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Sample records for ags polarized proton

  1. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The unexpected importance of high energy spin effects and the success of the ZGS in correcting many intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances led us to attempt to accelerate polarized protons in the AGS. A multi-university/laboratory collaborative effort involving Argonne, Brookhaven, Michigan, Rice and Yale is underway to improve and modify to accelerate polarized protons. From the experience at the ZGS and careful studies made us confident of the feasibility of achieving a polarization of over 60 percent up to 26 GeV/c with an intensity of 10/sup 11/ approx. 10/sup 12/ per pulse. The first polarized proton acceleration at the AGS is expected in 1983.

  2. Acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E.; Glenn, J.W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Zeno, K.

    2010-02-25

    The high energy (s{sup 1/2} = 500 GeV) polarized proton beam experiments performed in RHIC, require high polarization of the proton beam. With the AGS used as the pre-injector to RHIC, one of the main tasks is to preserve the polarization of the proton beam, during the beam acceleration in the AGS. The polarization preservation is accomplished by the two partial helical magnets [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] which have been installed in AGS, and help overcome the imperfection and the intrinsic spin resonances which occur during the acceleration of protons. This elimination of the intrinsic resonances is accomplished by placing the vertical tune Q{sub y} at a value close to 8.98, within the spin-tune stop-band created by the snake. At this near integer tune the perturbations caused by the partial helical magnets is large resulting in large beta and dispersion waves. To mitigate the adverse effect of the partial helices on the optics of the AGS, we have introduced compensation quads[2] in the AGS. In this paper we present the beam optics of the AGS which ameliorates this effect of the partial helices.

  3. Transfer of a polarized proton beam from AGS to RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Roser, T.; Syphers, M.; Luccio, A.; Underwood, D.

    1997-07-01

    As part of the RHIC project, the RHIC machine will also be able to accelerate polarized proton beam bunches. The bunches will be extracted from the AGS machine, with kinetic energy T = 25 GeV, and transferred into RHIC via the AtR transfer line. When the RHIC machine accelerates polarized protons, it will operate with two full snakes, which define the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam circulating in each ring, along the vertical. Therefore a polarized proton beam should be injected into the RHIC machine with the stable spin direction along the vertical in order to match that of the RHIC machine. The layout of the dipole magnets of the AtR line creates a dependence, on the injection energy, of the stable spin direction of a polarized proton beam injected into the RHIC machine. In this paper, the study of the stable spin direction (at the RHIC injection point) of a polarized proton beam as a function of the injection energy is presented. A modification of the AtR transfer line, which eliminates this energy dependence (within the range of proton injection energies) of the stable spin direction is also presented.

  4. An overview of Booster and AGS polarized proton operation during Run 15

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2015-10-20

    This note is an overview of the Booster and AGS for the 2015 Polarized Proton RHIC run from an operations perspective. There are some notable differences between this and previous runs. In particular, the polarized source intensity was expected to be, and was, higher this year than in previous RHIC runs. The hope was to make use of this higher input intensity by allowing the beam to be scraped down more in the Booster to provide a brighter and smaller beam for the AGS and RHIC. The RHIC intensity requirements were also higher this run than in previous runs, which caused additional challenges because the AGS polarization and emittance are normally intensity dependent.

  5. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE AGS WITH TWO HELICAL PARTIAL SNAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, H.; AHRENS, L.A.; BAI, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.D.; GARDNER, C.; GLENN, J.W.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TSOUPAS, N.; WOOD, J.; YIP, K.; ZELENSKI, A.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-26

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult: the depolarizing resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are not feasible in the AGS since straight sections are too short. Recently, two helical partial snakes with double pitch design have been built and installed in the AGS. With careful setup of optics at injection and along the ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances encountered during acceleration. This paper presents the accelerator setup and preliminary results.

  6. Booster and AGS transverse emittance during the 2006 and 2009 polarized proton runs

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2010-09-01

    This note is an overview of issues relating to transverse polarized proton emittance in the Booster and AGS. It also compares the transverse emittance during the FY09 polarized proton run with it during the FY06 run as several changes were made for the FY09 run in an attempt to reduce the transverse emittance coming out of the AGS. The FY06 run is used for comparison because it was relatively long, and it's believed that the performance of the injectors for polarized protons, up until FY09, was best during that run. Over the shutdown just before the FY09 run work was done in LEBT and MEBT to reduce the emittance coming out of the Linac. Measurements of the beam coming out of Linac1 indicate that the horizontal normalized emittance was reduced from 11.0 {pi} to 4.5 {pi}mm mrad, and that the vertical normalized emittance was reduced from 12.1 {pi} to 5.5 {pi} mm mrad going from FY06 to FY09. There were 2 new types of stripping foil installed in the Booster, called descriptively the 'strip' (No.6) and 'stamp' (No.2) foil, both nominally 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}. Both foils are composed of a diamond like material, and designed to reduce the number of times the beam goes through the foil. Other than those, there are two standard 100 {micro}g/cm carbon foils (No.3 and 5), and one 200 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} carbon foil (No.4). Of the two 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foils, one has shown some deterioration (No.3) in stripping efficiency. During the FY06 run a standard 100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foil was generally used, and during the FY09 run the strip foil was generally used, though the stamp foil was also used for the last 3-4 weeks of the run. Both the FY06 and FY09 runs were about 5 months long, starting in late January, FY06 ending in late June, and FY09 ending in early July. A new injection setup was used for about the last 3 months of FY09, from the beginning of April to the end of the run. This setup uses 1/2 integer stopband correctors with the tunes near, but slightly greater

  7. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-10-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  8. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  9. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  10. Polarized proton beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.

    2010-10-04

    The polarized beam for RHIC is produced in the optically-pumped polarized H{sup -} ion source and then accelerated in Linac to 200 MeV for strip-injection to Booster and further accelerated 24.3 GeV in AGS for injection in RHIC. In 2009 Run polarized protons was successfully accelerated to 250 GeV beam energy. The beam polarization of about 60% at 100 GeV beam energy and 36-42% at 250 GeV beam energy was measured with the H-jet and p-Carbon CNI polarimeters. The gluon contribution to the proton spin was studied in collisions of longitudinally polarized proton beams at 100 x 100 GeV. At 250 x 250 GeV an intermediate boson W production with the longitudinally polarized beams was studied for the first time.

  11. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  12. Commissioning the polarized beam in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.; Brown, H.; Chiang, I.H.; Courant, E.; Gardner, C.; Lazarus, D.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Sidhu, S.; Skelly, J.

    1985-01-01

    After the successful operation of a high energy polarized proton beam at the Argonne Laboratory Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) was terminated, plans were made to commission such a beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). On February 23, 1984, 2 ..mu..A of polarized H/sup -/ was accelerated through the Linac to 200 MeV with a polarization of about 65%. 1 ..mu..A was injected into the AGS and acceleration attempts began. Several relatively short runs were then made during the next three months. Dedicated commissioning began in early June, and on June 26 the AGS polarized beam reached 13.8 GeV/c to exceed the previous ZGS peak momentum of 12.75 GeV/c. Commissioning continued to the point where 10/sup 10/ polarized protons were accelerated to 16.5 GeV/c with 40% polarization. Then, two experiments had a short polarized proton run. We plan to continue commissioning efforts in the fall of this year to reach higher energy, higher intensity, and higher polarization levels. We present a brief description of the facility and of the methods used for preserving the polarization of the accelerating beam.

  13. Fighting the Residual Polarization Loss in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2009-08-04

    A dual partial snake scheme has been used for AGS polarized proton operation for several years. It has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5x10{sup 11} protons per bunch and 65% polarization for the RHIC spin program. There is still residual polarization loss due to both snake resonances and horizontal resonances as shown in the data. Several schemes were tested or proposed in the AGS to mitigate the loss, such as putting horizontal tune into the spin tune gap, injection into a accelerating bucket, and tune jump across the horizontal resonances. This paper presents the experiment and simulation results and analyses.

  14. POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

  15. Near integer tune for polarization preservation in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Glenn, J.W.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Zeno, K.

    2012-05-20

    The high energy (T = 250 GeV) polarized proton beam experiments performed in RHIC, require high polarization of the beam. In order to preserve the polarization of the proton beam, during the acceleration in the AGS, which is the pre-injector to RHIC, we have installed in AGS two partial helical magnets which minimize the loss of the beam polarization caused by the various intrinsic spin resonances occurring during the proton acceleration. The minimization of the polarization loss during the acceleration cycle, requires that the vertical tune of the AGS is between the values of 8.97 and 8.985 during the acceleration. With the AGS constrained to run at near integer tune {approx}8.980, the perturbations to the beam caused by the partial helical magnets are large and also result in large beta and dispersion waves. To mitigate the adverse effect of the partial helices on the optics of the AGS, we have installed in specified straight sections of the AGS compensation quads and we have also generated a beam bump at the location of the cold partial helix. In this paper we present the beam optics of the AGS which ameliorates the adverse effect of the two partial helices on the beam optics.

  16. AGS polarized H/sup -/ source

    SciTech Connect

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H/sup -/ source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 ..mu..A x 300 ..mu..s (approx. 3 x 10/sup 10/ protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H/sup -/ yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H/sup -/ current is now frequently 20 to 30 ..mu..A. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program.

  17. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  18. CONFIGURATION MANUAL POLARIZED PROTON COLLIDER AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.; MACKAY,W.W.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BAI,M.; BROWN,K.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.; ET AL.

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the authors present their design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. They provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  19. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  20. Using Polarized Beams to Investigate the Spin of the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentalange, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    The spin of the proton has been investigated with polarized beams and targets for decades and has led to our current picture of the kinematic and partonic structure of the proton's spin. Historically, this picture has relied heavily on data from Deep Inelastic Scattering of polarized leptons and is still mainly influenced by this framework. Over the past decade, operation of the RHIC/AGS has vastly increased the amount of data from collisions of polarized proton beams. Much theoretical and experimental work has been done to understand such probes as pions, jets, and Z/Ws especially with the STAR, PHENIX, BRAHMS, AnDY and pp2pp detectors. I will present an overview of the capabilities of the RHIC complex and demonstrate how measurements from many experiments are complementing and expanding our understanding of the proton spin.

