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Sample records for ags injection fast

  1. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  2. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  3. Kinetics of fast island decay on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, Karina; Rosenfeld, Georg; Comsa, George; Sorensen, Mads R.; Hammer, Bjork; Laegsgaard, Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2001-01-15

    The kinetics of fast island decay on Ag(111) close to steps has been studied in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and atomistic total energy calculations. We show that a breakdown of the step-edge barrier is not sufficient to explain the decay rates observed during fast decay events. From the interplay between experiments and theory, we instead propose that fast decay originates from concerted diffusion processes, which bypass the detachment barrier of atoms from kinks and step sites.

  4. Injection and acceleration of Au31+ in the BNL AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer,W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, W.; Huang, H.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Thieberger, P.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, S.Y.; Zeno, K.; Omet, C.; Spiller, P.

    2008-06-23

    Injection and acceleration of ions in a lower charge state reduces space charge effects, and, if further elcctron stripping is needed, may allow elimination of a stripping stage and the associated beam losses. The former is of interest to the accelerators in the GSI FAIR complex, the latter for BNL RHIC collider operation at energies lower than the current injection energy. Lower charge state ions, however, have a higher likelihood of electron stripping which can lead to dynamic pressures rises and subsequent beam losses. We report on experiments in the AGS where Au{sup 31+} ions were injected and accelerated instead of the normally used Au{sup 77+} ions. Beam intensities and the average pressure in the AGS ring are recorded, and compared with calculations for dynamic pressures and beam losses. The experimental results will be used to benchmark the StrahlSim dynamic vacuum code and will be incorporated in the GSI FAIR SIS100 design.

  5. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-08-29

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  6. Effects of Current-injection Firing with Ag Paste in a Boron Emitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chanseok; Choi, Jae-Wook; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Soomin; Park, Hyomin; Song, Hee-eun; Yoon, Sam S.; Huh, Joo-Youl; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-01-01

    A high contact resistance for screen-printed contacts was observed when a conventional Ag paste was used on a boron emitter. The results of this study suggest that electron injection during firing is one of the processes that contribute to a lower contact resistance. Larger quantities of Ag precipitates formed upon electron injection into the boron emitter, which was confirmed by observing Ag crystallite or dendrite structures on the boron and by measuring the contact resistance between the boron emitter and the Ag bulk. The electron-injected sample had approximately 10000 times lower contact resistance than an untreated sample. The contact resistance of the electron-injected sample was 0.021 mΩ∙cm2 under optimal conditions, which is lower than that of conventional p-type silicon solar cells. Thus, electron injection can effectively lower contact resistance when using Ag paste in n-type silicon solar cells. During the cooling in the firing process, dissolved Ag ions in the glass layer are formed as dendrites or crystallites/particles. The dendrites are formed earlier than others via electrochemical migration under electron injection conditions. Then, crystallites and particles are formed via a silicon etching reaction. Thus, Ag ions that are not formed as dendrites will form as crystallites or particles. PMID:26861828

  7. Effects of Current-injection Firing with Ag Paste in a Boron Emitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanseok; Choi, Jae-Wook; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Soomin; Park, Hyomin; Song, Hee-eun; Yoon, Sam S; Huh, Joo-Youl; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-01-01

    A high contact resistance for screen-printed contacts was observed when a conventional Ag paste was used on a boron emitter. The results of this study suggest that electron injection during firing is one of the processes that contribute to a lower contact resistance. Larger quantities of Ag precipitates formed upon electron injection into the boron emitter, which was confirmed by observing Ag crystallite or dendrite structures on the boron and by measuring the contact resistance between the boron emitter and the Ag bulk. The electron-injected sample had approximately 10000 times lower contact resistance than an untreated sample. The contact resistance of the electron-injected sample was 0.021 mΩ ∙ cm(2) under optimal conditions, which is lower than that of conventional p-type silicon solar cells. Thus, electron injection can effectively lower contact resistance when using Ag paste in n-type silicon solar cells. During the cooling in the firing process, dissolved Ag ions in the glass layer are formed as dendrites or crystallites/particles. The dendrites are formed earlier than others via electrochemical migration under electron injection conditions. Then, crystallites and particles are formed via a silicon etching reaction. Thus, Ag ions that are not formed as dendrites will form as crystallites or particles. PMID:26861828

  8. Effects of Current-injection Firing with Ag Paste in a Boron Emitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanseok; Choi, Jae-Wook; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Soomin; Park, Hyomin; Song, Hee-eun; Yoon, Sam S; Huh, Joo-Youl; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-02-10

    A high contact resistance for screen-printed contacts was observed when a conventional Ag paste was used on a boron emitter. The results of this study suggest that electron injection during firing is one of the processes that contribute to a lower contact resistance. Larger quantities of Ag precipitates formed upon electron injection into the boron emitter, which was confirmed by observing Ag crystallite or dendrite structures on the boron and by measuring the contact resistance between the boron emitter and the Ag bulk. The electron-injected sample had approximately 10000 times lower contact resistance than an untreated sample. The contact resistance of the electron-injected sample was 0.021 mΩ ∙ cm(2) under optimal conditions, which is lower than that of conventional p-type silicon solar cells. Thus, electron injection can effectively lower contact resistance when using Ag paste in n-type silicon solar cells. During the cooling in the firing process, dissolved Ag ions in the glass layer are formed as dendrites or crystallites/particles. The dendrites are formed earlier than others via electrochemical migration under electron injection conditions. Then, crystallites and particles are formed via a silicon etching reaction. Thus, Ag ions that are not formed as dendrites will form as crystallites or particles.

  9. Effects of Current-injection Firing with Ag Paste in a Boron Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanseok; Choi, Jae-Wook; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Soomin; Park, Hyomin; Song, Hee-Eun; Yoon, Sam S.; Huh, Joo-Youl; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-02-01

    A high contact resistance for screen-printed contacts was observed when a conventional Ag paste was used on a boron emitter. The results of this study suggest that electron injection during firing is one of the processes that contribute to a lower contact resistance. Larger quantities of Ag precipitates formed upon electron injection into the boron emitter, which was confirmed by observing Ag crystallite or dendrite structures on the boron and by measuring the contact resistance between the boron emitter and the Ag bulk. The electron-injected sample had approximately 10000 times lower contact resistance than an untreated sample. The contact resistance of the electron-injected sample was 0.021 mΩ•cm2 under optimal conditions, which is lower than that of conventional p-type silicon solar cells. Thus, electron injection can effectively lower contact resistance when using Ag paste in n-type silicon solar cells. During the cooling in the firing process, dissolved Ag ions in the glass layer are formed as dendrites or crystallites/particles. The dendrites are formed earlier than others via electrochemical migration under electron injection conditions. Then, crystallites and particles are formed via a silicon etching reaction. Thus, Ag ions that are not formed as dendrites will form as crystallites or particles.

  10. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, M. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Colchin, R. J.; Rome, J. A.; England, A. C.; Fowler, R. H.; Aceto, S. C.

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as well established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing on near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large aspect ratio, moderate shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970's. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energetic ion distributions derived from the fast ion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J(sup *) surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  11. Biosensor-based fragment screening using FastStep injections.

    PubMed

    Rich, Rebecca L; Quinn, John G; Morton, Tom; Stepp, J David; Myszka, David G

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a novel analyte injection method for the SensíQ Pioneer surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor referred to as "FastStep." By merging buffer and sample streams immediately prior to the reaction flow cells, the instrument is capable of automatically generating a two- or threefold dilution series (of seven or five concentrations, respectively) from a single analyte sample. Using sucrose injections, we demonstrate that the production of each concentration within the step gradient is highly reproducible. For kinetic studies, we developed analysis software that utilizes the sucrose responses to automatically define the concentration of analyte at any point during the association phase. To validate this new approach, we compared the results of standard and FastStep injections for ADP binding to a target kinase and a panel of compounds binding to carbonic anhydrase II. Finally, we illustrate how FastStep can be used in a primary screening mode to obtain a full concentration series of each compound in a fragment library.

  12. Biosensor-based fragment screening using FastStep injections

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Quinn, John G.; Morton, Tom; Stepp, J. David; Myszka, David G.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel analyte injection method for the SensíQ Pioneer surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor referred to as ‘FastStep™’. By merging buffer and sample streams immediately prior to the reaction flow cells, the instrument is capable of automatically generating a two- or three-fold dilution series (of seven or five concentrations, respectively) from a single analyte sample. Using sucrose injections, we demonstrate that the production of each concentration within the step gradient is highly reproducible. For kinetic studies, we developed analysis software that utilizes the sucrose responses to automatically define the concentration of analyte at any point during the association phase. To validate this new approach, we compared the results of standard and FastStep injections for ADP binding to a target kinase and a panel of compounds binding to carbonic anhydrase II. Finally, we illustrate how FastStep can be used in a primary screening mode to obtain a full concentration series of each compound in a fragment library. PMID:20800052

  13. First results of proton injection commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Luccio, A.; Skelly, J.; Soukas, A.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    Beam performance for the injection phase of proton beam commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron will be presented. The beam from the 200 MeV Linac is transported through a new beam line into the Booster. This Linac-to Booster (LTB) beam line includes a 126{degree} bend and brings the injected beam onto the Booster injection orbit through the backleg of a main ring dipole magnet. Transfer of beam from the Linac to the Booster, spiralling beam and closing the orbit in the Booster ring are discussed. Injection and transport through one sector of the ring has been accomplished. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-10-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  15. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-06-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  16. Fast camera observations of injected and intrinsic dust in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Erofeev, I.; Brochard, F.; Litnovsky, A.; Bozhenkov, S.; Bykov, I.; den Harder, N.; Sergienko, G.

    2015-12-01

    Stereoscopic fast camera observations of pre-characterized carbon and tungsten dust injection in TEXTOR are reported, along with the modelling of tungsten particle trajectories with MIGRAINe. Particle tracking analysis of the video data showed significant differences in dust dynamics: while carbon flakes were prone to agglomeration and explosive destruction, spherical tungsten particles followed quasi-inertial trajectories. Although this inertial nature prevented any validation of the force models used in MIGRAINe, comparisons between the experimental and simulated lifetimes provide a direct evidence of dust temperature overestimation in dust dynamics codes. Furthermore, wide-view observations of the TEXTOR interior revealed the main production mechanism of intrinsic carbon dust, as well as the location of probable dust remobilization sites.

  17. Enhancement of hole injection using ozone treated Ag nanodots dispersed on indium tin oxide anode for organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Jong-Min; Bae, Jung-Hyeok; Jeong, Jin-A; Jeong, Soon-Wook; Park, No-Jin; Kim, Han-Ki; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jang-Joo; Yi, Min-Su

    2007-04-16

    The authors report the enhancement of hole injection using an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode covered with ultraviolet (UV) ozone-treated Ag nanodots for fac tris (2-phenylpyridine) iridium Ir(ppy){sub 3}-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-visible spectrometer analysis exhibit that UV-ozone treatment of the Ag nanodots dispersed on the ITO anode leads to formation of Ag{sub 2}O nanodots with high work function and high transparency. Phosphorescent OLEDs fabricated on the Ag{sub 2}O nanodot-dispersed ITO anode showed a lower turn-on voltage and higher luminescence than those of OLEDs prepared with a commercial ITO anode. It was thought that, as Ag nanodots changed to Ag{sub 2}O nanodots by UV-ozone treatment, the decrease of the energy barrier height led to the enhancement of hole injection in the phosphorescent OLEDs.

  18. Pulsed power supply system for the fast quadrupoles in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    In the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, a number of depolarizing resonances will be encountered. Depolarization due to the so-called intrinsic resonances will be minimized by crossing each resonance in less than one beam revolution period (approx. 2 ..mu..s). This will be accomplished with a set of twelve fast tune-shifting quadrupoles distributed symmetrically around the ring. During a typical acceleration cycle, the fast quads will be energized with a burst of alternating polarity, fast rise/slow fall triangular current pulses. The amplitude of these pulses will vary from 160 A to about 2700 A peak. This paper describes the development of the pulsed power supply for the fast quads, the construction of a prototype modulator, and some of the initial test results obtained with the prototype.

  19. Fasting stimulates 2-AG biosynthesis in the small intestine: role of cholinergic pathways

    PubMed Central

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Igarashi, Miki; Narayanaswami, Vidya; Murray, Conor; Gancayco, Joseph; Russell, Amy; Jung, Kwang-Mook

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoids are lipid-derived signaling molecules that control feeding and energy balance by activating CB1-type cannabinoid receptors in the brain and peripheral tissues. Previous studies have shown that oral exposure to dietary fat stimulates endocannabinoid signaling in the rat small intestine, which provides positive feedback that drives further food intake and preference for fat-rich foods. We now describe an unexpectedly broader role for cholinergic signaling of the vagus nerve in the production of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG), in the small intestine. We show that food deprivation increases levels of 2-AG and its lipid precursor, 1,2-diacylglycerol, in rat jejunum mucosa in a time-dependent manner. This response is abrogated by surgical resection of the vagus nerve or pharmacological blockade of small intestinal subtype-3 muscarinic acetylcholine (m3 mAch) receptors, but not inhibition of subtype-1 muscarinic acetylcholine (m1 mAch). We further show that blockade of peripheral CB1 receptors or intestinal m3 mAch receptors inhibits refeeding in fasted rats. The results suggest that food deprivation stimulates 2-AG-dependent CB1 receptor activation through a mechanism that requires efferent vagal activation of m3 mAch receptors in the jejunum, which, in turn, may promote feeding after a fast. PMID:26290104

  20. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers.

  1. Seed-Mediated Hot-Injection Synthesis of Tiny Ag Nanocrystals on Nanoscale Solid Supports and Reaction Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Rehan, Mohamed; Rahier, Hubert; Bechelany, Mikhael; Van Assche, Guy

    2016-04-27

    Controlling the size and shape of noble Ag nanocrystals (NCs) is of great interest because of their unique size- and shape-dependent properties, especially below 20 nm, and because of interesting applications in drug delivery, sensing, and catalysis. However, the high surface energy and tendency of these tiny NCs to aggregate deteriorates their unique properties and limits their applications. To avoid the aggregation of Ag NCs and improve their performance, we report a seed-mediated hot injection approach to synthesize highly dispersed tiny Ag NCs on a nanosized solid CaCO3 support. This simple, low-cost, and effective chemical approach allows for synthesizing highly uniform Ag NCs (∼10 nm) on the surface of presynthesized CaCO3 single NCs (∼52 nm) without any aggregation of the Ag NCs. Viscose fibers were coated with the Ag@CaCO3 composite nanoparticles (NPs) produced, as well as with ∼126 nm Ag NPs for reference. The Ag@CaCO3 composite NPs show excellent UV protection and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In addition, they give a satin sheen gold to a dark gold color to the viscose fibers, while the Ag NPs (∼126 nm) result in a silver color. The proposed synthesis approach is highly versatile and applicable for many other noble metals, like Au or Pt. PMID:27025589

  2. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    PubMed

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  3. A Postsynaptic AMPK→p21-Activated Kinase Pathway Drives Fasting-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in AgRP Neurons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dong; Dagon, Yossi; Campbell, John N; Guo, Yikun; Yang, Zongfang; Yi, Xinchi; Aryal, Pratik; Wellenstein, Kerry; Kahn, Barbara B; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Lowell, Bradford B

    2016-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating food intake. The downstream AMPK substrates and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for this, however, are ill defined. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus regulate hunger. Their firing increases with fasting, and once engaged they cause feeding. AgRP neuron activity is regulated by state-dependent synaptic plasticity: fasting increases dendritic spines and excitatory synaptic activity; feeding does the opposite. The signaling mechanisms underlying this, however, are also unknown. Using neuron-specific approaches to measure and manipulate kinase activity specifically within AgRP neurons, we establish that fasting increases AMPK activity in AgRP neurons, that increased AMPK activity in AgRP neurons is both necessary and sufficient for fasting-induced spinogenesis and excitatory synaptic activity, and that the AMPK phosphorylation target mediating this plasticity is p21-activated kinase. This provides a signaling and neurobiological basis for both AMPK regulation of energy balance and AgRP neuron state-dependent plasticity. PMID:27321921

  4. A simple crunching of the AGS 'bare' machine ORM data - February 2007 - to extract some aspects of AGS transverse coupling at injection and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this note is to (once again) explore the AGS 'ORM' (orbit response matrix) data taken (by Operations) early during the 2007 run with an AGS bare machine and gold beam. Indeed the present motivation is to extract as much information about the AGS inherent transverse coupling as possible - from general arguments and the copious ORM data. And taking this one step further, (though not accomplished yet) the goal really should be to tell the model how to describe this coupling. 'Bare' as used here means the AGS with no quadrupole, sextupole or octupole magnets powered. Only the main (combined-function) magnet string and dipole bumps necessary to optimize beam survival are powered. 'ORM data' means the systematic recording of the equilibrium orbit beam position monitor response to powering individual dipole corrector magnets. The 'matrix' results from looking at the effect of each of the (12 superperiods X 4 dipoles per superperiod) 'kicks' on each of the (12 X 6) pick up electrodes (pues) in each transverse plane. So then we have two (48 X 72) matrices of numbers from the ORM data. (Though 'pue' usually refers to the hardware in the vacuum chamber and 'bpm' to the beam position monitoring system, the two labels will be used casually here.) The exercise is carried out at two magnet rigidities, injection (AGS field {approx}434 Gauss) and extraction to RHIC ({approx}9730 Gauss), - a ratio of rigidities of about 22.4. Since we stick with a bare machine, we are also stuck with the bare tunes which means the tunes are rather close together and near 8.75. Injection: (h,v) {approx} (8.73, 8.76).

  5. Fast-ion Characteristics in Colliding FRCs with Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Ryan; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Dettrick, Sean; TAE Team Team

    2011-10-01

    Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device aims to explore confinement properties of colliding Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas, augmented with neutral beam injection. Naturally, it is desirable to understand the general characteristics of the resulting fast- ion population. For this purpose, several 16 channel silicone-based Neutral Particle Bolometers (NPB) have been designed and installed on the C-2 device, measuring charge-exchanged fast-neutrals originating from the fast-ion population. We present results illustrating the effects on fast-ions from wall recycling and from the n = 2 rotation instability. In addition we find good agreement between NPB measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The NPB diagnostics are a spatially resolved complement to the energy resolved Neutral Particle Analyzers installed on the C-2 device.

  6. Structural evolution of Ag-Cu nano-alloys confined between AlN nano-layers upon fast heating.

    PubMed

    Janczak-Rusch, J; Chiodi, M; Cancellieri, C; Moszner, F; Hauert, R; Pigozzi, G; Jeurgens, L P H

    2015-11-14

    The structural evolution of a Ag-Cu/AlN nano-multilayer (NML), as prepared by magnetron-sputtering on a α-Al2O3 substrate, was monitored during fast heating by real-time in situ XRD analysis (at the synchrotron), as well as by ex situ microstructural analysis using SEM, XPS and in-house XRD. The as-deposited NML is constituted of alternating nano-layers (thickness ≈ 10 nm) of a chemically inert AlN barrier and a eutectic Ag-Cu(40at%) nano-alloy. The nano-alloy in the as-deposited state is composed of a fcc matrix of Ag nano-grains (≈6 nm), which are supersaturated by Cu, and some smaller embedded Cu rich nano-grains (≈4 nm). Heating up to 265 °C activates segregation of Cu out of the supersaturated Ag nano-grains phase, thus initiating phase separation. At T > 265 °C, the phase-separated Cu metal partially migrates to the top NML surface, thereby relaxing thermally-accumulated compressive stresses in the confined alloy nano-layers and facilitating grain coarsening of (still confined) phase-separated nano-crystallites. Further heating and annealing up to 420 °C results in complete phase separation, forming extended Ag and Cu domains with well-defined coherent Ag/AlN interfaces. The observed outflow of Cu well below the eutectic melting point of the bulk Ag-Cu alloy might provide new pathways for designing low-temperature nano-structured brazing materials.

  7. Fast high-throughput screening of temoporfin-loaded liposomal formulations prepared by ethanol injection method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kewei; Delaney, Joseph T; Schubert, Ulrich S; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-03-01

    A new strategy for fast, convenient high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations was developed, utilizing the automation of the so-called ethanol-injection method. This strategy was illustrated by the preparation and screening of the liposomal formulation library of a potent second-generation photosensitizer, temoporfin. Numerous liposomal formulations were efficiently prepared using a pipetting robot, followed by automated size characterization, using a dynamic light scattering plate reader. Incorporation efficiency of temoporfin and zeta potential were also detected in selected cases. To optimize the formulation, different parameters were investigated, including lipid types, lipid concentration in injected ethanol, ratio of ethanol to aqueous solution, ratio of drug to lipid, and the addition of functional phospholipid. Step-by-step small liposomes were prepared with high incorporation efficiency. At last, an optimized formulation was obtained for each lipid in the following condition: 36.4 mg·mL(-1) lipid, 13.1 mg·mL(-1) mPEG(2000)-DSPE, and 1:4 ethanol:buffer ratio. These liposomes were unilamellar spheres, with a diameter of approximately 50 nm, and were very stable for over 20 weeks. The results illustrate this approach to be promising for fast high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations.

  8. CRFR1 in AgRP Neurons Modulates Sympathetic Nervous System Activity to Adapt to Cold Stress and Fasting.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Yael; Weiss, Meira; Dine, Julien; Staikin, Katy; Golani, Ofra; Ramot, Assaf; Nahum, Tali; Kühne, Claudia; Shemesh, Yair; Wurst, Wolfgang; Harmelin, Alon; Deussing, Jan M; Eder, Matthias; Chen, Alon

    2016-06-14

    Signaling by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating the autonomic response to stressful challenges. Multiple hypothalamic nuclei regulate sympathetic outflow. Although CRFR1 is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus, the identity of these neurons and the role of CRFR1 here are presently unknown. Our studies show that nearly half of Arc-CRFR1 neurons coexpress agouti-related peptide (AgRP), half of which originate from POMC precursors. Arc-CRFR1 neurons are innervated by CRF neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and CRF application decreases AgRP(+)CRFR1(+) neurons' excitability. Despite similar anatomy in both sexes, only female mice selectively lacking CRFR1 in AgRP neurons showed a maladaptive thermogenic response to cold and reduced hepatic glucose production during fasting. Thus, CRFR1, in a subset of AgRP neurons, plays a regulatory role that enables appropriate sympathetic nervous system activation and consequently protects the organism from hypothermia and hypoglycemia. PMID:27211900

  9. Enhancement of hole injection using O{sub 2} plasma-treated Ag anode for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Won Choi; Soo, Young Kim; Kim, Ki-Beom; Tak, Yoon-Heung; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2005-01-03

    We report the enhancement of hole injection using AgO{sub x} layer between Ag anode and 4,4{sup '}-bis[N-(1-naphtyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl in top-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The turn-on voltage of OLEDs decreased from 17 to 7 V as Ag changed to AgO{sub x} by the surface treatment using O{sub 2} plasma. Synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the work function increased about 0.4 eV by the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. This led to the decrease of the energy barrier for hole injection, reducing the turn-on voltage of OLEDs.

  10. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  11. Fast Acting Eddy Current Driven Valve for Massive Gas Injection on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lyttle, Mark S; Baylor, Larry R; Carmichael, Justin R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Ericson, Milton Nance; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, David A; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Maruyama, So; Kiss, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Tokamak plasma disruptions present a significant challenge to ITER as they can result in intense heat flux, large forces from halo and eddy currents, and potential first-wall damage from the generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons. Massive gas injection (MGI) of high Z material using fast acting valves is being explored on existing tokamaks and is planned for ITER as a method to evenly distribute the thermal load of the plasma to prevent melting, control the rate of the current decay to minimize mechanical loads, and to suppress the generation of runaway electrons. A fast acting valve and accompanying power supply have been designed and first test articles produced to meet the requirements for a disruption mitigation system on ITER. The test valve incorporates a flyer plate actuator similar to designs deployed on TEXTOR, ASDEX upgrade, and JET [1 3] of a size useful for ITER with special considerations to mitigate the high mechanical forces developed during actuation due to high background magnetic fields. The valve includes a tip design and all-metal valve stem sealing for compatibility with tritium and high neutron and gamma fluxes.

  12. Fast and long-acting antibacterial properties of chitosan-Ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bai-Liang; Liu, Xiang-Sheng; Ji, Ying; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2012-09-01

    Infection associated with medical devices is one of the most frequent complications of modern medical biomaterials. Preparation of antibacterial films on the medical devices is a great challenge owing to bactericidal efficiency, long acting and biocompatibility. In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) doped chitosan/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) films were successfully prepared by dip coating method. The nanocomposite films with spherical Ag NPs (diameters in 10-50 nm) were stable after being immersed in PBS for 35 days. Through regulating the concentration of AgNO3, the nanocomposite films showed good cell compatibility. The nanocomposite films could eliminate 100% Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) in 5 min and had favorable long-acting antibacterial property. The increase of PVP amount obviously enhanced anti-adhesion activity of the nanocomposite film. Such nanocomposite films can be expected to have good potential in biomaterials applications.

  13. Fast batch injection analysis system for on-site determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana F; Marra, Mariana C; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Richter, Eduardo M

    2012-02-15

    A simple, accurate and fast (180 injections h(-1)) batch injection analysis (BIA) system with multiple-pulse amperometric detection has been developed for selective determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol. A sample aliquot (100 μL) was directly injected onto a gold electrode immersed in 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution (unique reagent). The proposed BIA method requires minimal sample manipulation and can be easily used for on-site analysis. The results obtained with the BIA method were compared to those obtained by gas-chromatography and similar results were obtained (at 95% of confidence level).

