135 kg hm(-2), but tended to decrease when the application rate exceeded 135 kg hm(-2). With the increase of N application rate, the N agronomy efficiency (NAE) decreased but the N physiology efficiency (NPE) increased. There was a significant positive correlation between soil residual N accumulation and N application rate (R2 = 0.957**, n = 5). The grain yield under N application was significantly higher than that without N application (P <0.05), and there existed a significant positive correlation between grain yield and N application rate (R2 = 0.934**, n = 5). In our experiment, the optimal application rate of fertilizer N was 135 kg hm(-2), which could harmonize the relationship between economic benefits and environment.

  9. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  10. Topographic Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla; Gesch, Dean; Stoker, Jason M.; Queija, Vivian R.; Worstell, Bruce; Tyler, Dean J.; Danielson, Jeff; Bliss, Norman; Greenlee, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Topographic Science is to establish partnerships and conduct research and applications that facilitate the development and use of integrated national and global topographic datasets. Topographic Science includes a wide range of research and applications that result in improved seamless topographic datasets, advanced elevation technology, data integration and terrain visualization, new and improved elevation derivatives, and development of Web-based tools. In cooperation with our partners, Topographic Science is developing integrated-science applications for mapping, national natural resource initiatives, hazards, and global change science. http://topotools.cr.usgs.gov/.

  11. Concepts of soil mapping as a basis for the assessment of soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Soil mapping systems in Europe have been designed mainly as a tool for the description of soil characteristics from a morphogenetic viewpoint. Contrasting to the American or FAO system, the soil development has been in the main focus of European systems. Nevertheless , recent developments in soil science stress the importance of the functions of soils with respect to the ecosystems. As soil mapping systems usually offer a sound and extensive database, the deduction of soil functions from "classic" mapping parameters can be used for local and regional assessments. According to the used pedo-transfer functions and mapping systems, tailored approaches can be chosen for different applications. In Austria, a system mainly for spatial planning purposes has been developed that will be presented and illustrated by means of best practice examples.

  12. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  13. Modification of soils by plants: sustainability by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; White, Philip; Garcia Moreno, Rosario; Vetterlein, Doris

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, food and environmental security threats have increased the prominence and funding of soil science. A growing area is the study of root-soil interactions in soil, driven by the need to increase crop productivity, whilst also decreasing inputs. The untapped potential in manipulating soil properties with plants to increase food security is increasingly recognised. We argue that this area of soil science has been successful for a number of reasons: (1) it offers something positive, in terms of more food for a growing population; (2) the research is collaborative, with plant and soil scientists working together and bringing the research from the lab to the field by working across a broad range of disciplines; (3) there have been technical advances in both plant genetics and soil science that allow for very novel and exciting research questions to be answered; and (4) there are commercial demands from both plant breeding companies and farmers for more sustainable crop varieties, which provides lobbying power to funders. However, soil science is still viewed by many as 'bucket science' where the answers are known but just poorly applied in farming practice. We know this is nonsense, but how do we convince others? Using examples from our EGU 2014 session, we will demonstrate how recent scientific advances in soil science have greatly increased the understanding of the root-soil interface. The research includes new technologies such as high resolution non-invasive imaging of roots in soil, the use of model plants that have controlled traits that modify soils, molecular biology approaches to investigate nutrient cycling and other microbial functions affected by plants, and the development of new models of root growth, nutrient capture and plant-soil water relations. Despite a surge of soil researchers studying roots, the research still fails to attract the attention or funding of other disciplines, including our collaborators in plant science. This is

  14. Simple Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    This brief article presents some quick and easy science experiments for those dreary winter days when classrooms need a pick-me-up. These seemingly easy science experiments will make a lasting impact on students.

  15. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  16. Science Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Sherril L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)

  17. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  18. SMAP Science Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.; Gluck, S.; Hua, H.; Weiss, B.; Wong, C.; Kwoun, O.; Cruz, J.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than October 2014 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and a synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will use the Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) from Apache Software Foundation to control the 13 standard data product processors and additional 15 preprocessors. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  19. On the Need to Establish an International Soil Modeling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.; Schnepf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society. To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key

  20. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  1. Soil Surface Structure: A key factor for the degree of soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Douglas, P.; Bryant, R.; Hamlett, C.; McHale, G.; Newton, M.; Shirtcliffe, N.

    2012-04-01

    Despite of considerable efforts, the degree of water repellency has not always been fully explained by chemical property of soil (termed hydrophobicity). That might be because the structure of a soil surface was not considered properly, which is another main factor determining the severity of soil water repellency. Surface structure has only recently been considered in soil science, whilst it has been paid attention for several decades in materials science due to its relevance to industrial applications. In this contribution, comparison of critical contact angles measured on different surface structures (made with glass beads, glass shards and beach sands) is presented and the effect of surface structure on manifestation of soil water repellency is discussed in terms of several different variables such as the individual particles shape, and areal and structural factors of the actual surface.

  2. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  3. Science First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  4. Science Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.; Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Research Council's "National Science Education Standards" call for science education to be "developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives, emphasize student understanding through inquiry, and be connected with other school subjects." This description captures the three major trends in science education…

  5. Sublime Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science and…

  6. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  7. Science Activities for Children 3 to 9 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bonnie E.

    Activities in the life and physical sciences are provided (in separate sections) for preschool and elementary school students. Life science activities include those related to plants, soil, habitats, fossils, animals, life cycles, food chains, nutrition, and other biologically-oriented topics. Physical science activities include those related to…

  8. Linking geophysics and soil function modelling - two examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, J.; Franko, U.; Werban, U.; Dietrich, P.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Fank, J.; Kroulik, M.

    2011-12-01

    iSOIL - "Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping" is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment. The iSOIL project aims at reliable mapping of soil properties and soil functions with various methods including geophysical, spectroscopic and monitoring techniques. The general procedure contains three steps (i) geophysical monitoring, (ii) generation of soil property maps and (iii) process modelling. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the methodological procedure on two different examples. Example A focuses on the turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM) since many soil functions in a direct or indirect way depend on SOM and SOM depletion is amongst the worst soil threats. Example B deals with the dynamics of soil water and the direct influence on crop biomass production. The applied CANDY model (Franko et al. 1995) was developed to describe dynamics of soil organic matter and mineral nitrogen as well as soil water and temperature. The new module PLUS extends CANDY to simulate crop biomass production based on environmental influences (Krüger et al. 2011). The methodological procedure of example A illustrates a model application for a field site in the Czech Republic using generated soil maps from combined geophysical data. Modelling requires a complete set of soil parameters. Combining measured soil properties and data of geophysical measurements (electrical conductivity and gamma spectrometry) is the basis for digital soil mapping which provided data about clay, silt and sand as well as SOC content. With these data pedotransfer functions produce detailed soil input data (e.g. bulk and particle density, field capacity, wilting point, saturated conductivity) for the rooted soil profile. CANDY calculated different indicators for SOM and gave hints about

  9. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil

  10. Schoolground Soil Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Outlined are simple activities for studying soil, which can be conducted in the schoolyard. Concepts include soil profiles, topsoil, soil sizes, making soil, erosion, slope, and water absorption. (SJL)

  11. An economical view of soil conservation. The use of geotextil as a tool to teach on higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2010-05-01

    Soil and earth science did not take into account the important of economics to teach on higher education. Economics contribute with a positive view on applied soil and earth science. Only if the soil conservation strategies are feasible from an economic point of view they will be sustainable from an environmental point of view. This paper shows the strategies developed at the Soil Erosion and Degradation Experimental Station of El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera. By means of soil erosion plots and rainfall simulation experiments the students can understand the effect of geotextiles on soil erosion control and soil conservation. The task developed in the field, in the laboratory and in the lectures rooms, the students develop the calculations on how much cost the geotextiles and how much soil is protected. The results show that the students found the way to reach a sustainable soil conservation strategy based on soil science and on economics.

  12. Science Teaching in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  13. Science Squared: Teaching Science Visually.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Olga; Savage, Karen; Judice, Michelle

    This paper describes a collection of novel ideas for bulletin board displays that would be useful in supplementing science classroom instruction. Information on women and minorities in science; science concepts in everyday activities such as nutrition, baseball, and ice cream-making; and various holidays and celebratory events is included. Each…

  14. [Pharmacy, one of the emerging sources of new science of technology].

    PubMed

    Charlot, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Linking pharmacy and oenology seems to be paradox. The school of Medicine and Pharmacy owe their fame to the historical context of the Languedocian Universities. The role of their naturalist professors is less known. Dr Chaptal's thesis discusses the wine chemical constituents. In 1801 he published a book entitled "the Art of making, managing and perfecting wine", inventor of a distillation machine, his name become an eponym "the chaptalisation", which is specific process, for regions less exposed to sunlight, showing that sugar in the must is needed to obtain alcohol. Jules Emile Planchon, professor of botanic science at the Superior School of Pharmacy will discoverer the parasite disease of the phylloxera, a parasite that destroy vineyards. The cure will be the American grafting. The list of professors who worked on vineyards related frauds and diseases is long. Once Analytical chemistry has become part of the curriculum universities, pharmacists, started investigating wine analysis. It will be part of Bromatology, the science of food ingredients. Pharmacists were then able to carry out the first wine analyses sin their laboratory. It is at that time that Paul Jaulmes, professor of Analytical Chemistry who became Director of the international office of vineyards and Wine (OIV) proposed alongside Prof Nègre, director of the National School of Agronomy, the initiation in 1955 of a new diploma oenology. As a renowned toxicologist, Prof. Jaulmes will lead the committee in charge of the oenology Standards.