  1. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS`s demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world`s first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970`s; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE.

  2. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Au setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-08-25

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Au stores.

  3. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  4. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  5. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  6. Proton-proton correlations observed in two-proton radioactivity of 94Ag.

    PubMed

    Mukha, Ivan; Roeckl, Ernst; Batist, Leonid; Blazhev, Andrey; Döring, Joachim; Grawe, Hubert; Grigorenko, Leonid; Huyse, Mark; Janas, Zenon; Kirchner, Reinhard; La Commara, Marco; Mazzocchi, Chiara; Tabor, Sam L; Van Duppen, Piet

    2006-01-19

    The stability and spontaneous decay of naturally occurring atomic nuclei have been much studied ever since Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity in 1896. In 1960, proton-rich nuclei with an odd or an even atomic number Z were predicted to decay through one- and two-proton radioactivity, respectively. The experimental observation of one-proton radioactivity was first reported in 1982, and two-proton radioactivity has now also been detected by experimentally studying the decay properties of 45Fe (refs 3, 4) and 54Zn (ref. 5). Here we report proton-proton correlations observed during the radioactive decay of a spinning long-lived state of the lightest known isotope of silver, 94Ag, which is known to undergo one-proton decay. We infer from these correlations that the long-lived state must also decay through simultaneous two-proton emission, making 94Ag the first nucleus to exhibit one- as well as two-proton radioactivity. We attribute the two-proton emission behaviour and the unexpectedly large probability for this decay mechanism to a very large deformation of the parent nucleus into a prolate (cigar-like) shape, which facilitates emission of protons either from the same or from opposite ends of the 'cigar'.

  7. RHIC polarized proton performance in run-8.

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Barton, D.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Helical spin rotators at these two interaction regions were used to control the spin orientation of both beams at the collision points. Physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8.

  8. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO 250 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as the first high energy polarized proton collider was designed t o provide polarized proton collisions a t a maximum beam energy of 250 GeV. I t has been providing collisions a t a beam energy of 100 Gel' since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during the acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with careful control of the betatron tunes and the vertical orbit distortions. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV? making it important t o examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were accelerated t o the record energy of 250 GeV in RHIC with a polarization of 46% measured a t top energy in 2006. The polarization measurement as a function of beam energy also shows some polarization loss around 136 GeV, the first strong intrinsic resonance above 100 GeV. This paper presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival t o orbit distortions.

  9. Polarization measurement of laser-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, Natascha; Engels, Ralf; Engin, Ilhan; Greven, Patrick; Holler, Astrid; Lehrach, Andreas; Maier, Rudolf; Büscher, Markus; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Toncian, Monika; Toncian, Toma; Willi, Oswald; Gibbon, Paul; Karmakar, Anupam

    2014-02-15

    We report on the successful use of a laser-driven few-MeV proton source to measure the differential cross section of a hadronic scattering reaction as well as on the measurement and simulation study of polarization observables of the laser-accelerated charged particle beams. These investigations were carried out with thin foil targets, illuminated by 100 TW laser pulses at the Arcturus laser facility; the polarization measurement is based on the spin dependence of hadronic proton scattering off nuclei in a Silicon target. We find proton beam polarizations consistent with zero magnitude which indicates that for these particular laser-target parameters the particle spins are not aligned by the strong magnetic fields inside the laser-generated plasmas.

  10. FIDDLING CARBON STRINGS WITH POLARIZED PROTON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, H.; KURITA, K.

    2006-05-01

    An innovative polarimeter based on proton carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region was first tested in the Brookhaven AGS successfully. CNI Polarimeters were then installed in the AGS and both RHIC rings. The polarimeter consists of ultra-thin carbon targets and silicon strip detectors. The waveform digitizers are used for signal readout, which allows deadtime-less data processing on the fly. Polarimeters are crucial instrumentation for the RHIC spin physics program. This paper summarizes the polarimeter design issues and operation results.

  11. Surface spin polarization induced ferromagnetic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Li, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of ferromagnetic spin polarized moments in 4.5 nm Ag nanoparticles. Both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic responses to an applied magnetic field were detected. The spin polarized moments shown under non-linear thermoinduced magnetization appeared on the surface atoms, rather than on all the atoms in particles. The saturation magnetization departed substantially from the Bloch T3/2-law, showing the existence of magnetic anisotropy. The Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin wave model for Ha-aligned moments was then employed to identify the magnetic anisotropic energy gap of ~0.12 meV. Our results may be understood by assuming the surface magnetism model, in which the surface atoms give rise to polarized moments while the core atoms produce diamagnetic responses.

  12. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  13. Testing proton spin models with polarized beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.P. . Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-11-25

    We review models for spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton. Sum rules involving the nonsinglet components of the structure function xg{sub 1}{sup p} help narrow the range of parameters in these models. The contribution of the {gamma}{sub 5} anomaly term depends on the size of the integrated polarized gluon distribution and experimental predictions depend on its size. We have proposed three models for the polarized gluon distributions, whose range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range of parameters that can be tested with polarized beam experiments. These are discussed with regard to specific predictions for polarized beam experiments at energies typical of UNK.

  14. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Meot, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  15. Proton Assisted Insensitive Nuclei Cross Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Józef; De Paëpe, Gaël; Griffin, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This communication presents a solid-state NMR 15N-13C polarization transfer scheme applicable at high B0 and high MAS frequencies, requiring moderate r.f. powers (~50 kHz 13C/15N) and mixing time (1–6 ms). The sequence, PAIN-CP, involves the abundant nearby protons in the heteronuclear recoupling dynamics, and provides a new tool for obtaining long distance 15N-13C contacts. It should be of major interest for biomolecular structural studies. PMID:17243786

  16. An AGS experiment to test bunching for the proton driver of the muon collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.

    1998-04-27

    The proton driver for the muon collider must produce short pulses of protons in order to facilitate muon cooling and operation with polarized beams. In order to test methods of producing these bunches they have operated the AGS near transition and studied procedures which involved moving the transition energy {gamma} to the beam energy. They were able to produce stable bunches with RMS widths of {sigma} = 2.2-2.7 ns for longitudinal bunch areas of {minus}1.5 V-s, in addition to making measurements of the lowest two orders of the momentum compaction factor.

  17. Polarization of partons in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayakawa, K.; Morii, T. ); Tanaka, S. ); Yamanishi, T. )

    1992-10-01

    The spin-dependent distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a proton are studied so as to explain the European Muon Collaboration {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) data by introducing a new model, in which characteristics of both the static quark and the quark-parton model are taken into account. The {ital x} dependence of {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) is reproduced well. It is shown that polarized gluons through the anomaly play a significant role and the resultant sum of quark spin is 0.375. Furthermore, {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital n}}({ital x}) as well as {ital g}{sub 1}{sup {ital p}}({ital x}) is predicted for future experiments.

  18. A LOW GAMMA_T INJECTION LATTICE FOR POLARIZED PROTONS IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.

    2007-06-25

    Polarized protons are injected into the Relativistic Heavy Jon Collider (RHIC) just above transition energy. When installation of a cold partial Siberian snake in the AGS required lowering the injection energy by {Delta}{gamma} = 0.56, the transition energy in RHIC had to be lowered accordingly to ensure proper longitudinal matching. This paper presents lattice modifications implemented to lower the transition energy by {Delta}{gamma}{sub t} = 0.8.

  19. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  20. Study of the Polarization Deterioration During Physics Stores in RHIC Polarized Proton Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Z.; Qin, Q.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.

    2016-02-01

    As the only high energy polarized proton collider in the world, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has achieved a great success in colliding polarized proton beams up to 255GeV per beam energy with over 50% average store polarizations for spin physics studies. With the help of Siberian snakes as well as outstanding beam control during the acceleration, polarization loss during acceleration up to 100 GeV is negligible. However, about 10% polarization loss was observed between acceleration from 100 GeV to 255 GeV. In addition, a mild polarization deterioration during long store for physics data taking was also observed. In this paper, studies in understanding the store depolarizing mechanism is reported, including the analysis of polarization deterioration data based on the past couple of RHIC polarized proton runs.

  1. Polarization Status of Magnetic Fluctuations at Proton Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Telloni, Daniele; D'Amicis, Raffaella; DeMarco, Rossana; Marcucci, Federica

    2016-04-01

    We study the polarization status of magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales looking for possible links between the large-scale and small-scale features of solar wind fluctuations across the frequency break separating fluid and kinetic regimes. The main goal is to correlate the occurrence of proton temperature anisotropy, low proton β∥ values and, magnetic field fluctuations polarization to the particular state of turbulence found within the inertial range. We found clear correlations between each type of polarization, either left or right, and turbulence status. Moreover, for the first time in literature, we show that left-handed and right handed polarized fluctuations occupy different areas of the temperature anisotropy-β∥ plot, as expected for Alfvén Ion Cyclotron and Kinetic Alfvén waves, respectively.

  2. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the {pi}{degree} production at high p{sub {perpendicular}} and in the {Lambda} ({Sigma}{degree}), {pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{degree} production at large x{sub F}, and {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(pp, {bar p}p) measurements. 18 refs.

  3. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Camsonne, A.

    2007-05-04

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  4. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; and L. Zhu

    2007-05-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  5. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-05-04

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US).