  14. Fast quantification of α-lipoic acid in biological samples and dietary supplements using batch injection analysis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Santos Pereira, Laise Nayra Dos; da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Araújo, Thaylan Pinheiro; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-01

    Batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection, using a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (PG/CoPc), was employed for determination of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in pharmaceutical product and in synthetic urine samples. The proposed BIA method is based on the application of a potential of +0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat, enabling quantification of ALA over a concentration range from 1.3×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-8)molL(-1). A sampling rate of 180 injections per hour was attained and measurements of the reproducibility of successive injections (100µmolL(-1) ALA on the same electrode) showed a RSD of 2.11% for 40 successive injections. The new sensor was utilised for ALA quantification in a dietary pharmaceutical supplement and in synthetic urine and the results obtained for both samples were compared with parallel analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the method recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia. The results obtained were similar (at a 95% confidence level) and in the case of the synthetic urine sample (prepared with a known amount of ALA) the recovery was situated between 98.0% and 102.6%.

  15. Fast quantification of α-lipoic acid in biological samples and dietary supplements using batch injection analysis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Santos Pereira, Laise Nayra Dos; da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Araújo, Thaylan Pinheiro; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-01

    Batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection, using a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (PG/CoPc), was employed for determination of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in pharmaceutical product and in synthetic urine samples. The proposed BIA method is based on the application of a potential of +0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat, enabling quantification of ALA over a concentration range from 1.3×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-8)molL(-1). A sampling rate of 180 injections per hour was attained and measurements of the reproducibility of successive injections (100µmolL(-1) ALA on the same electrode) showed a RSD of 2.11% for 40 successive injections. The new sensor was utilised for ALA quantification in a dietary pharmaceutical supplement and in synthetic urine and the results obtained for both samples were compared with parallel analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the method recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia. The results obtained were similar (at a 95% confidence level) and in the case of the synthetic urine sample (prepared with a known amount of ALA) the recovery was situated between 98.0% and 102.6%. PMID:27154671

  16. Highly enhanced photoluminescence of AgInS2/ZnS quantum dots by hot-injection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shenghua; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Yan, Zhengyu; Shen, Weiyang

    2015-01-01

    Highly photoluminescent and air-stable AgInS2 quantum dots (AIS QDs) were synthesized by a hot-injection route in N2 atmosphere and dark environment. The as-synthesized AIS QDs were further capped with ZnS shell by one-pot method in order to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. The photo-electronic property and the morphology of AIS QDs and AIS/ZnS QDs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), PL spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the narrow and symmetrical PL spectra of AIS QDs was time-dependent, and the emission wavelength of AIS QDs could be tunable within 436-610 nm by altering the initial Ag/In ratios. After being capped with ZnS shell, the AIS QDs showed excellent optical characteristics, including PL QYs up to 15%. The TEM results indicated that the spherical AIS/ZnS QDs were nearly monodispersed and homogeneous with an average particle size of 8 nm. The heavy metal free and high luminous AIS/ZnS QDs have great potential in biological application.

  17. DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Huymphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

    2006-06-19

    Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (<10{sup 20}). When the cold front reaches q {approx} 2 surface, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are destabilized [2], mixing hot core plasma with edge impurities. Here, q is the safety factor. Most (>90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain

  18. DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

    2006-09-29

    Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (<10{sup 20}). When the cold front reaches q {approx} 2 surface, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are destabilized [2], mixing hot core plasma with edge impurities. Here, q is the safety factor. Most (>90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain

  19. Physics of fast flux closure in coaxial helicity injection experiments in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2013-10-01

    Advancing toward non-inductive start-up and current drive for tokamaks, a solenoid-free plasma start-up method called transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI), first developed on the small HIT-II device, has been extended to the large NSTX device, in which up to 300 kA of plasma current has been generated. Unlike driven CHI (edge current drive) where non-axisymmetric MHD activity relaxes the current inward, in transient CHI only axisymmetric reconnection generates a high quality closed flux start-up equilibrium, as found in resistive MHD simulations of CHI in NSTX using the NIMROD code (nimrodteam.org). Closed flux surfaces during simulations of transient CHI can be explained through 2-D Sweet-Parker type reconnection. Non-axisymmetric 3-D modes do not appear to play a dominant role at present experimental parameters. Our simulations have used fixed boundary flux (including NSTX poloidal coil currents) and the NSTX experimental geometry. We find that, as in the experiment, an X point followed by a fairly large volume of closed flux surfaces is rapidly formed; within 0.5 ms after the injector voltage and current begin to rapidly decrease. These direct numerical simulations reveal the fundamental mechanism for the reconnection process in transient CHI. Through direct numerical calculations, we find that as the injector voltage is turned off, the fields lines tend to untwist in the toroidal direction and magnetic field compression exerts a radial JXB force to bring oppositely directed field lines closer together to reconnect. A hierarchy of models from a zero pressure model to simulations with temperature evolution, allow us a full and more detailed understanding of the reconnection and closed flux surfaces. We find that magnetic fluxes are only reconnected at low magnetic diffusivity (high Lundquist number). In these simulations, narrow current layers form and cause the flux to close at a fast time scale when pinch flows are generated near the injector flux foot

  20. Alfvén ion-cyclotron instability in an axisymmetric trap with oblique injection of fast atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tsidulko, Yu. A.; Chernoshtanov, I. S.

    2014-12-15

    Conditions for the onset of Alfvén ion-cyclotron instability and the spatial structure of unstable modes in an axisymmetric mirror trap with oblique injection of fast atoms are studied. It is shown that the main contribution to instability comes from the inverse population of ions in the velocity space domain into which atoms are injected. Using the distribution function of fast ions obtained by approximately solving the Fokker-Planck equation, the instability threshold in terms of β{sub ⊥} is determined in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation as a function of the geometric parameters and the parameters of injection and target plasma. It is demonstrated that the stability threshold increases substantially when the radius of the hot plasma decreases to a size comparable with the Larmor radius of fast ions. It is shown that the perturbed fields near the axis and at the plasma periphery can rotate in opposite directions, which is important for the interpretation of experimental data.

  1. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace.

  2. Investigation of transverse jet injections in a supersonic crossflow using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crafton, Jim; Forlines, Alan; Palluconi, Steve; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Carter, Campbell; Gruber, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Traditional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) systems can provide data with high spatial resolution; however, the bandwidth is limited to a few Hz by the response time of the paint. Fast-responding paints have demonstrated response times of up to 100 kHz. Ultra-bright LEDs and fast-framing cameras combined with a porous polymer PSP can be used to produce a system capable of both high spatial resolution and high temporal bandwidth. Measurements of mean and unsteady pressure have been acquired on an experimental setup composed of a Mach-2 channel flow with transverse jet injection. The unsteady pressure data clearly resolve structures not present in the mean pressure data, including multiple lambda shocks upstream of a strong bow shock, high-frequency perturbations in the location of these shocks, and significant deformations of the bow shock structure. Time series of data can be extracted at each pixel, and the spectral content and phase relationship of the flow can be presented as maps of pressure fluctuations at specific frequencies or as correlation coefficients between a control point and the remaining flow. This type of map can be created using arrays of fast pressure transducers; here, we present data representing an array of over 26,000 fast pressure transducers.

  3. Fast electron spin resonance controlled manipulation of spin injection into quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Andreas Siller, Jan; Schittny, Robert; Krämmer, Christoph; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2014-06-23

    In our spin-injection light-emitting diodes, electrons are spin-polarized in a semimagnetic ZnMnSe spin aligner and then injected into InGaAs quantum dots. The resulting electron spin state can be read out by measuring the circular polarization state of the emitted light. Here, we resonantly excite the Mn 3d electron spin system with microwave pulses and perform time-resolved measurements of the spin dynamics. We find that we are able to control the spin polarization of the injected electrons on a microsecond timescale. This electron spin resonance induced spin control could be one of the ingredients required to utilize the quantum dot electrons or the Mn spins as qubits.

  4. Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Khalesifard, Hamid R; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Schiller, Max; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2009-07-01

    A high frequency switching and tunable seed laser system has been designed and constructed for injection seeding of a high-power pulsed Ti:sapphire laser. The whole laser system operates as the transmitter of a scanning, ground-based, water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL). The output of two seed lasers can be tuned in the wavelength range of 815-840 nm up to the power of 20 mW and switched between the online and offline wavelengths of the DIAL at frequencies of 0-1 kHz. The frequency stability of online and offline seed lasers is better than +/-20 MHz rms and the mode-hop-free tuning range is greater than 40 GHz with external cavity diode lasers. The advantage of this system for efficient injection seeding of the Ti:sapphire cavity is that it is modular, robust, fully fiber-coupled, and polarization maintaining.

  5. Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Khalesifard, Hamid R; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Schiller, Max; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2009-07-01

    A high frequency switching and tunable seed laser system has been designed and constructed for injection seeding of a high-power pulsed Ti:sapphire laser. The whole laser system operates as the transmitter of a scanning, ground-based, water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL). The output of two seed lasers can be tuned in the wavelength range of 815-840 nm up to the power of 20 mW and switched between the online and offline wavelengths of the DIAL at frequencies of 0-1 kHz. The frequency stability of online and offline seed lasers is better than +/-20 MHz rms and the mode-hop-free tuning range is greater than 40 GHz with external cavity diode lasers. The advantage of this system for efficient injection seeding of the Ti:sapphire cavity is that it is modular, robust, fully fiber-coupled, and polarization maintaining. PMID:19655946

  6. The behavior of runaway current in massive gas injection fast shutdown plasmas in J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Luo, Y. H.; Tang, Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Zeng, L.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Wang, X. H.; Jian, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rao, B.; Yan, W.; Ma, T. K.; Hu, Q. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Ding, Y. H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; Jiang, Z. H.; J-TEXT Team

    2016-11-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall in current tokamaks and will be more severe in next generation tokamaks. The behavior of runaway currents in massive gas injection (MGI) induced disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. The cold front induced by the gas jet penetrates helically along field lines, preferentially toward the high field side and stops at a location near the q  =  2 surface before the disruption. When the cold front reaches the q  =  2 surface it initiates magnetohydrodynamic activities and results in disruption. It is found that the MGI of He or Ne results in runaway free shutdown in a large range of gas injections. Mixture injection of He and Ar (90% He and 10%Ar) consistently results in runaway free shutdown. A moderate amount of Ar injection could produce significant runaway current. The maximum runaway energy in the runaway plateau is estimated using a simplified model which neglects the drag forces and other energy loss mechanisms. The maximum runaway energy increases with decreasing runaway current. Imaging of the runaway beam using a soft x-ray array during the runaway current plateau indicates that the runaway beam is located in the center of the plasma. Resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is applied to reduce the runaway current successfully during the disruption phase in a small scale tokamak, J-TEXT. When the runaway current builds up, the application of RMP cannot decouple the runaway beam due to the lower sensitivity of the energetic runaway electrons to the magnetic perturbation.

  7. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  8. Fast optical frequency sweeping using voltage controlled oscillator driven single sideband modulation combined with injection locking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Wei, Fang; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-03-23

    An ultrafast optical frequency sweeping technique for narrow linewidth lasers is reported. This technique exploits the large frequency modulation bandwidth of a wideband voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) which works on the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation(CS-SSB). Optical frequency sweeping of a narrow linewidth fiber laser with 3.85 GHz sweeping range and 80 GHz/μs tuning speed is demonstrated, which is an extremely high tuning speed for frequency sweeping of narrow linewidth lasers. In addition, injection locking technique is adopted to improve the sweeper's low optical power output and small side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). PMID:25837048

  9. Feed injection, riser-termination systems replaced in fast-track revamp

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlstrom, B.F.; Ham, K.; Becker, M.E.; Hum, T.P.; Lacijan, L.; Lorsbach, T.

    1996-07-29

    In 1995, Consumers` Co-operative Refineries Ltd. (CCRL) successfully revamped the 19,500 b/sd UOP fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit at its Regina, Sask., refinery. The low-cost revamp included a new, elevated Optimix feed-injection system and the first commercial implementation of vortex separation system (VSS) riser termination. VSS is a novel application of high-containment, vortex separation technology for the rapid separation of catalyst and hydrocarbon products. This first of two articles outlines the objectives of the revamp and describes the technologies incorporated. The second article will discuss the project execution schedule and detail the economic and operational benefits realized as a result of the revamp.

  10. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer. PMID:26601712

  11. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer.

  12. Automated system for fast and accurate analysis of SF6 injected in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chul-Min; Lee, Kitack; Kim, Miok; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes an automated sampling and analysis system for the shipboard measurement of dissolved sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in surface marine environments into which SF6 has been deliberately released. This underway system includes a gas chromatograph associated with an electron capture detector, a fast and highly efficient SF6-extraction device, a global positioning system, and a data acquisition system based on Visual Basic 6.0/C 6.0. This work is distinct from previous studies in that it quantifies the efficiency of the SF6-extraction device and its carryover effect and examines the effect of surfactant on the SF6-extraction efficiency. Measurements can be continuously performed on seawater samples taken from a seawater line installed onboard a research vessel. The system runs on an hourly cycle during which one set of four SF6 standards is measured and SF6 derived from the seawater stream is subsequently analyzed for the rest of each 1 h period. This state-of-art system was successfully used to trace a water mass carrying Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which causes harmful algal blooms (HAB) in the coastal waters of southern Korea. The successful application of this analysis system in tracing the HAB-infected water mass suggests that the SF6 detection method described in this paper will improve the quality of the future study of biogeochemical processes in the marine environment. PMID:16294883

  13. Automated system for fast and accurate analysis of SF6 injected in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chul-Min; Lee, Kitack; Kim, Miok; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes an automated sampling and analysis system for the shipboard measurement of dissolved sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in surface marine environments into which SF6 has been deliberately released. This underway system includes a gas chromatograph associated with an electron capture detector, a fast and highly efficient SF6-extraction device, a global positioning system, and a data acquisition system based on Visual Basic 6.0/C 6.0. This work is distinct from previous studies in that it quantifies the efficiency of the SF6-extraction device and its carryover effect and examines the effect of surfactant on the SF6-extraction efficiency. Measurements can be continuously performed on seawater samples taken from a seawater line installed onboard a research vessel. The system runs on an hourly cycle during which one set of four SF6 standards is measured and SF6 derived from the seawater stream is subsequently analyzed for the rest of each 1 h period. This state-of-art system was successfully used to trace a water mass carrying Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which causes harmful algal blooms (HAB) in the coastal waters of southern Korea. The successful application of this analysis system in tracing the HAB-infected water mass suggests that the SF6 detection method described in this paper will improve the quality of the future study of biogeochemical processes in the marine environment.

  14. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  15. Fast, high-yield synthesis of amphiphilic Ag nanoclusters and the sensing of Hg2+ in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Nan; Yang, Jie; Wu, Zhikun

    2015-05-01

    We report the high-yield (74%) synthesis of Ag30(Capt)18 (abbreviated as Ag30) in a very time-saving fashion (half an hour). The cluster composition was determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with TG analysis, and the structure was probed by 1D and 2D NMR. Interestingly, the nanoclusters can dissolve in water and methanol, as well as in most organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate with the assistance of acetic acid. Such a good solubility in a range of various polar solvents was not reported previously in nanoclusters' research and is important for applications. An important result from this work is that Ag30 can sense a low concentration of Hg2+ in environmental samples (including lake water and soil solution), indicating that Ag30 can be a potential colorimetric probe for Hg2+. The sensing mechanism was revealed to be related to the anti-galvanic reduction process.We report the high-yield (74%) synthesis of Ag30(Capt)18 (abbreviated as Ag30) in a very time-saving fashion (half an hour). The cluster composition was determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with TG analysis, and the structure was probed by 1D and 2D NMR. Interestingly, the nanoclusters can dissolve in water and methanol, as well as in most organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate with the assistance of acetic acid. Such a good solubility in a range of various polar solvents was not reported previously in nanoclusters' research and is important for applications. An important result from this work is that Ag30 can sense a low concentration of Hg2+ in environmental samples (including lake water and soil solution), indicating that Ag30 can be a potential colorimetric probe for Hg2+. The sensing mechanism was revealed to be related to the anti-galvanic reduction process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00705d

  16. Fast, high-yield synthesis of amphiphilic Ag nanoclusters and the sensing of Hg(2+) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Xia, Nan; Yang, Jie; Wu, Zhikun

    2015-06-14

    We report the high-yield (74%) synthesis of Ag30(Capt)18 (abbreviated as Ag30) in a very time-saving fashion (half an hour). The cluster composition was determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with TG analysis, and the structure was probed by 1D and 2D NMR. Interestingly, the nanoclusters can dissolve in water and methanol, as well as in most organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate with the assistance of acetic acid. Such a good solubility in a range of various polar solvents was not reported previously in nanoclusters' research and is important for applications. An important result from this work is that Ag30 can sense a low concentration of Hg(2+) in environmental samples (including lake water and soil solution), indicating that Ag30 can be a potential colorimetric probe for Hg(2+). The sensing mechanism was revealed to be related to the anti-galvanic reduction process. PMID:25891837

  17. On the mechanisms of cation injection in conducting bridge memories: The case of HfO2 in contact with noble metal anodes (Au, Cu, Ag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, M.; Gonon, P.; Vallée, C.; Mannequin, C.; Grampeix, H.; Jalaguier, E.; Jomni, F.; Bsiesy, A.

    2016-03-01

    Resistance switching is studied in HfO2 as a function of the anode metal (Au, Cu, and Ag) in view of its application to resistive memories (resistive random access memories, RRAM). Current-voltage (I-V) and current-time (I-t) characteristics are presented. For Au anodes, resistance transition is controlled by oxygen vacancies (oxygen-based resistive random access memory, OxRRAM). For Ag anodes, resistance switching is governed by cation injection (Conducting Bridge random access memory, CBRAM). Cu anodes lead to an intermediate case. I-t experiments are shown to be a valuable tool to distinguish between OxRRAM and CBRAM behaviors. A model is proposed to explain the high-to-low resistance transition in CBRAMs. The model is based on the theory of low-temperature oxidation of metals (Cabrera-Mott theory). Upon electron injection, oxygen vacancies and oxygen ions are generated in the oxide. Oxygen ions are drifted to the anode, and an interfacial oxide is formed at the HfO2/anode interface. If oxygen ion mobility is low in the interfacial oxide, a negative space charge builds-up at the HfO2/oxide interface. This negative space charge is the source of a strong electric field across the interfacial oxide thickness, which pulls out cations from the anode (CBRAM case). Inversely, if oxygen ions migration through the interfacial oxide is important (or if the anode does not oxidize such as Au), bulk oxygen vacancies govern resistance transition (OxRRAM case).

  18. An injectable and fast-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel fabricated via bioorthogonal strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huafang; Qin, Siyong; Dong, Hui; Lei, Qi; Su, Xin; Zhuo, Renxi; Zhong, Zhenlin

    2015-08-14

    Biocompatible and degradable injectable materials prepared via bioorthogonal reactions are highly promising for biomedical applications because they can be formed in situ and administered in a minimally invasive way. In this work, a PEG-based injectable hydrogel was fabricated via a copper-free, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Azide and cyclooctyne moieties on the PEG backbones underwent a rapid click reaction to trigger the formation of the hydrogel within several minutes. Resulting from the introduction of ester groups into the cross-linked network, the hydrogel presented pH-dependent hydrolysis and biological fast degradability. Good biocompatibility of the hydrogel was verified by in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo studies. The hydrogel formed in situ after subcutaneously injecting the gel precursors into Kungming (KM) mice. The implanted hydrogel caused a mild inflammatory response in vivo, and the surrounding tissues fully recovered a week after the injection. The injectable and fast-degradable hydrogel fabricated by the bioorthogonal click reaction may be useful as biomaterials such as embolic agents for interventional therapy.

  19. Fast-ion radial diffusivity evaluated from vertical neutral particle measurements following short pulse beam injection into a TFTR ohmic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kusama, Y. . Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Heidbrink, W.W. ); Barnes, C.W. ); Beer, M.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff, M.C. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The radial diffusivity of fast ions was evaluated from vertical neutral particle measurements in experiments where a short pulse of neutral deuterium beams was injected into a TFTR ohmic deuterium plasma. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the measured neutral particle flux and theoretical calculations showed that the spatially-averaged diffusion coefficient of fast ions is {le} 0.1 m{sup 2}/sec. This value is approximately an order of magnitude less than the diffusion coefficient for thermal ions and is consistent with results obtained previously on TFTR from other diagnostics.

  20. Reducing patient discomfort during digital blockade: The subcutaneous single injection digital block – A simple, safe and fast procedure

    PubMed Central

    Brutus, JP; Nikolis, A; Baeten, Y; Chahidi, N; Kinnen, L; Ledoux, P; Moermans, JP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia of a single finger is commonly achieved by the traditional ring block, which requires at least two painful injections in the digit. Single injection digital block techniques have been described to avoid this problem. Among these, the subcutaneous technique described by Harbison appears to be safe and to allow most procedures to be carried out with good tolerance. OBJECTIVES: A prospective study was designed to evaluate the results of the subcutaneous technique in terms of patient tolerance, distribution of anesthesia and efficiency. METHODS: All blocks were performed by a single investigator. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain associated with the injection. Prick testing was used to evaluate the quality of anesthesia at the volar and dorsal aspects of the phalanxes. Tolerance to the surgical procedure and the need for additional injections were also recorded. RESULTS: This technique allowed surgery to be performed without complementary injection most of the time and was very well tolerated. The dorsum of the proximal phalanx, however, was unpredictably included in the anesthetized territory. CONCLUSION: The subcutaneous single injection digital block is safe, efficient and easy to perform. It allows the treatment of all conditions on the volar aspect of the finger and on the dorsal aspect of the distal and middle phalanxes. For surgery on the dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx, a combined single injection technique or a supplementary dorsal block should be used. PMID:24115847

  1. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-10-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24h and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24h time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.

  2. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  3. A batch injection analysis system with square-wave voltammetric detection for fast and simultaneous determination of naphazoline and zinc.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago da Costa; Freitas, Jhonys Machado; Munoz, Rodrigo Alejandro Abarza; Richter, Eduardo Mathias

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a batch-injection analysis system with square-wave voltammetric (BIA-SWV) detection was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of inorganic (zinc) and organic (naphazoline) species. Both compounds were detected in a single run (70 injections h(-1)) with a small injection volume (∼100 µL). The calibration curves exhibited linear response range between 3.0 and 21.0 μmol L(-1) (r=0.999) for naphazoline and between 10.0 and 60.0 μmol L(-1) (r=0.992) for zinc. The detection limits were 0.13 and 0.04 μmol L(-1) for zinc and naphazoline, respectively. Good reproducibility was achieved for multiple measurements of a solution containing both species (RSD<1.0%; n=20). The results obtained with the BIA-SWV method for the simultaneous determination of naphazoline and zinc were compared to those obtained by HPLC (naphazoline) and by FAAS (zinc); no statistically significant differences were observed (95% confidence level).

  4. Repetitive Solid Spherical Pellet Injection and Irradiation toward the Repetitive-mode Fast-Ignition Fusion miniReactor CANDY.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HANAYAMA, Ryohei; KOMEDA, Osamu; NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; MORI, Yoshitaka; ISHII, Katsuhiro; NAKAYAMA, Suisei; OKIHARA, Shinichiro; FUJITA, Kazuhisa; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; NAKAMURA, Naoki; KONDO, Takuya; FUJINE, Manabu; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; KAKENO, Mitsutaka; MOTOHIRO, Tomoyoshi; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; SENTOKU, Yasuhiko; MIURA, Eisuke; KITAGAWA, Yoneyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Pellet injection and repetitive laser illumination are key technologies for realizing inertial fusion energy[1-4]. Neutron generator using lasers also requires a repeating pellet target supplier. Here we present the first demonstration of target injection and neutron generation[5]. We injected more than 1300 spherical deuterated polystyrene(C8D8) bead pellet targets during 23 minutes at 1 Hz(Fig. 1). After the pellet targets fell for a distance of 18 cm, we applied the synchronized laser-diode-pumped ultra-intense laser HAMA. The laser intensity at the focal point is 5 x 1018 W/cm2, which is high enough to generate neutrons. As a result of the irradiation, we produced 2.45-MeV DD neutrons. Figure 2 shows the neutron time-of-flight signals detected by plastic scintillators coupled to photomultipliers. The neutron energy was calculated by the time-of-flight method. The maximum neutron yield was 9.5 x 104/4π sr. The result is a step toward fusion power and also suggests possible industrial neutron sources.

  5. Novel g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites: Fast microwave-assisted preparation and enhanced photocatalytic performance towards degradation of organic pollutants under visible light.

    PubMed

    Akhundi, Anise; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-11-15

    Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites, as highly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a fast microwave-assisted method. The resulting g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Moreover, charge separation efficiency was studied by photoluminescence measurements. Photocatalytic activity of the g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 (40%) nanocomposite in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and fuchsine is about 6, 3.8, and 3.3-folds greater than that of the g-C3N4 under visible-light illumination. Effect of microwave irradiation time, calcination temperature, and scavengers of the reactive species on the degradation reaction was also evaluated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the matching band energies of g-C3N4 and Ag2SO4 which leads to an improved separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Finally, the optimized nanocomposite was recycled for five times without remarkable decrease of the photocatalytic activity.

  6. Novel g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites: Fast microwave-assisted preparation and enhanced photocatalytic performance towards degradation of organic pollutants under visible light.