  15. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  16. IMPACT OF CRITICAL ANION SOIL SOLUTION CONCENTRATION ON ALUMINUM ACTIVITY IN ALPINE TUNDRA SOIL Andrew Evans, Jr.1 , Michael B. Jacobs2, and Jason R. Janke1, (1) Metropolitan State University of Denver, Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, (2) Dept. of Chemistry, Denver, CO, United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil solution anionic composition can impact both plant and microbial activity in alpine tundra soils by altering biochemical cycling within the soil, either through base cation leaching, or shifts in aluminum controlling solid phases. Although anions play a critical role in the aqueous speciation of metals, relatively few high altitude field studies have examined their impact on aluminum controlling solid phases and aluminum speciation in soil water. For this study, thirty sampling sites were selected on Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, CO, and sampled during July, the middle of the growing season. Sampling elevations ranged from approximately 3560 - 3710 m. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 15.24 cm, and the anions were extracted using a 2:1 D.I. water to soil ratio. Filtered extracts were analyzed using IC and ICP-MS. Soil solution NO3- concentrations were significantly higher for sampling locations east of Iceberg Pass (EIBP) (mean = 86.94 ± 119.8 mg/L) compared to locations west of Iceberg Pass (WIBP) (mean 1.481 ± 2.444 mg/L). Both F- and PO43- soil solution concentrations, 0.533 and 0.440 mg/L, respectively, were substantially lower, for sampling sites located EIBP, while locations WIBP averaged 0.773 and 0.829 mg/L respectively, for F- and PO43-. Sulfate concentration averaged 3.869 ± 3.059 mg/L for locations EIBP, and 3.891 ± 3.1970 for locations WIBP. Geochemical modeling of Al3+ in the soil solution indicated that a suite of aluminum hydroxyl sulfate minerals controlled Al3+ activity in the alpine tundra soil, with shifts between controlling solid phases occurring in the presence of elevated F- concentrations.

  17. Estimating Soil Cation Exchange Capacity from Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateni, S. M.; Emamgholizadeh, S.; Shahsavani, D.

    2014-12-01

    The soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) is an important soil characteristic that has many applications in soil science and environmental studies. For example, CEC influences soil fertility by controlling the exchange of ions in the soil. Measurement of CEC is costly and difficult. Consequently, several studies attempted to obtain CEC from readily measurable soil physical and chemical properties such as soil pH, organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and particle size distribution. These studies have often used multiple regression or artificial neural network models. Regression-based models cannot capture the intricate relationship between CEC and soil physical and chemical attributes and provide inaccurate CEC estimates. Although neural network models perform better than regression methods, they act like a black-box and cannot generate an explicit expression for retrieval of CEC from soil properties. In a departure with regression and neural network models, this study uses Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) to estimate CEC from easily measurable soil variables such as clay, pH, and OM. CEC estimates from GEP and MARS are compared with measurements at two field sites in Iran. Results show that GEP and MARS can estimate CEC accurately. Also, the MARS model performs slightly better than GEP. Finally, a sensitivity test indicates that organic matter and pH have respectively the least and the most significant impact on CEC.

  18. The World Soil Museum: education and advocacy on soils of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, Stephan; Land, Hiske

    2013-04-01

    The World Soil Museum (WSM) in Wageningen, is part of ISRIC World Soil Information and was founded in 1966 on request of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Soil Science Society. The World Soil Museum has a collection of over 1100 soil profiles from more than 70 countries. This soil profiles are vertical sections and show the composition, layering and structure of the soil. The collection is unique in the world and includes a significant number of soil profiles from the Netherlands. The Dutch soil collection is important for serving broader visitor groups, as some visitors, such as secondary school classes, are specifically interested in the Dutch landscape and soils. Broadly speaking, the World Soil Museum has five functions: (i) education and courses, (ii) research, (iii) information and edutainment, (iv) social function, and (v) a real museum function (Art). The World Soil Museum (World Soil Museum) is well known in national and international circles soil and the English name has almost 1,000 references on the Internet. The World Soil Museum is visited by about 1000 people a year, mainly university and college students from Western Europe. Other visitor groups that have found their way to the museum are students from disciplines broader then soil science, such as geography and rural development. Secondary school classes visit the museum for geography classes. The uniqueness and the value of the collection of soil profiles (soil monoliths) and associated collections, such as soil samples, hand pieces, thin sections, slides, is emphasized by the fact ISRIC is the only World Data Centre for Soils (WDC-Soils) within the World Data System of the International Council of Science (ICSU). The collection provides an insight in and overview of the diversity of soils in the world, their properties and their limitations and possibilities for use. A new building is under construction for the WSM, which is

  19. Basic Soils. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  20. Programmed Lab Experiments for Biochemical Investigation of Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules in Rhizospheric Soil Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nievas, Fiorela L; Bogino, Pablo C; Giordano, Walter

    2016-05-06

    Biochemistry courses in the Department of Molecular Biology at the National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina, are designed for undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, and veterinary medicine. Microbiology students typically have previous coursework in general, analytical, and organic chemistry. Programmed sequences of lab experiments allow these students to investigate biochemical problems whose solution is feasible within the context of their knowledge and experience. We previously designed and reported a programmed lab experiment that familiarizes microbiology students with techniques for detection and characterization of quorum-sensing (QS) and quorum-quenching (QQ) signal molecules. Here, we describe a sequence of experiments designed to expand the understanding and capabilities of biochemistry students using techniques for extraction and identification of QS and QQ signal molecules from peanut rhizospheric soil bacteria, including culturing and manipulation of bacteria under sterile conditions. The program provides students with an opportunity to perform useful assays, draw conclusions from their results, and discuss possible extensions of the study. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:256-262, 2016.

  1. The Use of Soil in Criminal Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lorna; Fitzpatrick, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Forensic soil science, as a newly developed discipline of soil science, has matured to the extent that well-defined questions and successful crime scene investigations are being addressed in increasingly refined ways to assist law enforcement agencies. Soils, rocks, regolith, minerals and man-made mineral particles such as bricks (i.e. referred to "human-made" soil materials) are being used in specialised forensic investigations to associate/disassociate a sample taken from an item, such as shoes, clothing, shovel or vehicle, with a specific location. The majority of forensic cases involving soil materials are usually overwhelmingly complex, and the challenges of associating relevant information from one source with another, often requires the use and development of sophisticated field and laboratory methods. Through examples from case studies, this presentation will demonstrate how advanced field and laboratory approaches have been critical in developing coherent, predictive, soil models, from landscape to microscopic scales, to help contribute to soil-based criminal investigations in both Australia and Scotland. To demonstrate the critical importance of soil materials in forensic investigations, the following 2 case studies, which tackle difficult problems at a range of scales involving highly complex issues, will be presented: •The use of soil evidence to help solve a double murder case. This investigation used morphological, chemical, physical and mineralogical properties to identify similarities between soil-regolith found on a shovel taken from the suspect's vehicle and wetland soil-regolith subsequently located in the bottom of a quarry (Fitzpatrick and Raven, 2012). •The use of soil and related material to help search and to provide evidence in a murder case. This investigation used soil mineralogical and organic properties to identify similarities between sand found on a shovel and sand subsequently located at a beach. Results illustrate the benefit of

  2. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    and DoD focus in managing the spread of invasive species. American Society of Agronomy , 1-5 November, 2009, Pittsburgh, PA. Howard, H, Balbach H, Rew...LJ, Ayers P and Anderson AB (2009) Tracking Military vehicles to better understand invasive species spread. American Society of Agronomy , Pittsburgh

  3. The Pedotopia Project: A Transdisciplinary Experiment in Soil Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the absence of every-day interactions with the land, a hands-on, comprehensive soil education across disciplines and ages is necessary. Soil education is usually integrated into earth science and geography curricula and only rarely into social science, arts and humanities programs. Furthermore, an emphasis on measurement and modeling in conventional classroom science often neglects aesthetic, moral and other non-quantifiable values, precluding a broader cultural context in which soil education could take place. The arts play a vital role in communicating environmental issues to the greater public and represent a dynamic approach to help students discover soil complexity in new and unexpected ways. Artistic methods have recently been introduced as pedagogical tools in soil awareness-raising programs for children and youth. Painting with soil has become an interesting new approach to soil education from Kindergarten to University levels (SZLEZAK 2008). And a growing amount of literature describes artists who have undertaken different soil issues, suggesting that such artistic focus may improve wider understanding and appreciation of soil conservation issues (FELLER et al 2010, TOLAND & WESSOLEK 2010, WAGNER 2002). How can art contribute to soil science, policy and education - both with the aim of generating greater public understanding, but also by honing creative methods to confront problems such as contamination, erosion, and urban sprawl? What artistic approaches exist to protect and restore soils as well as our relationship to the land? And how can these approaches support current soil education goals? These questions were addressed in the transdisciplinary soil seminar, "Pedotopia - Re-sourcing Urban Soils" from September 2010 to September 2011 in Berlin. A cooperation between the Technical University of Berlin's Department of Soil Protection and the Berlin University of Arts' Institute for Art in Context, the project served as a teaching experiment as well

  4. Indigenous vs. International soil classification system in Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Bloemertz, Lena

    2014-05-01

    This poster will present soil diversity in North-Central Namibia, with a focus on soil fertility. It aims to show the correspondence and differences between an international and an indigenous soil classification system. International classifications, like World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), are very helpful tools to share information in soil science and agriculture. However, these classification are meaningful for large scale soil processes understanding but local specificities cannot be understood and differentiated. On the other hand, knowledge that farmers have on cultivated soils is very accurate and adapted to local agricultural use. However, their knowledge should be properly defined and translated to be used by scientists. Once their knowledge can be read by scientists, it provides very powerful tools for soil mapping and characterization. Analysis so far has focused on the area of Ondobe (30 km West from Eenhana, Ohangwena region). This area is located between two major systems, the Cuvelai floodplain to the West and the Kalahari Woodlands to the East. While all the cultivated soils from this region would be classified as Arenosols (WRB), the local classification differentiates five major soil types (Omutunda, Ehenge, Omufitu, Elondo, Ehenene). In WRB classification, these soils correspond, roughly, to specific Arenosols, respectively Hypereutric, Albic, Haplic, Rubic and Salic Arenosols. Further work will evaluate, the local variation inside each indigenous soil types. Hierarchical classification using soil field descriptors will be used to create statistic soil groups. These new groups will then be compared to each classification system.