  6. Proton Form Factor Measurements Using Polarization Method: Beyond Born Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Pentchev, Lubomir

    2008-10-13

    Significant theoretical and experimental efforts have been made over the past 7 years aiming to explain the discrepancy between the proton form factor ratio data obtained at JLab using the polarization method and the previous Rosenbluth measurements. Preliminary results from the first high precision polarization experiment dedicated to study effects beyond Born approximation will be presented. The ratio of the transferred polarization components and, separately, the longitudinal polarization in ep elastic scattering have been measured at a fixed Q{sup 2} of 2.5 GeV{sup 2} over a wide kinematic range. The two quantities impose constraints on the real part of the ep elastic amplitudes.

  7. Azimuthal asymmetries in single polarized proton-proton Drell-Yan processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Ma Boqiang; Zhu Jiacai

    2011-10-01

    We study the azimuthal asymmetries in proton-proton Drell-Yan processes with one incident proton being transversely or longitudinally polarized. We consider particularly the asymmetries contributed by the leading-twist chiral-odd quark distributions. We analyze the asymmetries with sin(2{phi}+{phi}{sub S}) and sin(2{phi}-{phi}{sub S}) modulations in transverse single polarized p{sup {up_arrow}p} Drell-Yan and sin2{phi} asymmetries in longitudinal single polarized p{sup {yields}p} Drell-Yan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, E906 (Fermi Lab), and the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research). We show that the measurements of the asymmetries in those facilities can provide valuable information of the chiral-odd structure of the nucleon both in the valence and sea regions.

  8. RHIC Performance with Polarized Protons in Run-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, S.; Brown, K. A.; Brennan, J. M.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; DeLong, J.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Hahn, H.; Hayes, T.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Sandberg, J.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The RHIC polarized proton run (Run-6) in 2006 started on February 1 and continued for 21 weeks. The Run-6 included the machine operation at different beam energies and with different orientation of beam polarization at the collision points. The machine operation at 100GeV and 31.2 GeV provided physics data of polarized proton collisions to the STAR, PHENIX and BRAHMS experiments. Record levels of the luminosity (up to 3.5ṡ1031 cm-2 s-1 peak) and proton beam polarization (up to 65%) were achieved during the 100GeV operation. The beam polarization was preserved during the acceleration by using Siberian Snakes, based on helical magnets. The polarization orientation at STAR and PHENIX experiments was controlled with helical spin rotators. During different stages of the run the physics data were provided with longitudinal, vertical and horizontal orientations of the beam polarization at the collision points. Total luminosity integrals of 45 pb-1 at 100 GeV and 0.35 pb-1 at 31.2 GeV were delivered to the experiments.

  9. Empirical Determination of Solar Proton Access to the Polar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Jason; Rodger, Craig; Green, Janet; Whittaker, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Violent expulsions on the Sun's surface release high energy solar protons that ultimately affect ionization levels and the local chemical composition in the upper atmosphere as well as High Frequency (HF) communication used by aircraft. The geomagnetic field screens the low altitude equatorial region, but these protons can access the atmosphere over the poles. The latitudes over which the solar protons can reach vary with geomagnetic indices such as Kp and Dst. In this study we use observations from Low Earth Orbit to determine the atmospheric access of solar protons and hence the flights paths most likely to be affected. Observations taken by up to six polar orbiting satellites during 15 solar proton events are analyzed. From this we determine 16,850 proton rigidity cutoff estimates across 3 energy channels. Empirical fits are undertaken to estimate the most likely behavior of the cutoff dependence with geomagnetic activity. We provide simple equations by which the geomagnetic latitude (spatial extent) at which the protons impact the atmosphere can be determined from a given Kp or Dst value. The variation found in the cutoff with Kp is similar to that used in existing operational models, although the changing Kp value is found to lead the variation in the cutoffs by ~3 hours .We also suggest a ~1-2° equatorward shift in latitude would provide greater accuracy. This solar proton access can be used as an input into coupled chemistry climate models and give the likely polar regions to be effected by Polar Cap Absorption (PCA) which causes HF radio 'blackout zones'. We find that a Kp predictive model can provide additional warning to the variation in proton cutoffs. Hence a prediction of the cutoff latitudes can be made ~3 hours to as much as 7 hours into the future, meeting suggested minimum planning times required by the aviation industry.

  10. NICA Facility in Polarized Proton and Deuteron Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    NICA project at JINR is aimed at the experiments with polarized protons and deuterons at both as fixed target and colliding mode over beam momentum range from 2 to 13.5GeV/c. Polarized beams are injected into collider from the Nuclotron-superconducting synchrotron. Dynamic solenoid “Siberian snakes” are proposed to prevent resonance depolarization of proton beam during acceleration in the Nuclotron up to momentum of 6 GeV/c and further in the collider up to the maximum momentum after storage and stochastic cooling of necessary number of particles in each ring. By means of pair of the Snakes placed in the opposite collider straight sections “spin transparency” mode is provided. Stabilization and control of the polarization is reached due to “weak field” solenoids integrated in the lattice. The proposed scheme of the polarization control is universal and can be used for different ion spices (p, d, t, He3…).

  11. The AGS (alternating gradient synchrotron): Performance and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Brookhaven AGS: basic parameters, description of the accelerator complex and proton operation; operation with heavy ions and polarized protons; AGS upgrades and expanded potential. (LSP)

  12. Polarized beams at the ZGS and the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    I have had, and still do, a feeling of deja Vu as I have gone through the development of the polarized beam at the AGS. There were many similarities both scientifically and sociologically, and of course, some significant differences between the AGS and the ZGS. We traded the 12 GeV ZGS for the 28 GeV AGS, we traded Ron Martin for Derek Lowenstein, but having the lowest energy, high energy machine did not change. Paraphrasing some remarks of Bob Sachs, the AGS replaced the ZGS as the tail of the dog, and it appears that now the tail loppers are again on the loose. You will probably see them again somewhere in the world using body english to help polarize a beam. Basically, I would like to describe a little of the progression of events and the hardware in both accelerators that allowed Kent and his colleagues to do a great deal of very interesting spin physics. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  13. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  14. Direct Photon Production and Gluon Polarization Measurements in Proton-Proton Collisions at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feege, Nils; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Direct photons probe the hard scattering process in proton-proton collisions. The channel that dominates their production in these collisions is ``the inverse QCD Compton effect,'' g + q --> γ + q . Calculating this process requires no photon fragmentation function, which facilitates comparisons between theories and experiments. In polarized p+p collisions, direct photons help determine the proton spin structure. At leading order, the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry ALL is directly proportional to the product of quark and gluon polarizations. The polarized quark distributions are known from polarized lepton-proton scattering experiments. Using them together with ALL measurements allows to access both the magnitude and sign of the polarized gluon distribution. The PHENIX experiment has collected data from polarized p+p collisions at RHIC at center of mass energies of 200 GeV and 500 GeV. This talk presents the status of direct photon cross section measurements and ALL measurements at midrapidity (| η | < 0 . 35) using these data.

  15. Polarized Structure Functions: Proton/Deuteron Measurements in Hall C

    SciTech Connect

    Oscar A. Rondon

    2005-02-01

    The study of the nucleon polarized structure functions has matured beyond the inclusive measurements of the past to the investigation of all eight quark distribution functions in the nucleon. Jefferson Lab's Hall C program of polarized structure functions studies started with a measurement of the proton and deuteron spin structure in the resonances at Q2 {approx} 1.3 [GeV/c]2. This work will be extended for the proton to more than 5 [GeV/c]2 for both DIS and the resonances in the upcoming SANE experiment. SANE will use a novel non-magnetic very large solid angle detector, BETA. Semi-inclusive asymmetries will be measured to determine the flavor composition of the nucleon spin in the recently approved Semi-SANE experiment. The 11 GeV energy upgrade will open new opportunities to study other functions, such as the transversity, Collins and Sievers functions, using vertical polarized targets.

  16. Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.

  17. The recoil proton polarization in. pi. p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P/sup 3/ East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup -/'s/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup +/'s/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Acceleration of polarized protons in the IHEP accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect

    Anferov, V.A.; Ado, Yu.M.; Shoumkin, D.

    1995-04-01

    The paper considers possibility to accelerate polarized beam in the IHEP accelerator complex (including first stage of the UNK). The scheme of preserving beam polarization is described for all acceleration stages up to 400 GeV beam energy. Polarization and intensity of the polarized proton beam are estimated. The suggested scheme includes using two Siberian snakes in opposite straight sections of the UNK-1, where each snake consists of five dipole magnets. In the U-70 it is suggested to use one helical Siberian snake, which is turned on adiabatically at 10 GeV, and four pulsed quadrupoles. To incorporate the snake into the accelerator lattice it is proposed to make modification of one superperiod. This would make a 13 m long straight section. Spin depolarization in the Booster is avoided by decreasing the extraction energy to 0.9 GeV. Then no additional hardware is required in the Booster.

  19. Spin polarization and additional magneto-optical activity of nonmagnetic layers in Fe/Ag CMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. B.; Zhai, H. R.; Lu, M.; Jin, Q. Y.; Miao, Y. Z.

    1992-08-01

    The experimental magneto-optical Kerr rotation spectra of Fe/Ag compositionally modulated films reported by Katayama et al. are studied theoretically. It is found that the free electrons of Ag are spin polarized. The magnitude of the polarization is about 1% with a direction opposite to that of Fe. The polarized Ag also gives rise to an additional magneto-optical activity as in Pt and Pd.

  20. RHIC 100 GeV Polarized Proton Luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-01-17

    A big problem in RHIC 100 GeV proton run 2009 was the significantly lower luminosity lifetime than all previous runs. It is shown in this note that the beam intensity decay in run 2009 is caused by the RF voltage ramping in store. It is also shown that the beam decay is not clearly related to the beam momentum spread, therefore, not directly due to the 0.7m. β* Furthermore, the most important factor regarding the low luminosity lifetime is the faster transverse emittance growth in store, which is also much worse than the previous runs, and is also related to the RF ramping. In 100 GeV proton run 2012a, the RF ramping was abandoned, but the β* was increased to 0.85m, with more than 20% loss of luminosity, which is not necessary. It is strongly suggested to use smaller β* in 100 GeV polarized proton run 2015/2016

  1. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-26

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at {radical}(s) = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A{sub LL}, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV.