    PubMed

    Akhundi, Anise; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-11-15

    Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites, as highly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a fast microwave-assisted method. The resulting g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Moreover, charge separation efficiency was studied by photoluminescence measurements. Photocatalytic activity of the g-C3N4/Ag2SO4 (40%) nanocomposite in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and fuchsine is about 6, 3.8, and 3.3-folds greater than that of the g-C3N4 under visible-light illumination. Effect of microwave irradiation time, calcination temperature, and scavengers of the reactive species on the degradation reaction was also evaluated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the matching band energies of g-C3N4 and Ag2SO4 which leads to an improved separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Finally, the optimized nanocomposite was recycled for five times without remarkable decrease of the photocatalytic activity. PMID:27501040

  7. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2-polymer coating insulation (thickness of ˜20 μm versus ˜100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm-2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ˜80 K to ˜140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.

  8. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-07-01

    For this study, small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2– polymer coating insulation (thickness in ~20 μm versus ~100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A/mm-2 in a background field 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normalmore » zones propagate slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in a strong contrast to a coil we previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with the mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ~80 K to ~140 K while increasing from the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. Finally, this work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.« less

  9. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2–polymer coating insulation (thickness of ∼20 μm versus ∼100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm‑2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ∼80 K to ∼140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.

  10. Fast preparation of Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes via a microwave-hydrothermal process and enhanced photocatalytic activity after loading with Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Lin, Xin-Shan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted solution-phase approach. ► Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. ► Catalytic activity of the Ag/Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanocomposite in the photo-degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was much higher than that of pure Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. -- Abstract: In this work, a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed to prepare Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes. Ag nanoparticles were subsequently deposited on the Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. The phases and morphologies of the products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Ag/Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanocomposite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under UV light irradiation in comparison to pure Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. The amount of Ag in the nanocomposite affects the catalytic activity, and 3 wt% Ag showed the highest photodegradation efficiency. Moreover, the catalyst remains active after four consecutive tests. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  11. MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode for organic light-emitting diodes and its carrier injection property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzai, Kazuki; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    We report on the application of the dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) structure consisting of a molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/silver (Ag)/MoO3 stack as the transparent electrode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright emission similar to that of the indium-tin-oxide anode (ITO) device was obtained from the OLEDs with the DMD anode. Also, the barrier height at the interface of DMD/bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD) is similar to that at the ITO/α-NPD interface. The DMD electrode is a promising anode for OLEDs.

  12. Synthesis of Ag nanoplates on GaAs wafers : evidence for growth mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-01-21

    Direct synthesis of Ag nanoplates on GaAs wafers has been developed in our group through a simple solution/solid interfacial reaction (SSIR) strategy, in which aqueous solutions of pure AgNO{sub 3} react with the GaAs wafers at room temperature [J. Phys. Chem. C 2009, 113, 6061; 2008, 112, 8928; Chem. Mater. 2007, 19, 5845]. However, a number of questions are still not clear yet regarding the roles of different possible pathways for reducing Ag{sup +} ions in the growth of Ag nanoplates. In this article, we try to answer these remaining questions by specifically designing experiments and extracting direct evidence from systematic characterizations of different samples. It is conclusive that growth of high-quality Ag nanoplates on GaAs wafers is ascribed to the good separation between nucleation and growth steps, which are driven by two different reduction pathways. At the nucleation step, fast reduction of Ag{sup +} ions with a high concentration of surface electrons is crucial for the formation of Ag nuclei with multiple (111) twin planes parallel to each other, and remaining the environment of a high concentration of surface electrons for a period long enough is also important to develop the Ag nuclei into stable seeds. At the growth step, a hole injection process is mainly responsible for reduction of Ag{sup +} ions to enlarge the stable seeds into Ag nanoplates with controlled sizes by tuning the growth time. The paralleled multiple (111) twin planes provide a crystalline confinement to guide the growth of the seeds into nanoplates.

  13. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. F.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  14. Intravenous glucose administration in fasting rats has differential effects on acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the portal and systemic circulation: a comparison between portal and peripheral concentrations in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Gauna, Carlotta; Uitterlinden, Piet; Kramer, Piet; Kiewiet, Rosalie M; Janssen, Joop A M J L; Delhanty, Patric J D; van Aken, Maarten O; Ghigo, Ezio; Hofland, Leo J; Themmen, Axel P N; van der Lely, Aart Jan

    2007-11-01

    Ghrelin is produced by the gastrointestinal tract, and its systemic concentrations are mainly regulated by nutritional factors. Our aim was to investigate: 1) endogenous portal and systemic acylated and unacylated ghrelin levels (AG and UAG, respectively); 2) whether an iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) modifies AG and UAG; and 3) whether the liver passage plays a role in regulating systemic AG and UAG. To elucidate this, we evaluated the effects of IVGTT or saline injection on endogenous portal and systemic concentrations of glucose, insulin, AG, and UAG in anesthetized fasting rats. Hepatic extraction of insulin, AG, and UAG and the ratio of AG to UAG were also measured. IVGTT suppressed both portal (P < 0.03) and peripheral (P < 0.05) UAG, whereas it only blunted prehepatic, but not peripheral, AG. During fasting, hepatic clearance of UAG was 11%, and it was decreased to 8% by IVGTT. AG was cleared by the liver by 38% but unaffected by glucose. The AG to UAG ratio was higher in the portal than the systemic circulation, both in the saline (P < 0.004) and IVGTT (P < 0.0005) rats. In conclusion, this study shows that: 1) the ratio of AG to UAG is very low in the portal vein and decreases further in the systemic circulation; 2) IVGTT in anesthetized fasting rats inhibits UAG, whereas it only blunts prehepatic, but not systemic, AG; and 3) hepatic clearance of AG is much higher than that of UAG. Thus, our results suggest that peripheral AG metabolic regulation and action are mainly confined within the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Intracerebroventricular injection of propionic acid, an enteric metabolite implicated in autism, induces social abnormalities that do not differ between seizure-prone (FAST) and seizure-resistant (SLOW) rats.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; Aziz, Noor A B; Yang, Li; Sun, Mujun; MacFabe, Derrick F; O'Brien, Terence J

    2015-02-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by social abnormalities. Genetic, dietary and gut-related factors are implicated in autism, however the causal properties of these factors and how they may interact are unclear. Propionic acid (PPA) is a product of gut microbiota and a food preservative. PPA has been linked to autism, and PPA administration to rats is an animal model of the condition. Seizure-prone (FAST) and seizure-resistant (SLOW) rats were initially developed to investigate differential vulnerability to developing epilepsy. However, FAST rats also display autistic-like features, and have been proposed as a genetic model of autism. Here we examined the effects of PPA on social behavior in FAST and SLOW rats. A single intracerebroventricular injection of PPA, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was administered to young-adult male FAST and SLOW rats. Immediately after treatment, rats were placed in same-treatment and same-strain pairs, and underwent social behavior testing. PPA induced social abnormalities in both FAST and SLOW rat strains. While there was no evidence of social impairment in FAST rats that were not treated with PPA, these rats were hyperactive relative to SLOW rats. Post-mortem immunofluorescence analysis of brain tissue indicated that PPA treatment resulted in increased astrogliosis in the corpus callosum and cortex compared to PBS treatment. FAST rats had increased astrogliosis in the cortex compared to SLOW rats. Together these findings support the use of PPA as a rat model of autism, but indicate there are no interactive effects between the PPA and FAST models.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blunt the response of Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) glucose inhibited (GI) neurons to decreased glucose.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Sheng, Zhenyu; Potian, Joseph; Deak, Adam; Rohowsky-Kochan, Christine; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-10-01

    A population of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons which co-express Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are inhibited at physiological levels of brain glucose and activated when glucose levels decline (e.g. glucose-inhibited or GI neurons). Fasting enhances the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the enhanced activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by low glucose following a fast. Mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) on their NPY promoter were used to identify NPY/AgRP neurons. Fasting for 24h and LPS injection decreased blood glucose levels. As we have found previously, fasting increased c-fos expression in NPY/AgRP neurons and increased the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. As we predicted, LPS blunted these effects of fasting at the 24h time point. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocked the activation of NPY/AgRP-GI neurons by decreased glucose. These data suggest that LPS and TNFα may alter glucose and energy homeostasis, in part, due to changes in the glucose sensitivity of NPY/AgRP neurons. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that NPY/AgRP-GI neurons use a distinct mechanism to sense changes in extracellular glucose as compared to our previous studies of GI neurons in the adjacent ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. PMID:27473896

  17. Electrical studies of D%AgI-(100-D)%[0.667Ag2O- 0.333{(0.4)B2O3-(0.6)TeO2}] fast ion conducting glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, E. Ramesh; Nageswar Rao, P.; Appa Rao, B.

    2016-09-01

    Super ion conducting glasses of composition D%AgI-(100-D)%[MAg2O-F{(F1)B2O3- (F2)TeO2}]; D=10.0 to 60.0 in steps of 10.0 for a fixed values of F1 (0.4), F2 (0.6) which are glass network formers, fixed values of modifier M(0.667), F (0.333) and D is dopant salt which was varied. These glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique. XRD spectra taken for all the samples. Electrical characterization was done in terms of AC and DC conductivities. DC and AC conductivities at room temperature increased from 10-5 to 10-1 scm-1 and DC activation energy (Edc) found to decrease from 0.36 to 0.19eV with increase in D% ratio. Measurements are performed over the frequency range 1 kHz to 3 MHz at different temperatures. From the impedance spectroscopy real and imaginary parts of impedances (Z', Z"), conductivities were calculated and plotted, and equivalent R-C circuit parameters were obtained from Cole-Cole plots. With the increase in D%, AC conductivity is observed to increase whereas the AC activation energy (Eac) is observed to decrease from 0.23 to 0.14 eV. The quantitative analysis of these results indicates that the electrical conductivity of silver borate glasses is enhanced with increase in D% ratio. Based on conductivity values these glasses are ionic conductors, in which conduction is by hopping mechanism. An attempt is made to understand the charge transportation process.

  18. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment. PMID:26581474

  19. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  20. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  1. Method development and application of offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis for comprehensive characterization of the saponins from Xueshuantong Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Changliang; Qiu, Shi; Chen, Ming; Pan, Huiqin; Shi, Xiaojian; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Xueshuantong Injection (XSTI), derived from Notoginseng total saponins, is a popular traditional Chinese medicine injection for the treatment of thrombus-resultant diseases. Current knowledge on its therapeutic basis is limited to five major saponins, whereas those minor ones are rarely investigated. We herein develop an offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (offline 2D LC/QTOF-Fast DDA) approach to systematically characterize the saponins contained in XSTI. Key parameters affecting chromatographic separation in 2D LC (including stationary phase, mobile phase, column temperature, and gradient elution program) and the detection by QTOF MS (involving spray voltage, cone voltage, and ramp collision energy) were optimized in sequence. The configured offline 2D LC system showed an orthogonality of 0.84 and a theoretical peak capacity of 8976. Total saponins in XSTI were fractionated into eleven samples by the first-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography, which were further analyzed by reversed-phase UHPLC/QTOF-Fast DDA in negative ion mode. The fragmentation features evidenced from 36 saponin reference standards, high-accuracy MS and Fast-DDA-MS(2) data, elemental composition (C<80, H<120, O<50), double-bond equivalent (DBE 5-15), and searching an in-house library of Panax notoginseng, were simultaneously utilized for structural elucidation. Ultimately, 148 saponins were separated and characterized, and 80 have not been isolated from P. notoginseng. An in-depth depiction of the chemical composition of XSTI was achieved. The results obtained would benefit better understanding of the therapeutic basis and significant promotion on the quality standard of XSTI as well as other homologous products. PMID:27318082

  2. Method development and application of offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis for comprehensive characterization of the saponins from Xueshuantong Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Changliang; Qiu, Shi; Chen, Ming; Pan, Huiqin; Shi, Xiaojian; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Xueshuantong Injection (XSTI), derived from Notoginseng total saponins, is a popular traditional Chinese medicine injection for the treatment of thrombus-resultant diseases. Current knowledge on its therapeutic basis is limited to five major saponins, whereas those minor ones are rarely investigated. We herein develop an offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (offline 2D LC/QTOF-Fast DDA) approach to systematically characterize the saponins contained in XSTI. Key parameters affecting chromatographic separation in 2D LC (including stationary phase, mobile phase, column temperature, and gradient elution program) and the detection by QTOF MS (involving spray voltage, cone voltage, and ramp collision energy) were optimized in sequence. The configured offline 2D LC system showed an orthogonality of 0.84 and a theoretical peak capacity of 8976. Total saponins in XSTI were fractionated into eleven samples by the first-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography, which were further analyzed by reversed-phase UHPLC/QTOF-Fast DDA in negative ion mode. The fragmentation features evidenced from 36 saponin reference standards, high-accuracy MS and Fast-DDA-MS(2) data, elemental composition (C<80, H<120, O<50), double-bond equivalent (DBE 5-15), and searching an in-house library of Panax notoginseng, were simultaneously utilized for structural elucidation. Ultimately, 148 saponins were separated and characterized, and 80 have not been isolated from P. notoginseng. An in-depth depiction of the chemical composition of XSTI was achieved. The results obtained would benefit better understanding of the therapeutic basis and significant promotion on the quality standard of XSTI as well as other homologous products.

  3. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  4. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Hattori, T.; Lin, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  5. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized.

  6. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  7. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized. PMID:129268

  8. A multi-wire beam profile monitor in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Castillo, V.; Glenn, J.W.

    1997-07-01

    A multi-wire beam profile monitor which can be used to directly monitor and control the optical matching between the Booster and AGS rings has been installed and tested in the AGS. Placement of a multi-wire monitor directly in the AGS provides profile measurements taken upon injection and the first two or more revolutions of the beam. The data from such measurements can be used to determine the optical properties of the beam transport line leading into the AGS.

  9. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  10. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Generation of stable multi-jets by flow-limited field-injection electrostatic spraying and their control via I-V characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, W.; Heil, P. E.; Choi, H.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    The I-V characteristics of flow-limited field-injection electrostatic spraying (FFESS) were investigated, exposing a new way to predict and control the specific spraying modes from single-jet to multi-jet. Monitoring the I-V characteristics revealed characteristic drops in the current upon formation of an additional jet in the multi-jet spraying mode. For fixed jet numbers, space-charge-limited current behaviour was measured which was attributed to space charge in the dielectric liquids between the needle electrode and the nozzle opening. The present work establishes that FFESS can, in particular, generate stable multiple jets and that their control is possible through monitoring the I-V characteristics. This can allow for automatic control of the FFESS process and expedite its future scientific and industrial applications.

  12. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  14. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  15. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  16. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Endocannabinoid levels in rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus in relation to fasting, feeding and satiation: stimulation of eating by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Tim C; Williams, Claire M; Fezza, Filomena; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2002-06-01

    Endocannabinoids are implicated in appetite and body weight regulation. In rodents, anandamide stimulates eating by actions at central CB1 receptors, and hypothalamic endocannabinoids may be under the negative control of leptin. However, changes to brain endocannabinoid levels in direct relation to feeding or changing nutritional status have not been investigated. We measured anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels in feeding-associated brain regions of rats, during fasting, feeding of a palatable food, or after satiation. Endocannabinoid levels were compared to those in rats fed ad libitum, at a point in their daily cycle when motivation to eat was absent. Fasting increased levels of anandamide and 2-AG in the limbic forebrain and, to a lesser extent, of 2-AG in the hypothalamus. By contrast, hypothalamic 2-AG declined as animals ate. No changes were detected in satiated rats. Endocannabinoid levels in the cerebellum, a control region not directly involved in the control of food intake, were unaffected by any manipulation. As 2-AG was most sensitive to variation during feeding, and to leptin regulation in a previous study, we examined the behavioural effects of 2-AG when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell, a limbic forebrain area strongly linked to eating motivation. 2-AG potently, and dose-dependently, stimulated feeding. This effect was attenuated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. These findings provide the first direct evidence of altered brain levels of endocannabinoids, and of 2-AG in particular, during fasting and feeding. The nature of these effects supports a role for endocannabinoids in the control of appetitive motivation.

  18. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  19. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  20. Fast heating induced impulse halogenation of refractory sample components in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by direct injection of a liquid halogenating agent.

    PubMed

    György, Krisztina; Ajtony, Zsolt; Van Meel, Katleen; Van Grieken, René; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Bencs, László

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was developed for the halogenation of refractory sample components (Er, Nd and Nb) of lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) and bismuth tellurite (Bi(2)TeO(5)) optical single crystals to overcome memory effects and carry-over. For this purpose, the cleaning step of a regular graphite furnace heating program was replaced with a halogenation cycle. In this cycle, after the graphite tube cooled to room temperature, a 20 μL aliquot of liquid carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was dispensed with a conventional autosampler into the graphite tube. The CCl(4) was partially dried at 80°C under the mini-flow (40 cm(3) min(-1)) condition of the Ar internal furnace gas (IFG), then the residue was decomposed (pyrolyzed) by fast furnace heating at 1900-2100°C under interrupted flow of the IFG. This step was followed by a clean-out stage at 2100°C under the maximum flow of the IFG. The advantage of the present method is that it does not require any alteration to the graphite furnace gas supply system in contrast to most of the formerly introduced halogenation techniques. The effectiveness of the halogenation method was verified with the determination of Er and Nd dopants in the optical crystals. In these analyses, a sensitivity decrease was observed, which was likely due to the enhanced deterioration of the graphite tube surface. Therefore, the application of mathematical correction (resloping) of the calibration was also required. The calibration curves were linear up to 1.5 and 10 μmol L(-1) for Er and Nd, respectively. Characteristic masses of 18 and 241 pg and the limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.017 and 0.27 μmol L(-1) were found for Er and Nd, respectively. These LOD data correspond to 0.68 μmol mol(-1) Er and 11 μmol mol(-1) Nd in solid bismuth tellurite samples. The analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional ETAAS method and validated with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis.

  1. Model based controls and the AGS booster controls system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.A.

    1987-08-18

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line used to inject heavy ions created at the Tandem Van de Graaff into the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) is briefly discussed, particularly as regards its control system. (LEW)

  2. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  3. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  4. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  5. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  6. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  7. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  8. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  9. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  10. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  11. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  12. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  13. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  14. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  15. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  16. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  17. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  18. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  19. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Rapid separation and identification of multiple constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula Shenqi Fuzheng Injection by ultra-fast liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Tong, Xin; Wang, Jin-Xu; Zou, Wei; Cao, Hui; Su, Wei-Wei

    2013-02-23

    Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been extensively used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy for cancer treatment in clinic. However, the chemical constituents in SFI, especially water-soluble ingredients, had not been investigated so far. In this study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in SFI. Separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution mode, using methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow-rate of 0.2 mL/min. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. As a result, eighty-one major constituents including organic acids, amino acids, oligosaccharides, alkaloids, nucleosides, phenylpropanoids, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and saponins were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. All compounds were further assigned in the individual raw material. In conclusion, the UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS is a highly efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of traditional Chinese medicines. These results obtained in this research will provide a basis for quality control and further study in vivo of SFI.

  1. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. PMID:27213307

  2. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  3. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    PubMed

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1%. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union. PMID:26993307

  4. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  6. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  7. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  8. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  9. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  10. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  11. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  12. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  13. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  14. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  15. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  16. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  17. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  18. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  19. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  20. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  1. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  2. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  3. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  4. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  5. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  6. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  7. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  8. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  9. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  10. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  11. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  12. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  13. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  14. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  15. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  16. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  17. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  18. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  19. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  20. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  1. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  2. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ciprofloxacin injection is also sometimes used to treat cat scratch disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten or scratched by a cat), Legionnaires' disease (type of lung infection), and infections of the ...

  4. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people whose immune system is not working normally, including those people who have ...

  5. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  6. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  7. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  8. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... docetaxel (Taxotere) to treat a certain type of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Pertuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ...

  9. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  11. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  12. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  13. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  14. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  16. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  17. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  18. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  19. In situ ion exchange synthesis of strongly coupled Ag@AgCl/g-C₃N₄ porous nanosheets as plasmonic photocatalyst for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangke; Huang, Yongshun; Zeng, Meiyi; Xu, Jinzhang

    2014-12-24

    A novel efficient Ag@AgCl/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized by a rational in situ ion exchange approach between exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheets with porous 2D morphology and AgNO3. The as-prepared Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation for rhodamine B degradation with a rate constant of 0.1954 min(-1), which is ∼41.6 and ∼16.8 times higher than those of the g-C3N4 (∼0.0047 min(-1)) and Ag/AgCl (∼0.0116 min(-1)), respectively. The degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and colorless phenol further confirmed the broad spectrum photocatalytic degradation abilities of Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4. These results suggested that an integration of the synergetic effect of suitable size plasmonic Ag@AgCl and strong coupling effect between the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles and the exfoliated porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was superior for visible-light-responsive and fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic efficiency. This work may provide a novel concept for the rational design of stable and high performance g-C3N4-based plasmonic photocatalysts for unique photochemical reaction.

  20. Ag microtubes with novel pentagon pores templated by fivefold symmetric Cu microrods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Teng, Fei; Zhang, Tongyu; Kan, Yandong; Yang, Liming; Gu, Wenhao; Liu, Zailun; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, An; Teng, Yiran

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we report a green, simple and fast method to fabricate novel Cu@Ag core@shell and Ag microstructures. According to galvanic replacement, the novel pentagon-shaped pores of Ag can form from the shape memory effect of fivefold symmetric Cu template. Additionally, the Ag and Cu@Ag crystals with different microstructures can be controlled by changing the complexing agent, solvent, as well as the ion concentration and source of silver. This work suggests that a shape memory of template can be used for micro/nanostructure control.

  1. Stabilization and immune response of HBsAg encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres using HSA as a stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjuan; He, Jintian; Wu, Guanghao; Xiong, Fangfang; Du, Huijuan; Wang, Gaizhen

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stabilizer. Lyophilization and emulsification of HBsAg solution with dichloromethane caused a considerable loss of HBsAg antigenicity. Thus, the effects of HSA and trehalose on HBsAg recovery during lyophilization and emulsification were investigated. Adding HSA to HBsAg solutions significantly improved antigen recovery to >90% during lyophilization and emulsification. The effects of co-encapsulated HSA on the characteristics of the PLGA microspheres and stability of HBsAg released from the microspheres were also investigated. The in vitro release test showed that HBsAg was released from the PLGA microspheres continuously over seventy days. A large amount of released HBsAg was inactive without co-encapsulation of HSA. On the contrary, with HSA co-encapsulation, the released HBsAg retained approximately 90% of its antigenicity. The single injection of the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres in rats resulted in higher anti-HBsAg IgG and Th1 cytokine levels than the single injection of the HBsAg-loaded microspheres or two injections of the conventional aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine. Based on these findings, the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres could be an effective carrier for HBsAg and form a promising depot system.

  2. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.if you ... Hydromorphone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... vomiting constipation dry mouth lightheadedness dizziness drowsiness ...

  3. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in which small blood ...

  4. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), abdomen (area between the chest and waist), lungs, blood, and ... to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  5. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved or that had improved after treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer cells and releasing radiation to damage the cancer ...

  6. Lanreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  7. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  8. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  9. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  10. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  11. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  12. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  13. Fast, high temperature and thermolabile GC--MS in supersonic molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, Shai; Amirav, Aviv

    1994-05-01

    This work describes and evaluates the coupling of a fast gas chromatograph (GC) based on a short column and high carrier gas flow rate to a supersonic molecular beam mass spectrometer (MS). A 50 cm long megabore column serves for fast GC separation and connects the injector to the supersonic nozzle source. Sampling is achieved with a conventional syringe based splitless sample injection. The injector contains no septum and is open to the atmosphere. The linear velocity of the carrier gas is controlled by a by-pass (make-up) gas flow introduced after the column and prior to the supersonic nozzle. The supersonic expansion serves as a jet separator and the skimmed supersonic molecular beam (SMB) is highly enriched with the heavier organic molecules. The supersonic molecular beam constituents are ionized either by electron impact (EI) or hyperthermal surface ionization (HSI) and mass analyzed. A 1 s fast GC--MS of four aromatic molecules in methanol is demonstrated and some fundamental aspects of fast GC--MS with time limit constraints are outlined. The flow control (programming) of the speed of analysis is shown and the analysis of thermolabile and relatively non-volatile molecules is demonstrated and discussed. The tail-free, fast GC--MS of several mixtures is shown and peak tailing of caffeine is compared with that of conventional GC--MS. The improvement of the peak shapes with the SMB--MS is analyzed with the respect to the elimination of thermal vacuum chamber background. The extrapolated minimum detected amount was about 400 ag of anthracence-d10, with an elution time which was shorter than 2s. Repetitive injections could be performed within less than 10 s. The fast GC--MS in SMB seems to be ideal for fast target compound analysis even in real world, complex mixtures. The few seconds GC--MS separation and quantification of lead (as tetraethyllead) in gasoline, caffeine in coffee, and codeine in a drug is demonstrated. Controlled HSI selectivity is demonstrated in

  14. A tutorial on neutral beam injection into tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    Neutral beam injection heats most magnetic fusion experiments. A typical source injects 2 MW of 80 keV deuterons. Deposition is governed by electron impact ionization and charge exchange with thermal ions. A ``halo'' cloud of thermal neutrals surrounds the ``footprint'' of injected neutrals. After ionizing, the energetic ions are confined by the magnetic field, eventually forming an axisymmetric fast-ion population. Fast ions that orbit through the beam footprint sometimes reneutralize. Escaping neutrals and light emitted by reneutralized fast ions is used to diagnose the fast-ion population. The initial beam deposition and halo cloud are also measured optically. Work supported by the US Department of Energy.