  5. BOREAS HYD-1 Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Kelly, Shaun F.; Stangel, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-1 team coordinated a program of data collection to measure and monitor soil properties in collaboration with other science team measurement needs. This data set contains soil hydraulic properties determined at the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) flux tower sites based on analysis of in situ tension infiltrometer tests and laboratory-determined water retention from soil cores collected during the 1994-95 field campaigns. Results from this analysis are saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fitting parameters for the van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention function at flux tower sites. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-01 soil hydraulic properties data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Deconstructing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  7. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  8. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)

  9. Fast All-Season Soil STrength (FASST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (www.ead.anl.gov/ resrad /datacoll/dcall.htm...between the model predictions and actual field measurements. 5.1.4 Model Validation As for the soil temperature model verification , we used...Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (www.ead.anl.gov/ resrad /datacoll/dcall.htm). 55 Chapter 6 Ground State

  10. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  11. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models and DSS adapted to concrete region and agrolandscape conditions. The outcomes of statistical process modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification, CO2, CH4 and N2O emission, soluble SOC fluxes, acidification or alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of environmentally sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the most zonal soils and soil cover pattern essentially lost not only their unique natural features (humus horizons depth till 1 m and more in case of Chernozems, 2-6 % of SOC and favorable agrophysical features), but ecosystem services and ecological functions including terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance and the GHG fluxes control. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5% SOC lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (for different soils they vary from 1 to 3-4% of SOC) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustai¬nable agronomy here. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten-tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of environmental and agroecological problems development prediction.

  12. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  13. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  14. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  15. Soil and water conservation: Our history and future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remembering our past is an essential first step into the future. Building upon that philosophy, our objective is to summarize two presentations from a 2012 Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) symposium focused on soil management challenges in response to climate change in order to examine: (1) ho...

  16. The science in social science

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, H. Russell

    2012-01-01

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering—life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. PMID:23213222

  17. Blogging for Soil: Why, how and having fun!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jess

    2014-05-01

    Scientific blogging has become a more and more popular way of science outreach and communication. There are only a handful of soil science blogs, and I think there should be more! Blogging is a great way to share cool soil science stories, engage with the wider community, and promote understanding. It allows people to stumble over thoughts and ideas, and to think about how it fits in their daily life. It also provides an informal education and reference on the internet in a time where people Google everything. It can also be fun as well as being factual. At this talk, using my own experiences and the success of other soil science blogs, I will discuss: how to start a blog, why we should consider them as a way to communicate science, and what things to consider when you start your blog.

  18. The sciences of science communication.

    PubMed

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  19. The sciences of science communication

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs. PMID:23942125

  20. Personalizing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielowich, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers are aware of many social issues that intersect with science. These socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are "open-ended problems without clear-cut solutions [that] can be informed by scientific principles, theories, and data, but…cannot be fully determined by [them]" (Sadler 2011, p. 4). This article describes the SSI lessons…

  1. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  2. Science Alive!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally-Foos, Kay

    2005-01-01

    At the authors' school, as in many places, she struggles with making science a meaningful part of her students' lives. The teachers are working under state mandates to prepare students for reading and mathematics tests in third, fourth, and fifth grades. Often, this relegates science and social studies to a distant back burner. In an effort to…

  3. Talking Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwartz, Yael; Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Sutherland, LeeAnn; Merrit, Joi; Krajcik, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Science is a social process--one that involves particular ways of talking, reasoning, observing, analyzing, and writing, which often have meaning only when shared within the scientific community. Discussions are one of the best ways to help students learn to "talk science" and construct understanding in a social context. Since inquiry is an…

  4. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  5. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  6. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  7. Shrinking Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goates, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity based on shrinkable thermoplastics in which students explore the percentage of shrinkage of a plastic ruler when it is heated. Includes science content knowledge behind the shrink, national science education standards related to this activity, and a complete guide. (KHR)

  8. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, A. J. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents 31 science activities for use with high school or college science classes. Topics included are: chromatography, ecology, invertebrates, enzymes, genetics, botany, creep, crystals, diffusion, computer interfaces, acid rain, teaching techniques, chemical reactions, waves, electric fields, rainbows, electricity, magnetic fields, and a Pitot…

  9. Soundsational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  10. Why Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents people from many walks of life, including some well-known names, who share their views about science. Adam Hart-Davis, who studied chemistry at university and is now an author, photographer, historian and broadcaster, explains why science cannot start too soon. Lis Nairn, Manager, Stratigraphy, with Fugro Robertson Ltd (Oil…

  11. Influence of soil moisture on soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Nikodem, Antonin; Klement, Ales; Jelenova, Klara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of soil moisture on soil respiration. Study was performed on soil samples from morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). Soil samples were collected from topsoils at 5 points of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). Grab soil samples, undisturbed soil samples (small - 100 cm3, and large - 713 cm3) and undisturbed soil blocks were taken. Basic soil properties were determined on grab soil samples. Small undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. During experiments performed in greenhouse dry large undisturbed soil samples were wetted from below using a kaolin tank and cumulative water inflow due to capillary rise was measured. Simultaneously net CO2 exchange rate and net H2O exchange rate were measured using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. Numerical inversion of the measured cumulative capillary rise data using the HYDRUS-1D program was applied to modify selected soil hydraulic parameters for particular conditions and to simulate actual soil water distribution within each soil column in selected times. Undisturbed soil blocks were used to prepare thin soil sections to study soil-pore structure. Results for all soil samples showed that at the beginning of soil samples wetting the CO2 emission increased because of improving condition for microbes' activity. The maximum values were reached for soil column average soil water content between 0.10 and 0.15 cm3/cm3. Next CO2 emission decreased since the pore system starts filling by water (i.e. aggravated conditions for microbes

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  13. Report of the Panel on Pre-Professional Training in the Agricultural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Summaries of the recommendations made by action committees established by the Panel on Pre-Professional Training in the Agricultural Sciences are made under the headings "Biological Subject Matter,""Mathematics," and "Physics." The action committees in Animal Sciences, Bioengineering, Food Sciences, Natural Resources, Plant and Soil Sciences, and…

  14. Comparison of soil water potential sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degre, Aurore; van der Ploeg, Martine; Caldwell, Todd; Gooren, Harm

    2015-04-01

    Temporal and spatial monitoring of soil water potential and soil water content are necessary for quantifying water flow in the domains of hydrology, soil science and crop production as knowledge of the soil water retention curve is important for solving Richards' equation. Numerous measurement techniques exist nowadays that use various physical properties of the soil-water complex to record changes in soil water content or soil water potential. Laboratory techniques are very useful to determine static properties of the soil water retention curve, and have been used to show the impacts of hysteresis. Yet, other spatiotemporal dynamics resulting from for example growing root systems, biological activity, periodic tillage and their impact on the soil structure cannot satisfactory be quantified in static setups in the laboratory. ). To be able to quantify the influence of soil heterogeneity, and spatiotemporal dynamics on the soil water retention curve, an in situ approach combining soil moisture and soil water potential measurements could provide useful data. Such an in situ approach would require sensors that can measure a representative part of the soil water retention curve. The volumetric soil water content is often measured using time domain reflectometry, and has gained widespread acceptance as a standard electronic means of volumetric water content measurement. To measure the soil water potential, water filled tensiometers are used in most studies. Unfortunately, their range remains limited due to cavitation. Recently, several new sensors for use under in situ conditions have been proposed to cover a wider range of pressure head: Polymer tensiometers, MPS (Decagon) and pF-meter (ecoTech). In this study, we present the principles behind each measurement technique. Then we present the results of a fully controlled experiment where we compared two MPS sensors, two pF-meter sensors and two POT sensors in the same repacked soil. It allows us to discuss advantages

  15. Impact of soil properties on selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    related to absorption coefficients of Carbamazepin (R=0.67 and 0.68). Positive correlation was found between Trimetoprim absorption coefficients and Atenolol, Metoprolol or Carbamazepin absorption coefficients. The negative relationship was found between absorption coefficients of Sulfomethoxazol and Clarithromycin (R=-0.80). Sulfamethoxazol absorption coefficient was negatively related to pH_H2O, pH_KCL or sorption complex saturation and positively to the hydrolytic acidity or exchangeable acidity. Trimetoprim absorption coefficient was positively related to the oxidable organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, basic cation saturation or silt content and negatively to particle density or sand content. Clarithromycin absorption coefficient was positively related to pH_H2O, pH_KCL, CaCO3 content, basic cation saturation or sorption complex saturation and negatively to hydrolytic acidity or exchangeable acidity. Atenolol and Metoprolol absorption coefficients were positively related to the oxidable organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, basic cation saturation, salinity, clay content or silt content, and negatively to the particle density or sand content. Finally Carbamazepin absorption coefficient was positively related to the oxidable organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity or basic cation saturation, and negatively to the particle density or sand content. Evaluated pedotransfer rules for different pharmaceuticals included different sets of soil properties. Absorption coefficients could be predicted from: the hydrolytic acidity (Sulfamethoxazol), the oxidable organic carbon content (Trimetoprim and Carbamazepin), the oxidable organic carbon content, hydrolytic acidity and cation exchange capacity (Clarithromycin), the basic cation saturation (Atenolol and Metoprolol). Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S).