  2. The BESS-Polar Proton & Helium flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K.C.; Kumazawal, T.; Lee, M.H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A.A.; Meyers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J.F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E.S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) instrument pro-vides precise measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of the light Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) component. The ability to determine the charge sign of incident par-ticles enables the instrument to search for GCR antimatter, which is a major objective of the BESS program. Since 1993, the US-Japan BESS collaboration has conducted 11 successful balloon flights, nine northern-latitude flights of 1-day duration and most recently two long-duration balloon flights (8.5 days in 2004 & 24.5 days in 2007/2008), with the BESS-Polar instrument. The BESS-Polar instrument is the current effort of BESS program specifically designed for long-duration, low-geomagnetic cutoff Antarctic flights with significantly increased transparency for incident CR particle allowing to study anti/proton down to 100 MeV and a faster data acquisition enables processing of all CR events without event selection. The first BESS-Polar flight was launched on Dec 13, 2004 from Williams Field, near McMurdo Station in Antarctica. The instrument recorded data for 8.5 days, limited by the cryogenic life time of the superconducting magnet. During this flight the BESS-Polar instrument recorded 0.9 x 109 CR events. In this paper, we present the absolute proton and helium flux for the first BESS-Polar flight as well as the time variation of the fluxes due to solar activity.

  3. Polarization of prompt J/{psi} in proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee Sok; Yu, Chaehyun; Kim, Seyong; Lee, Jungil

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization approach, we compute the polarization of prompt J/{psi} produced at the Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider from proton-proton collisions at the center-of-momentum energy {radical}(s)=200 GeV. The perturbative contributions are computed at leading order in the strong coupling constant. The prediction reveals that the color-singlet contribution severely underestimates the PHENIX preliminary data for the differential cross section integrated over the rapidity range |y|<0.35 and its contribution is strongly transversely polarized, which disagrees with the PHENIX preliminary data. After including the color-octet contributions, we find that the NRQCD predictions for both the cross section and polarization over the transverse-momentum range 1.5 GeV

  4. Measuring the contribution of low Bjorken-x gluons to the proton spin with polarized proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolin, Scott Justin

    The PHENIX experiment is one of two detectors located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. Understanding the spin structure of the proton is a central goal at RHIC, the only polarized proton-on-proton collider in existence. The PHENIX spin program has two primary objectives. The first is to improve the constraints on the polarized parton distributions of the anti-u and anti-d quarks within the proton. The second objective is to improve the constraint on the gluon spin contribution to the proton spin, DeltaG. The focus of this thesis is the second objective. PHENIX experiment has been successful at providing the first meaningful constraints on DeltaG, along with STAR, the other detector located at RHIC. These constraints have, in fact, eliminated the extreme scenarios for gluon polarization through measurements of the double spin asymmetry, ALL, between the cross section of like and unlike sign helicity pp interactions. ALL measurements can be performed with a variety of final states at PHENIX. Until 2009, these final states were only measured for pseudo-rapidities of |eta| < 0.35. This range of eta is referred to as mid-rapidity. These mid-rapidity measurements, like the polarized DIS measurements, suffer from a limited kinematic reach. Final states containing a measured particle with pT [special character omitted] 1 GeV/c are considered to have occurred in the hard scattering domain where the pp interaction is well approximated as an interaction of a quark or gluon in one proton and a quark or gluon in the second proton. Each of these interacting particles has a momentum fraction, x, of its parent proton's momentum. The gluon polarization is dependent on the momentum fraction and the net gluon polarization can be written as the integral of the momentum fraction dependent polarization: DeltaG = f(1,0)Delta g(x)dx. The momentum fractions of the two interacting particles give information about the final state

  5. High-intensity pulsed source of polarized protons with an atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A.S.; Esin, S.K.; Kubalov, S.A.; Kuzik, V.E.; Stepanov, A.A.; Yakushev, V.P.

    1985-10-25

    A source of polarized protons with a beam current up to 2.5 mA in the pulse, a degree of polarization 0.78 +- 0.01, a current pulse length of 120 ..mu..s, and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz is described. This is the first source of polarized protons which makes use of the charge exchange of polarized hydrogen atoms with ions of a deuterium plasma.

  6. Measuring the contribution of low Bjorken-x gluons to the proton spin with polarized proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolin, Scott Justin

    The PHENIX experiment is one of two detectors located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. Understanding the spin structure of the proton is a central goal at RHIC, the only polarized proton-on-proton collider in existence. The PHENIX spin program has two primary objectives. The first is to improve the constraints on the polarized parton distributions of the anti-u and anti-d quarks within the proton. The second objective is to improve the constraint on the gluon spin contribution to the proton spin, DeltaG. The focus of this thesis is the second objective. PHENIX experiment has been successful at providing the first meaningful constraints on DeltaG, along with STAR, the other detector located at RHIC. These constraints have, in fact, eliminated the extreme scenarios for gluon polarization through measurements of the double spin asymmetry, ALL, between the cross section of like and unlike sign helicity pp interactions. ALL measurements can be performed with a variety of final states at PHENIX. Until 2009, these final states were only measured for pseudo-rapidities of |eta| < 0.35. This range of eta is referred to as mid-rapidity. These mid-rapidity measurements, like the polarized DIS measurements, suffer from a limited kinematic reach. Final states containing a measured particle with pT [special character omitted] 1 GeV/c are considered to have occurred in the hard scattering domain where the pp interaction is well approximated as an interaction of a quark or gluon in one proton and a quark or gluon in the second proton. Each of these interacting particles has a momentum fraction, x, of its parent proton's momentum. The gluon polarization is dependent on the momentum fraction and the net gluon polarization can be written as the integral of the momentum fraction dependent polarization: DeltaG = f(1,0)Delta g(x)dx. The momentum fractions of the two interacting particles give information about the final state

  7. Investigation of the ratio of proton-stopping cross sections in Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Semrad, D.; Golser, R.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the ratio of stopping cross sections may help in determining best values from measurements. The case of Ag and Au is discussed, where theoretical considerations show that this ratio always has a value smaller than 1. This is confirmed experimentally for proton energies larger than 70 keV, in contradiction to all published stopping-power tabulations.

  8. RHIC polarized proton-proton operation at 100 GeV in Run 15

    SciTech Connect

    Schoefer, V.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atoian, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K. A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; D Ottavio, T.; Drees, K. A.; Dutheil, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gu, X.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Narayan, G.; Nemesure, S.; Pile, P.; Poblaguev, A.; Ranjbar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, W. B.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; White, S.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2015-05-03

    The first part of RHIC Run 15 consisted of ten weeks of polarized proton on proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV at two interaction points. In this paper we discuss several of the upgrades to the collider complex that allowed for improved performance. The largest effort consisted in commissioning of the electron lenses, one in each ring, which are designed to compensate one of the two beam-beam interactions experienced by the proton bunches. The e-lenses raise the per bunch intensity at which luminosity becomes beam-beam limited. A new lattice was designed to create the phase advances necessary for a beam-beam compensation with the e-lens, which also has an improved off-momentum dynamic aperture relative to previous runs. In order to take advantage of the new, higher intensity limit without suffering intensity driven emittance deterioration, other features were commissioned including a continuous transverse bunch-by-bunch damper in RHIC and a double harmonic RF cature scheme in the Booster. Other high intensity protections include improvements to the abort system and the installation of masks to intercept beam lost due to abort kicker pre-fires.

  9. Internal spin structure of the proton from high energy polarized e-p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.W.; Baum, G.; Bergstroem, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    A review is given of experimental knowledge of the spin dependent structure functions of the proton, which is based on inclusive high energy scattering of longitudinal polarized electrons by longitudinally polarized protons in both the deep inelastic and resonance regions, and includes preliminary results from our most recent SLAC experiment. Implications for scaling, sum rules, models of proton structure, and the hyperfine structure interval in hydrogen are given. Possible future directions of research are indicated.

  10. Study of Polarized Sea Quark Distributions in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sq root(s) = 500 GeV with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Mibe, Tsutomu

    2009-08-04

    The PHENIX spin program studies the flavor structure of the polarized sea quark distributions in polarized proton-proton collisions. Starting from 2009 run, the quark and antiquark polarization, sorted by flavor, will be investigated with the parity-violating single-spin asymmetry of W-boson production at the collision energy of sq root(s) = 500 GeV. High momentum muons from W-boson decay are detected in the PHENIX muon arms. The muon trigger is being upgraded to allow one to select high momentum muons.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF LAMBA AND ANTI-LAMBDA POLARIZATION IN LONGITUDINALLY POLARIZED PROTON-PROTON COLLISIONS AT SQRT S(NN) = 200 GEV AT STAR.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, Q.

    2005-10-24

    Preliminary results for the longitudinal polarization of A and hyperons in longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV are presented. The {Lambda}({bar {Lambda}}) candidates are reconstructed at mid-rapidity (|{eta}| < 1) with the time projection chamber of the STAR experiment at RHIC, using 0.5 pb{sup -1} collected in 2003 and 2004 with beam polarizations of up to 45%. Their mean longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} is about 8 x 10{sup -3} and their mean transverse momentum p{sub T} is about 1.5 GeV. The analysis uses asymmetries of counts for different spin states of the colliding proton beams and does not require detailed knowledge of the detector acceptance. The preliminary {Lambda}({Lambda}) polarization values are consistent with zero within their statistical uncertainties of 0.05.