  15. Progress and status of the AGS Booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T. )

    1989-01-01

    New physics opportunities, such as: rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demand that a rapid-cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The circumference of the Booster ring is one-quarter that of the AGS. Three modes of operation for various particles are envisioned. For unpolarized protons, four Booster pulses would be injected at a 7.5 Hz repetition rate within a 400 ms flat bottom of the AGS, enabling the present 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp to be increased to 6 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. The protons would be accelerated to 1.5 GeV although the bending capability provided for heavy ions would eventually allow protons to be accelerated to 2.5 GeV. For heavy ions the rep rates is about 1 Hz and only one pulse would be injected into the AGS. For polarized protons 20 or so pulses can be stored in the Booster ring before injecting them into the AGS. Provisions for mixed modes of operation into a super cycle has been provided for future needs. In this paper, the lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed and major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1989-06-01

    The most effective, convenient, reversible method of birth control is considered to be long-acting progestogen injections. Used by over 90 countries, Depot medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera, Upjohn) has yet to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The reluctance of the FDA to approve DMPA and much of the controversy surrounding this method revolve around the results of testing done on animals who were given large doses of the progestogen over a long period of time and developed tumors. However, the large body of research and records on this method that have been compiled over the past 30 years is positive. The injectable method works like oral contraceptives, inhibiting ovulation. Changes in menstruation have been the chief complaint of women who use this method; however, the duration and frequency of spotting and bleeding diminish over time. Other side effects of DMPA and Norethindrone enanthate (NET EN, Noristerat, Schering) are discussed. Also discussed is the history of development and testing for the 2 methods and subdermal implants, specifically Norplant.

  17. Fast Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    Fast ion conductors, sometimes referred to as superionic conductors or solid electrolytes, are solids with ionic conductivities that are comparable to those found in molten salts and aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, i.e., 10-2-10 S cm-1. Such materials have been known of for a very long time and some typical examples of the conductivity are shown in Fig. 1, along with sodium chloride as the archetypal normal ionic solid. Faraday [1] first noted the high conductivity of solid lead fluoride (PbF2) and silver sulphide (Ag2S) in the 1830s and silver iodide was known to be unusually high ionic conductor to the German physicists early in the 1900s. However, the materials were regarded as anomalous until the mid 1960s when they became the focus of intense interest to academics and technologists and they have remained at the forefront of materials research [2-4]. The academic aim is to understand the fundamental origin of fast ion behaviour and the technological goal is to utilize the properties in applications, particularly in energy applications such as the electrolyte membranes in solid-state batteries and fuel cells, and in electrochemical sensors. The last four decades has seen an expansion of the types of material that exhibit fast ion behaviour that now extends beyond simple binary ionic crystals to complex solids and even polymeric materials. Over this same period computer simulations of solids has also developed (in fact these methods and the interest in fast ion conductors were almost coincidental in their time of origin) and the techniques have played a key role in this area of research.

  18. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  19. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  20. Impedance studies of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag. Technical report No. 15, August 1987-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, M.W.; Drstak, H.; Maly-Schreiber, M.

    1988-07-01

    The construction of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag is described. The impedance of this cell was measured between .001 and 10000 Hz at temperatures between 20 and 550 C. At temperatures below 100 C the cell impedance is determined to a large extent by the bulk resistance of the AgI layer and to a smaller extent by the impedance of the interface Ag/Agi. At temperatures between 160 and 350 C the impedance is controlled by the bulk resistance of the Ag beta alumina and an impedance due to contact problems between Ag and AgI. The bulk resistance of the beta' alumina becomes predominant between 350 and 550 C. A hindrance due to the transfer of silver ions from AgI to Ag beta' alumina was not observable in the whole temperature range.

  1. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  2. Critical interparticle distance for the remarkably enhanced dielectric constant of BaTiO3-Ag hybrids filled polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Suibin; Yu, Shuhui; Fang, Fang; Lai, Maobai; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Discrete nano Ag-deposited BaTiO3 (BT-Ag) hybrids with varied Ag content were synthesized, and the hybrids filled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites were prepared. The effect of Ag content on the dielectric properties of the composites were analyzed based on the diffused electrical double layer theory. Results showed that with a higher Ag content in BT-Ag hybrids, the dielectric constant of BT-Ag/PVDF composites increases fast with the filler loading, while the dielectric loss and conductivity showed a suppressed and moderate increase. The dielectric constant of BT-0.61Ag/PVDF (61 wt. % of Ag in BT-Ag hybrid) composites reached 613, with the dielectric loss of 0.29 at 1 kHz. It was deduced that remarkably enhanced dielectric constant appeared when the interparticle distance decreased to a critical value of about 20 nm.

  3. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  4. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  5. Lake County Geo-Ag heat center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Lake County is proceeding with plans to develop a unique agricultural park called the Geo-Ag Heat Center Project. The project will combine vocational training, geothermal heat-transfer research, and commercial resources for greenhouse heating, crop drying, and other agricultural operations. The first phase of the project involved drilling wells to confirm the availability of an adequate geothermal resource. The first well, AG Park 1, drilled in January, 1986 to a depth of 1614 feet, proved noncommercial; it will be used as an injection well. Next, a geophysical program of seismic surveys was undertaken to pinpoint the more productive fracture zones. Wells AG Park 2 and 3 were drilled in these zones. Both wells were drilled in December 1986, to depths of 592 and 488 feet, respectively. In 3-day tests of continuous production, AG Park 2 and 3 yielded flowing wellhead temperatures of 143/sup 0/F and 153/sup 0/F, respectively, at flow rates exceeding 150 gpm, with minor drawdowns. The next phase of the project entails construction of a 7000 square-foot greenhouse by the end of 1987. It will be operated by the Mendocino-Lake Community College District as an educational and demonstration facility. Geothermal-fluid and irrigation water-distribution and injection-pipeline systems will also be installed in preparation for future commercial leasing on the 3-acre site. The demonstration greenhouse will allow evaluation of the effectiveness of various heat-transfer systems. This would assist commercial operators in designing the most economical system for their needs.

  6. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  7. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  8. In situ fabrication of AgI films on various substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z. Liu, A.R.; Wang, S.M.; Huang, B.J.; Ma, X.M.; Zhao, H.X.; Li, D.P.; Zhang, L.Z.

    2008-08-04

    A facile solution-phase chemical route is developed to directly construct silver iodide (AgI) films/crystals on various substrates including silver foil, silicon wafer and glass, etc. The resulting AgI films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The AgI films with different morphologies can be obtained by controlling the reaction parameters. This method is a simple and fast way for in situ deposition of AgI crystals/films on different substrates. These films may be applied in chemical sensing systems and solid-state batteries as solid electrolytes.

  9. Facile synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide hybrids and their application in electromagnetic interference shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Tao; Hu, Li; Dai, HongXia; Tang, YuXia

    2014-07-01

    A fast and environmentally friendly method was proposed toward one-pot synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide (Ag-RGO) hybrids by a chemical reduction method assisted by microwave irradiation treatment with the use of sodium citrate as green reductant. The as-synthesized samples were characterized systematically, and the results indicated the successful synthesis of Ag-RGO. Ag-RGO was further applied as filler in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix polymer composites, and their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance was investigated. The prepared Ag-RGO/PMMA composites with 3.0 vol% Ag-RGO exhibited an excellent EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of average 26.8 dB in the 8-12 GHz X-band range, which outperformed the RGO/PMMA composites (18.4 dB) with bare RGO as fillers.

  10. Fast diffusion of silver in TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanggang; Liu, Yiming; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-01-01

    Using magnetron sputtering and heat treatment, Ag@TiO2 nanotubes are prepared. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and heating time on the evolution of Ag nanofilms on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes and microstructure of Ag nanofilms are investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Ag atoms migrate mainly on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes, and fast diffusion of Ag atoms is observed. The diffusivity for the diffusion of Ag atoms on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes at 400 °C is 6.87 × 10(-18) m(2)/s, which is three orders of magnitude larger than the diffusivities for the diffusion of Ag through amorphous TiO2 films. The activation energy for the diffusion of Ag atoms on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes in the temperature range of 300 to 500 °C is 157 kJ/mol, which is less than that for the lattice diffusion of Ag and larger than that for the grain boundary diffusion. The diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of Ag nanocrystals on the outmost surface of TiO2 nanotubes. Probably there are hardly any Ag nanocrystals formed inside the TiO2 nanotubes through the migration of Ag. PMID:27547630

  11. Fast diffusion of silver in TiO2 nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wanggang; Liu, Yiming; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Summary Using magnetron sputtering and heat treatment, Ag@TiO2 nanotubes are prepared. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and heating time on the evolution of Ag nanofilms on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes and microstructure of Ag nanofilms are investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Ag atoms migrate mainly on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes, and fast diffusion of Ag atoms is observed. The diffusivity for the diffusion of Ag atoms on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes at 400 °C is 6.87 × 10−18 m2/s, which is three orders of magnitude larger than the diffusivities for the diffusion of Ag through amorphous TiO2 films. The activation energy for the diffusion of Ag atoms on the outmost surface of the TiO2 nanotubes in the temperature range of 300 to 500 °C is 157 kJ/mol, which is less than that for the lattice diffusion of Ag and larger than that for the grain boundary diffusion. The diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of Ag nanocrystals on the outmost surface of TiO2 nanotubes. Probably there are hardly any Ag nanocrystals formed inside the TiO2 nanotubes through the migration of Ag. PMID:27547630

  12. Analysis of resonance-driving imperfections in the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.; Shoji, Y.; Danby, G.; Glenn, J.W.; Jackson, G.J.; Soukas, A.; van Asselt, W.; Whalen, C.

    1994-08-01

    At the design intensity of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the space charge tune shift in the AGS Booster at injection has been estimated to be about 0.35. The beam tunes are therefore spread over many lower order resonance lines and the associated stopbands must be corrected in order to minimize the amplitude growth due to resonance excitation. This requires proper compensation of the resonance-driving harmonics which result from random magnetic field errors. The observation and correction of second and third order resonance stopbands in the AGS Booster is reviewed, and an analysis of magnetic field imperfections based on the required corrections is given.

  13. Observation and correction of resonance stopbands in the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.; Shoji, Y.; Ahrens, L.; Glenn, J.W.; Lee, Y.Y.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    At the design intensity of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the space charge tune shift in the AGS Booster at injection has been estimated to be about 0.35. Therefore, the beam is spread over may lower order resonance lines and the stopbands have to be corrected to minimize the amplitude growth by proper compensation of the driving harmonics resulting from random errors. The observation and correction of second and third order resonance stopbands in the AGS Booster, and the establishment of a favorable operating point at high intensity are discussed.

  14. Fighting the Residual Polarization Loss in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2009-08-04

    A dual partial snake scheme has been used for AGS polarized proton operation for several years. It has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5x10{sup 11} protons per bunch and 65% polarization for the RHIC spin program. There is still residual polarization loss due to both snake resonances and horizontal resonances as shown in the data. Several schemes were tested or proposed in the AGS to mitigate the loss, such as putting horizontal tune into the spin tune gap, injection into a accelerating bucket, and tune jump across the horizontal resonances. This paper presents the experiment and simulation results and analyses.

  15. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  16. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  17. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  18. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  19. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  20. Commissioning the polarized beam in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.; Brown, H.; Chiang, I.H.; Courant, E.; Gardner, C.; Lazarus, D.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Sidhu, S.; Skelly, J.

    1985-01-01

    After the successful operation of a high energy polarized proton beam at the Argonne Laboratory Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) was terminated, plans were made to commission such a beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). On February 23, 1984, 2 ..mu..A of polarized H/sup -/ was accelerated through the Linac to 200 MeV with a polarization of about 65%. 1 ..mu..A was injected into the AGS and acceleration attempts began. Several relatively short runs were then made during the next three months. Dedicated commissioning began in early June, and on June 26 the AGS polarized beam reached 13.8 GeV/c to exceed the previous ZGS peak momentum of 12.75 GeV/c. Commissioning continued to the point where 10/sup 10/ polarized protons were accelerated to 16.5 GeV/c with 40% polarization. Then, two experiments had a short polarized proton run. We plan to continue commissioning efforts in the fall of this year to reach higher energy, higher intensity, and higher polarization levels. We present a brief description of the facility and of the methods used for preserving the polarization of the accelerating beam.

  1. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected so the provider can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another 5 to 10 minutes or so. ...

  2. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  3. Evidence for fast-ion transport by microturbulence.

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W; Park, J M; Murakami, M; Petty, C C; Holcomb, C; Van Zeeland, M A

    2009-10-23

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D(alpha), neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fast-ion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  4. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  5. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  6. AGS Fast spin resonance jump, magnets and power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn,J.W.; Huang, H.; Liaw, C. J.; Marneris, I.; Meng, W.; Mi, J. L.; Rosas, P.; Sandberg, J.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, A.

    2009-05-04

    In order to cross more rapidly the 82 weak spin resonances caused by the horizontal tune and the partial snakes, we plan to jump the horizontal tune 82 times during the acceleration of polarized protons. The current in the magnets creating this tune jump will rise in 100 {micro}s, hold flat for about 4 ms and fan to zero in 100 {micro}s. Laminated beam transport quadrupole magnets have been recycled by installing new two turn coils and longitudinal laminated pole tip shims that reduce inductance and power supply current. The power supply uses a high voltage capacitor discharge to raise the magnet current, which is then switched to a low voltage supply, and then the current is switched back to the high voltage capacitor to zero the current. The current in each of the magnet pulses must match the order of magnitude change in proton momentum during the acceleration cycle. The magnet, power supply and operational experience are described.

  7. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  8. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  9. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  10. Photoemission from Shockley surface state on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkare, Siddharth; Wan, Weishi; Feng, Jun; Padmore, Howard

    We present measurements of quantum yield and transverse momentum distributions of electrons emitted from the Shockley surface state on Ag(111) surface using near threshold photons. Our measurements shed light on the validity of the conservation of transverse momentum during photoemission when the kinetic energy of electrons is less than 0.1 eV. We also develop a one-step photoemission model that quantitatively explains photoemission from single crystal metal surfaces. This model accurately calculates the dependence of the electron yield on the angle of incidence and the polarization of incident light (vectorial photoelectric effect). We show excellent agreement between the measured and calculated photoemission properties of the Ag(111) surface. Our measurements show that Ag(111) surface can act as an excellent electron source for several applications like Free Electron Lasers and Ultra-fast Electron Diffraction.

  11. Dynamic characteristics of double tunneling-injection quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asryan, Levon V.

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic characteristics of double tunneling-injection (DTI) quantum dot (QD) lasers are studied. To reveal the potential of such lasers for high-speed direct modulation of their optical output by pump current, fast carrier injection into QDs and no carrier leakage from QDs are assumed. The small-signal analysis of rate equations is applied. The modulation bandwidth is calculated as a function of the dc component of the injection current density and parameters of the laser structure.

  12. Synthesis/characterization of a new chelating resin and on-line solid phase extraction for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) from water, cream, anode slime and converter samples by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Tülin; Tokalioğlu, Serife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Sahan, Serkan; Özentürk, Ismail; Soykan, Cengiz

    2013-02-15

    On-line preconcentration procedures for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry have been described. A new chelating resin, poly (N,N'-dipropionitrilemethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was synthesized and used as a new adsorbent material. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Ag(I) was adsorbed on the chelating resin at pH 5.0 and eluted with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Pd(II) was retained at pH 9.5 and eluted with 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl. The experimental parameters (pH, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, elution time and the effect of interfering ions) for both Ag(I) and Pd(II) were investigated in detail. The detection limit for Ag(I) was 2.4 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.9% for 0.2 μg mL(-1) Ag(I). The detection limit for Pd(II) was 1.7 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 0.3 μg mL(-1) Pd(II). Accuracy was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material (TMDA-70), recovery studies on real samples and comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the on-line determination of Ag(I) in bottled water, pharmaceutical cream and anode slime samples and Pd(II) in bottled water and catalytic converter samples.

  13. In Situ Photocatalytic Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles (nAg) by Crumpled Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes for Filtration and Disinfection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Di; Cho, Minjung; Lee, Seung Soo; Zhang, Fuzhong; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) materials have demonstrated considerable potential in next-generation water treatment membrane-based technologies, which include antimicrobial applications. GO antimicrobial properties can be further enhanced by preloading or chemically generating surface-associated nanoscale silver particles (nAg). However, for these systems, enhanced antimicrobial functionality decreases over time as a function of Ag mass loss via dissolution (as Ag(+)). In this work, we demonstrate facile photocatalytic in situ synthesis of nAg particles by crumpled GO-TiO2 (GOTI) nanocomposites as an approach to (re)generate, and thus maintain, enhanced antimicrobial activity over extended operation times. The described photocatalytic formation process is highly efficient and relatively fast, producing nAg particles over a size range of 40 to 120 nm and with active (111) planes. Additionally, we show in situ surface-based photocatalyzed synthesis of nAg particles at the surface of GOTI nanocomposite membrane assemblies, allowing for simultaneous filtration and disinfection. With ca. 3 log inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the described membrane assemblies with in situ formed nAg demonstrate enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the GOTI membrane surface or the support membrane alone. Under typical conditions, the working and operational time (Ag dissolution time) is calculated to be over 2 orders of magnitude higher than the loading (synthesis) time (e.g., 123 h versus 0.5 h, respectively). Taken together, results highlight the described material-based process as a potentially novel antifouling membrane technology.

  14. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  15. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).

    PubMed

    Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

    2013-09-15

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti.

  16. Longitudinal emittance measurements in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC gold run

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2014-08-18

    This note describes longitudinal emittance measurements that were made in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC Gold run. It also contains an overview of the longitudinal aspects of their setup during this run. Each bunch intended for RHIC is composed of beam from 4 Booster cycles, and there are two of them per AGS cycle. For each of the 8 Booster cycles required to produce the 2 bunches in the AGS, a beam pulse from EVIS is injected into the Booster and captured in four h=4 buckets. Then those bunches are accelerated to a porch where they are merged into 2 bunches and then into 1 bunch.

  17. Tuning the transmittance of colloidal solution by changing the orientation of Ag nanoplates in ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiwu; Liu, Jing; Ge, Jianping

    2012-09-11

    Ag nanoplates and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle-based ferrofluids were utilized to fabricate a magnetic field controlled optic switch. The changing of light transmittance (LT) is caused by the rotation of Ag nanoplates, whose long axis always follows the orientation of external magnetic field to minimize the potential energy. The sensitivity of switching was optimized by choosing Ag nanoplates with appropriate size and concentration. The switching of transmission is proved to be fast and fully reversible. This phenomenon not only indicates an effective method to adjust the propagation of optical signals, but also reveals the possibility and great potential to develop magnetic controlled functional devices. PMID:22873949

  18. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  19. Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2013-02-15

    We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

  20. Crack injection in silver gold alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiying

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a materials degradation phenomena resulting from a combination of stress and a corrosive environment. Among the alphabet soup of proposed mechanism of SCC the most important are film-rupture, film-induced cleavage and hydrogen embrittlement. This work examines various aspects of film-induced cleavage in gold alloys for which the operation of hydrogen embrittlement processes can be strictly ruled out on thermodynamic grounds. This is so because in such alloys SCC occurs under electrochemical conditions within which water is stable to hydrogen gas evolution. The alloy system examined in this work is AgAu since the corrosion processes in this system occur by a dealloying mechanism that results in the formation of nanoporous gold. The physics behind the dealloying process as well as the resulting formation of nanoporous gold is today well understood. Two important aspects of the film-induced cleavage mechanism are examined in this work: dynamic fracture in monolithic nanoporous gold and crack injection. In crack injection there is a finite thickness dealloyed layer formed on a AgAu alloy sample and the question of whether or not a crack that nucleates within this layer can travel for some finite distance into the un-corroded parent phase alloy is addressed. Dynamic fracture tests were performed on single edge-notched monolithic nanoporous gold samples as well as "infinite strip" sample configurations for which the stress intensity remains constant over a significant portion of the crack length. High-speed photography was used to measure the crack velocity. In the dynamic fracture experiments cracks were observed to travel at speeds as large as 270 m/s corresponding to about 68% of the Raleigh wave velocity. Crack injection experiments were performed on single crystal Ag77Au23, polycrystalline Ag72Au28 and pure gold, all of which had thin nanoporous gold layers on the surface of samples. Through-thickness fracture was seen in both the

  1. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  4. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  5. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  6. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  7. Faraday-cup-type lost fast ion detector on Heliotron J

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kado, S.; Ohshima, S.; Weir, G. M.; Nakamura, Y.; Konoshima, S.; Kemmochi, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2016-11-01

    A Faraday-cup type lost-fast ion probe (FLIP) has been designed and installed in Heliotron J for the purpose of the studies of interaction between fast ions and MHD instabilities. The FLIP can measure the co-going fast ions whose energy is in the range of 1.7-42.5 keV (proton) and pitch angle of 90∘-140∘, especially for fast ions having the injection energy of neutral beam injection (NBI). The FLIP successfully measured the re-entering passing ions and trapped lost-fast ions caused by fast-ion-driven energetic particle modes in NBI heated plasmas.

  8. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  9. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  10. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  11. Study of Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for detection of L-cysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugavelu, M.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-11-01

    Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-Pd BNPs) as an enhanced sensing material with improved electronic transmission rates in the electrochemical sensing of L-cysteine (L-cys) has been reported. The morphology of Ag-Pd BNPs was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Oxidation of L-cys on Ag-Pd BNPs is investigated in detail by discussing the effect of the structure and from the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cys. We found that the Ag-Pd BNPs exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards L-cys oxidation in neutral condition and could be used for the development of nonenzymatic L-cys sensor. Based on the efficient catalytic ability of Ag-Pd BNPs, the fabricated biosensor exhibited a wide linear range of responses to the L-cys with the concentration detection limit of nearly down to 2 mM with fast response time.

  12. AGS polarized H/sup -/ source

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H/sup -/ source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 ..mu..A x 300 ..mu..s (approx. 3 x 10/sup 10/ protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H/sup -/ yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H/sup -/ current is now frequently 20 to 30 ..mu..A. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program.

  13. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Westerman, Stuart; Cheng, Weixing; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  14. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Travis J.; Kauffman, Kyle T.; Amrine, Katherine C. H.; Carper, Dana L.; Lee, Raymond S.; Becich, Peter J.; Canales, Claudia J.; Ardell, David H.

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  15. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  16. Matching the BtA line to the bare-AGS (Part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Glenn, J. W.; Huan, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Raparia, D.; Zeno, K.

    2008-11-01

    The Booster to AGS (BtA) transfer line [Ref for BtA line] transports the beam bunches from the AGS-Booster to the AGS synchrotron, and also matches the beam parameters ({beta}{sub x,y}, {alpha}{sub x,y}) and dispersion functions ({eta}{sub x,y}, {eta}{prime}{sub x,y}) of the transported beam to the corresponding quantities of the circulating beam in AGS, at the AGS injection point. In this technical note we describe in details, the calculations of the matching procedure of the BtA line to the bare-AGS, and provide magnet settings for the MAD-model of the BtA transfer line which is 'matched' to the bare-AGS. In a separate but more concise technical note (Part II) we will present results on the beam optics of the BtA beam line which is 'matched' to the AGS with two helical snakes.

  17. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  18. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with an electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater than the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. Magnetic switches and particularly fast kicker magnets are used in the accelerator industry to quickly deflect particle beams into and out of various transport lines, storage rings, dumps, and specifically to differentially route individual bunches of particles from a train of bunches which are injected or ejected from a given ring.

  19. High-performance polyimide nanocomposites with core-shell AgNWs@BN for electronic packagings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongcun; Liu, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The increasing density of electronic devices underscores the need for efficient thermal management. Silver nanowires (AgNWs), as one-dimensional nanostructures, possess a high aspect ratio and intrinsic thermal conductivity. However, high electrical conductivity of AgNWs limits their application for electronic packaging. We synthesized boron nitride-coated silver nanowires (AgNWs@BN) using a flexible and fast method followed by incorporation into synthetic polyimide (PI) for enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites. The thinner boron nitride intermediate nanolayer on AgNWs not only alleviated the mismatch between AgNWs and PI but also enhanced their interfacial interaction. Hence, the maximum thermal conductivity of an AgNWs@BN/PI composite with a filler loading up to 20% volume was increased to 4.33 W/m K, which is an enhancement by nearly 23.3 times compared with that of the PI matrix. The relative permittivity and dielectric loss were about 9.89 and 0.015 at 1 MHz, respectively. Compared with AgNWs@SiO2/PI and Ag@BN/PI composites, boron nitride-coated core-shell structures effectively increased the thermal conductivity and reduced the permittivity of nanocomposites. The relative mechanism was studied and discussed. This study enables the identification of appropriate modifier fillers for polymer matrix nanocomposites.

  20. Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanofiber heterostructures: Highly enhanced photocatalysts under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuan; Liu Lixin; Xu Liang; Meng Chuanmin; Zhu Wenjun

    2013-05-07

    Photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2} has recently drawn considerable attention, while the photoefficiency of TiO{sub 2} is limited by its large band-gap energy and usually fast electron-hole recombination. Here, we present an unconventional heterostructure of Ag nanoparticles modified TiO{sub 2} nanofibers synthesized by one-step electrospinning process, to improve the photoefficiency of TiO{sub 2} host. The efficient promotion of the visible light photocatalysis of Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanofiber heterostructures can be ascribed to the electronic excitation of Ag nanoparticles under visible light and the transfer of the electrons to TiO{sub 2} conduction band, which deeply depends on the number of Ag/TiO{sub 2} junctions and the height of Schottky barrier. The Ag/Ti molar ratio can be easily controlled by the electrospinning process and the Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with Ag/Ti molar ratio of 0.05 exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. Simultaneously, the Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanofiber heterostructures show excellent photocatalytic stability.