  16. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  17. Science teaching in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  18. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil soil surveys started around 1940 and the first map with soil information of São Paulo State was published in 1943. The Committee of Soils of the National Service for Agronomic Research was created in 1947 by the Agriculture Ministry and became an historical landmark for soil survey in Brazil. In 1953, the National Program of soil survey was approved and the first soil map and report of Rio de Janeiro State was released in 1958, followed by São Paulo State in 1960. This is also the origin of Embrapa Soil Research institution. Other milestones were the soil surveys published by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC) and the natural resources studies published within the RADAMBRASIL Project, initially planned for the Amazon region and later covering the whole country. Many soil studies followed and a comprehensive knowledge of tropical soils was achieved resulting in successful technologies for agriculture production, in lands considered by many as of "low fertility and acid soils with limited or no agricultural potential". However, detailed soil surveys are still lacking; only 5% of the country soils are mapped in 1:25.000 scales, and 15-20% in 1:100.000. In the first soil survey reports of Rio de Janeiro (1958) and São Paulo (1960), soil classes were defined according to Baldwin, Kellog & Thorp (Yearbook of Agriculture for 1938), and Thorp & Smith (Soil Science, 67, 1949) publications. It was already clear that the existing classification systems were not adequate to represent the highly weathered tropical soils of the large old landscapes in the cerrado (savanna like) region, or the soils formed on recent hydromorphic conditions at the Amazon Basin and Pantanal region. A national classification system to embody the country's large territory and environmental variation from tropical to subtropical and semiarid conditions, as well as the diversity of soil forming processes in old and new landscapes had to be developed. In 1964, the first attempt of a

  19. Universal Spatial Correlation Functions for Describing and Reconstructing Soil Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Elena B.; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Structural features of porous materials such as soil define the majority of its physical properties, including water infiltration and redistribution, multi-phase flow (e.g. simultaneous water/air flow, or gas exchange between biologically active soil root zone and atmosphere) and solute transport. To characterize soil microstructure, conventional soil science uses such metrics as pore size and pore-size distributions and thin section-derived morphological indicators. However, these descriptors provide only limited amount of information about the complex arrangement of soil structure and have limited capability to reconstruct structural features or predict physical properties. We introduce three different spatial correlation functions as a comprehensive tool to characterize soil microstructure: 1) two-point probability functions, 2) linear functions, and 3) two-point cluster functions. This novel approach was tested on thin-sections (2.21×2.21 cm2) representing eight soils with different pore space configurations. The two-point probability and linear correlation functions were subsequently used as a part of simulated annealing optimization procedures to reconstruct soil structure. Comparison of original and reconstructed images was based on morphological characteristics, cluster correlation functions, total number of pores and pore-size distribution. Results showed excellent agreement for soils with isolated pores, but relatively poor correspondence for soils exhibiting dual-porosity features (i.e. superposition of pores and micro-cracks). Insufficient information content in the correlation function sets used for reconstruction may have contributed to the observed discrepancies. Improved reconstructions may be obtained by adding cluster and other correlation functions into reconstruction sets. Correlation functions and the associated stochastic reconstruction algorithms introduced here are universally applicable in soil science, such as for soil classification

  20. Universal spatial correlation functions for describing and reconstructing soil microstructure.

    PubMed

    Karsanina, Marina V; Gerke, Kirill M; Skvortsova, Elena B; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Structural features of porous materials such as soil define the majority of its physical properties, including water infiltration and redistribution, multi-phase flow (e.g. simultaneous water/air flow, or gas exchange between biologically active soil root zone and atmosphere) and solute transport. To characterize soil microstructure, conventional soil science uses such metrics as pore size and pore-size distributions and thin section-derived morphological indicators. However, these descriptors provide only limited amount of information about the complex arrangement of soil structure and have limited capability to reconstruct structural features or predict physical properties. We introduce three different spatial correlation functions as a comprehensive tool to characterize soil microstructure: 1) two-point probability functions, 2) linear functions, and 3) two-point cluster functions. This novel approach was tested on thin-sections (2.21×2.21 cm2) representing eight soils with different pore space configurations. The two-point probability and linear correlation functions were subsequently used as a part of simulated annealing optimization procedures to reconstruct soil structure. Comparison of original and reconstructed images was based on morphological characteristics, cluster correlation functions, total number of pores and pore-size distribution. Results showed excellent agreement for soils with isolated pores, but relatively poor correspondence for soils exhibiting dual-porosity features (i.e. superposition of pores and micro-cracks). Insufficient information content in the correlation function sets used for reconstruction may have contributed to the observed discrepancies. Improved reconstructions may be obtained by adding cluster and other correlation functions into reconstruction sets. Correlation functions and the associated stochastic reconstruction algorithms introduced here are universally applicable in soil science, such as for soil classification

  1. Land Use Planning Experiment for Introductory Earth Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetter, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, James I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an activity which incorporates topographic map interpretation, soils analysis, hydrogeology, and local geology in a five-week series of exercises for an introductory college earth science class. (CP)

  2. Science Indicators and Science Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

  3. Science Policy: Pangs of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1978-01-01

    Presented is the prepared text of a public lecture given by the president of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Handler attempts to articulate the state of science today. He deals with such issues as nuclear power and genetic engineering. (MDR)

  4. Teaching Science. Ripping into Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how one activity can lead students to investigate and understand science concepts. Example provided involves ripping of a newspaper and the resultant discussions on saws, fabric, meat, and newsprint. Suggests that this activity can be a bridge to study in language arts, career education, graphic arts, mathematics, science, and…

  5. Science Instructors' Views of Science and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how college science faculty who teach introductory level undergraduate science courses including the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and earth science, understand and define science and nature of science (NOS). Participants were seventeen science instructors from five different institutions in the…

  6. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  7. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  8. Virtual Soil Monoliths: Blending Traditional and Web-Based Educational Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzic, Maja; Strivelli, Rachel A.; Holmes, Emma; Grand, Stephanie; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Lavkulich, Les M.; Crowley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Since soil plays a crucial role in all aspects of global environmental change, it is essential that post-secondary institutions provide students with a strong foundation in soil science concepts including soil classification. The onset of information technology (IT) and web-based multimedia have opened new avenues to better incorporate…

  9. Revolutionary Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  10. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  11. Revolutionary Science.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  12. SMAP Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will produce 14 standard data product processors. This paper will discuss the standard data products, their format, metadata, quality assessment products, as well as the planned release dates for the products both Beta and Validated quality. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  13. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  14. The role of soil quality and soil conservation for private gardening in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    private gardeners try to avoid. However, most people surveyed are neither aware of soil pollution by industry and traffic, nor of the enrichment of pollutants in compost. Generally, the surveyed gardeners, who had a mean age of 66 years, used a different approach to soil than soil scientists. They are in touch with the soil in their garden on a daily basis and therefore analyse it, and changes within it, constantly. The analytical tools which they use seem to be more rooted in traditions than in modern science.

  15. Martian soil color variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Rocks and soils on the surface are thought to be composed of minerals similar to those found on Earth's surface. One of the most important tools for recognizing these minerals is the spectrum of sunlight reflected by them. At the visible and near-infrared light wavelengths measured by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), the most important coloring materials in the Martian surface are iron minerals. There are two broad classes of iron minerals. Minerals which occur in igneous rocks (such as pyroxene) have a relatively flat spectrum and they reflect only a small amount of light; they are said to have a low reflectance. Ferric iron minerals, which occur as weathering products, reflect longer-wavelength light and absorb short-wavelength light, hence their very red color. The relative brightnesses of Martian surface materials in IMP's different wavelength filter is a powerful tool for recognizing the iron minerals present.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  17. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  18. Overnight Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy N.; Stahl, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines objectives for an elementary science camping program and summarizes general operational procedures. Campsite activities related to such topics as microorganisms, eye and sight, nature trails, bees, carpentry, and astronomy are described. (DS)

  19. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes 20 teaching activities and experiments appropriate for use with various secondary school science classes. Instructional activities include the study of catalase, raising bees, a game about equilibrium, spectrometers, lead iodide, resonance, graphing, and electromagnetic waves. (TW)

  20. Citizen Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing field in which scientific investigations are conducted by volunteers, which have been successful in expanding scientific knowledge, raising environmental awareness, and leveraging change.

  1. Science Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.

  2. Dismal Science

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    “No prediction, no science.” By this standard, the past year has not been kind to the pretensions of “economic science,” Nobel prizes notwithstanding. The issue is more than semantic. As Neil Postman (1992) pointed out, sciences study natural processes that repeat themselves under constant conditions. The social disciplines study practices of human communities that are embedded in history. There are no constant conditions; it is impossible to step into the same river twice (Heraclitus). “Physics envy” has led mainstream economic theorists to attempt to understand their discipline through methods and models borrowed from the natural sciences. (By unfortunate coincidence, these have reinforced a certain class of ideological preconceptions and associated economic interests.) Today the results of this methodological mismatch speak for themselves. PMID:20436803

  3. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-two activities are presented. Topics include: acid rain, microcomputers, fish farming, school-industry research projects, enzymes, equilibrium, assessment, science equipment, logic, Archimedes principle, electronics, optics, and statistics. (CW)

  4. Science Weekly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the space classroom that would have been conducted by Christa McAuliffe during the space shuttle flight. Includes lab activities, word puzzles, vocabulary lists, and graph reading exercises for elementary science students. (ML)

  5. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents 23 experiments, activities, field projects and computer programs in the biological and physical sciences. Instructional procedures, experimental designs, materials, and background information are suggested. Topics include fluid mechanics, electricity, crystals, arthropods, limpets, acid neutralization, and software evaluation. (ML)

  6. Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how schools in Carroll County, Maryland; Toronto, Ontario; Durham, North Carolina; Englewood, Colorado; and Troy, New York, are renovating their vocational areas for inquiry-based, hands-on science learning. Includes sample floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  7. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  8. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  9. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)

  10. Appliance Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, James

    1984-01-01

    Ordinary household appliances can be used in the classroom to inspire unusual research, artwork, and problem solving. Suggestions on how to organize and collect materials to develop an appliance science unit are offered. (DF)

  11. Scuba Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an integrated unit on scuba science. Studies oxygen in kinetic theory, Boyle's law, Charles's law, Dalton's law, human circulatory and respiratory systems, and diving dangers such as decompression sickness. (YDS)

  12. Communicating science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2005-01-01

    For science to have an impact, it must be communicated and easily accessible. The USGS National Wetlands Research Center communicates its research findings through several ways: publishing, the Web, the library, and education and outreach.

  13. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Shirley; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes 36 science activities. Topics include: osmosis, fermentation, anhydrobiotic organisms, breathing monitors, trypsin, weeds, amyloplasts, electrolysis, polarimeters, ethene ripening of fruit, colorimetry, diffusion, redox reactions, equilibria, acid-base relationships, electricity, power, resonance, measurement, parallax, amplifiers,…

  14. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. PS 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains six science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil drainage on plant growth and development; (2) determining the effect of soil compaction on plant growth and development; (3) inoculating legume seeds to promote nodule…

  15. Herbicide Leaching Column for a Weed Science Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an experiment which enables weed science students to observe first-hand the process of herbicide leaching in soils. Features of this technique which demonstrate the movement of herbicide within a column of soil are outlined. Diagrams are provided of the apparatus employed in the exercise. (ML)

  16. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  17. Analysis of soil-climatic relationships on the basis of the soil map and the BIOME database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, N. I.; Nazimova, D. I.; Andreeva, N. M.