  12. Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2013-10-15

    We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

  13. Polarization-sensitive photocurrent in the resistive Ag/Pd films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saushin, A. S.; Zonov, R. G.; Mikheev, K. G.; Shamshetdinov, R. R.; Mikheev, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the observation of helicity dependent photocurrent of the 20 μm thick silver-palladium (Ag/Pd) films manufactured by the thick-film technology. The transverse photocurrent is observed at oblique incidence of laser radiation with different wavelengths in the spectral range of 266 - 2100 nm. At the wavelength range of 532 - 2100 nm the polarity of the transverse photocurrent is positive (negative) for the left- (right-) circular polarized beam. We show that action of high temperature on the films in vacuum results in the decrease of longitudinal photocurrent due to the reduction of PdO content. The photon drag effect is suggested to be the origin of the polarization-sensitive photocurrent in the Ag/Pd films. The obtained results show that the Ag/Pd resistive films may be of interest for polarization- sensitive measurements.

  14. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-15

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W^{±} and Z/γ^{*} boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at sqrt[s]=510  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W^{±} were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  15. The protonation state of thiols in self-assembled monolayers on roughened Ag/Au surfaces and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Samir; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-14

    The protonation state of thiols in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ag and Au surfaces and nanoparticles (NPs) has been an issue of contestation. It has been recently demonstrated that deuterating the thiol proton produces ostentatious changes in the Raman spectra of thiols and can be used to detect the presence of the thiol functional group. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of H/D substituted aliphatic thiols on Ag surfaces clearly shows the presence of S-H vibration between 2150-2200 cm(-1) which shifts by 400 cm(-1) upon deuteration and a simultaneous >20 cm(-1) shift in the C-S vibration of thiol deuteration. Large shifts (>15 cm(-1)) in the C-S vibration are also observed for alkyl thiol SAMs on Au surfaces. Alternatively, neither the S-H vibration nor the H/D isotope effect on the C-S vibration is observed for alkyl thiol SAMs on Ag/Au NPs. XPS data on Ag/Au surfaces bearing aliphatic thiol SAMs show the presence of both protonated and deprotonated thiols while on Ag/Au NPs only deprotonated thiols are detected. These data suggest that aliphatic thiol SAMs on Au/Ag surfaces are partially protonated whereas they are totally deprotonated on Au/Ag NPs. Aromatic PhSH SAMs on Ag/Au surfaces and Ag/Au NPs do not show these vibrations or H/D shifts as well indicating that the thiols are deprotonated at these interfaces.

  16. Recoil-proton polarization in high-energy deuteron photodisintegration with circularly plarized photons.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Arrington, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Qattan, I. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Physics; Rutgers Univ.; Univ. Blaise Pascal; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    2007-05-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  17. Angular dependence of recoil proton polarization in high-energy \\gamma d \\to p n

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J.P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D.W. Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; C.W. de Jager; M.K. Jones; L.J. Kaufman; E.R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I.A. Qattan; R.D. Ransome; P.E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E.C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G.M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; L. Zhu

    2007-02-26

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily.. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  18. BNL alternating gradient synchrotron with four helical magnets to minimize the losses of the polarized proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2013-04-01

    The principle of using multiple partial helical magnets to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during its acceleration was applied successfully to the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) which currently operates with two partial helical magnets. In this paper we further explore this idea by using four partial helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS, which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets and their relatively lower field of operation allows for better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection and allows both the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed within the “spin tune gap,” therefore eliminating the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS during the acceleration cycle. Second, it provides a wider spin tune gap. Third, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical. Although the spin tune gap, which is created with four partial helices, can also be created with a single or two partial helices, the high field strength of a single helical magnet which is required to generate such a spin tune gap makes the use of the single helical magnet impractical, and that of the two helical magnets rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare them with those from the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. Although in this paper we specifically discuss the effect of the four partial helices on the AGS, this method which can eliminate simultaneously the vertical and horizontal intrinsic spin resonances is a general method and can be applied to any medium energy synchrotron which operates in similar energy range like the AGS and provides the required space to accommodate the four

  19. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji; Pitonyak, Daniel; Yoshida, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions, i.e., p↑ p → → h X. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  20. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  1. Two-pion production in proton-proton collisions with a polarized beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bary, S. Abd; El-Samad, S. Abd; Bilger, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hanhart, C.; Hauffe, J.; Haug, K.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Koch, H.; Kress, J.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Marwinski, S.; Meier, R.; Möller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Naumann, L.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schönmeier, P.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Schroeder, W.; Steinke, M.; Stinzing, F.; Sun, G. Y.; Wächter, J.; Wagner, G. J.; Wagner, M.; Weidlich, U.; Wilms, A.; Wintz, P.; Wirth, S.; Zhang, G.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-09-01

    The two-pion production reaction pp → ppπ+π- was measured with a polarized proton beam at T p ≈ 750 and 800MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a delayed-pulse technique for Quirl and central calorimeter provided positive π+ identification in addition to the standard particle identification, energy determination as well as time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all four-momenta of the emerging particles could be determined with 1-4 overconstraints. Total and differential cross-sections as well as angular distributions of the vector analyzing power have been obtained. They are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing-power values up to A y = 0.3. The data taken in the energy region of the excitation of the Roper resonance confirm that its dominant ππ decay channel is N * → Nσ.

  2. Lambda and Antilambda Polarization in Proton-Proton Interactions from Sqrt. S = 31 TO 62 GEV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Peter

    This thesis presents measurements of Lambda^0, |Lambda ^0, and Sigma^0 production made using experiment R608 at the CERN ISR. The Lambda^0 cross sections have been measured in the range 0.20 < x _{rm F}< 0.96 and for p _{rm t} up to 2.2 GeV/c. The invariant cross section, E*d^3sigma /dp^3, is presented in x _{rm F} bins, plotted against p_{rm t}^2 . The function Aexp(-(bp _{rm t}^2 + cp _{rm t}^4)) was found to be a good fit to the data. The cross section was integrated with respect to p_{rm t} ^2 to obtain the x_{ rm F} dependence. The Lambda ^0 shows a rapid fall-off with x _{rm F} up to x_ {rm F}~ 0.4, and thereafter exhibits a small decline to zero at x_{ rm F}~ 1, as is typical for baryons produced in proton fragmentation processes. The |Lambda^0 cross section was measured in the region 0.2 < x_{rm F}< 0.5. The invariant cross section was found to be well described by the function Aexp(-bp _{rm t}^2). Unlike the Lambda^0, the |Lambda^0 cross section falls rapidly with x_{rm F}. The Sigma^0 cross section was measured in the region 0.5 < p_{rm t}< 1.2 GeV/c and 0.3 < x_{rm F}< 0.7. In this region, the Lambda ^0/Sigma^0 ratio is 0.376 +/- 0.044. The Sigma^0 is thus the dominant contributor to non-direct Lambda^0 production. The Lambda^0 polarization was measured as function of surds for 31 polarization was found to increase with p_{rm t}, and x_{rm F}. At an average p_{rm t} of 1.1 GeV, it was found to depend linearly on x _{rm F}, with approximately -40% at x_{rm F} = 0.8. The |Lambda ^0 polarization was measured, and was found to be 3.8 +/- 1.5%.

  3. OBSERVATION OF EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND IN RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2007-06-25

    The beam-gas has affected STAR background in RHIC proton Run 2005, but not in Run 2006. With higher beam intensity in Run 2008, the beam-gas effect at STAR may be of concern. The ratio of ZDC background and coincident rate seems to be useful in proton runs in evaluating the experimental background.

  4. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D. J.; Salmé, G.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ahmidouch, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Beaufait, J.; Bosted, P.; Brash, E. J.; Butuceanu, C.; Carter, P.; Christy, E.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fowler, M.; Frlez, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Horn, T.; Huber, G. M.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Kohl, M.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lassiter, S.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Lovelace, H.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Mamyan, V.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Maxwell, J.; Mbianda, G.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Miller, J.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mulholland, J.; Nelyubin, V.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Punjabi, V.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, G.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S.; Ye, Z.; Zheng, X.

    2015-10-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θcmp=70 ° . The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ±0.059 ±0.048 , where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ˜3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  5. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    DOE PAGES

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.more » However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.« less

  6. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  7. RHIC Performance as a 100 GeV Polarized Proton Collider in Run-9

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hahn, H.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Menga, P.M.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Pozdeyev, E.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    During the second half of Run-9, the Relativisitc Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided polarized proton collisions at two interaction points. The spin orientation of both beams at these collision points was controlled by helical spin rotators, and physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. Recent developments and improvements will be presented, as well as luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-9.

  8. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  9. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and antiproton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the {pi}{degree} production at high p{sub {perpendicular}} and in the {Lambda} ({Sigma}{degree}), {pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{degree} production at large x{sub F}, and {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(pp, {bar p}p) measurements. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Core-coupled states and split proton-neutron quasiparticle multiplets in 122-126Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalkovski, S.; Bruce, A. M.; Jungclaus, A.; Górska, M.; Pfützner, M.; Cáceres, L.; Naqvi, F.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Simpson, G. S.; Andgren, K.; Bednarczyk, P.; Beck, T.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Casarejos, E.; Cederwall, B.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Cuenca-García, J. J.; Cullen, I. J.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Detistov, P.; Doornenbal, P.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Gerl, J.; Grebosz, J.; Hadinia, B.; Hellström, M.; Hinke, C.; Hoischen, R.; Ilie, G.; Jaworski, G.; Jolie, J.; Khaplanov, A.; Kisyov, S.; Kmiecik, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kumar, R.; Kurz, N.; Maj, A.; Mandal, S.; Modamio, V.; Montes, F.; Myalski, S.; Palacz, M.; Prokopowicz, W.; Reiter, P.; Regan, P. H.; Rudolph, D.; Schaffner, H.; Sohler, D.; Steer, S. J.; Tashenov, S.; Walker, J.; Walker, P. M.; Weick, H.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Zhekova, M.