  1. Evidence for Fast-Ion Transport by Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Park, Jin Myung; Murakami, Masanori; Petty, C C.; Holcomb, C T; Van Zeeland, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D-alpha, neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fastion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  2. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  3. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  4. Transfer of a polarized proton beam from AGS to RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Roser, T.; Syphers, M.; Luccio, A.; Underwood, D.

    1997-07-01

    As part of the RHIC project, the RHIC machine will also be able to accelerate polarized proton beam bunches. The bunches will be extracted from the AGS machine, with kinetic energy T = 25 GeV, and transferred into RHIC via the AtR transfer line. When the RHIC machine accelerates polarized protons, it will operate with two full snakes, which define the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam circulating in each ring, along the vertical. Therefore a polarized proton beam should be injected into the RHIC machine with the stable spin direction along the vertical in order to match that of the RHIC machine. The layout of the dipole magnets of the AtR line creates a dependence, on the injection energy, of the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam injected into the RHIC machine. In this paper, the study of the stable spin direction (at the RHIC injection point) of a polarized proton beam as a function of the injection energy is presented. A modification of the AtR transfer line, which eliminates this energy dependence (within the range of proton injection energies) of the stable spin direction is also presented.

  5. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  6. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  7. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  8. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-09-01

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se

  9. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen; Yu, Changlin; Zhou, Wanqin; zhu, Lihua; Xie, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, with the fast development of global industrial development, various organic pollutants discharged in water have become a major source of environmental pollution in waste fields. Photocatalysis, as green and environmentally friendly technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation due to its efficient degradation rate. However, the practical application of traditional semiconductor photocatalysts, e.g. TiO2, ZnO, is limited by their weak visible light adsorption due to their wide band gaps. Nowadays, the study in photocatalysts focuses on new and narrow band gap semiconductors. Among them, Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Most of Ag-based semiconductors could exhibit high initial photocatalytic activity. But they easy suffer from poor stability because of photochemical corrosion. Design heterojunction, increasing specific surface area, enriching pore structure, regulating morphology, controlling crystal facets, and producing plasmonic effects were considered as the effective strategies to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag-based photocatalyts. Moreover, combining the superior properties of carbon materials (e.g. carbon quantum dots, carbon nano-tube, carbon nanofibers, graphene) with Ag-based semiconductor could produce high efficient composite photocatalyts.

  10. Preparation and use of photocatalytically active segmented Ag|ZnO and coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires made by templated electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Maijenburg, A Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J B; Maas, Michiel G; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2014-05-02

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution.

  11. Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    Maijenburg, A. Wouter; Rodijk, Eddy J.B.; Maas, Michiel G.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution. PMID:24837535

  12. Effect of gonadectomy on AgRP-induced weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Sean Z; Kiechler, Alicia R; Keichler, Alicia R; Smith, Marissa; Wendt, Donna; Strader, April D

    2008-12-01

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), the endogenous antagonist to the melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors, elicits robust hyperphagia and weight gain in rodents when administered directly into the central nervous system. The relative influence of AgRP to cause weight gain in rodents partially depends on the activity level of the melanocortin agonist-producing proopiomelanocortin neurons. Both proopiomelanocortin and AgRP neurons within the arcuate nucleus receive energy storage information from circulating peripheral signals such as leptin and insulin. Another modulator of AgRP activity includes the cell surface molecule syndecan-3. Because leptin and insulin affect food intake in a sexually dimorphic way in rodents and syndecan-3-deficient mice regulate adiposity levels through distinct physiological mechanisms, we hypothesized that AgRP-induced weight gain would also be sexually dimorphic in rats. In the present study, the behavioral and physiological effects of centrally-administered AgRP in male and female were investigated. In male rats, AgRP (1 nmol) induced 5 days (P < 0.0001) of significantly elevated feeding compared with vehicle-treated controls, while females displayed 3 days of hyperphagia (P < 0.05). However, 1 wk after the injection, both male and female rats gained the same percent body weight (6%). Interestingly, female rats exhibited a greater reduction in energy expenditure (Vo2) following AgRP compared with male rats (P < 0.05). Removal of the gonads did not alter cumulative food intake in male or female rats but did attenuate the dramatic reduction in Vo2 exhibited by females. Both intact and gonadectomized rats demonstrated significantly increased respiratory quotient supporting the anabolic action of AgRP (P < 0.01). These findings are novel in that they reveal sex-specific underlying physiology used to achieve weight gain following central AgRP in rats.

  13. The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in isotonic glucose solution for intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangsik; Lee, Yeonjin

    2013-01-01

    Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in industry, consumer products, and medical appliances. However, information on the environmental toxicity and human health is not comprehensive. Further, the physicochemical properties of AgNP make it difficult to test toxicity, as nanosized particles, due to their size, may increase by aggregation or agglomeration in some administration vehicles. In this study, stability of AgNP was investigated in different types of isotonic solutions, which is important for in vitro testing or toxicokinetic studies using intravenous (iv) injection. Size, morphology, zeta potential, and ion formation were investigated in isotonic solutions for the physicochemical characterization of AgNP. Aggregation and precipitation of AgNP were observed in phosphate-buffered saline or 0.9% NaCl, while AgNP were stable without aggregation or precipitation in 5% glucose in isotonic solution. The average size of AgNP in 5% glucose was approximately 10 nm at different temperatures of 10, 25, or 36°C and at varying concentrations from 10 to 1000 ppm. It is noteworthy that this is almost the same size distribution as that in the water-based suspension of AgNP supplied by the manufacturer. Zeta potential ranged from -40 to -60 mV, suggesting that the repulsion forces of AgNP are not disturbed to a sufficient degree to aggregate while osmolarity is in the isotonic range of 290 ± 10 mOsm/kg in 5% glucose solution. Data suggest that AgNP in a 5% glucose solution may be used in the toxicity test via iv injection without adverse consequences in blood. PMID:24283395

  14. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-05-07

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. We measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. Using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. The relative strength of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. We also vary the interlayer materials to study the voltage output in relation to the change of the effective spin mixing conductance. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.

  15. Multiple-injection high-throughput gas chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Wes; Wang, Heather; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple-injection techniques have been shown to be a simple way to perform high-throughput analysis where the entire experiment resides in a single chromatogram, simplifying the data analysis and interpretation. In this study, multiple-injection techniques are applied to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass detection to significantly increase sample throughput. The unique issues of implementing a traditional "Fast" injection mode of multiple-injection techniques with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are discussed. Stacked injections are also discussed as means to increase the throughput of longer methods where mass detection is unable to distinguish between analytes of the same mass and longer retentions are required to resolve components of interest. Multiple-injection techniques are shown to increase instrument throughput by up to 70% and to simplify data analysis, allowing hits in multiple parallel experiments to be identified easily. PMID:27292909

  16. Production of antibacterial colored viscose fibers using in situ prepared spherical Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Mowafi, Salwa; Mashaly, Hamada M; Rehan, Mohamed

    2014-09-22

    In situ incorporation technique was used for coloration and acquiring excellent antibacterial properties for viscose fibers by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs were prepared in situ and incorporated in viscose matrix directly without using any other reducing and stabilizing agents. The main objective of this research was to successfully employ the reducing and stabilizing features of cellulose to produce nanosilver-viscose composites. Coloration of fibers after in situ AgNPs incorporation is related to surface plasmon resonance of silver. Colorimetric data were recorded as a function of washings to characterize the final colored fibers. Fastness properties and silver release were all measured to study the washable and wear off properties. Depending on the silver concentration, yellowish colored fibers with different shades were produced. Good fastness properties were obtained after 20 washings without using any crosslinker or binder. The colored fibers had excellent antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, even after 20 washings. PMID:24906741

  17. Synthesis of Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms and their use as DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ma, Zhanfang

    2011-06-01

    A simple synthetic route to prepare Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms consists of the facile addition of Na(2) S to a solution of triangular Ag nanoprisms. The resulting Ag(2) S-Ag nanoparticles are more stable in solution than the original Ag nanoprisms, and two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the original Ag nanoprisms still remain. In addition, the SPR bands of the Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms are tunable over a wide range. The Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms can be directly bioconjugated via well-established stable Ag(2) S surface chemistry with readily available sulfur coupling agents. The nanoprisms are used in the hybridization of functionalized oligonucleotides, and show promise as probes for future biosensing applications. PMID:21538868

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles from unmodified apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Cook, R. E.; Miller, J. T.; Suthiwangcharoen, N.; Lee, S.; Winans, R. E.; Lee, B.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow-size distributed, water-soluble Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles with a size range from 1 to 5 nm are synthesized using unmodified apoferritin as a template. Fast protein liquid chromatography reveals that the nanoparticles are formed inside the apoferritin cavity and are stable in aqueous solution. Electron microscopy shows that the particles are uniform in size and composed of both Au and Ag. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure confirms that the particles have a core-shell structure with a Au core covered with a Ag shell. By varying the loading amounts of the silver precursor, the Ag shell thickness is controlled from one layer to several layers.

  19. An overwhelmingly selective colorimetric sensor for Ag(+) using a simple modified polyacrylonitrile fiber.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoli; Yang, Huixiao; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-10-30

    A carboxymethyl-dithiocarbamate immobilized polyacrylonitrile fiber colorimetric sensor has been synthesized. This fiber sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Ag(+) in aqueous solution with a remarkable color change from light pink to red-brown over a wide pH range of 2-12. The sensor responds selectively to Ag(+) in the presence of other ions, including Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The colorimetric sensor has an extremely fast response time (10s) and a low visual limit of detection (5.53×10(-12) mol/L). The fiber sensor also undergoes an obvious color change in the presence of Ag(+) solutions containing EDTA, NaCl or NaBr. Density functional theory optimization reveals that the sensor and Ag(+) interact via a seven-membered ring complexation mechanism.

  20. An overwhelmingly selective colorimetric sensor for Ag(+) using a simple modified polyacrylonitrile fiber.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoli; Yang, Huixiao; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-10-30

    A carboxymethyl-dithiocarbamate immobilized polyacrylonitrile fiber colorimetric sensor has been synthesized. This fiber sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Ag(+) in aqueous solution with a remarkable color change from light pink to red-brown over a wide pH range of 2-12. The sensor responds selectively to Ag(+) in the presence of other ions, including Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The colorimetric sensor has an extremely fast response time (10s) and a low visual limit of detection (5.53×10(-12) mol/L). The fiber sensor also undergoes an obvious color change in the presence of Ag(+) solutions containing EDTA, NaCl or NaBr. Density functional theory optimization reveals that the sensor and Ag(+) interact via a seven-membered ring complexation mechanism. PMID:25967097

  1. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  2. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  3. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  4. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  5. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  7. Non-toxic silver iodide (AgI) quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moosakhani, S.; Sabbagh Alvani, A.A.; Sarabi, A.A.; Sameie, H.; Salimi, R.; Kiani, S.; Ebrahimi, Y.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated AgI sensitized solar cell for the first time. • Obtained mesoporous titania powders possessed small crystallite size, high purity and surface area, and developed mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution. • Photovoltaic measurements revealed the electron injection from AgI to TiO{sub 2}. • The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% under one sun illumination. • AgI may be a suitable candidate material for use as a non-toxic sensitizer in QDSSC. - Abstract: The present study reports the performance of a new photosensitizer -AgI quantum dots (QDs)- and mesoporous titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals synthesized by sol–gel (SG) method for solar cells. Furthermore, the effects of n-heptane on the textural properties of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} powders exhibited an anatase-type mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 89.7 m{sup 2}/g. Afterwards, the QDs were grown on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} surface to fabricate a TiO{sub 2}/AgI electrode by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition route. Current–voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data demonstrated that the injection of photoexcited electrons from AgI QDs into the TiO{sub 2} matrix produces photocurrents. The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% and a short-circuit current of 2.13 mA/cm{sup 2} under one sun illumination.

  8. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br- and I-), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10-8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface.

  9. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    PubMed Central

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br– and I–), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10−8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface. PMID:26412773

  10. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  11. Fast Neutral Pressure Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; T. Provost; R. Gernhardt; T.R. Jarboe; M.G. Bell

    2002-08-06

    Several fast neutral pressure gauges have been installed on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] to measure the vessel and divertor pressure during inductive and coaxial helicity injected (CHI) plasma operations. Modified, PDX [Poloidal Divertor Experiment]-type Penning gauges have been installed on the upper and lower divertors. Neutral pressure measurements during plasma operations from these and from two shielded fast Micro ion gauges at different toroidal locations on the vessel mid-plane are described. A new unshielded ion gauge, referred to as the In-vessel Neutral Pressure (INP) gauge is under development.

  12. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  13. Facile synthesis and intraparticle self-catalytic oxidation of dextran-coated hollow Au-Ag nanoshell and its application for chemo-thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hongje; Kim, Young-Kwan; Huh, Hyun; Min, Dal-Hee

    2014-01-28

    Galvanic replacement reaction is a useful method to prepare various hollow nanostructures. We developed fast and facile preparation of biocompatible and structurally robust hollow Au-Ag nanostructures by using dextran-coated Ag nanoparticles. Oxidation of the surface dextran alcohols was enabled by catalytic activity of the core Au-Ag nanostructure, introducing carbonyl groups that are useful for further bioconjugation. Subsequent doxorubicin (Dox) conjugation via Schiff base formation was achieved, giving high payload of approximately 35 000 Dox per particle. Near-infrared-mediated photothermal conversion showed high efficacy of the Dox-loaded Au-Ag nanoshell as a combinational chemo-thermotherapy to treat cancer cells.

  14. Evidence for Fast-Ion Transport by Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Park, J. M.; Murakami, M.; Petty, C. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Holcomb, C.

    2009-10-23

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D{sub {alpha}}, neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fast-ion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  15. Rapid detection of S. mutans surface antigen I/II using a sensitive monoclonal anti-Ag I/II antibody by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ah; Jeon, Hyun-Soon; Shin, Se-Young; Baik, Byeong-Ju; Yang, Yeon-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2013-10-01

    The cell-surface protein antigen I/II (Ag I/II) is expressed in oral streptococci, which are known as the causative agent of a number of diseases including dental caries, endocarditis, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies (MAb) capable of recognizing the streptococcal Ag I/II protein could be a useful tool for the diagnosis and cure of these diseases. In this study, a previously generated monoclonal anti-Ag I/II antibody, ckAg I/II, was used to detect a small amount of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) surface antigen Ag I/II. The ckAg I/II was proved to be very sensitive and able to detect as little as 1 ng of recombinant Ag I/II protein within 5 min and Ag I/II in saliva within 10 min, as well as native Ag I/II in 20 μL of culture supernatant by ELISA. These results suggest that ckAg I/II can be used as a fast and efficient diagnostic tool to detect Ag I/II. PMID:24111865

  16. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  17. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  18. [Intravitreal injections of corticoids].

    PubMed

    Demols, P

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide are today widely performed as a therapeutic tool for a large variety of ocular diseases. The risk of toxicity of the product and its vehicle is quite real and is still at the center of investigations. Complications related to the substance and the technique of injections are already well-known (intraocular pressure rise, cataract, endophthalmitis, pseudo-endophthalmitis, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment). Carefulness and rigor in the indication, realization and follow-up of these injections are therefore mandatory.

  19. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  20. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  1. In Situ Photocatalytic Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles (nAg) by Crumpled Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes for Filtration and Disinfection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Di; Cho, Minjung; Lee, Seung Soo; Zhang, Fuzhong; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) materials have demonstrated considerable potential in next-generation water treatment membrane-based technologies, which include antimicrobial applications. GO antimicrobial properties can be further enhanced by preloading or chemically generating surface-associated nanoscale silver particles (nAg). However, for these systems, enhanced antimicrobial functionality decreases over time as a function of Ag mass loss via dissolution (as Ag(+)). In this work, we demonstrate facile photocatalytic in situ synthesis of nAg particles by crumpled GO-TiO2 (GOTI) nanocomposites as an approach to (re)generate, and thus maintain, enhanced antimicrobial activity over extended operation times. The described photocatalytic formation process is highly efficient and relatively fast, producing nAg particles over a size range of 40 to 120 nm and with active (111) planes. Additionally, we show in situ surface-based photocatalyzed synthesis of nAg particles at the surface of GOTI nanocomposite membrane assemblies, allowing for simultaneous filtration and disinfection. With ca. 3 log inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the described membrane assemblies with in situ formed nAg demonstrate enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the GOTI membrane surface or the support membrane alone. Under typical conditions, the working and operational time (Ag dissolution time) is calculated to be over 2 orders of magnitude higher than the loading (synthesis) time (e.g., 123 h versus 0.5 h, respectively). Taken together, results highlight the described material-based process as a potentially novel antifouling membrane technology. PMID:26824511

  2. Effect of Mixed Glass Former on Ionic Conductivity of Silver Boro Tungstate glass system x[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: (1-x) [Ag2O-{B2O3:WO3}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehariya, Harsha; Kumar, R.; Polu, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The idea to explore new 'Superionic Electrolytes', "Fast ionic conductors" is due to their tremendous potential applications in solid state electrochemical devices viz. solid state batteries, fuel cells, sensors, super capacitors. Superionic glasses have attracted great deal of attention due to their several advantageous over their crystalline counterparts such as high ionic conductivity, easy preparation, wide selection of compositions, isotropic properties and high stability etc [4-7]. Large numbers of silver ion based glasses have been reported in the literature for the glassy system of AgI:Ag2O: MxOy (MxOy = B2O3, SiO2, P2O5, GeO2, V2O5, As2O5, CrO3, SeO2, MoO3 & TeO3 etc many of them shows high silver ion conductivity [8]. Ion transport behavior of Silver Boro Tungstate glass system x[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: (1-x) [Ag2O{B2O3:WO3}], where 0 <= x <= 1 in molar wt% prepared by melt quench technique were reported. The new host [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl] was used as a better alternate in place of conventional host salt AgI. Conductivity measurement were carried out on this glass system as a function of frequency from 50 Hz to 5 MHz, over a temperature range of 27°C to 200°C, for different compositions by Impedance spectroscopy. The composition 0.7[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: 0.3[Ag2O{B2O3:WO3}] shows the highest conductivity of the order of σrt ~ 2.76 × 10-2 S/cm, referred to as the Optimum Conducting Composition (OCC). The enhancement in the conductivity has been obtained by mixed former effect. XRD result shows that the system is completely amorphous. Temperature dependence of conductivity of all compositions were studied & reported. Activation energies (Ea) were also evaluated from the slope of .Log(σ) vs 1000/T, Arrhenius plots.

  3. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  4. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... onabotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  5. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body; blurred vision; or drooping eyelids. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  6. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... incobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  7. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rimabotulinumtoxinB injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  8. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  9. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  10. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  11. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  12. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... carboxymaltose injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... medication is also used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to ...

  13. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  14. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... position or distract the child with a noisy toy while you are injecting the medication. You can ... recognizing reality vision problems excessive tiredness increased thirst ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  15. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  16. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... often you receive iron sucrose injection and your total number of doses based on your condition and ... hands or feet; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. ...

  17. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  18. A LOW GAMMA_T INJECTION LATTICE FOR POLARIZED PROTONS IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.

    2007-06-25

    Polarized protons are injected into the Relativistic Heavy Jon Collider (RHIC) just above transition energy. When installation of a cold partial Siberian snake in the AGS required lowering the injection energy by {Delta}{gamma} = 0.56, the transition energy in RHIC had to be lowered accordingly to ensure proper longitudinal matching. This paper presents lattice modifications implemented to lower the transition energy by {Delta}{gamma}{sub t} = 0.8.

  19. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy of AgCl, AgBr, and AgI vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Batson, C.H.; Goodman, G.L.

    1980-06-01

    He I photoelectron spectra of AgCl, AgBr and AgI vapors have been obtained which differ significantly from earlier work. In each instance, the characteristic features of the diatomic molecule are prominent. The spectral features separate into a valence region, predominantly halogen p-like, and a deeper region, predominantly of Ag 4d character. The latter is split by spin--orbit and ligand field interactions, which are parametrized from the experimental data. Relativistic calculations of the X/sub ..cap alpha../--DVM--SCC type have been performed for these species. At the transition state level, they agree very well with the experimental peak positions. Nonrelativistic calculations of this type have been performed for CuCl and cyclic Cu/sub 3/Cl/sub 3/. Unlike the AgX species, the CuCl and Cu/sub 3/Cl/sub 3/ exhibit strong mixing of metal d and halogen p orbitals for the uppermost occupied orbital, and other Cu 3d-like orbitals above the Cl 3p-like orbitals. It is suggested that the occurrence of Cu 3d orbitals in the valence region may play a role in the anomalous diagmagnetic signal and large conductivity changes of CuCl condensed from the vapor.

  1. Construction and characterization of a valve for rapid gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedo, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Aso, Y.; Mangueira, L. S.; Pereira, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic valve for fast gas injection was built and characterized. This type of gas injection valve is routinely applied to various plasma experiments: in magnetic confinement devices as TOKAMAK, FRP, and Compact Toroids as well as intense ion beam and neutral particle generators. The valve is capable of injecting gas pulses with up to 80 m Torr peak pressure, rising time less than 400 microsec and duration time of 40 ms, in the present experimental set-up. It is easy to build and its components can be totally acquired in the country.

  2. THE AGS-BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WENG,W.T.; DIWAN,M.; RAPARIA,D.

    2004-10-08

    After more than 40 years of operation, the AGS is still at the heart of the Brookhaven hadron accelerator complex. This system of accelerators presently comprises a 200 MeV linac for the pre-acceleration of high intensity and polarized protons, two Tandem Van der Graaffs for the pre-acceleration of heavy ion beams, a versatile Booster that allows for efficient injection of all three types of beams into the AGS and, most recently, the two RHIC collider rings that produce high luminosity heavy ion and polarized proton collisions. For several years now, the AGS has held the world intensity record with more than 7 x 10{sup 13} protons accelerated in a single pulse. The requirements for the proton beam for the super neutrino beam are summarized and a schematic of the upgraded AGS is shown. Since the present number of protons per fill is already close to the required number, the upgrade is based on increasing the repetition rate and reducing beam losses (to avoid excessive shielding requirements and to maintain activation of the machine components at workable level). It is also important to preserve all the present capabilities of the AGS, in particular its role as injector to RHIC. The AGS Booster was built not only to allow the injection of any species of heavy ion into the AGS but to allow a fourfold increase of the AGS intensity. It is one-quarter the circumference of the AGS with the same aperture. However, the accumulation of four Booster loads in the AGS takes about 0.6 s, and is therefore not well suited for high average beam power operation. To minimize the injection time to about 1 ms, a 1.2 GeV linac will be used instead. This linac consists of the existing warm linac of 200 MeV and a new superconducting linac of 1.0 GeV. The multi-turn H{sup -} injection from a source of 30 mA and 720 {micro}s pulse width is sufficient to accumulate 9 x 10{sup 13} particle per pulse in the AGS[10]. The minimum ramp time of the AGS to full energy is presently 0.5 s; this must

  3. The AGS Booster control system

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper.

  4. AG Draconis - a symbiotic mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, R.; Hric, L.; Smelcer, L.

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic system AG Draconis regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one (~550 d) is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one (~355 d) could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts are repeated with periods from 359 - 375 d.

  5. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  6. Fast food: friendly?

    PubMed

    Rice, S; McAllister, E J; Dhurandhar, N V

    2007-06-01

    Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast food, we examined the possibility of imaginative selection of fast food, which would attenuate the potentially unfavorable nutrient composition. We present a sample menu to demonstrate that it is possible to design a fast food menu that provides reasonable level of essential nutrients without exceeding the caloric recommendations. We would like to alert health-care professionals that fast food need not be forbidden under all circumstances, and that a fresh look at the role of fast food may enable its inclusion in meal planning for those who depend on it out of necessity, while adding flexibility.

  7. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  8. Ag-Ag2S Hybrid Nanoprisms: Structural versus Plasmonic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahjamali, Mohammad M; Zhou, Yong; Zaraee, Negin; Xue, Can; Wu, Jinsong; Large, Nicolas; McGuirk, C Michael; Boey, Freddy; Dravid, Vinayak; Cui, Zhifeng; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-05-24

    Recently, Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their enhanced chemical and thermal stability, in addition to their morphology- and composition-dependent tunable local surface plasmon resonances. Although Ag-Ag2S nanostructures can be synthesized via sulfidation of as-prepared anisotropic Ag nanoparticles, this process is poorly understood, often leading to materials with anomalous compositions, sizes, and shapes and, consequently, optical properties. In this work, we use theory and experiment to investigate the structural and plasmonic evolution of Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms during the sulfidation of Ag precursors. The previously observed red-shifted extinction of the Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanoprism as sulfidation occurs contradicts theoretical predictions, indicating that the reaction does not just occur at the prism tips as previously speculated. Our experiments show that sulfidation can induce either blue or red shifts in the extinction of the dipole plasmon mode, depending on reaction conditions. By elucidating the correlation with the final structure and morphology of the synthesized Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms, we find that, depending on the reaction conditions, sulfidation occurs on the prism tips and/or the (111) surfaces, leading to a core(Ag)-anisotropic shell(Ag2S) prism nanostructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the direction of the shift in the dipole plasmon is a function of the relative amounts of Ag2S at the prism tips and Ag2S shell thickness around the prism.

  9. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  10. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    PubMed

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  11. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    PubMed

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed. PMID:27370428

  12. Fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} measurements and simulations in quiet plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Ruskov, E.; Solomon, W. M.