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of soil-climatic relationships was performed on the basis of the BIOME database on climate and vegetation created by the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forestry (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Soil Map of the Russian Federation (1: 2.5 M scale) for the southern part of the boreal zone of Siberia. Climatic parameters (accumulated daily temperatures above 10°C, continentality of the climate, and humidity of the climate) specifying the development of major types of mesomorphic soils on this territory were determined. The climatic contacts between different soil groups were established. The soil diversity in climatic ecotones was characterized. The criteria of steady and unsteady position of soils in the space of climatic coordinates were analyzed, and the measure of the climatic sensitivity of soils was suggested.

  18. [Scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence].

    PubMed

    Brodel, E G; Ionescu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article details the scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence. The intensity of the scientific contacts of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy arise from detailed analysis of the correspondence that outlasts time in the state archive of Jassy. 75% of this correspondence was written in German, and most of it was sent from the German Confederate or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This influence and contribution of German science in Moldavian natural science development, was undoubtedly in the first half of the 19th century. This can be attributed to dr. Iacob Cihac, one of the founders of the Society, who was born in Aschaffenburg (Germany) and studied medicine in Heidelberg (Germany), before he moved to Moldavia. Based on the initiative of drs. Cihac and Zotta, and not least the financial support of a part of the Moldavian high class and the Moldavian government, the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy was founded in 1833. This became the first scientific society in the territory of modern Romania. Since the inception of the Moldavian Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy, it has pushed the boundaries of a simple scientific society. This society provides an encyclopedic framework of most of the scientific subjects of the 19th century (medicine, pharmacy, natural science, agronomy, paleontology and geology). It played a major role during the democratization of the Moldavian education system, for example by founding a medical school teaching in the Romanian language in Jassy. The society survived and continued to maintain scientific activities during all the political changes in Moldavia during the 19th century, particularly the revolution of 1848 and the unification process of Romania. The influence and activity of the society in Jassy has continued to make a significant contribution to science and education

  19. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents 26 activities, experiments, demonstrations, games, and computer programs for biology, chemistry, and physics. Background information, laboratory procedures, equipment lists, and instructional strategies are given. Topics include eye measurements, nutrition, soil test tube rack, population dynamics, angular momentum, transition metals,…

  20. Science Education. Oryx Science Bibliographies, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Eileen E., Comp.; Tyckoson, David A., Ed.

    This bibliography provides 337 annotated references covering: science teaching at the preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and high school levels; science education as it relates to various science disciplines; science education for special populations; sexual stereotyping in science education; teacher education for science teachers; and how…

  1. Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed by an industrial consortium consisting of Monsanto, E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (DuPont), and General Electric, with participation from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (Figure 1). Lasagna{trademark} remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured or decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration.

  2. Do We Need a New Definition of Soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Richard W.; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication is really desirable to better relate with politicians, an interested lay public, and others not involved in soil science. Soil survey programs are intended to help people understand how soils function in their landscapes to make ecosystems operate better without damaging the environment and to indicate different kinds of suitability for various purposes. The properties of soils as recognized, described, and mapped at detailed scales form the basis for developing diagnostics for a systematic taxonomy that enables scientists to interact with other. In the USA mapping done at scales of 1:15,840± made it possible to define and use so-called "soil series", initially as soil map units, but later as central concepts of a set of soils which could be segregated using phases to indicate important features, primarily for farming. Detailed soil surveys published using a standard format helps maintain uniformity across the country. Soil series are recognized as the basic units of soils within the evolving hierarchical soil taxonomy and diagnostic properties are defined, measured and used to update and modify the scientific classification. Concepts like soil quality and soil function are considered to be "attributes" and not basic properties of soils. They are the collective interpretation of the combination of properties thought to be relevant for communicating important aspects of using, managing, restoring, and protecting the lands of any locality, region, or country. A famous example in the US was the land capability system with classes and subclasses of suitability for agricultural land uses. An updated soil survey in California contains over 500 pages providing details about classes of 30 different functional soil classifications for 155 map units. Over the years soil extension agents were the interpreters of the science to the lay folks and could help them form mental pictures of soils and soil landscapes locally They were the early leaders of

  3. Mars Science Laboratory at Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 2, 2003

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory travels near a canyon on Mars in this artist's concept. The mission is under development for launch in 2009 and a precision landing on Mars in 2010.

    Once on the ground, the Mars Science Laboratory would analyze dozens of samples scooped up from the soil and cored from rocks as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover. It would investigate the past or present ability of Mars to support life. NASA is considering nuclear energy for powering the rover to give it a long operating lifespan.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is managing development of the Mars Smart Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  4. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  5. Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milstead, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

  6. Production of a Science Documentary and Its Usefulness in Teaching the Nature of Science: Indirect Experience of How Science Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Young; Yi, Sang Wook; Cho, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we produced a documentary which portrays scientists at work and critically evaluated the use of this film as a teaching tool to help students develop an understanding of the nature of science. The documentary, "Life as a Scientist: People in Love with 'Caenorhabditis elegans,' a Soil Nematode" encompasses the…

  7. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates under organic and conventional soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójciga, A.; Kuś, J.; Turski, M.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    Variation in hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting water storage and infiltration because the large inter-aggregate pores are dewatered first and the transport of water and solutes is influenced by the properties of the individual aggregates and contacts between them. A high mechanical stability of soil aggregates is fundamental for the maintenance of proper tilth and provides stable traction for farm implements, but limit root growth inside aggregates. The aggregate properties are largely influenced by soil management practices. Our objective was to compare the effects of organic and conventional soil management on hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Experimental fields subjected to long-term organic (14 years) and conventional managements were located on loamy soil at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. Soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). After air-drying, two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were manually selected and kept in the dried state in a dessicator in order to provide the same boundary conditions. Following properties of the aggregates were determined: porosity (%) using standard wax method, cumulative infiltration Q (mm3 s-1) and sorptivity S (mm s -1/2) of water and ethanol using a tube with a sponge inserted at the tip, wettability (by comparison of sorptivity of water and ethanol) using repellency index R, crushing strength q (MPa) using strength testing device (Zwick/Roell) and calculated by Dexter's formula. All properties were determined in 15 replicates for each treatment, aggregates size and depth. Organic management decreased porosity of soil aggregates and ethanol infiltration. All aggregates revealed rather limited wettability (high repellency index). In most cases the aggregate wettability was lower under conventional than organic soil management

  8. Science Fiction on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  9. Chapter II.C Transport of Radionuclides through Soil and Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1980-12-23

    The purpose of this report is to provide a clearer perspective of the impact of radionuclides in soil and groundwater, particularly for those not well-versed in soil science, hydrology, and geology. Through nuclear waste disposal or accidents, radionuclides come in contact with soil and groundwater. Man is exposed to radiation as a result of movement (or transport) of the radionuclides into his environment. Water is the principal carrier that induces transport, but chemical characteristics of soil inhibit the transport.

  10. Assessing the influence of the rhizosphere on soil hydraulic properties using X-ray computed tomography and numerical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Keith R.; Mooney, Sacha J.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Crout, Neil M. J.; Roose, Tiina; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water distribution in soil is crucial for enhancing our knowledge of managing soil and water resources. The application of X-ray computed tomography (CT) to the plant and soil sciences is now well established. However, few studies have utilized the technique for visualizing water in soil pore spaces. Here this method is utilized to visualize the water in soil in situ and in three-dimensions at successive reductive matric potentials in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The measurements are combined with numerical modelling to determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, providing a complete picture of the hydraulic properties of the soil. The technique was performed on soil cores that were sampled adjacent to established roots (rhizosphere soil) and from soil that had not been influenced by roots (bulk soil). A water release curve was obtained for the different soil types using measurements of their pore geometries derived from CT imaging and verified using conventional methods, such as pressure plates. The water, soil, and air phases from the images were segmented and quantified using image analysis. The water release characteristics obtained for the contrasting soils showed clear differences in hydraulic properties between rhizosphere and bulk soil, especially in clay soil. The data suggest that soils influenced by roots (rhizosphere soil) are less porous due to increased aggregation when compared with bulk soil. The information and insights obtained on the hydraulic properties of rhizosphere and bulk soil will enhance our understanding of rhizosphere biophysics and improve current water uptake models. PMID:25740922

  11. A Brief History of Soil Mapping and Classification in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Hartemink, Alfred E.

    2014-05-01

    Soil maps show the distribution of soils across an area but also depict soil science theory and ideas on soil formation and classification at the time the maps were created. The national soil mapping program in the USA was established in 1899. The first nation-wide soil map was published by M. Whitney in 1909 and showed soil provinces that were largely based on geology. In 1912, G.N. Coffey published the first country-wide map based on soil properties. The map showed 5 broad soil units that used parent material, color and drainage as diagnostic criteria. The 1913 national map was produced by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham and showed broad physiographic units that were further subdivided into soil series, soil classes and soil types. In 1935, Marbut drafted a series of maps based on soil properties, but these maps were replaced as official U.S. soil maps in 1938 with the work of M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. A series of soil maps similar to modern USA maps appeared in the 1960s with the 7th Approximation followed by revisions with the 1975 and 1999 editions of Soil Taxonomy. This review has shown that soil maps in the United States produced since the early 1900s moved initially from a geologic-based concept to a pedologic concept of soils. Later changes were from property-based systems to process-based, and then back to property-based. The information in this presentation is based on Brevik and Hartemink (2013). Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil Maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390.