    2013-03-01

    Neutron-rich silver isotopes were populated in the fragmentation of a 136Xe beam and the relativistic fission of 238U. The fragments were mass analyzed with the GSI Fragment Separator and subsequently implanted into a passive stopper. Isomeric transitions were detected by 105 high-purity germanium detectors. Eight isomeric states were observed in 122-126Ag nuclei. The level schemes of 122,123,125Ag were revised and extended with isomeric transitions being observed for the first time. The excited states in the odd-mass silver isotopes are interpreted as core-coupled states. The isomeric states in the even-mass silver isotopes are discussed in the framework of the proton-neutron split multiplets. The results of shell-model calculations, performed for the most neutron-rich silver nuclei are compared to the experimental data.

  11. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  12. First results of proton injection commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Luccio, A.; Skelly, J.; Soukas, A.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    Beam performance for the injection phase of proton beam commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron will be presented. The beam from the 200 MeV Linac is transported through a new beam line into the Booster. This Linac-to Booster (LTB) beam line includes a 126{degree} bend and brings the injected beam onto the Booster injection orbit through the backleg of a main ring dipole magnet. Transfer of beam from the Linac to the Booster, spiralling beam and closing the orbit in the Booster ring are discussed. Injection and transport through one sector of the ring has been accomplished. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. First polarized proton collision at a beam energy of 250 GeV in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai,M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    After providing collisions of polarized protons at a beam energy of 100 GeV since 2001, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL had its first opportunity to collide polarized protons at its maximum beam energy of 250 GeV in the 2009 polarized proton operations. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes [1] in each ring, RHIC preserves polarization during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with precise control of the betatron tunes and vertical orbit distortions. However, the strong intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are more than two times stronger than those below 100 GeV, requiring much tighter tolerances on vertical orbit distortions and betatron tunes. With the currently achieved orbit correction and tune control, average polarizations of {approx_equal} 42% at top energy and average polarizations of {approx_equal} 55% at injection energy were achieved. Polarization measurements as a function of beam energy also indicated aU polarization losses occurred around three strong intrinsic resonances at 136 GeV, 199.3 GeV and 220.8 GeV Peak luminosity of 122 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was also demonstrated. This paper presents the performance of the first RHIC 250 GeV operation and discusses the depolarization issues encountered during the run.

  14. Radiation pressure acceleration of protons to 93 MeV with circularly polarized petawatt laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Hyung Taek; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V.; Jeong, Tae Moon; Kim, Chul Min; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    The radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of charged particles has been a challenging task in laser-driven proton/ion acceleration due to its stringent requirements in laser and target conditions. The realization of radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration requires irradiating ultrathin targets with an ultrahigh contrast and ultraintense laser pulses. We report the generation of 93-MeV proton beams achieved by applying 800-nm 30-fs circularly polarized laser pulses with an intensity of 6.1 × 10 20 W / cm 2 to 15-nm-thick polymer targets. The radiation pressure acceleration was confirmed from the obtained optimal target thickness, quadratic energy scaling, polarization dependence, and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We expect this clear demonstration of RPA to facilitate the realization of laser-driven proton/ion sources delivering energetic and short-pulse particle beams for novel applications.

  15. AgI microplate monocrystals with polar {0001} facets: spontaneous photocarrier separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qin; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shihe

    2014-02-24

    Elucidating the facet-dependent photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts is important in improving the overall efficiency of photocatalysis. Furthermore, combining facet control with selective deposition of oxidation and/or reduction cocatalysts on specific faces of semiconductor photocatalysts is potentially an effective strategy to synergistically optimize the functionality of photocatalysts. In the present study, high-purity wurtzite-type β-AgI platelet microcrystals with polar {0001} facets were prepared by a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone-assisted precipitation reaction. The polar-faceted AgI microplates were used as archetypes to demonstrate preferential diametric migration (i.e., effective separation) of photogenerated electrons and holes along the c axis. Such vectorial electron-hole separation stems from the asymmetric surface structures, which give rise to distinct photoexcited reaction behaviors on the ±(0001) polar facets of wurtzite-type semiconductors. Furthermore, on selective deposition of Ag and MnOx (1.5AgI microplates in degrading organic pollutants was dramatically enhanced thanks to the broad light-absorption range, strong dye-adsorption ability, and effective spatial separation of photocarriers. PMID:24449437

  16. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Harris

    2001-08-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  17. Protonation-induced red-coloured circularly polarized luminescence of [5]carbohelicene fused by benzimidazole.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hayato; Kubota, Takako; Yuasa, Junpei; Araki, Yasuyuki; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi; Wada, Takehiko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-07-12

    Benzimidazole-fused [5]carbohelicene ([5]HeliBI) was newly synthesized to examine the spectroscopic and chiroptical properties. The reversible protonation and deprotonation processes of [5]HeliBI were successfully investigated using (1)H NMR, absorption and fluorescence spectral measurements. We also confirmed the circularly polarized luminescence of protonated [5]HeliBI (H(+)-[5]HeliBI). This is the first observation of red-coloured CPL of a helicene derivative. PMID:27319321

  18. Neutron densities in 120Sn observed by polarized proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Taki, T.; Yosoi, M.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tsukahara, N.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Fujimura, H.; Yoshida, H.; Obayashi, E.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.

    2001-06-01

    Cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation parameters of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni and 120Sn have been measured at intermediate energies. By elastic scattering off N~=Z nuclei like 58Ni at intermediate energies we can study medium modification of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction inside the nucleus, because proton distributions in target nuclei are constrained by charge distributions measured by electron scattering and neutron distributions can be assumed to be the same as proton's. In order to explain our experimental data of 58Ni at large scattering angles, it was found to be necessary to use experimental densities deduced from charge densities measured by electron scattering and to modify the coupling constants and the masses of exchanged σ and ω mesons in the RIA, assuming linear dependencies of meson properties to nuclear densities. Parameters of the medium effect have been searched to reproduce the data. For N≠Z nuclei, neutron density distribution can be extracted from the elastic scattering, assuming the same medium modifications fixed by the 58Ni data and using proton distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distributions obtained from charge distributions. We have searched neutron density distribution so as to reproduce 120Sn data at the proton incident energy of 300 MeV. Deduced neutron distribution has an increase at the nuclear center, which is consistent with the 3s1/2 orbit wave function as expected in 120Sn. At energies other than 300 MeV, experimental data of 120Sn have been also well reproduced by the neutron distribution obtained at 300 MeV. .

  19. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon that describe the effect of its internal quark structure on the cross section and spin observables in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Double-polarization experiments have become the preferred technique to measure the proton and neutron electric form factors at high momentum transfers. The recently completed GEp-III experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility used the recoil polarization method to extend the knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM to Q2 = 8.5 GeV2. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the experiment.

  20. Deeply virtual Compton scattering on longitudinally polarized protons and neutrons at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Silvia Niccolai

    2012-04-01

    This paper focuses on a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly-6-GeV polarized electron beam, two longitudinally polarized (via DNP) solid targets of protons (NH{sub 3}) and deuterons (ND{sub 3}) and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Here, preliminary results for target-spin asymmetries and double (beam-target) asymmetries for proton DVCS, as well as a very preliminary extraction of beam-spin asymmetry for neutron DVCS, are presented and linked to Generalized Parton Distributions.

  1. Spin physics experiments at NICA-SPD with polarized proton and deuteron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I.; Efremov, A.; Pshekhonov, D.; Kovalenko, A.; Teryaev, O.; Shevchenko, O.; Nagajcev, A.; Guskov, A.; Kukhtin, V.; Toplilin, N.

    2016-08-01

    This is a brief description of suggested measurements of asymmetries of the Drell-Yan (DY) pair production in collisions of non-polarized, longitudinally and transversally polarized protons and deuterons which provide an access to all leading-twist collinear and TMD PDFs of quarks and anti-quarks in nucleons. Other spin effects in hadronic and heavy-ion collisions may be also studied constituing the spin physics program at NICA.

  2. Excitation of plasmons in Ag/Fe/W structure by spin-polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Samarin, Sergey N.; Kostylev, Mikhail; Williams, J. F.; Artamonov, Oleg M.; Baraban, Alexander P.; Guagliardo, Paul

    2015-09-07

    Using Spin-polarized Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy (SPEELS), the plasmon excitations were probed in a few atomic layers thick Ag film deposited on an Fe layer or on a single crystal of W(110). The measurements were performed at two specular geometries with either a 25° or 72° angle of incidence. On a clean Fe layer (10 atomic layers thick), Stoner excitation asymmetry was observed, as expected. Deposition of a silver film on top of the Fe layer dramatically changed the asymmetry of the SPEELS spectra. The spin-effect depends on the kinematics of the scattering: angles of incidence and detection. The spin-dependence of the plasmon excitations in the silver film on the W(110) surface and on the ferromagnetic Fe film is suggested to arise from the spin-active Ag/W or Ag/Fe interfaces.

  3. Empirical determination of solar proton access to the atmosphere: Impact on polar flight paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Jason J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Green, Janet C.

    2013-07-01

    Violent expulsions on the Sun's surface release high energy solar protons that ultimately affect HF communication used by aircraft. The geomagnetic field screens the low altitude equatorial region, but these protons can access the atmosphere over the poles. The latitudes over which the solar protons can reach vary with geomagnetic indices such as Kp and Dst. In this study we use observations from low Earth orbit to determine the atmospheric access of solar protons and hence the flights paths most likely to be affected. Observations taken by up to six polar orbiting satellites during 15 solar proton events are analyzed. From this we determine 16,850 proton rigidity cutoff estimates across three energy channels. Empirical fits are undertaken to estimate the most likely behavior of the cutoff dependence with geomagnetic activity. The changing Kp value is found to lead the variation in the cutoffs by ~3 h. We provide simple equations by which the geomagnetic latitude at which the protons impact the atmosphere can be determined from a given Kp or Dst value. The variation found in the cutoff with Kp is similar to that used in existing operational models, although we suggest that a ~1-2° equatorward shift in latitude would provide greater accuracy. We find that a Kp predictive model can provide additional warning to the variation in proton cutoffs. Hence, a prediction of the cutoff latitudes can be made ~3 h to as much as 7 h into the future, meeting suggested minimum planning times required by the aviation industry.