    2007-11-15

    The D{sub {alpha}} light emitted by neutralized deuterium fast ions is measured in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent, magnetically confined plasmas during neutral beam injection. A weighted Monte Carlo simulation code models the fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} spectra based on the fast-ion distribution function calculated classically by TRANSP [R. V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)]. The spectral shape is in excellent agreement and the magnitude also has reasonable agreement. The fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} signal has the expected dependencies on various parameters including injection energy, injection angle, viewing angle, beam power, electron temperature, and electron density. The neutral particle diagnostic and measured neutron rate corroborate the fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} measurements. The relative spatial profile agrees with TRANSP and is corroborated by the fast-ion pressure profile inferred from the equilibrium.

  13. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2011-04-01

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  14. Photoreduction of Ag+ in Ag/Ag2S/Au memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, N. I.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag2S/Au memristors using a green laser (473-523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from -0.8 V to -0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag2S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  15. Ag-Ag dispersive interaction and physical properties of Ag3Co(CN)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hong; Dove, Martin T.; Refson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    We report a density functional theory (DFT) study of Ag3Co(CN)6, a material noted for its colossal positive and negative thermal expansion, and its giant negative linear compressibility. Here, we explicitly include the dispersive interaction within the DFT calculation, and find that it is essential to reproduce the ground state, the high-pressure phase, and the phonons of this material, and hence essential to understand this material's remarkable physical properties. New exotic properties are predicted. These include heat enhancement of the negative linear compressibility, a large reduction in the coefficient of thermal expansion on compression with change of sign of the mode Grüneisen parameters under pressure, and large softening of the material on heating. Our results suggest that these are associated with the weak Ag-Ag dispersive interactions acting with an efficient hinging mechanism in the framework structure.

  16. O-GlcNAc transferase enables AgRP neurons to suppress browning of white fat

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hai-Bin; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Zimmer, Marcelo R.; Li, Min-Dian; Singh, Jay Prakash; Zhang, Kaisi; Yin, Ruonan; Wu, Jing; Horvath, Tamas L.; Yang, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Induction of beige cells causes the browning of white fat and improves energy metabolism. However, the central mechanism that controls adipose tissue browning and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that fasting and chemical-genetic activation of orexigenic AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus suppress the browning of white fat. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates fundamental cellular processes. The levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc modification are enriched in AgRP neurons and are elevated by fasting. Genetic ablation of OGT in AgRP neurons inhibits neuronal excitability through the voltage-dependent potassium channel, promotes white adipose tissue browning, and protects mice against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These data reveal adipose tissue browning as a highly dynamic physiological process under central control, in which O-GlcNAc signaling in AgRP neurons is essential for suppressing thermogenesis to conserve energy in response to fasting. PMID:25303527

  17. Laser-based synthesis of core Ag-shell AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hua; Fan, Wai Yip

    2005-05-01

    A laser-controlled synthesis of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles with isolable AgI shell-Ag core stable intermediates is achieved via molecular iodine photodissociation in the presence of pure Ag nanoparticles dispersed in water. Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the solution containing sodium dodecylsulphate surfactants and iodine by ablating a piece of silver foil with a 532 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that different AgI shell-Ag core sizes could be achieved by controlling the photolysis of I 2 in solution. These nanoparticles were also found to catalyse an atom-economy Grignard-Barbier organic reaction.

  18. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  19. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE AGS WITH TWO HELICAL PARTIAL SNAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, H.; AHRENS, L.A.; BAI, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.D.; GARDNER, C.; GLENN, J.W.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TSOUPAS, N.; WOOD, J.; YIP, K.; ZELENSKI, A.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-26

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult: the depolarizing resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are not feasible in the AGS since straight sections are too short. Recently, two helical partial snakes with double pitch design have been built and installed in the AGS. With careful setup of optics at injection and along the ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances encountered during acceleration. This paper presents the accelerator setup and preliminary results.

  20. Investigation of the fast ion beta limit in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, William; Eilerman, Scott; Reusch, Joshua; Koliner, Jonathan; Anderson, Jay; Lin, Liang; Clark, Jerry; Liu, Deyong

    2013-10-01

    Fast ion orbits in the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration are well ordered and have low orbit loss, even considering the stochasticity of the magnetic field generated by multiple tearing modes. Purely classical TRANSP modeling of a 1MW tangentially injected hydrogen neutral beam in MST deuterium plasmas predicts a core-localized fast ion density that can be up to 25% of the electron density and a fast ion beta of many times the local thermal beta. However, neutral particle analysis (NPA) of an NBI-driven mode (presumably driven by a fast ion pressure gradient) clearly shows transport of core-localized fast ions and a saturated fast ion density. The TRANSP modeling is presumed valid until the onset of the beam driven mode and gives an initial estimate of the volume-averaged fast ion beta in the range of 1-2% (local core value up to 10%). Distinguishing between an experimental fast ion number limit or fast ion beta limit is performed by scanning both the magnetic field strength and the NBI energy while observing conditions at the onset of the beam driven mode. Upcoming experiments will further investigate the empirical fast ion beta limit through the use of a deuterium beam into deuterium plasma which will allow for the NPA and neutron flux signals to provide a local and global fast ion beta measurement respectively. Work supported by US DoE.

  1. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  2. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  3. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  4. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min.

  5. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  6. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  7. Correcting the AGS depolarizing resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    For the 1986 AGS run, the technique of correcting an imperfection resonance using a beat harmonic instead of the direct harmonic was applied and found to be useful in achieving a 22 GeV/c polarized beam. Both conventional and modified techniques are explained. (LEW)

  8. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linley, Judy; Mylne, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Ag-Ed, an agricultural education project for upper elementary students, was held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show in Queensland, Australia. Agriculture industry representatives provided 20 interactive agricultural presentations for class groups, which were supplemented with a teacher resource-package containing a directory and 13 sections of…

  9. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  10. The secreted factor Ag1 missing in higher vertebrates regulates fins regeneration in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Anastasiya S.; Shandarin, Igor N.; Ermakova, Galina V.; Minin, Andrey A.; Tereshina, Maria B.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Agr family includes three groups of genes, Ag1, Agr2 and Agr3, which encode the thioredoxin domain-containing secreted proteins and have been shown recently to participate in regeneration of the amputated body appendages in amphibians. By contrast, higher vertebrates have only Agr2 and Agr3, but lack Ag1, and have low ability to regenerate the body appendages. Thus, one may hypothesize that loss of Ag1 in evolution could be an important event that led to a decline of the regenerative capacity in higher vertebrates. To test this, we have studied now the expression and role of Ag1 in the regeneration of fins of a representative of another large group of lower vertebrates, the fish Danio rerio. As a result, we have demonstrated that amputation of the Danio fins, like amputation of the body appendages in amphibians, elicits an increase of Ag1 expression in cells of the stump. Furthermore, down-regulation of DAg1 by injections of Vivo-morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a retardation of the fin regeneration. These data are in a good agreement with the assumption that the loss of Ag1 in higher vertebrates ancestors could lead to the reduction of the regenerative capacity in their modern descendants. PMID:25630240

  11. Determination of HBsAg subtypes in Western Siberian part of Russia.

    PubMed

    Netesova, I G; Swenson, P D; Osipova, L P; Gubina, M A; Posukh, O L; Netesov, S V

    2003-10-01

    A set of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was used for subtyping this antigen in sera from indigenous natives, blood donors, and drug users in Western Siberia with a modified commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for HBsAg detection. Three subtypes of HBsAg in a ratio of 36 (78%) ayw2:8 ayw3varB (18%):2 (4%) adw2 were found in 46 (100%) HBsAg-positive sera of different aboriginal populations of Western Siberia: the Tundra Nenets, Northern Khanty, Southern Altaians, and Kazakhs. Four subtypes of HBsAg in a ratio of 81 (57%) ayw2:58 (15 ayw3varA and 43 ayw3varB; 44%):2 (1%) adw2 were detected in 141 (100%) samples of blood donors from ten cities of Western Siberia. Three subtypes of HBsAg in a ratio of 34 ayw3:(both variants, 33 ayw3varA and 1 ayw3varB; 97.1%):1 (2.9%) ayw2 were found in blood of 35 injection drug users in Novosibirsk.

  12. Beam-ion confinement for different injection geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Murakami, Masanori; Park, Jin Myung; Petty, C C.; Van Zeeland, Michael; Yu, J.H.; Mckee, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak is equipped with neutral beam sources that inject in four different directions; in addition, the plasma can be moved up or down to compare off-axis with on-axis injection. Fast-ion data for eight different conditions have been obtained: co/counter, near-tangential/near-perpendicular and on-axis/off-axis. Neutron measurements during short beam pulses assess prompt and delayed losses under low-power conditions. As expected, co-injection has fewer losses than counter, tangential fewer than perpendicular and on-axis fewer than off-axis; the differences are greater at low current than at higher current. The helicity of the magnetic field has a weak effect on the overall confinement. Fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) and neutron measurements diagnose the confinement at higher power. The basic trends are the same as in low-power plasmas but, even in plasmas without long wavelength Alfven modes or other MHD, discrepancies with theory are observed, especially in higher temperature plasmas. At modest temperature, two-dimensional images of the FIDA light are in good agreement with the simulations for both on-axis and off-axis injection. Discrepancies with theory are more pronounced at low fast-ion energy and at high plasma temperature, suggesting that fast-ion transport by microturbulence is responsible for the anomalies.

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  15. The extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from Au concentrate by thiourea solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongju; Cho, Kanghee; On, Hyunsung; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    The cyanidation process has been used commercially for the past 100 years, there are ores that are not amenable to treatment by cyanide. Interest in alternative lixiviants, such as thiourea, halogens, thiosulfate and malononitrile, has been revived as a result of a major increase in gold price, which has stimulated new developments in extraction technology, combined with environmental concern. The Au extraction process using the thiourea solvent has many advantages over the cyanidation process, including higher leaching rates, faster extraction time and less than toxicity. The purpose of this study was investigated to the extraction characteristic of Au-Ag from two different Au concentrate (sulfuric acid washing and roasting) under various experiment conditions (thiourea concentration, pH of solvent, temperature) by thiourea solvent. The result of extraction experiment showed that the Au-Ag extraction was a fast extraction process, reaching equilibrium (maximum extraction rate) within 30 min. The Au-Ag extraction rate was higher in the roasted concentrate than in the sulfuric acid washing. The higher the Au-Ag extraction rate (Au - 70.87%, Ag - 98.12%) from roasted concentrate was found when the more concentration of thiourea increased, pH decreased and extraction temperature increased. This study informs extraction method basic knowledge when thiourea was a possibility to eco-/economic resources of Au-Ag utilization studies including the hydrometallurgy.

  16. Ferroelectric domain of epitaxial AgNbO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Seo, Jeongdae; Lee, Kwang Jo; Son, Jong Yeog

    2016-03-01

    We investigated ferroelectric properties of silver niobate (AgNbO3) thin film grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The AgNbO3 thin film exhibited room temperature ferroelectricity with a large remanent polarization of about 31 μC/cm2 (2Pr~62 μC/cm2) and fast switching behavior within 120 ns. Triangular grains of AgNbO3 thin film were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) study revealed that the AgNbO3 thin film had mosaic-like ferroelectric domain structure. In comparison with PbTiO3 thin films, domain size of the AgNbO3 thin films was smaller than that of PbTiO3 thin films. Based on Landau, Lifshitz, and Kittel (LLK) scaling law of the domain size versus film thickness curves, it is inferred that AgNbO3 thin films have slightly lower domain wall energy than that of PbTiO3 thin films.

  17. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  18. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  19. Fast-ion D{alpha} measurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2010-10-15

    The fast-ion D{alpha} (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-{alpha} light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of D{alpha} light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of {approx}1 ms, {approx}10 keV, and {approx}2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of {approx}50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  20. Fast-ion Dα measurements of the fast-ion distribution (invited).

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W

    2010-10-01

    The fast-ion Dα (FIDA) diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer-α light with a large Doppler shift. The spectral shift is exploited to distinguish the FIDA emission from other bright sources of Dα light. Background subtraction is the main technical challenge. A spectroscopic diagnostic typically achieves temporal, energy, and transverse spatial resolution of ∼1 ms, ∼10 keV, and ∼2 cm, respectively. Installations that use narrow-band filters achieve high spatial and temporal resolution at the expense of spectral information. For high temporal resolution, the bandpass-filtered light goes directly to a photomultiplier, allowing detection of ∼50 kHz oscillations in FIDA signal. For two-dimensional spatial profiles, the bandpass-filtered light goes to a charge-coupled device camera; detailed images of fast-ion redistribution at instabilities are obtained. Qualitative and quantitative models relate the measured FIDA signals to the fast-ion distribution function. The first quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment found excellent agreement in beam-heated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-quiescent plasmas. FIDA diagnostics are now in operation at magnetic-fusion facilities worldwide. They are used to study fast-ion acceleration by ion cyclotron heating, to detect fast-ion transport by MHD modes and microturbulence, and to study fast-ion driven instabilities.

  1. The Ignitor Fast Pellet Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Bombarda, F.; Milora, S. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.

    2004-11-01

    A collaboration between the ENEA Laboratory at Frascati and the Fusion Technology Group of Oak Ridge for the development of a fast pellet injector for the Ignitor ignition experiment has been established. The program aims at the construction of a 4 barrel, double stage gun able to reach speeds up to 4 km/s and thus penetrate to the core of the plasma column. The compact size of the Ignitor machine favors the injection from the low field side, for which very positive results have been obtained on the FTU machine [1], in terms of density profile peaking and good energy confinement. The ongoing activities include the procurement of all the hardware for the criocooler, diagnostics and control electronics, from the ORNL side, and the design and construction of the gun by ENEA. A new fast valve has been developed that considerably reduces the requirements on the expansion volumes necessary to prevent the propulsion gas to reach the plasma chamber. [1] D. Frigione, et al., Nuclear Fusion 41, 1613 (2001).

  2. ENGINEERING OF THE AGS SNAKE COIL ASSEMBLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ANERELLA,M.GUPTA,R.KOVACH,P.MARONE,A.PLATE,S.POWER,K.SCHMALZLE,J.WILLEN,E.

    2003-05-12

    A 30% Snake superconducting magnet is proposed to maintain polarization in the AGS proton beam, the magnetic design of which is described elsewhere. The required helical coils for this magnet push the limits of the technology developed for the RHIC Snake coils. First, fields must be provided with differing pitch along the length of the magnet. To accomplish this, a new 3-D CAD system (''Pro/Engineer'' from PTC), which uses parametric techniques to enable fast iterations, has been employed. Revised magnetic field calculations are then based on the output of the mechanical model. Changes are made in turn to the model on the basis of those field calculations. To ensure that accuracy is maintained, the final solid model is imported directly into the CNC machine programming software, rather than by the use of graphics translating software. Next, due to the large coil size and magnetic field, there was concern whether the structure could contain the coil forces. A finite element analysis was performed, using the 3-D model, to ensure that the stresses and deflections were acceptable. Finally, a method was developed using ultrasonic energy to improve conductor placement during coil winding, in an effort to minimize electrical shorts due to conductor misplacement, a problem that occurred in the RHIC helical coil program. Each of these activities represents a significant improvement in technology over that which was used previously for the RHIC snake coils.

  3. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  4. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect

    Grey Ballard, Austin Benson

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  5. Fast robust correlation.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Alistair J; Kadyrov, Alexander; Christmas, William J; Kittler, Josef

    2005-08-01

    A new, fast, statistically robust, exhaustive, translational image-matching technique is presented: fast robust correlation. Existing methods are either slow or non-robust, or rely on optimization. Fast robust correlation works by expressing a robust matching surface as a series of correlations. Speed is obtained by computing correlations in the frequency domain. Computational cost is analyzed and the method is shown to be fast. Speed is comparable to conventional correlation and, for large images, thousands of times faster than direct robust matching. Three experiments demonstrate the advantage of the technique over standard correlation.

  6. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  7. Evolved gas composition monitoring by repetitive injection gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    White, Robert L

    2015-11-20

    Performance characteristics and applications of a small volume gas chromatograph oven are described. Heating and cooling properties of the apparatus are evaluated and examples are given illustrating the advantages of greatly reducing the air bath volume surrounding fused silica columns. Fast heating and cooling of the oven permit it to be employed for repetitive injection analyses. By using fast gas chromatography separations to achieve short assay cycle times, the apparatus can be employed for on-line species-specific gas stream composition monitoring when volatile species concentrations vary on time scales of a few minutes or longer. This capability facilitates repeated sampling and fast gas chromatographic separations of volatile product mixtures produced during thermal analyses. Applications of repetitive injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evolved gas analyses to monitoring purge gas effluent streams containing volatile acid catalyzed polymer cracking products are described. The influence of thermal analysis and chromatographic experimental parameters on effluent sampling frequency are delineated.

  8. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTORa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-10-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the Dα spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion Dα spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  9. Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Saunders, Matthew J; Bagia, Christina; Freeman, Eric C; Fan, Yong; Gawalt, Ellen S; Waggoner, Alan S; Meng, Wilson S

    2016-05-28

    Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a β-fibrillizing peptide (βFP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a βFP that forms β-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems.

  10. Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Saunders, Matthew J; Bagia, Christina; Freeman, Eric C; Fan, Yong; Gawalt, Ellen S; Waggoner, Alan S; Meng, Wilson S

    2016-05-28

    Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a β-fibrillizing peptide (βFP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a βFP that forms β-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems. PMID:27038493

  11. A highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on bimetallic Cu-Ag superstructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Guo, Chun-Yan; Xu, Cai-Ling

    2015-01-15

    Bimetallic Cu-Ag superstructures were successfully fabricated for the first time by using the natural leaves as reducing agent through a facile one-step hydrothermal process. Morphology, structure and composition of the Cu-Ag superstructures were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The results reveal that the Cu-Ag superstructure is bimetallic nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles with low Ag content and shows a rough surface and porous flexural algae-like microstructure. By using a three-dimensional nickel foam as the scaffold, a novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on Cu-Ag nanocomposites has been fabricated and applied to non-enzymatic glucose detection. The as-prepared Cu-Ag nanocomposites based glucose sensor displays distinctly enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared to those obtained with pure Cu nanomaterials prepared with a similar procedure, revealing a synergistic effect of the matrix Cu and the doped Ag. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that the Cu-Ag superstructures based glucose sensor displays a fascinating sensitivity up to 7745.7 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), outstanding detection limit of 0.08 μM and fast amperometric response (<2 s) for glucose detection. Furthermore, the sensor also exhibits significant selectivity, excellent stability and reproducibility, as well as attractive feasibility for real sample analysis. Because of its excellent electrochemical performance, low cost and easy preparation, this novel electrode material is a promising candidate in the development of non-enzymatic glucose sensor. PMID:25113052

  12. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  13. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  14. Photostimulated Luminescence and Dynamics of AgI and Ag Nanoclusters in Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Joly, Alan G.; Roark, Joel

    2002-06-15

    The photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence of Ag and AgI nanoclusters formed in zeolite-Y are studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectra of AgI nanoclusters show emission from both AgI and Ag nanoclusters, while the in the photostimulated luminescence, only the emission of Ag clusters is observed. While the photoluminescence from both Ag and AgI particles displays both sub-nanosecond and microsecond lifetimes, the emission from photostimulated luminescence shows very short, picosecond lifetimes. A model which ascribes the photostimulated luminescence to recombination of electrons trapped in the zeolite with Ag in close proximity to the trap site is proposed. The appearance of strong photostimulated luminescence with short decays in these systems demonstrates that nanoparticles have potential for digital storage and medical radiology applications.

  15. Chemically-inactive interfaces in thin film Ag/AgI systems for resistive switching memories

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Deok-Yong; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Waser, Rainer; Valov, Ilia

    2013-01-01

    AgI nanoionics-based resistive switching memories were studied in respect to chemical stability of the Ag/AgI interface using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The apparent dissolution of Ag films of thickness below some tens of nanometers and the loss of electrode/electrolyte contact was critically addressed. The results evidently show that there are no chemical interactions at the interface despite the high ionic mobility of Ag ions. Simulation results further show that Ag metal clusters can form in the AgI layer with intermediate-range order at least up to next-next nearest neighbors, suggesting that Ag can permeate into the AgI only in an aggregated form of metal crystallite. PMID:23378904

  16. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... and order certain lab tests to check your body's response to iron dextran injection.Before having any laboratory test, tell ...

  17. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  18. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  19. fastKDE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  20. Fast and effective?

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2013-12-18

    The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting. PMID:24345130

  1. Efficient barrier for charge injection in polyethylene by silver nanoparticles/plasma polymer stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliere, L.; Makasheva, K.; Laurent, C.; Despax, B.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-09-01

    Charge injection from a metal/insulator contact is a process promoting the formation of space charge in polymeric insulation largely used in thick layers in high voltage equipment. The internal charge perturbs the field distribution and can lead to catastrophic failure either through its electrostatic effects or through energetic processes initiated under charge recombination and/or hot electrons effects. Injection is still ill-described in polymeric insulation due to the complexity of the contact between the polymer chains and the electrodes. Barrier heights derived from the metal work function and the polymer electronic affinity do not provide a good description of the measurements [Taleb et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 20, 311-320 (2013)]. Considering the difficulty to describe the contact properties and the need to prevent charge injection in polymers for high voltage applications, we developed an alternative approach by tailoring the interface properties by the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/plasma polymer stack, deposited on the polymer film. Due to their small size, the AgNPs, covered by a very thin film of plasma polymer, act as deep traps for the injected charges thereby stabilizing the interface from the point of view of charge injection. After a quick description of the method for elaborating the nanostructured layer near the contact, it is demonstrated how the AgNPs/plasma polymer stack effectively prevents, in a spectacular way, the formation of bulk space charge.

  2. INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.

  3. Ag diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, David; Khalil, Sarah M.; Gerczak, Tyler; Allen, Todd R.; Heim, Andrew J.; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of Ag impurities in bulk 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio methods based on density functional theory. This work is motivated by the desire to reduce transport of radioactive Ag isotopes through the SiC boundary layer in the Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) fuel pellet, which is a significant concern for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) nuclear reactor concept. The structure and stability of charged Ag and Ag-vacancy clusters in SiC are calculated. Relevant intrinsic SiC defect energies are also determined. The most stable state for the Ag impurity in SiC is found to be a Ag atom substituting on the Si sub-lattice and bound to a C vacancy. Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for different impurity states and values are all found to have very high activation energy. The impurity state with the lowest activation energy for diffusion is found to be the Ag interstitial, with an activation energy of approximately 7.9 eV. The high activation energies for Ag diffusion in bulk 3C-SiC cause Ag transport to be very slow in the bulk and suggests that observed Ag transport in this material is due to an alternative mechanism (e.g., grain boundary diffusion).

  4. Recombinant nAG (a salamander-derived protein) decreases the formation of hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Abd-Al Wahed, Mervat M; Hawary, Khalid; Alhumidi, Ahmed A; Shier, Medhat K

    2014-01-01

    nAG (newt-Anterrior Gradient) protein is the key mediator of regrowth of amputated limbs in salamanders. In a previous work in our lab, a new nAG gene (suitable for humans) was designed and cloned. The cloned vector was transfected into primary human fibroblasts. The expression of nAG in human primary fibroblasts was found to suppress collagen expression. The current study shows that local injection of recombinant nAG reduces scar hypertrophy in the rabbit ear model. This is associated with lower scar elevation index (SEI), lower levels of collagen I & III, higher levels of MMP1, and a higher degree of scar maturation in experimental wounds compared to controls.

  5. A novel upgrade to Helsinki AMS: Fast switching of isotopes with electrostatic deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.; Tikkanen, P.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed and installed electrostatic deflectors at the injection magnet entrance and exit to enable fast switching between isotopes in AMS measurements. The fast selection of the injected isotope, stable isotope current measurements, and rare isotope detection are all performed with three synchronized real-time NI-PXI computers. With the improvements, we are able to attain a precision of better than 0.2% for the 14C/13C ratio of modern samples.

  6. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water.

  7. Ag/AgBr/TiO2 visible light photocatalyst for destruction of azodyes and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Lan, Yongqing; Qu, Jiuhui; Hu, Xuexiang; Wang, Aimin

    2006-03-01

    Ag/AgBr/TiO2 was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and was found to be a novel visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of nonbiodegradable azodyes and the killing of Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm). The catalyst activity was maintained effectively after successive cyclic experiments under UV or visible light irradiation without the destruction of AgBr. On the basis of the characterization of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy, the surface Ag species mainly exist as Ag0 in the structure of all samples before and after reaction, and Ag0 species scavenged hVB+ and then trapped eCB- in the process of photocatalytic reaction, inhibiting the decomposition of AgBr. The studies of ESR and H2O2 formation revealed that *OH and O2*- were formed in visible light irradiated aqueous Ag/AgBr/TiO2 suspension, while there was no reactive oxygen species in the visible light irradiated Ag0/TiO2 system. The results indicate that AgBr is the main photoactive species for the destruction of azodyes and bacteria under visible light. In addition, the bactericidal efficiency and killing mechanism of Ag/AgBr/TiO2 under visible light irradiation are illustrated and discussed. PMID:16509698

  8. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water. PMID:24928455

  9. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  10. Facile synthesis of S–Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S–Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70–160 nm and lengths of 200–360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S–Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S–Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S–Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10–40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S–Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet–visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S–Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S–Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  11. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  12. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  13. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  14. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  15. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  16. Contributions of Ag Nanowires to the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency Enhancement of TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyu; She, Guangwei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Mu, Lixuan; Wang, Xuesong; Shi, Wensheng

    2015-09-01

    Ag nanowires (AgNWs) were employed in mesoporous TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The possible reasons for PCE improvement, i.e., improvement in electron transport and light harvesting due to light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect of AgNWs are investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) study proved that addition of AgNWs can enhance the conductivity of TiO2 thin film photoanode, which is an important reason for the increase of photocurrent. Furthermore, through the comparison experiments as well as the UV-Vis absorption and IPCE characterization, contributions of the light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect to the enhancement of light harvest, and thus PCE of the DSSCs were demonstrated. It was found that fast electron transport of AgNWs played more important role for the PCE improvement than the light harvest enhancement due to light scattering and plasmonic effect. Based on these investigations, the AgNWs modified TiO2 thin film DSSCs were optimized. After integrating AgNWs into the photoanode, the photocurrent increased significantly and PCE increased -50% comparing with the pure TiO2-based DSSCs.