  12. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  13. Islam and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  14. A first attempt to reproduce basaltic soil chronosequences using a process-based soil profile model: implications for our understanding of soil evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; Gloor, M.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are complex systems which hold a wealth of information on both current and past conditions and many biogeochemical processes. The ability to model soil forming processes and predict soil properties will enable us to quantify such conditions and contribute to our understanding of long-term biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon cycle and plant nutrient cycles. However, attempts to confront such soil model predictions with data are rare, although increasingly more data from chronosquence studies is becoming available for such a purpose. Here we present initial results of an attempt to reproduce soil properties with a process-based soil evolution model similar to the model of Kirkby (1985, J. Soil Science). We specifically focus on the basaltic soils in both Hawaii and north Queensland, Australia. These soils are formed on a series of volcanic lava flows which provide sequences of different aged soils all with a relatively uniform parent material. These soil chronosequences provide a snapshot of a soil profile during different stages of development. Steep rainfall gradients in these regions also provide a system which allows us to test the model's ability to reproduce soil properties under differing climates. The mechanistic, soil evolution model presented here includes the major processes of soil formation such as i) mineral weathering, ii) percolation of rainfall through the soil, iii) leaching of solutes out of the soil profile iv) surface erosion and v) vegetation and biotic interactions. The model consists of a vertical profile and assumes simple geometry with a constantly sloping surface. The timescales of interest are on the order of tens to hundreds of thousand years. The specific properties the model predicts are, soil depth, the proportion of original elemental oxides remaining in each soil layer, pH of the soil solution, organic carbon distribution and CO2 production and concentration. The presentation will focus on a brief introduction of the

  15. Hands-On Whole Science. What Rots?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities on the science of garbage to help elementary students learn to save the earth. A rotting experiment teaches students what happens to apple slices sealed in plastic or buried in damp soil. Other activities include reading stories on the subject and conducting classroom composting or toxic materials projects. (SM)

  16. Science Action Labs Part 2: Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevick, Ed; Shevick, Florence, Ed.

    This book contains innovative hands-on science laboratory activities designed to teach 4th- through 9th-graders about the environment. The background materials and instructions included in each activity are written for students to work together in teams. Activities cover subjects such as smog, symbiosis, soil, trees, ecosystems, recycling,…

  17. Soil paints as a tool to increase soil awareness among different publics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine C.

    2013-04-01

    The Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef at the Soil Department of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Minas Gerais, Brazil, was opened in 1993 with a goal to sensibilize its public about soils, besides the usual geological approach. Since its opening, many of the guided visits include an activity of painting or modelling with soil materials. Such activities have the aim to familiarize people about the properties of soils, in special, colours, consistencies and textures in a joyful way. The tropical soils of the region offer a wide diversity of colours and textures that wonders and intrigues people in general. With time, some of the visitors as well as the museum team started to make trials how it would be to paint walls with the soil paints. It became a project to develop a social technology since the soil paints could be easily prepared and used at much lower cost than industrial paints. Additionally, to have the house painted offers populations living in the peripheral areas of the town of Viçosa the possibility to increase their quality of life by embellishing the surroundings where they live. After the basic know how was developed, the Museum and other extension groups of UFV started to train people in doing it. A brochure was published and the technique spread rapidly in the region and to other parts of the state and country as well. The workshops on soil paint preparation and use, offered by the Museum are open to a much diversified public: school children, professional painters, farmers of the landless movement, etc. The workshops have been taken as an opportunity to approach soils and its importance to life and environment. They start with questions about how people consider and see soils. From this starting point, soil formation processes and soil properties are introduced and discussed with the group. This is followed by the discussion of landscapes and where the soil materials can be collected and what are the differences to be expected between

  18. Collier Cobb and Allen D. Hole: Geologic mentors to early soil scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    Many influential individuals involved in the early US soil survey program were trained as geologists rather than as agronomists or soil scientists. Several geology departments served as pipelines for students interested in a career in soil survey. This paper looks at the professional history of two early mentors of these geologists turned soil surveyors and some of the students they sent on to the US soil survey and other soil science careers. Collier Cobb sent over 10 students to the soil survey starting in 1900 when US soil survey was in its infancy, including individuals of note such as Hugh H. Bennett, George N. Coffey, Williamson E. Hearn, and Thomas D. Rice. Allen D. Hole worked on soil surveys for the state of Indiana and sent over a dozen students on to US soil survey careers between 1911 and 1937, including Mark Baldwin and James Thorp. Francis Hole and Ralph McCracken, other students of Allen Hole, also went on to have distinguished soil science careers. These mentors and students clearly show the close ties that existed between soil science and geology in the United States during the early 1900s.

  19. Collier Cobb and Allen D. Hole: Geologic Mentors to Early American Soil Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Many influential individuals involved in the early United States soil survey program were trained as geologists rather than as agronomists or soil scientists. Several geology departments served as pipelines for students interested in a career in soil survey. This presentation looks at the professional history of two early mentors of these geologists turned soil surveyors and some of the students they sent on to the U.S. soil survey and other soil science careers. Collier Cobb (University of North Carolina) sent over 10 students to the soil survey starting in 1900 when U.S. soil survey was in its infancy, including individuals of note such as Hugh H. Bennett, George N. Coffey, Williamson E. Hearn, and Thomas D. Rice. Allen D. Hole (Earlham College, Indiana) worked on soil surveys for the state of Indiana and sent over a dozen students on to U.S. soil survey careers between 1911 and 1937, including Mark Baldwin and James Thorp. Francis Hole and Ralph McCracken, other students of Allen Hole, also went on to have distinguished soil science careers. These mentors and students clearly show the close ties that existed between soil science and geology in the United States during the early 1900s.

  20. Rock and Soil Types at Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Type areas of rocks and soils. (A) Dark rock type and bright soil type: Shown is the dark rock Barnacle Bill. Reflectance spectra typical of fresh basalt and APXS spectra indicating more silica-rich basaltic andesite compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically the small boulders and intermediate-sized cobbles at the Pathfinder site. The bright soil type is very common and in this case comprises Barnacle Bill's wind tail and much of the surround soil area. This soil has a high reflectance and a strongly reddened spectrum indicative of oxidized ferric minerals. (B) Bright rock type: Shown is the bright rock Wedge. Reflectance spectra typical of weathered basalt and APXS spectra indicating basaltic compositions characterize this type. These rocks are typically larger than 1 meter in diameter and many display morphologies indicating flood deposition. (C) Pink rock type: Shown is the pink rock Scooby Doo. APXS and reflectance spectra indicate a composition and optical characteristics similar to the drift soil. However, the morphology of the pink rock type indicates a cemented or rocklike structure. This material may be a chemically cemented hardpan that underlies much of the Pathfinder site. (D) Dark soil type: The dark soil type is typically found on the windward sides of rocks or in rock-free areas like Photometry Flats (shown here) where the bright soil has been striped away by aeolian action or in open areas. Other locations include the Mermaid Dune. (E) Disturbed soil type: The darkening of disturbed soil relative to its parent material, bright soil, as a result of changes in soil texture and compaction caused by movement of the rover and retraction of the lander airbag. (F) Lamb-like soil type: This soil type shows reflectance and spectral characteristics intermediate between the bright and dark soils. Its distinguishing feature is a weak spectral absorption near 900 nanometers not seen in either the bright or dark soils.

    NOTE: original

  1. Soil: Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source to meet global food and fiber demands is production agriculture, but accelerated soil erosion threatens its sustainability. Soil erosion is an important contributor to the normal soil formation process, but erosion becomes problematic when it is accelerated. Soil conservation prac...

  2. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  3. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  4. Rover Soil Experiments Near Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner, while on its way to the rock Yogi, performed several soil mechanics experiments. Piles of loose material churned up from the experiment are seen in front of and behind the Rover. The rock Pop-Tart is visible near the front right rover wheel. Yogi is at upper right. The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. 7 CFR 764.101 - General eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Requirements for All Direct Program Loans § 764... degree in agricultural business, horticulture, animal science, agronomy, or other...

  6. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - Learning about soil diversity and soil functions with cartoon characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2015-04-01

    "Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen" is a German-language learning material that fosters discovery of soil diversity and soil functions in kids, teens and adults who enjoy interactive learning activities. The learning material consists of (i) a large poster (dimensions 200 x 120 cm) showing an imaginative illustrated landscape that could be situated in Austria, Switzerland or southern Germany and (ii) a set of 15 magnetic cards that show different soil cartoon characters, e.g. Bruno Braunerde (Cambisol), Stauni Pseudogley (Stagnic Luvisol) or Heidi Podsol (Podzol) on the front and a fun profession and address (linked to the respective soil functions) on the back side. The task is to place the soil cartoon characters to their 'home' in the landscape. This learning material was developed as a contribution to the International Year of Soils 2015 and is supported by the German, Austrian and Swiss Soil Sciences Societies and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The soil cartoon characters are an adaptation of the original concept by the James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/dirt-doctor).

  7. Policy and effective action for soil security: a need for reframing the soil story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Soil science is a vital scientific discipline producing cutting-edge research in its various sub-disciplines. Its role in studying major environmental issues, often defined as food security, water and energy availability, climate change and biodiversity loss, is, however, less obvious to stakeholders, policy makers and the public at large. It deserves better. Reframing the soil story by taking a pro-active interdisciplinary approach in demonstrating the role of soils when studying these issues is advocated in the context of the ten Sustainable Development Goals. Soil change matters not only in a negative way when referring to erosion and degradation but also, and particularly, to soil improvement. But only successfully completed programs in practice will be convincing and that's why an active role of soil researchers and soil scientists, acting as knowledge brokers, is advocated in transdisciplinary programs. This includes more emphasis on preparation and implementation than is allowed in current programs. A case study is presented and a narrative is used to link the five major environmental issues in a logical sequence, showing their interdependence. Current soil research and education programs should reflect demands made by inter- and transdisciplinary approaches and need a new, fresh approach.

  8. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Chris; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty science experiments are presented. Topics include recombinant DNA, physiology, nucleophiles, reactivity series, molar volume of gases, spreadsheets in chemistry, hydrogen bonding, composite materials, radioactive decay, magnetism, speed, charged particles, compression waves, heat transfer, Ursa Major, balloons, current, and expansion of…

  9. Skeptical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  10. Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eads, Ewin A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses implementation of an interdisciplinary bachelor of science degree program in Lamar University, Beaumont, with emphases upon the training of pollution and environmental quality control. Indicates that graduates' job opportunities are created by the enactment of recent laws for cleaner air and water. (CC)

  11. Kaleidoscope Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Presents a collection of science activities that have elementary students investigate how color can trick the eye and the brain. The activities involve working with contrasting colors, creating a rainbow, and exploring the connection between colors and words. An instructor reproducible features two color activities. (SM)

  12. Actuarial Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Bette

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided of a program on actuarial training developed at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton through the Department of Mathematical Sciences. An outline of its operation, including a few statistics on students in the program, is included. (MP)

  13. Science First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2005-01-01

    At the elementary level, when children learn best through hands-on activities, when is the best time to use literacy and make that connection to enhance learning? For teachers involved in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Science Teacher Enhancement Program Unifying the Pikes Peak Region, STEP-uP professional development program for teachers, it is…

  14. Subterranean science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paling, Sean; Sadler, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    The deep underground laboratories of the world are no longer the scientific realm of astroparticle physics alone. From Mars rovers to muon tomography, and from radioactive dating to astrobiology, Sean Paling and Stephen Sadler describe the renaissance in the science taking place far beneath our feet.