  4. LAMBDA Polarization with a Transversely Polarized Proton Target at the COMPASS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Negrini, Teresa

    2009-08-04

    The transverse polarization of LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar hyperons is investigated at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. In 2007 a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target were employed to study events in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Preliminary results for the LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar polarizations extracted from this new data set are presented as a function of x{sub Bj} and z. The polarizations of LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar are compatible with zero within their error bars and no dependence on x{sub Bj} or z is observed.

  5. Polarization of Pc1/EMIC waves and related proton auroras observed at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the polarization of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations and related proton auroras at subauroral latitudes, using an induction magnetometer and an all-sky camera at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude (mlat) 61.7°N). Isolated proton auroras often appear in association with Pc1 pulsations, because of proton scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the magnetosphere. We used the proton aurora as a proxy for the location and size of the Pc1 ionospheric source. For 27 Pc1 events with simultaneously observed proton auroras over 4 years from September 7, 2005 to September 6, 2009, we calculated the distances between the Pc1 ionospheric source and the observation site, normalized by the scale size of the source. We tried three different definitions of the scale size of Pc1 ionospheric source to calculate the normalized distances. We found that the rotation angle θ between the Pc1 polarization ellipse and the direction to the proton aurora changes from 90° to 0° as the normalized distance increases. For the definition of the scale sizes that gives most clear θ-transition from 90° to 0°, the transition occurs at the normalized distance ˜2.0-4.0, while it was ˜1.0-2.0 by the model calculation of Fujita and Tamao (1988). The averaged major axes tend to point toward the proton aurora at larger distances. The difference of the transition location may imply that the Pc1 ionospheric sources are larger than the isolated proton auroras, or that the inhomogenuity of the ionospheric conductivity by the proton precipitation affects the transition distances.

  6. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Hattori, T.; Lin, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  7. Probing non-polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-07-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds by detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5-4 and J = 10-9 rotational transitions using the 40 m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We derive beam-averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm-2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm-2 in L483, which translate into fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10-12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non-protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~10-4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10-8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the Yebes 40 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The 40 m radiotelescope at Yebes Observatory is operated by the Spanish National Geographic Institute (IGN, Ministerio de Fomento).

  8. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)★

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5 – 4 and J = 10 – 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm−2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm−2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10−12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~ 10−4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10−8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. PMID:26543239

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement of protons and vanadium-51 in the presence of pH-dependent vanadyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Perez Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Miéville, Pascal; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    We report applications of dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance proton and vanadium-51 polarization of vanadyl sulfate samples doped with TOTAPOL under magic angle spinning conditions. The electron paramagnetic resonance response stemming from the paramagnetic (51)V species was monitored as a function of pH, which can be adjusted to improve the enhancement of the proton polarization. By means of cross-polarization from the proton bath, (51)V spins could be hyperpolarized. Enhancement factors, build-up times, and longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) and T1((51)V) were investigated as a function of pH.

  10. Polarization of Ω- hyperons produced in 800 GeV proton-beryllium collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.; Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Thorne, K.

    1993-02-01

    The polarization of 103 211 Ω- hyperons produced in 800 GeV proton-beryllium inclusive reactions has been measured. Between 0.3polarization is found to be consistent with zero, with a mean value of -0.01+/-0.01 at =0.5 and =0.95 GeV/c. This behavior is similar to that of Λ¯0, which also does not have any quarks in common with the incident proton, but is different from Ξ¯+, which is significantly polarized in the same kinematic region.

  11. Measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALL for inclusive multi-γ pair production with 200 GeV/ c polarized proton beam and polarized proton target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. L.; Akchurin, N.; Belikov, N. I.; Bravar, A.; Bystricky, J.; Chaumette, P.; Corcoran, M. D.; Cossairt, J. D.; Cranshaw, J.; Deregel, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Durand, G.; En'yo, H.; Fabre, J.; Fukuda, K.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Grachov, O. A.; Grosnick, D. P.; Hill, D. A.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Iwatani, K.; Kasprzyk, T.; Krueger, K. W.; Kuroda, K.; Laghai, M.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lopiano, D.; Luehring, F. C.; Maki, T.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; Meschanin, A. P.; Michalowicz, A.; Miller, D. H.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ohashi, Y.; Onel, Y.; Patalakha, D. I.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Read, A. L.; Roberts, J. B.; van Rossum, L.; Rykov, V. L.; Saito, N.; Salvato, G.; Schiavon, P.; Shepard, J.; Skeens, J.; Solovyanov, V. L.; Spinka, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, N.; Underwood, D. G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Villari, A.; White, J. L.; Yamashita, S.; Yokosawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Zanetti, A.; FNAL E581/704 Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    The invariant double-differential cross section, E 1E 2d 6σ / d p31d p32, and the double-spin asymmetry, ALL, for inclusive multi-γ pair production in which γ-rays came from neutral mesons were measured with a 200 GeV/ c longitudinally-polarized proton beam and a longitudinally-polarized proton target. Most of the multi-γ pairs comes from two-jet type events which are sensitive to partonic interaction. The ALL values were found to be consistent with zero. The invariant double-differential cross section for inclusive π0π0 production was also measured. These measured cross sections are consistent with LUND Monte Carlo simulations. Using the LUND Monte Carlo simulation package with the Carlitz-Kaur model of spin dependent distribution functions of valence quarks, the ALL values have been compared with theoretical predictions of gluon polarization, ΔG/ G. The results put restrictions on the size of ΔG/ G in the region of 0.05 ⪅ x ⪅ 0.35.

  12. Preservation and control of the proton and deuteron polarizations in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Filatov, Yury; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kondratenko, M. A.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme of preserving the proton and deuteron beam polarizations during acceleration and storage in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. This scheme allows one to provide both the longitudinal and transverse polarization orientations of the proton and deuteron beams at the interaction points of the figure-8 ion collider ring. We discuss questions of matching the polarization direction at all stages of the beam transport including the pre-booster, large booster and ion collider ring.

  13. Letter of Intent for a Drell-Yan Experiment with a Polarized Proton Target

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.; Reimer, P.; Brown, C.; Christian, D.; Diefenthaler, M.; Peng, J. -C.; Chang, W. -C.; Chen, Y. -C.; Sawada, S.; Chang, T. -H.; Huang, J.; Jiang, X.; Leitch, M.; Klein, A.; Liu, K.; Liu, M.; McGaughey, P.; Beise, E.; Nakahara, K.; Aidala, C.; Lorenzon, W.; Raymond, R.; Badman, T.; Long, E.; Slifer, K.; Zielinski, R.; Guo, R. -S.; Goto, Y.; El Fassi, L.; Myers, K.; Ransome, R.; Tadepalli, A.; Tice, B.; Chen, J. -P.; Nakano, K.; Shibata, T. -A.; Crabb, D.; Day, D.; Keller, D.; Rondon, O.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the proton is a spin-1/2 particle, but how the constituents (quarks and gluons) assemble to this quantized spin is still a mystery. There is a worldwide effort to map out the individual contributions to the proton spin. It is established that the quark spins contribute around 30%, while the gluon intrinsic angular momentum is still under active investigation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Fully resolving the proton spin puzzle requires information on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of both quarks and gluons. Recent studies have shown that the so-called transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) can inform us about the OAM of the partons. One of the most important TMDs, and the main focus of this LOI, is the so-called Sivers function. To summarize, we propose to make the first measurement of the Sivers function of sea quarks, which is expected to be non-zero if the sea quarks contribute orbital angular momentum to the proton spin, as expected from the pion cloud model which also partially explains the E866 results. Thus, we will be able to deduce whether or not sea quark orbital motion contributes significantly to the proton spin. Specifically, we will determine the contribution from the anti-up quarks, with Bjorken-x in the range of ~ 0.1 to 0.5. Drell-Yan production off a polarized proton target has never been measured and is complementary to the recently approved (stage-1) experiment E1027 at Fermilab, which will measure the Sivers function of the valence quarks using a polarized proton beam on an unpolarized proton target. If the measured sea quark Sivers function is non-zero, we will also determine its sign.

  14. Protons in polar media: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, Tycho

    1998-10-01

    The hydrates of hydrogen chloride are ionic crystals that contain hydronium (H3O+). The hydronium in the monohydrate has been reported to be statistically disordered between two possible sites related by inversion symmetry. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are presented for the monohydrate, as well as the di-, and tri-hydrates, of hydrogen chloride using the density functional based Car-Parrinello technique. The simulations were carried out with the goal of investigating proton disorder in these crystals. The possible role of nuclear quantum effects has been explored via path integral molecular dynamic simulations. The present results suggest that the proposed disordered sites in the monohydrate are dynamically unstable and therefore unlikely to be responsible for the reported disorder. No useful information was obtained for the dihydrate because the large unit cell leads to difficulties in carrying out the simulations. Nuclear quantum effects are shown to be important for characterizing the proton distributions in the trihydrate. The structure and dynamical behavior of liquid HF with dissolved KF have been investigated using the Car- Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. Specifically, a system with stoichiometry KFċ2HF was studied at temperatures of 400K and 1000K. This system, which was started from a phase separated mixture, rapidly formed into solvated potassium ions and HnFn+1/sp- polyfluoride anions with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The resulting polyfluoride anions were classified, and their structures and dynamical behavior were compared with the known structures and spectra of crystalline compounds KF/cdot xHF and with theoretical predictions of isolated gas phase species. The present study reveals dramatic frequency shifts in the H atom vibrational modes with variation in the HF coordination number of the polyfluoride anion. In particular the FH wagging motion red shifts while the FH stretch blue shifts as n increases. The present calculations

  15. POLARIZED HYDROGEN JET TARGET FOR MEASUREMENT OF RHIC PROTON BEAM POLARIZATION.

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; WISE,T.; CHAPMAN,M.; GRAHAM,D.; KPONOU,A.; MAHLER,G.; MENG,W.; NASS,A.; RITTER,J.