  17. Contributions of Ag Nanowires to the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency Enhancement of TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyu; She, Guangwei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Mu, Lixuan; Wang, Xuesong; Shi, Wensheng

    2015-09-01

    Ag nanowires (AgNWs) were employed in mesoporous TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The possible reasons for PCE improvement, i.e., improvement in electron transport and light harvesting due to light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect of AgNWs are investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) study proved that addition of AgNWs can enhance the conductivity of TiO2 thin film photoanode, which is an important reason for the increase of photocurrent. Furthermore, through the comparison experiments as well as the UV-Vis absorption and IPCE characterization, contributions of the light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect to the enhancement of light harvest, and thus PCE of the DSSCs were demonstrated. It was found that fast electron transport of AgNWs played more important role for the PCE improvement than the light harvest enhancement due to light scattering and plasmonic effect. Based on these investigations, the AgNWs modified TiO2 thin film DSSCs were optimized. After integrating AgNWs into the photoanode, the photocurrent increased significantly and PCE increased -50% comparing with the pure TiO2-based DSSCs. PMID:26716285

  18. UV-assisted photocatalytic synthesis of highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles supported on DNA decorated graphene for quantitative iodide analysis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Jing-Yi; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-DNA-Ag (RGO-DNA-Ag) nanohybrids by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of aqueous solutions of GO and Ag ions in the presence of DNA. The morphology and microstructure characterizations of the resultant nanohybrids reveal that the proposed method leads to the simultaneous reduction of GO and Ag ions together with efficient dispersion of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of RGO sheets. This simple and fast synthesis route is carried out at ambient conditions without using any additional chemical reducing agents, which has the potential to provide new avenues for the green fabrication of various RGO-based nanomaterials. Additionally, the RGO-DNA-Ag nanohybrids can be utilized as a novel sensing interfacial for direct determination of iodide by simple differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), without requiring any preceding preconcentration of the analyte. Based on the RGO-DNA-Ag nanohybrids modified electrode, a wide linear range of 1μM-1mM and a low detection limit of 0.2μM were obtained. This sensitive and direct method of analysis can be applied successfully to the determination of iodide in real samples.

  19. AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system. • h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center.

  20. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  1. Spear 3 Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebek, J.; Arnett, D.; Langton, J.; Pappas, C.

    2002-08-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straightforward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  2. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  3. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  4. fast-matmul

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fastmore » matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.« less

  5. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  6. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  7. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  8. Visible-light-driven photocatalysts Ag/AgCl dispersed on mesoporous Al2O3 with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhouzhou; Yu, Jiajie; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Tianhe

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, Ag/AgCl and Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 photocatalysts were synthesized via a precipitation reaction between NaCl and CH3COOAg or Ag(NH3)2NO3, wherein Ag/AgCl was immobilized into mesoporous Al2O3 medium. The Ag/AgCl-based nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and so on. The photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradations of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) pollutants under visible light irradiation. The Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 sample exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, degrading 99% MO after 9min of irradiation, which was 1.1 times, 1.22 times and 1.65 times higher than that of Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3)/Al2O3, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg) and Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3) photocatalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 also showed excellent capability of MB degradation. Compared to the data reported for Ag/AgCl/TiO2, the Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 prepared in this work exhibited a good performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The results suggest that the dispersion of Ag/AgCl on mesoporous Al2O3 strongly affected their photocatalytic activities. O2(-), OH radicals and Cl(0) atoms are main active species during photocatalysis. PMID:27442145

  9. Excitons in AgI-BASED-GLASSES and -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Fumito; Mochizuki, Shosuke

    2007-01-01

    We summarize our recent optical studies on different pristine AgI films, different AgI-based glasses and different AgI-oxide fine particle composites. The exciton spectra of these specimens give useful information about the ionic and electronic structures at the AgI/glass and AgI/oxide particle interfaces.

  10. Generation of genetically modified mice by oocyte injection of androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Linyu; Wang, Bang-An; Liang, Dan; Zhong, Cuiqing; Liu, Wei; Nie, Yongzhan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Li, Dangsheng; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jinsong

    2012-04-27

    Haploid cells are amenable for genetic analysis. Recent success in the derivation of mouse haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) via parthenogenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells. However, successful generation of live animals from these haESCs, which is needed to extend the genetic analysis to the organism level, has not been achieved. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from androgenetic blastocysts. These cells, designated as AG-haESCs, partially maintain paternal imprints, express classical ESC pluripotency markers, and contribute to various tissues, including the germline, upon injection into diploid blastocysts. Strikingly, live mice can be obtained upon injection of AG-haESCs into MII oocytes, and these mice bear haESC-carried genetic traits and develop into fertile adults. Furthermore, gene targeting via homologous recombination is feasible in the AG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that AG-haESCs can be used as a genetically tractable fertilization agent for the production of live animals via injection into oocytes.

  11. Enhancing photocatalysis in SrTiO3 by using Ag nanoparticles: A two-step excitation model for surface plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Sun, Jian; Lu, Ming

    2015-08-28

    Surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet and visible photocatalytic activities of SrTiO3 (STO) are observed after incorporating Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on STO surfaces. A two-step excitation model is proposed to explain the SP-enhanced photocatalysis. The point of the model is that an electron at the valence band of STO is first excited onto the Fermi level of Ag-NP by the SP field generated on the Ag-NP, and then injected into the conduction band of STO from the SP band, leaving a hole at the valence band of STO. A full redox catalytic reaction at the surface of STO is then available. For Ag-NP incorporated STO, up-converted and inter-band photoluminescence emissions of STO are observed, and nonlinear evolutions of photocatalytic activity with illumination light powers are found. Furthermore, near infrared photocatalysis is detected. These results support the proposed model.

  12. Enhancing photocatalysis in SrTiO{sub 3} by using Ag nanoparticles: A two-step excitation model for surface plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Sun, Jian E-mail: minglu55@fudan.edu.cn; Lu, Ming E-mail: minglu55@fudan.edu.cn

    2015-08-28

    Surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet and visible photocatalytic activities of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) are observed after incorporating Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on STO surfaces. A two-step excitation model is proposed to explain the SP-enhanced photocatalysis. The point of the model is that an electron at the valence band of STO is first excited onto the Fermi level of Ag-NP by the SP field generated on the Ag-NP, and then injected into the conduction band of STO from the SP band, leaving a hole at the valence band of STO. A full redox catalytic reaction at the surface of STO is then available. For Ag-NP incorporated STO, up-converted and inter-band photoluminescence emissions of STO are observed, and nonlinear evolutions of photocatalytic activity with illumination light powers are found. Furthermore, near infrared photocatalysis is detected. These results support the proposed model.

  13. The cardiovascular response to the AGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Mctaggart, Wesley G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on human subjects conducted to study the cardiovascular response to various g-levels and exposure times using an artificial gravity simulator (AGS). The AGS is a short arm centrifuge consisting of a turntable, a traction system, a platform and four beds. Data collection hardware is part of the communication system. The AGS provides a steep acceleration gradient in subjects in the supine position.

  14. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E.; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a ``glass-float'' (ukidama) structure.In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two

  15. Injections given in healthcare settings as a major source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Hutin, Y J; Harpaz, R; Drobeniuc, J; Melnic, A; Ray, C; Favorov, M; Iarovoi, P; Shapiro, C N; Woodruff, B A

    1999-08-01

    Two case-control studies were conducted between January 1994 and August 1995 to determine the relative importance of injections and other exposures as a source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova among adults (aged 15 years) and children (aged 2-15 years). Results showed that injections in various health care settings were associated with acute hepatitis B and showed a higher proportion among adults compared with children. Contact with an HBsAg-positive person was also associated with illnesses; however, there was no statistically significant association between acute hepatitis B and other exposures. The risk of HBV transmission following percutaneous exposure is high (at least 30%). Calculation of the population attributable to risk suggests that injections associated with acute hepatitis B cases occurred in adults (52%) and children (21%). Adverse effects of injections may not be apparent in causing chronic infections. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens through unsafe injection practices is a problem increasingly identified worldwide.

  16. AgRP Neurons Regulate Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Geun; Sun, Ben-Hua; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Koch, Marco; Yao, Gang-Qing; Diano, Sabrina; Insogna, Karl; Horvath, Tamas L

    2015-10-01

    The hypothalamus has been implicated in skeletal metabolism. Whether hunger-promoting neurons of the arcuate nucleus impact the bone is not known. We generated multiple lines of mice to affect AgRP neuronal circuit integrity. We found that mice with Ucp2 gene deletion, in which AgRP neuronal function was impaired, were osteopenic. This phenotype was rescued by cell-selective reactivation of Ucp2 in AgRP neurons. When the AgRP circuitry was impaired by early postnatal deletion of AgRP neurons or by cell autonomous deletion of Sirt1 (AgRP-Sirt1(-/-)), mice also developed reduced bone mass. No impact of leptin receptor deletion in AgRP neurons was found on bone homeostasis. Suppression of sympathetic tone in AgRP-Sirt1(-/-) mice reversed osteopenia in transgenic animals. Taken together, these observations establish a significant regulatory role for AgRP neurons in skeletal bone metabolism independent of leptin action. PMID:26411686

  17. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  18. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  19. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  20. Characterization of the intermediate-range order in new superionic conducting AgI-Ag2S-AgPO3 glasses by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, E.; Kennedy, S. J.; Itoh, K.; Fukunaga, T.; Suminta, S.; Kamiyama, T.

    Superionic conducting glasses are of considerable technological interest because of their use in batteries, sensors, and displays. We have investigated the new ternary systems AgI-Ag2S-AgPO3 where the ratio AgI:Ag2S is 1:1. The system (AgI)x(Ag2S)x(AgPO3)1-2x, for a AgI+Ag2S fraction less than 82mol%, yields glasses. We have used a neutron-diffraction technique to obtain the total scattering structure factor S(Q) of this system at room temperature by using the HIT spectrometer at the High Energy Accelerator (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan. As for AgI-AgPO3 glasses, S(Q) shows a peak at anomalously low Q in the range from 0.6 to 0.9 Å-1. This peak is not observed in the corresponding glass Ag2S-AgPO3 or pure AgPO3. The peak depends strongly on the dopant salt. Its intensity increases as the amount of (AgI+Ag2S) increases and its position shifts to lower Q, while the number density of the glasses decreases with x. This peak can be associated with an intermediate structure of particles lying inside a continuous host with the characteristic length between 5 and 10 Å [1].

  1. Evidence for surface Ag + complexes as the SERS-active sites on Ag electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Kawanami, O.; Honda, K.; Pettinger, B.

    1983-12-01

    Evidence is given that SERS-active sites at Ag electrodes are associated with Ag + ions, forming sparingly soluble surface complexes with ligands such as pyridine molecules and halide ions. Such surface Ag + complexes contribute a factor of >800 to the overall (10 7-fold) enhancement, possibly via a resonance Raman effect.

  2. Single step electrochemical synthesis of hydrophilic/hydrophobic Ag5 and Ag6 blue luminescent clusters.

    PubMed

    Santiago González, Beatriz; Blanco, M C; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2012-12-21

    Well-defined Ag(5) and Ag(6) dodecanethiol/tetrabutyl ammonium-protected clusters were prepared by a one-pot electrochemical method. Ag clusters show bright and photostable emissions. The presence of a dual capping renders the silver clusters soluble in both organic and aqueous solvents.

  3. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35736, must be filed with the Surface.... Board decisions and notices are available on our Web site at www.stb.dot.gov . Decided: May 20, 2013....

  4. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  5. One step 'dip' and 'use' Ag nanostructured thin films for ultrahigh sensitive SERS Detection.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Kanakaraj; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Mangalaraj, Devanesan; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2016-11-01

    A simple one step galvanic displacement method which involves dipping of the silicon substrate in the AgNO3/HF solution and using it for SERS application without any further process is demonstrated. The size and shape of the Ag nanoparticles changes as the deposition time is increased. Initially the shape of the particles was nearly spherical and as it grows, becomes oblong and then coalesce to form a discontinuous film with vertically grown hierarchical Ag nanostructures. The sizes of the deposited particles were in the ranges from 30nm to a discontinuous film. It also demonstrated a highly sensitive chemical detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G dye, down to 10(-16)M concentration. Prepared samples were able to detect lower concentrations of Melamine. Discontinuous thin films with hierarchical Ag nanostructures were obtained for 5min Ag deposition. The formation of Hot spots between the discontinuous islands and also along the hierarchical structures is responsible for the high SERS enhancement. This simple one step, fast, non-lithographic and cost effective method can be applied for various label free detection of analytes of importance.

  6. One step 'dip' and 'use' Ag nanostructured thin films for ultrahigh sensitive SERS Detection.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Kanakaraj; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Mangalaraj, Devanesan; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2016-11-01

    A simple one step galvanic displacement method which involves dipping of the silicon substrate in the AgNO3/HF solution and using it for SERS application without any further process is demonstrated. The size and shape of the Ag nanoparticles changes as the deposition time is increased. Initially the shape of the particles was nearly spherical and as it grows, becomes oblong and then coalesce to form a discontinuous film with vertically grown hierarchical Ag nanostructures. The sizes of the deposited particles were in the ranges from 30nm to a discontinuous film. It also demonstrated a highly sensitive chemical detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G dye, down to 10(-16)M concentration. Prepared samples were able to detect lower concentrations of Melamine. Discontinuous thin films with hierarchical Ag nanostructures were obtained for 5min Ag deposition. The formation of Hot spots between the discontinuous islands and also along the hierarchical structures is responsible for the high SERS enhancement. This simple one step, fast, non-lithographic and cost effective method can be applied for various label free detection of analytes of importance. PMID:27524085

  7. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  8. Performance of the new AGS RFQ preinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, H.N.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Montemurro, P.; Prelec, K.; Witkover, R.; Gough, R.; Staples, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the fall of 1988, the 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton (C-W) preinjector for the AGS 200 MeV H/sup /minus// linac was replaced by an RFQ, in what has proved to be a very successful upgrade. The motivations for the upgrade included improved reliability, simpler maintenance, and the added convenience of having the ion source located at nearly ground potential. At the same time, the controls and instrumentation in the preinjector area were modernized. The linac has been operating full time with this RFQ preinjector since January 1, 1989, and the reliability has been excellent. The source, RFQ, and linac operate at a 5 Hz repetition rate, and the beam pulse width is approximately 450 ..mu..s. At this time, the H/sup /minus// current at 200 MeV is typically 23-25 mA, the same as previous operation with the C-W, although the capability is there to reach higher currents in the future. The layout of the new preinjector is shown in Figure 1. An important consideration in the layout of this line was the decision to leave the final 2.4 m section before the linac intact, so the optics of a second C-W injector line and polarized H/sup /minus// injection from another RFQ remained the same. The resulting line has a distance of almost 6 m from the RFQ to the linac, and there are three ''rebuncher'' cavities to maintain the bunching of the beam from the RFQ. The following sections will describe some details of the preinjector line, and then discuss the installation and performance.

  9. Ultrafast Dynamics of Plasmon-Exciton Interaction of Ag Nanowire- Graphene Hybrids for Surface Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qianqian; Shi, Ying; Chen, Maodu; Li, Hui; Yang, Xianzhong; Qu, Yingqi; Liang, Wenjie; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    Using the ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, the femtosecond-resolved plasmon-exciton interaction of graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids is experimentally investigated, in the VIS-NIR region. The plasmonic lifetime of Ag nanowire is about 150 ± 7 femtosecond (fs). For a single layer of graphene, the fast dynamic process at 275 ± 77 fs is due to the excitation of graphene excitons, and the slow process at 1.4 ± 0.3 picosecond (ps) is due to the plasmonic hot electron interaction with phonons of graphene. For the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids, the time scale of the plasmon-induced hot electron transferring to graphene is 534 ± 108 fs, and the metal plasmon enhanced graphene plasmon is about 3.2 ± 0.8 ps in the VIS region. The graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can be used for plasmon-driven chemical reactions. This graphene-mediated surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate significantly increases the probability and efficiency of surface catalytic reactions co-driven by graphene-Ag nanowire hybridization, in comparison with reactions individually driven by monolayer graphene or single Ag nanowire. This implies that the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can not only lead to a significant accumulation of high-density hot electrons, but also significantly increase the plasmon-to-electron conversion efficiency, due to strong plasmon-exciton coupling. PMID:27601199

  10. Ultrafast Dynamics of Plasmon-Exciton Interaction of Ag Nanowire- Graphene Hybrids for Surface Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qianqian; Shi, Ying; Chen, Maodu; Li, Hui; Yang, Xianzhong; Qu, Yingqi; Liang, Wenjie; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-09-07

    Using the ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, the femtosecond-resolved plasmon-exciton interaction of graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids is experimentally investigated, in the VIS-NIR region. The plasmonic lifetime of Ag nanowire is about 150 ± 7 femtosecond (fs). For a single layer of graphene, the fast dynamic process at 275 ± 77 fs is due to the excitation of graphene excitons, and the slow process at 1.4 ± 0.3 picosecond (ps) is due to the plasmonic hot electron interaction with phonons of graphene. For the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids, the time scale of the plasmon-induced hot electron transferring to graphene is 534 ± 108 fs, and the metal plasmon enhanced graphene plasmon is about 3.2 ± 0.8 ps in the VIS region. The graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can be used for plasmon-driven chemical reactions. This graphene-mediated surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate significantly increases the probability and efficiency of surface catalytic reactions co-driven by graphene-Ag nanowire hybridization, in comparison with reactions individually driven by monolayer graphene or single Ag nanowire. This implies that the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can not only lead to a significant accumulation of high-density hot electrons, but also significantly increase the plasmon-to-electron conversion efficiency, due to strong plasmon-exciton coupling.

  11. Ultrafast Dynamics of Plasmon-Exciton Interaction of Ag Nanowire- Graphene Hybrids for Surface Catalytic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qianqian; Shi, Ying; Chen, Maodu; Li, Hui; Yang, Xianzhong; Qu, Yingqi; Liang, Wenjie; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    Using the ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, the femtosecond-resolved plasmon-exciton interaction of graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids is experimentally investigated, in the VIS-NIR region. The plasmonic lifetime of Ag nanowire is about 150 ± 7 femtosecond (fs). For a single layer of graphene, the fast dynamic process at 275 ± 77 fs is due to the excitation of graphene excitons, and the slow process at 1.4 ± 0.3 picosecond (ps) is due to the plasmonic hot electron interaction with phonons of graphene. For the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids, the time scale of the plasmon-induced hot electron transferring to graphene is 534 ± 108 fs, and the metal plasmon enhanced graphene plasmon is about 3.2 ± 0.8 ps in the VIS region. The graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can be used for plasmon-driven chemical reactions. This graphene-mediated surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate significantly increases the probability and efficiency of surface catalytic reactions co-driven by graphene-Ag nanowire hybridization, in comparison with reactions individually driven by monolayer graphene or single Ag nanowire. This implies that the graphene-Ag nanowire hybrids can not only lead to a significant accumulation of high-density hot electrons, but also significantly increase the plasmon-to-electron conversion efficiency, due to strong plasmon-exciton coupling. PMID:27601199

  12. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-14

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a "glass-float" (ukidama) structure. PMID:27119383

  13. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  14. Very fast kicker for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Podgorny, F.V.; Ruemmler, J.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a very fast counter traveling wave kicker with a full pulse width of about 7 ns. Successful test experiment has been done with hi-tech semiconductor technology FET pulse generator with a MHz- range repetition rates and maximum kick strength of the order of 3 G{center_dot}m. Further. increase of the strength seems to be quite possible with the FET pursers, that makes the kicker to be very useful tool for bunch-by-bunch injection/extraction and other accelerator applications.

  15. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Hypernuclear research at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Although the field of hypernuclear research is over 30 years old, progress in exploring the detailed behavior of hypernuclei has been slow. This fact is due mainly to the technical problems of producing and studying these strange objects. Indeed each step in the improvement of technique has been accompanied by a breakthrough in our understanding of this fascinating subject. In this paper, the aim is to describe the evolution of hypernuclear research, stressing especially the contributions of the program based on the Brookhaven AGS. 23 references, 17 figures, 1 table.

  17. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr; Martin J. Blunt

    1998-03-31

    This project performs research in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative perme- ability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and waterfl ooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale oil. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. In this report we provide a detailed description of our measurements of three-phase relative permeability.

  18. Injection molding of ceramics using a polyacetal based binder system

    SciTech Connect

    Ebenhoech, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Among the production routes to small complex ceramic parts, powder injection molding is the most attractive alternative. It combines near net shape capability with good surface finish and is easy to automate. With the development of the catalytic debinding process for polyacetal binders, the main impediments for the acceptance of ceramic injection molding as a mass production method can be overcome. The use of this system ensures short molding cycle times, high green strength and fast debinding without deformation. Ready to mold compounds are commercially available for various oxide and non-oxide ceramic materials as well as the equipment needed for this process.

  19. Third ventricular coinjection of subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP stimulate food hoarding and intake and neural activation.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 3rd ventricular (3V) neuropeptide Y (NPY) or agouti-related protein (AgRP) injection potently stimulates food foraging/hoarding/intake in Siberian hamsters. Because NPY and AgRP are highly colocalized in arcuate nucleus neurons in this and other species, we tested whether subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP coinjected into the 3V stimulates food foraging, hoarding, and intake, and/or neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] in hamsters housed in a foraging/hoarding apparatus. In the behavioral experiment, each hamster received four 3V treatments by using subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP for all behaviors: 1) NPY, 2) AgRP, 3) NPY+AgRP, and 4) saline with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Food foraging, intake, and hoarding were measured 1, 2, 4, and 24 h and 2 and 3 days postinjection. Only when NPY and AgRP were coinjected was food intake and hoarding increased. After identical treatment in separate animals, c-Fos-ir was assessed at 90 min and 14 h postinjection, times when food intake (0-1 h) and hoarding (4-24 h) were uniquely stimulated. c-Fos-ir was increased in several hypothalamic nuclei previously shown to be involved in ingestive behaviors and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but only in NPY+AgRP-treated animals (90 min and 14 h: magno- and parvocellular regions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and perifornical area; 14 h only: CeA and sub-zona incerta). These results suggest that NPY and AgRP interact to stimulate food hoarding and intake at distinct times, perhaps released as a cocktail naturally with food deprivation to stimulate these behaviors.

  20. Synthesis and Optical Responses of Ag@Au/Ag@Au Double Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Li; Yang, Da-Jie; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-02-01

    We synthesize hollow-structured Ag@Au nanoparticles with single porous shell and Ag@Au/Ag@Au double shells by using the galvanic replacement reaction and investigate their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Our results show that the surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the hollow porous nanoparticles could be easily tuned in a wide range in the visible and near infrared region by controlling the volume of HAuCl4. The nonlinear optical refraction of the double-shelled Ag@Au/Ag@Au nanoparticles is prominently enhanced by the plasmon resonance. Our findings may find applications in biosensors and nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  1. Photon emission intensities in the decay of 108mAg and 110mAg.

    PubMed

    Ferreux, L; Lépy, M-C; Bé, M-M; Isnard, H; Lourenço, V

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on two radioisotopes of silver, (108m)Ag and (110m)Ag, characterized by a complex decay scheme. Each isotope has two disintegration modes, the isomeric transition leading to the daughter isotope ((108)Ag and (110)Ag, respectively) with a short half-life. The radioactive solution was obtained by neutron activation on silver powder enriched in (109)Ag. Gamma-spectrometry was carried out using a calibrated high purity germanium detector. The main relative photon emission intensities for both radionuclides were obtained and compared with previously published values.

  2. Measurements of classical fast ion confinement with fusion product diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Richard; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; the TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Neutral beam injected fast ions play a critical role in the C-2 field reversed configuration plasma, helping to sustain magnetic flux against resistive decay and heating the plasma via Coulomb collisions. The fast ions are well confined; due to the relatively low magnetic field strength the fast ions have large, machine-size orbits that permit them to average over otherwise deleterious fluctuations. These same orbits however, have large radial excursions that result in greater interaction of fast ions with edge neutrals and a greater potential for charge exchange losses. In this presentation, the fast ion slowing down time is determined from the decay in neutron flux following beam termination. It is found that the slowing down scaling is close to classical (i.e., τ ~Te3/2/ne) and that charge exchange losses are only significant for ions with 1.5× the nominal injection energy. We will also present initial data from a newly installed proton detector, which complements the temporal resolution of the neutron detector with spatial resolution. The detector will be used to diagnose the axial profile of confined fast ions.

  3. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  4. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  5. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  6. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  7. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  8. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  9. Tribological properties of ag-based amphiphiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ag-based materials are amphiphilic because they comprise polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule. One of the major categories of amphiphilic ag-based materials are seed oils, which are actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum in a wide variety of consumer and industrial a...

  10. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A quarterly listing of documents issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is provided. The technical publications are arranged by type of documents. The reference AgRISTARS document number, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number is given.

  11. Recent hypernuclear research at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent AGS experiments contributing to our knowledge of hypernuclei are reviewed. These experiments have suggested new areas of research on hypernuclei. With the proper beam line facilities, the AGS will be able to perform experiments in these areas and provide a transition to the future era of ''kaon factories''. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Label-Free Detection of Ag+ Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Ag+-Specific DNA.