  15. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom…

  16. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes 26 different activities, experiments, demonstrations, and computer simulations in various topics in science. Includes instructional activities dealing with mural ecology, surface area/volume ratios, energy transfer in ecosystems, electrochemical simulations, alternating and direct current, terminal velocity, measuring the size of the…

  17. Pathological Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Sheldon

    2001-09-01

    I discuss examples of what Dr. Irving Langmuir, a Nobel prize winner in Chemistry, called "the science of things that aren't so." Some of his examples are reviewed and others from High Energy Physics are added. It is hoped that discussing these incidents will help us develop an understanding of some potential pitfalls.

  18. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, G. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

  19. Brewing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  20. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Activities, experiments, computer programs, equipment, procedures, demonstrations, and teaching techniques are provided for a wide variety of topics in the biological and physical sciences. They include an improved apparatus for measuring rate of photosynthesis, procedures for making rainbows and measuring stomatal openings, and others. (JN)

  1. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  2. Literary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Megan R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of literacy in science education. Uses "Silent Spring", a book on environmental issues, to encourage students to think about the role of water in balancing the earth's system and possible actions against environmental concerns. Creates an environment for students to discuss their knowledge on the use of the pesticide…

  3. Talking Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The Talking Science project initially involved three secondary schools and eight of their feeder primary schools in the London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames. The project created, trialled and evaluated a set of key stage 2/3 transition materials for children moving from primary to secondary school, using argument as a teaching and learning…

  4. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  5. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  6. Redirecting science

    SciTech Connect

    Aaserud, F.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters. Science policy and fund-raising up to 1934; The Copenhagen spirit at work, late 1920's to mid-1930s; The refugee problem, 1933 to 1935; Experimental biology, late 1920s to 1935; and Consolidation of the transition, 1935 to 1940.

  7. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 25 science activities on colorations of prey, evolution, blood, physiology, nutrition, enzyme kinetics, leaf pigments, analytical chemistry, milk, proteins, fermentation, surface effects of liquids, magnetism, drug synthesis, solvents, wintergreen synthesis, chemical reactions, multicore cables, diffraction, air resistance,…

  8. Science Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph; Newman, Alan; Farrar, Cathy; Saul, E. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Much of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), aside from the inquiry and teaching sections, focus on content. The authors' call is instead to build standards that focus on what students need to be scientifically literate in 10 or 15 years. Although a basic understanding of important scientific concepts and an understanding of how…

  9. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes activities, games, experiments, demonstrations, and computer-oriented exercises in all science areas. Topics include energy flow through a marine ecosystem, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyethanoic acid to demonstrate translocation in plants, use of the dichotomous key, use of leaf yeasts to monitor atmospheric pollution, and others. (JN)

  10. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  11. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  12. Creating Common Ground: Activities of the Soil Health Dialog Workgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Moebius-Clune, Bianca; Hatfield, Jerry; Buckner, William; Conklin, Neil; McMahon, Sean; Haney, Richard; Muller, Paul; Martin, Larkin; Shaw, Richard; Eyrich, Ted; Martens, Klaas; Archuleta, Ray; Thompson, Mary

    2014-05-01

    The concept of Soil Health has come to forefront as a soil management concept for soil scientists, agronomists, producers, land-use planners, and environmental advocates. Although many see this simply as a way to increase organic matter in the soil it is much more than that and has implications to a broader management decisions. A diverse group of stake holders ranging from scientists to consultants, conventional to organic farmers, governmental to NGOs met to start a dialog about soil health with an overarching goal to adopt practices that will improve soil health across a wide area and for a wide variety of land uses. The group recognized the critical need for using soil health as a cornerstone of sustainable soil management. The group also realized that a consistent and coherent message about soil health needed to be developed that would be inclusive to all stake holders. Furthermore the group recognized that if soil health is to be promoted we all need to know and agree on how to measure it and interpret the results. The first outcome from the meeting was the creation of several teams comprised of individuals with the diverse interests as list above. The first was tasked to review and develop a definition of soil health. The first group, after much debate, decided on the adoption of the USDA-NRCS definition of Soil Health as the most effective way to begin. This definition was presented as a press release from the Farm Foundation in early December 2013 in conjunction with World Soil Day. The second group was tasked to review, develop or recommend standard measurement techniques to assess soil health. The methods group is in the process of reviewing methods and hopes to have a preliminary list out for broader review by mid-year. This presentation reviews current progress and asks for input from the Soil Science community at large.

  13. [Effects of biochar on microbial ecology in agriculture soil: a review].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ying-Ying

    2013-11-01

    Biochar, as a new type of soil amendment, has been obtained considerable attention in the research field of environmental sciences worldwide. The studies on the effects of biochar in improving soil physical and chemical properties started quite earlier, and already covered the field of soil microbial ecology. However, most of the studies considered the soil physical and chemical properties and the microbial ecology separately, with less consideration of their interactions. This paper summarized and analyzed the interrelationships between the changes of soil physical and chemical properties and of soil microbial community after the addition of biochar. Biochar can not only improve soil pH value, strengthen soil water-holding capacity, increase soil organic matter content, but also affect soil microbial community structure, and alter the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. After the addition of biochar, the soil environment and soil microorganisms are interacted each other, and promote the improvement of soil microbial ecological system together. This review was to provide a novel perspective for the in-depth studies of the effects of biochar on soil microbial ecology, and to promote the researches on the beneficial effects of biochar to the environment from ecological aspect. The methods to improve the effectiveness of biochar application were discussed, and the potential applications of biochar in soil bioremediation were further analyzed.

  14. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  15. Portraying Real Science in Science Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    In both formal and informal settings, not only science but also views on the nature of science are communicated. Although there probably is no singular nature shared by all fields of science, in the field of science education it is commonly assumed that on a certain level of generality there is a consensus on many features of science. In this…

  16. Conceptual designs for in situ analysis of Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.; Zent, A. P.; Hartman, H.

    1991-01-01

    A goal of this research is to develop conceptual designs for instrumentation to perform in situ measurements of the Martian soil in order to determine the existence and nature of any reactive chemicals. Our approach involves assessment and critical review of the Viking biology results which indicated the presence of a soil oxidant, an investigation of the possible application of standard soil science techniques to the analysis of Martian soil, and a preliminary consideration of non-standard methods that may be necessary for use in the highly oxidizing Martian soil. Based on our preliminary analysis, we have developed strawman concepts for standard soil analysis on Mars, including pH, suitable for use on a Mars rover mission. In addition, we have devised a method for the determination of the possible strong oxidants on Mars.

  17. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    scale using the Taguchi method. Journal of Hydrology, 448, 174-180. Asadi, H., Moussavi, A., Ghadiri, H., Rose, C. W. 2011. Flow-driven soil erosion processes and the size selectivity of sediment. Journal of Hydrology, 406(1), 73-81. Asadi, H., Raeisvandi, A., Rabiei, B., Ghadiri, H. 2012. Effect of land use and topography on soil properties and agronomic productivity on calcareous soils of a semiarid region, Iran. Land Degradation & Development, 23(5), 496-504. Ayoubi, S., Ahmadi, M., Abdi, M. R., Abbaszadeh Afshar, F. 2012. Relationships of< sup> 137 Cs inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 112, 45-51. Ayoubi, S., Mokhtari Karchegani, P., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Honarjoo, N. 2012. Soil aggregation and organic carbon as affected by topography and land use change in western Iran. Soil and Tillage Research, 121, 18-26. Emadodin, I., Bork, H. R. 2012. Degradation of soils as a result of long-term human-induced transformation of the environment in Iran: an overview. Journal of Land Use Science, 7(2), 203-219. Emadodin, I., Narita, D., Bork, H. R. 2012. Soil degradation and agricultural sustainability: an overview from Iran. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14(5), 611-625. Haddadchi, A., Nosrati, K., Ahmadi, F. 2014. Differences between the source contribution of bed material and suspended sediments in a mountainous agricultural catchment of western Iran. CATENA, 116, 105-113. Heshmati, M., Arifin, A., Shamshuddin, J., Majid, N. M. 2012. Predicting N, P, K and organic carbon depletion in soils using MPSIAC model at the Merek catchment, Iran. Geoderma, 175, 64-77. Jafari, R., Bakhshandehmehr, L. 2013. Quantitative mapping and assessment of environmentally sensitive areas to desertification in central Iran. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2227 Kavian, A., Azmoodeh, A., Solaimani, K. 2014. Deforestation effects on soil properties, runoff and erosion in northern Iran. Arabian

  18. Soils, climate change and the OECD.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Schepers, J S

    2008-01-01

    Some concepts of sustainability applied to soils are given in relation to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme 'Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems'. The application of these concepts to climate change will be discussed in relation to seven high-profile papers published over the past 12 months. It is argued that multi-disciplinary (including social science) approaches are needed to address the issues. There is also a brief discussion on biomass energy in terms of soil sustainability and climate change.

  19. Navigating a Transdisciplinary Research Project with a Non-Traditional Academic Background: Climate Change, Soil Health and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP) is a collaboration of 150+ team members spanning a range of scientific disciplinary backgrounds. The project goal is to produce collaborative research, education and extension aimed at mitigating and adapting Midwest cropping systems to climate variability and change. My PhD work in Agronomy and Sustainable Agriculture is a part of the CSCAP although my prior academic background was in applied climate science and biology, thus proposing a potential challenge to the new academic landscape. Further, graduate students within CSCAP are a part of a natural experiment in how the next generation of scientists operates in a transdisciplinary environment. As part of my leadership in the CSCAP, I helped to develop a "roadmap" document outlining the learning opportunities available to students. This document was meant to underscore the skills and experiences that will aid us in future collaborative research projects. Through these leadership experiences, I believe that the underpinning of any successful collaborative research project requires time: to develop relationships, earn trust and develop shared understandings and respect for different academic backgrounds.

  20. Agronomie implications of waterfowl management in Mississippi ricefields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Ricefields are important foraging habitat for waterfowl and other waterbirds in several North American wintering areas, including the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Rice growers are likely to adopt management practices that provide habitat for waterfowl if agronomic benefits also occur. Therefore, we conducted a replicated field experiment during autumn through spring 1995-1997 to study effects of postharvest field treatment and winter-water management on agronomic variables including biomass of residual rice straw, cool-season grasses and forbs (i.e., winter weeds), and viability of red rice (Oryza sativa var.). The treatment combination of postharvest disking and flooding until early March reduced straw 68%, from 9,938 kg/ha after harvest to 3,209 kg/ha in spring. Treatment combinations that included flooding until early March were most effective in suppressing winter weeds and decreased their biomass in spring by 83% when compared to the average of other treatment combinations. Effects of treatment combinations on spring viability of red rice differed between winters, but no significant effects were found within winters. Autumn disking followed by flooding until early March reduced rice straw and suppressed winter weeds the most, but with additional costs. To obtain the most agronomic benefits, we recommend that rice growers forgo autumn disking and flood fields until early March, which will provide moderate straw reduction, good weed suppression, and predicted savings of $22.24-62.93/ha (U.S.) ($9.00-25.47/ac). Maintenance of floods on ricefields until early March also benefits waterfowl and other waterbirds by providing foraging habitat throughout winter.

  1. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  2. Influence of peat-bog fire on physical properties of peat-mull soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabryla, J.; Lipka, K.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years in Poland disseminated the curse of grassland (either peat meadows) burning. Peat-bogs drained long time ago, where peat-mull soils occur are subjected on fire in particular, because they are often dried. After burned peat remain pits various depth and land irregularity. The aim of the work is morphological characteristics of soil profiles and comparison of chosen physical properties of peat-mull soils on former fire and adjacent area. Research was carried out on the mid-forest peat-bog Wielkie Bloto in Puszcza Niepolomicka. The method used in the work is routinely accepted in soil science. The results show that values of ash content, density and moisture are higher than the ones for soils of adjacent areas. In top stratum of post fire soils bulk density is lower in comparison with upper layers of adjacent soils. Contractility of soils degraded by fire is lower than for soils of adjacent areas.

  3. Connecting soil microbial communities to soil functioning and soil health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important functions soils perform, is the capacity to buffer anthropogenic disturbances to sustain productivity while improving water and air quality. At the core of a healthy soil is a biological active and diverse community that provides internal nutrient cycling and is resilient t...

  4. Heliophysics Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; Schrjver, K.; Siscoe, G. L.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Longcope, D. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Guhathakurta, M.

    2009-12-01

    HELIOPHYSICS SUMMER SCHOOLS: NASA Living With a Star and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Visiting Scientist Programs sponsor the Heliophysics Summer Schools to build this new field of science. The series of summer schools, started in 2007, help graduate students and scientists learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from the Earth's troposphere to the depths of the Sun, and in time from the formation of the solar system to the distant future. The first three years of the school will result in three textbooks for use at universities worldwide. Subsequent years will both teach other generations of students and develop the complementary materials that support teaching of heliophysics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Heliophysics is a developing scientific discipline integrating studies of the Sun’s variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and climatic environments. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever-increasing rate. The first textbook, (Heliophysics I Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos, edited by Carolus J. Schrijver, Lockheed Martin and George L. Siscoe, Boston University) integrates such diverse topics for the first time as a coherent intellectual discipline. It emphasizes the physical processes coupling the Sun and Earth, allowing insights into the interaction of the solar wind and radiation with the Earth’s magnetic field, atmosphere and climate system. It provides a core resource for advanced undergraduates and graduates, and also constitutes a foundational reference for researchers in heliophysics, astrophysics, plasma physics, space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science and climate science. HELIOPHYSICS POSTDOCTORAL PROGRAM: Hosts and applicants are invited to apply to a new postdoctoral fellowship program designed to train

  5. The Earth Science for Tomorrows Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    The Earth sciences comprises many fascinating topics that is teached to different age level pupils/students in order to bring hard core science closer to their daily life. With developing possibilities in IT, multimedia overall electronic sector the teachers/lecturers have continuous possibilities to accomplish novel approaches and utilize new ideas to make science more interesting for students in all ages. Emerging, from personal experiences, the teaching of our surrounding Environment can be very enjoyable. In our everyday life the SOIL remains invisible. The soil is covered by plant cover which makes the topic somewhat in distant that is not "visible" to an eye and its importance is underestimated. In other hand, the SOIL is valuable primary resource for food production and basis of life for healthy environment. From several studies have found that because its complications, SOIL related topics are not very often chosen topic for course or diploma works by students. The lower-school students are very open to environmental topics accordingly to the grades. Here, the good results can be obtained through complimentary materials creation, like story telling and drawing books and puzzles. The middle/ and upper/school students will experience "real science" being able to learn what the science is about which often can play a important role on making choices for future curriculum completion at university level. Current presentation shares the ideas of selected methods that had showed successful results on different Earth Science topics teaching (biodiversity, growing substrates, green house gas emissions). For some ideas the presentation introduces also the further developmental possibilities to be used in teaching at Tomorrows Classroom.

  6. Science Centres and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J.; McClafferty, Terence P.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the interactive science center and its history over the last four decades. Traces the original idea to Francis Bacon. Recommends the use of cross-site studies to develop a model of learning in this setting. Contains 141 references. (DDR)

  7. The Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Peter, Ed.

    This 12-chapter book discusses the scientific facts behind the ideas included in the novels of Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Arthur C. Clark and other science fiction writers. Areas explored in the first 11 chapters include: exploration of deep space; energy and exotic power sources; likelihood of extra-terrestrial life and the…

  8. Science Shorts: "Sounds" Like Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Kathryn; Morris, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    It seems each new school year brings its own opportunities to grow as an educator. As teachers in a STEM focused school that serves primarily at-risk students, the authors face a new challenge in rethinking their instruction to align with the "Next Generation Science Standards". This involves changing the focus of units previously taught…

  9. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  10. Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with

  11. Beneath aggregate stability - quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; Ogden, Mike; Karim, Kamal; Schmidt, Sonja; Yoshida, Shuichiro

    2014-05-01

    Soil aggregates are a figment of your energy input and initial boundary conditions, so the basic thermodynamics that drive soil structure formation are needed to understand soil structure dynamics. Using approaches from engineering and materials science, it is possible quantify basic thermodynamic properties, but at present tests are generally limited to highly simplified, often remoulded, soil structures. Although this presents limitations, the understanding of underlying processes driving soil structure dynamics is poor, which could be argued is due to the enormity of the challenge of such an incredibly complex system. Other areas of soil science, particularly soil water physics, relied on simplified structures to develop theories that can now be applied to more complex pore structures. We argue that a similar approach needs to gain prominence in the study of soil aggregates. An overview will be provided of approaches adapted from other disciplines to quantify particle bonding, fracture resistance, rheology and capillary cohesion of soil that drive its aggregation and structure dynamics. All of the tests are limited as they require simplified soil structures, ranging from repacked soils to flat surfaces coated with mineral particles. A brief summary of the different approaches will demonstrate the benefits of collecting basic physical data relevant to soil structure dynamics, including examples where they are vital components of models. The soil treatments we have tested with these engineering and materials science approaches include field soils from a range of management practices with differing clay and organic matters contents, amendment and incubation of soils with a range of microorganisms and substrates in the laboratory, model clay-sand mixes and planar mineral surfaces with different topologies. In addition to advocating the wider adoption of these approaches, we will discuss limitations and hope to stimulate discussion on how approaches could be improved

  12. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  13. Computer sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  14. Preservice Science Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Beliefs about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers clarification of science teacher orientations as a potential component of pedagogical content knowledge. Science teaching orientations and beliefs about science held by 237 preservice science teachers were gathered via content-specific vignettes and questionnaire, respectively, prior to participation in a UK-based teacher…

  15. Accessibility, searchability, transparency and engagement of soil carbon data: The International Soil Carbon Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Koven, Charlie; Sulman, Ben; O'Donnell, Jon; He, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Soils are capacitors for carbon and water entering and exiting through land-atmosphere exchange. Capturing the spatiotemporal variations in soil C exchange through monitoring and modeling is difficult in part because data are reported unevenly across spatial, temporal, and management scales and in part because the unit of measure generally involves destructive harvest or non-recurrent measurements. In order to improve our fundamental basis for understanding soil C exchange, a multi-user, open source, searchable database and network of scientists has been formed. The International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) is a self-chartered, member-based and member-owned network of scientists dedicated to soil carbon science. Attributes of the ISCN include 1) Targeted ISCN Action Groups which represent teams of motivated researchers that propose and pursue specific soil C research questions with the aim of synthesizing seminal articles regarding soil C fate. 2) Datasets to date contributed by institutions and individuals to a comprehensive, searchable open-access database that currently includes over 70,000 geolocated profiles for which soil C and other soil properties. 3) Derivative products resulting from the database, including depth attenuation attributes for C concentration and storage; C storage maps; and model-based assessments of emission/sequestration for future climate scenarios. Several examples illustrate the power of such a database and its engagement with the science community. First, a simplified, data-constrained global ecosystem model estimated a global sensitivity of permafrost soil carbon to climate change (g sensitivity) of -14 to -19 Pg C °C-1 of warming on a 100 years time scale. Second, using mathematical characterizations of depth profiles for organic carbon storage, C at the soil surface reflects Net Primary Production (NPP) and its allotment as moss or litter, while e-folding depths are correlated to rooting depth. Third, storage of deep C is highly

  16. Fictitious Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T), like Research and Development (R&D), has become a case of capital investment like any other economic sector. This has distanced R&D from social needs, to the extent that part of R&D ends up actually being fictitious, in the sense that it acquires a price on the market but never becomes part of material…

  17. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  18. Network science.

    PubMed

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-03-28

    Professor Barabási's talk described how the tools of network science can help understand the Web's structure, development and weaknesses. The Web is an information network, in which the nodes are documents (at the time of writing over one trillion of them), connected by links. Other well-known network structures include the Internet, a physical network where the nodes are routers and the links are physical connections, and organizations, where the nodes are people and the links represent communications.

  19. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  20. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.