    PubMed

    Pu, Wendan; Zhao, Zhao; Wu, Liping; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Huawen

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive label-free method was presented for the determination of silver ion (Ag+) in this paper. Cytosine-rich DNA (C-DNA) was used as Ag+ specific DNA. Without Ag+ in the solution, fluorescence of fluorescein (FAM) is quenched by C-DNA stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in high salt environment. When Ag+ is present in the solution, however, Ag+-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine (C-Ag+-C) base pairs induced the C-DNA folding into a hairpin structure, which can not stabilize AuNPs in high salt environment, thus causing AuNPs aggregation. After centrifugation to remove the aggregated AuNPs, the quenching ability of the supernatant for FAM is decreased and the fluorescence intensity of solution increases with increasing the Ag+ concentration. Due to the highly specific interaction of the C-DNA towards Ag+ and the strong fluorescent quenching ability of AuNPs for FAM, the method has high selectivity and sensitivity for Ag+. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity at 515 nm increased linearly with the concentration of Ag+ ranging from 15 nM to 700 nM, and the detection limit was determined as 6 nM based on 3 σ/slope. This method is simple, sensitive, and may be applied to other detection systems by selecting the appropriate DNA sequences. PMID:26369112

  13. Raman scattering enhanced within the plasmonic gap between an isolated Ag triangular nanoplate and Ag film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance.

  14. Atomic-level observation of Ag-ion hopping motion in AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Kawata, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of the 111mCd(→111Cd) and 111In(→111Cd) probes to the study of dynamics in polycrystalline silver iodide (AgI) was examined by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. It was found that the 111mCd(→111Cd) probe occupies a unique site in γ-AgI and exhibits nuclear relaxation caused by dynamic perturbation arising from Ag + hopping motion in α-AgI; while the residential sites of 111In(→111Cd) vary, suggesting that 111In ions can not settle themselves in a fixed site in the AgI crystal structure. We here demonstrate that 111mCd(→111Cd) can be a potential nucleus to probe the Ag +-ion dynamic motion in α-AgI.

  15. Interrelationship between structure-property-processings in injection molded polymeric products

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Seog; Lee, Jae Wook

    1996-12-31

    Injection molding process is one of the major polymer processings for the polymeric products. This process is extensively used in the net-shaped production of plastic parts due to its capability to meet requirements of stringent dimensional accuracy and short cycle time. Specially the injection molding process consists of large, fast deformation and phase changes, which has much of processing parameters. Therefore it is important to optimize the injection molding conditions from the point of view of both productivity and product quality. In this study, we have investigated in the injection molding process for polymeric systems focusing on the understanding of structure-property-processing interrelationship and its utilization in the processing.

  16. AgPO2F2 and Ag9(PO2F2)14: the first Ag(i) and Ag(i)/Ag(ii) difluorophosphates with complex crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Kurzydłowski, Dominik; Grochala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    The reaction of AgF2 with P2O3F4 yields a mixed valence Ag(I)/Ag(II) difluorophosphate salt with AgAg(PO2F2)14 stoichiometry - the first Ag(ii)-PO2F2 system known. This highly moisture sensitive brown solid is thermally stable up to 120 °C, which points at further feasible extension of the chemistry of Ag(ii)-PO2F2 systems. The crystal structure shows a very complex bonding pattern, comprising of polymeric Ag(PO2F2)14(4-) anions and two types of Ag(I) cations. One particular Ag(II) site present in the crystal structure of Ag9(PO2F2)14 is the first known example of square pyramidal penta-coordinated Ag(ii) in an oxo-ligand environment. Ag(i)PO2F2 - the product of the thermal decomposition of Ag9(PO2F2)14 - has also been characterized by thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. It has a complicated crystal structure as well, which consists of infinite 1D [Ag(I)O4/2] chains which are linked to more complex 3D structures via OPO bridges. The PO2F2(-) anions bind to cations in both compounds as bidentate oxo-ligands. The terminal F atoms tend to point inside the van der Waals cavities in the crystal structure of both compounds. All important structural details of both title compounds were corroborated by DFT calculations. PMID:26200921

  17. AGS tune jump power supply design and test

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Glenn, J.W.; Huang, H.; Marneris, I.; Rosas, P.; Sandberg, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    A horizontal tune jump system has been installed to overcome the horizontal intrinsic spin resonances, which requires jumping the horizontal tune 0.04 units 82 times, 41 up and 41 down. Two quadruple magnets have been installed in AGS ring to perform this. The pulsed magnet current ranges from about 140A near injection to about 1400A later. The current pulse rise and fall time are around 100uS and flat tops time is around 4mS. These quadruples have separated supplies. This tune jump pulse power supply employees all semiconductor parts as well as the main switches. During dummy load and magnet testing, the test results showed that the power supply could meet the specification. This article will describe some details of power supply simulation, design and testing. Some test waveforms and pictures are presented in this paper.

  18. Optimization of the AGS superconducting helical partial snake strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,F.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.U.; Roser, T.

    2008-06-23

    Two helical partial snakes, one super-conducting (a.k.a cold snake) and one normal conducting (a.k.a warm snake), have preserved the polarization of proton beam up to 65% in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the extraction energy from 85% at injection. In order to overcome spin resonances, stronger partial snakes would be required. However, the stronger the partial snake, the more the stable spin direction tilted producing a stronger horizontal intrinsic resonance. The balance between increasing the spin tune gap generated by the snakes and reducing the tilted stable spin direction has to be considered to maintain the polarization. Because the magnetic field of the warm snake has to be a constant, only the cold snake with a maximum 3T magnetic field can be varied to find out the optimum snake strength. This paper presents simulation results by spin tracking with different cold snake magnetic fields. Some experimental data are also analyzed.

  19. Measuring Fast Ion Losses in a Reversed Field Pinch Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonofiglo, P. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Kim, J.; Clark, J.; Capecchi, W.; Sears, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) provides a unique environment to study fast ion confinement and transport. The RFP's weak toroidal field, strong magnetic shear, and ability to enter a 3D state provide a wide range of dynamics to study fast ions. Core-localized, 25 keV fast ions are sourced into MST by a tangentially injected hydrogen/deuterium neutral beam. Neutral particle analysis and measured fusion neutron flux indicate enhanced fast ion transport in the plasma core. Past experiments point to a dynamic loss of fast ions associated with the RFP's transition to a 3D state and with beam-driven, bursting magnetic modes. Consequently, fast ion transport and losses in the RFP have garnered recent attention. Valuable information on fast-ion loss, such as energy and pitch distributions, are sought to provide a better understanding of the transport mechanisms at hand. We have constructed and implemented two fast ion loss detectors (FILDs) for use on MST. The FILDs have two, independent, design concepts: collecting particles as a function of v⊥ or with pitch greater than 0.8. In this work, we present our preliminary findings and results from our FILDs on MST. This research is supported by US DOE.

  20. Fast ion beta limit measurements by collimated neutron detection in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, William; Anderson, Jay; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Kim, Jungha; Sears, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Fast ion orbits in the reversed field pinch (RFP) are well ordered and classically confined despite magnetic field stochasticity generated by multiple tearing modes. Classical TRANSP modeling of a 1MW tangentially injected hydrogen neutral beam in MST deuterium plasmas predicts a core-localized fast ion density that can be up to 25% of the electron density and a fast ion beta of many times the local thermal beta. However, neutral particle analysis of an NBI-driven mode (presumably driven by a fast ion pressure gradient) shows mode-induced transport of core-localized fast ions and a saturated fast ion density. The TRANSP modeling is presumed valid until the onset of the beam-driven mode and gives an initial estimate of the volume-averaged fast ion beta of 1-2% (local core value up to 10%). A collimated neutron detector for fusion product profile measurements will be used to determine the spatial distribution of fast ions, allowing for a first measurement of the critical fast-ion pressure gradient required for mode destabilization. Testing/calibration data and initial fast-ion profiles will be presented. Characterization of both the local and global fast ion beta will be done for deuterium beam injection into deuterium plasmas for comparison to TRANSP predictions. Work supported by US DOE.

  1. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys.

    PubMed

    Tie, D; Feyerabend, F; Müller, W D; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; Kainer, K U; Willumeit, R

    2013-06-16

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4) and aging (T6) heat treatment. The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH)₂ and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7), revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269), and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  2. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  3. Polyol mediated synthesis of nanocrystalline M{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} (M=Ag, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Di; Shen Guozhen; Tang Kaibin; Jiang Xuan; Huang Liying; Jin Yin; Qian Yitai

    2003-02-20

    A simple and convenient polyol-mediated route has been developed to produce nanocrystalline Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} and Cu{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} from AgNO{sub 3} and Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and SbCl{sub 3} with thiourea at 197 deg. C. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis shows that glycol agitated state and injection rate have a great effect on the purity of the final products.

  4. The effect of the fast-ion profile on Alfvén eigenmode stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Austin, M. E.; Bass, E. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Grierson, B. A.; Spong, D. A.; Tobias, B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Different combinations of on-axis and off-axis neutral beams are injected into DIII-D plasmas that are unstable to reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAE) and toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE). The variations alter the classically expected fast-ion gradient ∇βf in the plasma interior. Off-axis injection reduces the amplitude of RSAE activity an order of magnitude. Core TAEs are also strongly stabilized. In contrast, at larger minor radius, the fast-ion gradient is similar for on- and off-axis injection and switching the angle of injection has a weaker effect on the stability of TAEs. The average mode amplitude correlates strongly with the classically expected profile but the measured profile relaxes to similar values independent of the fraction of off-axis beams. The observations agree qualitatively with a ‘critical-gradient’ model of fast-ion transport.

  5. A Fast Hermite Transform★

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  6. Fast Overcurrent Tripping Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast overcurrent tripping circuit designed for incorporation into power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switching circuit. Serves as fast electronic circuit breaker by sensing voltage across MOSFET's during conduction and switching MOSFET's off within 1 microsecond after voltage exceeds reference value corresponding to tripping current. Acts more quickly than Hall-effect current sensor and, in comparison with shunt current-measuring circuits, smaller and consumes less power. Also ignores initial transient overcurrents during first 5 microseconds of switching cycle.

  7. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Van Steirteghem, André; Devroey, P; Liebaers, I

    2002-01-25

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with ejaculated, epididymal or testicular spermatozoa was first successful in 1992 and has since become the widely accepted treatment for couples with severe male-factor infertility. The outcome of several thousands of ICSI cycles in terms of fertilization, embryo cleavage and implantation is similar to that for conventional in-vitro fertilization in couples with tubal or idiopathic infertility. To evaluate the important issue of safety of the new technique of ICSI, a prospective follow-up study of children born after ICSI was carried out. The aim was to compile data on karyotypes, congenital malformations, growth parameters and developmental milestones. Parents' agreement to genetic counseling was obtained, as well as prenatal diagnosis, followed by a physical examination of the children at 2 months, 1 and 2 years. Important outcome data to be examined comprise information on major and minor congenital malformations obtained prenatally or after birth, as well as on the further development of the children.

  9. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  10. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  11. Fuel injection pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

  12. Steam injection method

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.

    1986-02-25

    A method is described for injecting steam into a subterranean reservoir via a well penetrating the reservoir, comprising adding to steam generator feedwater used to generate the steam or adding to the steam, or adding to both the feedwater and the steam. The mixture consists of: (a) a compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium salts of inorganic acids, ammonium salts of carboxylic acids, quaternary ammonium halides, amine or substituted amine hydrochlorides, and mixtures thereof; and (b) a compound selected from the group consisting of ammonia, salts which decompose to form acid neutralizers or buffers having alkaline pH values, amides of carbamic acid or thiocarbamic acid and derivatives of such amides, tertiary carboxylic acid amides and their substituted and alkylated derivatives, and mixtures thereof.

  13. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  14. Fast response dual frequency liquid crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong

    Dual frequency liquid crystal (DFLC) exhibits a positive dielectric anisotropy at low frequencies and negative dielectric anisotropy at high frequencies. The frequency where dielectric anisotropy is zero is called crossover frequency. DFLC can achieve fast rise time and fast decay time with the assistance of applied voltage. However, one drawback of DFLC is that it has dielectric heating effect when driven at a high frequency. Thus, the first part of this dissertation is to develop low crossover frequency DFLC materials. The dielectric relaxation and physical properties of some single- and double-ester compounds were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the double-ester compound exhibits a ˜3X lower dielectric relaxation frequencies and larger dielectric anisotropy than the single ester, but its viscosity is also higher. More generally, ten groups of dual frequency liquid crystals were compared in terms of dielectric relaxation frequency and dielectric anisotropy. The dielectric relaxation theory was discussed at last. To realize fast response time, high birefringence and low viscosity LC are required. From these two aspects, firstly four new high birefringence laterally difluoro phenyl tolane liquid crystals with a negative dielectric anisotropy were studied. These materials are used to enhance the birefringence of DFLC. They have a fairly small heat fusion enthalpy (˜3000 cal/mol) which improves their solubility in a host. We dope 10 wt% of each compound into a commercial negative mixture N1 and measured their birefringence, viscoelastic constant and figure of merit. Birefringence varies very little among homologues while viscoelastic constant increases as alkyl chain length increases. Secondly, we studied the effects of six diluters for lowering the viscosity while stabilizing the vertical alignment (VA) of the laterally difluoro terphenyl host mixture at elevated temperatures. The pros and cons of each diluter are analyzed. These lateral difluoro

  15. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  16. Ag(I)-binding to phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R K; Tran, K; Scott, G W; Mulchandani, P; Saini, S S

    1996-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)nGly, where n varies from 2 to 11. A variety of metal ions such as Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) induce PC synthesis in plants and some yeasts. It has generally been assumed that the inducer metals also bind PCs. However, very little information is available on the binding of metals other than Cu(I) and Cd(II) to PCs. In this paper, we describe the Ag(I)-binding characteristics of PCs with the structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly. The Ag(I)-binding stoichiometries of these three peptides were determined by (i) UV/VIS spectrophotometry, (ii) luminescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and (iii) reverse-phase HPLC. The three techniques yielded similar results. ApoPCs exhibit featureless absorption in the 220-340 nm range. The binding of Ag(I) to PCs induced the appearance of specific absorption shoulders. The titration end point was indicated by the flattening of the characteristic absorption shoulders. Similarly, luminescence at 77 K due to Ag(I)-thiolate clusters increased with the addition of graded Ag(I) equivalents. The luminescence declined when Ag(I) equivalents in excess of the saturating amounts were added to the peptides. At neutral pH, (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly bind 1.0, 1.5, and 4.0 equivalents of Ag(I), respectively. The Ag(I)-binding capacity of (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly and (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly was increased at pH 5.0 and below so that Ag(I)/-SH ratio approached 1.0. A similar pH-dependent binding of Ag(I) to glutathione was also observed. The increased Ag(I)-binding to PCs at lower pH is of physiological significance as these peptides accumulate in acidic vacuoles. We also report lifetime data on Ag(I)-PCs. The relatively long decay-times (approximately 0.1-0.3 msec) accompanied with a large Stokes shift in the emission band are indicative of spin-forbidden phosphorescence. PMID

  17. Scaling of Kinetic Instability Induced Fast Ion Losses in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson; D. Darrow; S. Medley; J. Menard; H. Park; L. Roquemore; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; S. Kubota; K.C. Lee

    2005-06-24

    During neutral beam injection (NBI) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a wide variety of fast ion driven instabilities is excited by the large ratio of fast ion velocity to Alfven velocity, together with the relatively high fast ion beta, beta(sub)f. The fast ion instabilities have frequencies ranging from a few kilohertz to the ion cyclotron frequency. The modes can be divided roughly into three categories, starting with Energetic Particle Modes (EPM) in the lowest frequency range (0 to 120 kHz), the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) in the intermediate frequency range (50 to 200 kHz) and the Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE, respectively) from approximately equal to 300 kHz up to the ion cyclotron frequency. Each of these categories of modes exhibits a wide range of behavior, including quasi-continuous oscillation, bursting, chirping and, except for the lower frequency range, turbulence.

  18. Compressor Stall Recovery Through Tip Injection Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Ken L.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is a fundamental limit in the compressor design process. The development of robust techniques for increasing stability has several benefits: enabling higher loading and fewer blades, increasing safety throughout a mission, increasing tolerance to stage mismatch during part-speed operation and speed transients, and providing an opportunity to match stages at the compressor maximum efficiency point, thus reducing fuel burn. Mass injection upstream of the tip of a high-speed axial compressor rotor is a stability enhancement approach known to be effective in suppressing stall in tip-critical rotors if the injection is activated before stall occurs. This approach to stall suppression requires that a reliable stall warning system be available. Tests have recently been performed to assess whether steady injection can also be used to recover from fully developed stall. If mass injection is effective in recovering from stall quickly enough to avoid structural damage or loss of engine power, then a stall warning system may not be required. The stall recovery tests were performed on a transonic compressor rotor at its design tip speed of 1475 ft/sec using four injectors evenly spaced around the compressor case upstream of the rotor. The injectors were connected to an external air source. In an actual engine application, the injected air would be supplied with compressor bleed air. The injectors were isolated from the air source by a fast-acting butterfly valve. With the injectors turned off, the compressor was throttled into stall. Air injection was then activated with no change in throttle setting by opening the butterfly valve. The compressor recovered from stall at a fixed throttle setting with the aid of tip injection. The unsteady operating characteristic of the rotor was measured during these tests using high-response pressure sensors located upstream and downstream of the rotor. The figure shows the results, where the unsteady pressure and mass

  19. Spectroscopic Study on Eu3+ Doped Borate Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles and Ag Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaobo; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jinsu; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Jiashi; Hua, Ruinian; Dong, Bin; Xia, Haiping; Chen, Baojiu

    2015-01-01

    Transparent Eu(3+)-doped borate glasses containing Ag nanoparticles and Ag aggregates with composition (40 - x) CaO-59.5B2O3-0.5Eu2O3-xAgNO3 were prepared by a simple one-step melt-quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the glasses reveal amorphous structural properties and no diffraction peaks belonging to metal Ag particles. Ag particles and Ag aggregates were observed from the absorption spectra. Effective energy transfers from the Ag aggregates to the Eu3+ ions were observed in the excitation spectra from monitoring the intrinsic emission of Eu3+x .5D0 --> 7F2. The glasses with higher Ag content can be effectively excited by light in a wide wavelength region, indicating that these glasses have potential application in the solid state lighting driven by semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission spectra of the samples with higher Ag contents exhibit plenteous spectral components covering the full visible region from violet to red, thus indicating that these glass materials possess an excellent and tunable color rendering index. The color coordinates for all the glass samples were calculated by using the intensity-corrected emission spectra and the standard data issued by the CIE (Commission International de l' Eclairage) in 1931. It was found that the color coordinates for most samples with higher Ag contents fall into the white region in the color space. PMID:26328363

  20. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  1. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  2. Evaluation of two new automated assays for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) detection: IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernard; Dengler, Thomas; Berger, Annemarie; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Rabenau, Holger

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the diagnostic industry has developed new automated immunoassays for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum and plasma samples that are performed on analyzers that permit a high-speed throughput, random access, and primary tube sampling. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of two new automated HBsAg screening assays, IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, from Diagnostic Products Corporation. The new HBsAg assays were compared to well-established tests (Auszyme Monoclonal [overnight incubation, version B], IMx HBsAg, AxSYM HBsAg, and Prism HBsAg [all from Abbott] and Elecsys HBsAg [Roche Diagnostics]). In the evaluation were included seroconversion panels, sera from the acute and chronic phases of infection, dilution series of various HBsAg standards, HBV subtypes and S gene mutants. To challenge the specificity of the new assays, sera from HBsAg-negative blood donors, pregnant women, and dialysis and hospitalized patients and potentially cross-reactive samples were investigated. IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, although not as sensitive as the Elecsys HBsAg assay, were equivalent to the AxSYM HBsAg assay and showed a higher sensitivity than the Auszyme Monoclonal B and IMx HBsAg systems for detection of acute infection in seroconversion panels. The specificities (100%) of both IMMULITE assays on unselected blood donors and potentially interfering samples were comparable to those of the alternative assays after repeated testing. In conclusion, the new IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg assays show a good sensitivity for HBsAg detection compared to other well-established tests. The specificity on repeatedly tested samples was equivalent to that of the alternative assays. The rapid turnaround time, primary tube sampling, and on-board dilution make it an interesting assay system for clinical laboratory diagnosis.

  3. Fast focus field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2008-02-01

    We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

  4. Fast ForWord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Fast ForWord, a CD-ROM and Internet-based training program for children (pre-K to grade 8) with language and reading problems that helps children rapidly build oral language comprehension and other critical skills necessary for learning to read or becoming a better reader. With the help of computers, speech…

  5. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype. PMID:89163

  7. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype.

  8. Mathematical study of probe arrangement and nanoparticle injection effects on heat transfer during cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mirkhalili, Seyyed Mostafa; Ramazani S A, Ahmad; Nazemidashtarjandi, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels, especially large vessels have a greater thermal effect on freezing tissue during cryosurgery. Vascular networks act as heat sources in tissue, and cause failure in cryosurgery and reappearance of cancer. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the effect of probe location and multiprobe on heat transfer distribution. Furthermore, the effect of nanoparticles injection is studied. It is shown that the small probes location near large blood vessels could help to reduce the necessary time for tissue freezing. Nanoparticles injection shows that the thermal effect of blood vessel in tissue is improved. Using Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles have the most growth of ice ball during cryosurgery. However, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticle can be used to protect normal tissue around tumor cell due to its influence on reducing heat transfer in tissue. Introduction of Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles combined with multicryoprobe in this model causes reduction of tissue average temperature about 50% compared to the one probe. PMID:26406880

  9. Mathematical study of probe arrangement and nanoparticle injection effects on heat transfer during cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mirkhalili, Seyyed Mostafa; Ramazani S A, Ahmad; Nazemidashtarjandi, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels, especially large vessels have a greater thermal effect on freezing tissue during cryosurgery. Vascular networks act as heat sources in tissue, and cause failure in cryosurgery and reappearance of cancer. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the effect of probe location and multiprobe on heat transfer distribution. Furthermore, the effect of nanoparticles injection is studied. It is shown that the small probes location near large blood vessels could help to reduce the necessary time for tissue freezing. Nanoparticles injection shows that the thermal effect of blood vessel in tissue is improved. Using Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles have the most growth of ice ball during cryosurgery. However, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticle can be used to protect normal tissue around tumor cell due to its influence on reducing heat transfer in tissue. Introduction of Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles combined with multicryoprobe in this model causes reduction of tissue average temperature about 50% compared to the one probe.

  10. [Study on the development of Ag-nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous scaffolds with surface mineralization].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianbo; Chang, Shan; Dong, Mina; Huang, Di; Li, Jidong; Jiang, Dianming

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial infection after implantation of bone tissue engineering scaffolds is still a serious clinical problem. Ag-nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (Ag-nHA/PA66) antibacterial composite scaffold were prepared with phase-inversion method in this study. The scaffolds were mineralized in saturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 degrees C for 1 day. The microstructure and the newly formed nano-apatite deposition on the scaffolds before and after mineralization were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to investigate the release behaviors of Ag+, the Ag-nHA/PA66 scaffolds were immersed into 5 ml PBS at 37 degrees C for a different period between 3 h and 168 h before and after mineralization. Then the samples were cultured with E. coli (8099) to test the antibacterial effect of the scaffolds. The results showed that, after mineralization, Ag-nHA/PA66 porous scaffolds still possessed a good inter-connection and a new apatite layer was formed on the surface of the scaffolds. The average macropore size was 626.61 +/- 141.94 microm, the porosity was 76.89 +/- 8.21% and the compressive strength was 2.94 +/- 1.12 MPa. All these physical parameters had no significant difference from those of the un-mineralized scaffolds. The Ag+ release of the scaffolds with and without mineralization was fast within 1 day and then kept slow and stable after 1 day. The antibacterial test confirmed that after mineralization the scaffolds had good antibacterial effects on E. coli. PMID:23469542

  11. Agent planning in AgScala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  12. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  13. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  14. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. PMID:27594185

  15. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  16. Crystallization kinetics of {alpha}-AgI in AgI-based silver orthoborate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Minami, Tsutomu

    1995-02-01

    Kinetics for nucleation and growth of {alpha}-AgI crystals in AgI-based silver orthoborate glasses, in which only {alpha}-AgI crystals were found to crystallize in the heating process of the glasses, were studied by isothermal and nonisothermal measurements using differential scanning calorimetry and by observations of the microstructure of the glasses using scanning electron microscopy. The values of both n and m, dependent on the crystallization mechanism, were found to be 3, indicating that a constant number of nuclei of {alpha}-AgI precipitated in a glass matrix grew three-dimensionally. The preannealing of the glasses at temperatures between glass transition and crystallization did not affect the DSC isothermal curves in the crystal growth process, which suggested that the number of {alpha}-AgI nuclei would have been saturated in the glass when the glasses were prepared by quenching the AgI-based melts.

  17. Extranuclear dynamics of 111Ag(→111Cd) doped in AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Komatsuda, S.; Kawata, S.; Taoka, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic behavior of the extranuclear field relative to the 111Ag(→111Cd) probe nucleus introduced in a superionic conductor silver iodide (AgI) was investigated by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. For poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgI nanoparticles, we observed nuclear spin relaxation of the probe at room temperature. This result signifies that Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated sample make hopping motion from site to site at this low temperature. The activation energy for the dynamic motion was successfully estimated to be 46(10) meV. The first atomic-level observation of the temperature-dependent dynamic behavior of Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated AgI is reported.

  18. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  19. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  20. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.