    2005-01-28

    The performance and unique features of the RHIC polarized jet target and our solutions to the important design constraints imposed on the jet by the RHIC environment are described. The target polarization and thickness were measured to be 0.924 {+-} 2% and 1.3 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 2} respectively.

  16. Role of proton ordering in adsorption preference of polar molecule on ice surface.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoru; Pan, Ding; Xu, Limei; Wang, Enge

    2012-08-14

    Adsorption of polar monomers on ice surface, relevant to the physical/chemical reaction in ice clouds as well as growth of ice, remains an open issue partially due to the unusual surface characteristics with protons at the top layer of ice. Using first-principle calculations, we explore the adsorption properties of ice surface in terms of a surface proton order parameter, which characterizes the inhomogeneity of the dangling atoms on ice surface. We show that, due to an effective electric field created by dangling OH bonds and lone pairs of water molecules not only directly neighboring but also further away from the adsorbed polar molecule on the ice surface, the adsorption energy of polar monomer on ice surface exhibits large variance and a strong correlation with the proton order parameter of ice surface. Our results about the positive correlation between the inhomogeneity of ice surface and adsorption energies suggest that the physical/chemical reactions as well as the growth of ice may prefer to occur firstly on surfaces with larger proton order parameter.

  17. The complete set of spin observables for the (13)C(polarized proton, polarized neutron)(13)N and (15)N(polarized proton, polarized neutron)(15)O reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qun Qun

    1998-12-01

    The 13C(p,n)13N and 15N(p,n)15O reactions have been a puzzle for more than ten years. The ground state transitions are Jπ=1/2- to Jπ=1/2-. These are 'mixed' transitions because they can involve quantum number changes either (/Delta T=1,/ /Delta J=0,/ /Delta/pi=0,/ /Delta S=0), or (/Delta T=1,/ /Delta J=1,/ /Delta/pi=0,/ /Delta S=1); these quantum number changes are refered to as 'Fermi' and 'Gamow-Teller' respectively. Because the quantum number changes are the same as for Fermi and Gamow-Teller beta decay. From the systematics of (p,n) and (n,p) reactions on pure Fermi transitions (e.g. 0 + to 0+) and pure Gamow-Teller transitions (e.g. 0+ to 1+), calibrations have been established of cross section per unit B(F) or unit B(GT), where 'B' refers to doubly reduced matrix elements extracted from beta decay. However, cross sections for the 13C(p,n)13N(g.s.) and 15N(p,n)15O(g.s.) reactions are substantially larger than one would then predict from the known B(F)s and B(GT)s for these transitions. To explore this anomaly, spin observables were used to extract separately the Fermi and Gamow-Teller cross sections for these reactions. To acquire the complete sets of polarization- transfer observables, a new neutron polarimeter was designed, built, commissioned and calibrated. This polarimeter, call the '2π polarimeter' because of its complete azimuthal coverage for scattered neutrons, has very good position and timing resolution (354 ps). The complete sets of spin-transfer coefficients Dij for 13C(p,n)13N (at 0o , 5.5o , and 11o ) and 15N(p,n)15O (at 0o ) at 135 MeV were measured. Following the formalism of Ichimura and Kawahigashi, we extracted the spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse and spin-independent responses D0,/ Dq,/ Dn and Dp from the measured Dijs. The F and GT fractions of the (p,n) cross sections are then extracted as f F=D0 and fGT=Dn+Dp+Dq=1- d0. Values of Dk for both the 13C(p,n)13N(g.s) and 15N(p,n)15O(g.s.) were extracted. From these responses, we

  18. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924

  19. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH+ ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3+ has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 1013 W/cm2 and 3.15 × 1013 W/cm2, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3+. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene.

  20. Reaction {gamma}p {sup {yields}} {eta}' (958) p and polarization of recoil protons

    SciTech Connect

    Tryasuchev, V. A.

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the isobar model extended by including the t-channel, the cross sections for and single-polarization features of the reaction {gamma}p {sup {yields}} {eta}'p are calculated for incident-photon energies up to 5 GeV, two poorly studied resonances, S{sub 11}(1978) and P{sub 13}(2080), being taken into account in this calculation. In order to reduce the ambiguities in the choice of resonances and their parameters that make it possible to reproduce the experimental differential cross sections, it is proposed to measure the polarization of recoil protons in the reaction being considered.

  1. Surface electronic structure of polar NiO thin film grown on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2015-06-01

    The growth and structure of NiO thin films on top of Ag(111) substrate were studied where the formation of faceted surface was confirmed by Low Energy Electron Diffraction. The electronic structure of polar NiO(111) surface has been probed using photoemission techniques. The core energy levels and the valence band electronic structure were excited by x-ray and ultraviolet photons respectively. The modifications in physical structure and valence band electronic structure of the film under vacuum annealing have also been enlightened.

  2. Surface electronic structure of polar NiO thin film grown on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2015-06-24

    The growth and structure of NiO thin films on top of Ag(111) substrate were studied where the formation of faceted surface was confirmed by Low Energy Electron Diffraction. The electronic structure of polar NiO(111) surface has been probed using photoemission techniques. The core energy levels and the valence band electronic structure were excited by x-ray and ultraviolet photons respectively. The modifications in physical structure and valence band electronic structure of the film under vacuum annealing have also been enlightened.

  3. Proton Form Factor Ratio GE/GM from Double Spin Asymmetry with Polarized Beam and Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Anusha

    2010-11-01

    Along with experiment E07-003 (SANE, Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment), which has been performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab with a polarized ammonia target to study the proton's spin structure, elastic scattering was carried out simultaneously, with electrons detected in the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA) in coincidence with recoiling protons reconstructed by the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS). The elastic double spin asymmetry allows to extract the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio GE/GM at high momentum transfers, Q^2 = 5.25 (GeV/c)^2 and Q^2 = 6.25 (GeV/c)^2. In addition to the coincidence data, inclusively scattered electrons from polarized ammonia were detected by HMS, which allows to measure the beam-target asymmetry in the elastic region and to extract the GE/GM at Q^2 = 2.2 (GeV/c)^2. This alternative measurement of GE/GM will verify the dramatic discrepancy at high Q^2 between the Rosenbluth and the recoil polarization transfer method with a different technique. The current status of the analysis and some preliminary results will be presented.

  4. New measurement of the proton form factor ratio with polarized beam and target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Anusha; SANE Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon representing the effect of its structure on the response to electromagnetic probes. The ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton has been measured with doubly polarized elastic electron-proton scattering at Q2 = 2.06 and 5.66 (GeV/c)2 using the double spin asymmetry for a target spin aligned nearly perpendicular to the beam direction. This alternative measurement of GEp /GMp has verified and confirmed the dramatic discrepancy at high Q2 between the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods with a different technique and systematic uncertainties uncorrelated to those of the recoil-polarization measurements. The measurement of the form factor ratio at Q2 = 2.06 (GeV/c)2 is in agreement with an earlier measurement with the polarized target technique at similar kinematics. The four-momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 5.66 (GeV/c)2 represents the highest Q2 value reached with the double spin asymmetry to date. The results of this experiment will be presented.

  5. Overcoming an intrinsic depolarizing resonance with a partial snake at the Brookhaven AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K. A.; Glenn, W.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zeno, K.; Ranjbar, V.; Cadman, R. V.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.; High Energy Physics; BNL; Indiana Univ.

    2004-06-01

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized protons through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS or other medium energy proton synchrotrons to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances.

  6. Measurement of proton polarization in the d({gamma},p)n reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Jackson, H.E.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    A proposal was approved by CEBAF PAC7 to measure angular distributions of the proton polarization for the d({gamma},p)n reaction in the GeV region. This proposed measurement will test the validity of extensions of conventional nuclear-physics theories to the higher energy regime. The results of the experiment will further constrain the evidence from SLAC experiments NE8 and NE17 that asymptotic scaling was observed above a photon energy of 1.3 GeV. Photoproton polarization measurements at lower energy indicate that the magnitude of the polarization increases with energy. This is consistent with the observation that polarizations are large in high-energy processes, e.g. A{sub nn} in pp {yields} pp scattering or A{sub y} in pp {yields} {pi}{sup 0}X. However, the polarizations in hadron-hadron scattering are believed to arise from Landshoff mechanisms. The higher energy photoproton experiment will permit the first measurements of polarization for a reaction, {gamma}d {yields} pn, where there are no Landshoff terms. The experiment would make use of a polarimeter installed in either the High Resolution Spectrometer in Hall A or the Short Orbit Spectrometer in Hall C at CEBAF.

  7. Measuring the Spin-Polarizabilities of the Proton in Polarized Compton scattering at MAMI-Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskimen, Rory; A2 Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    At O (ω3) four new structure constants are present in the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude; these are the spin-polarizabilities γE 1 E 1, γM 1 M 1, γE 1 M 2, and γM 1 E 2. The most model independent way to determine the spin-polarizabilities is by measuring a double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetry with polarized target and circularly polarized photons, and by measuring an in-plane/transverse-plane Compton scattering asymmetry with linearly polarized photons (Σ3) . This talk will present new Compton scattering asymmetry data taken in the Δ region by the A2 Collaboration using the Crystal Ball at Mainz, with transverse polarized proton target and circularly polarized photons, the Σ2 x asymmetry (1). A dispersion model and an EFT calculation of Compton scattering are used to fit the four spin-polarizabilities to the new experimental data on Σ2 x, earlier results (2) on Σ3, and previous determinations of γ0 and γπ. The results of the fits are compared with theoretical calculations.

  8. Measurement of Polarization Observables in the Electro-Excitation of the Proton to its First Excited State

    SciTech Connect

    Rikki Roche

    2003-04-03

    This thesis reports results from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Hall A experiment E91-011, which measured double-polarization observables in the pion electroproduction reaction from the proton. Specifically, the experiment measured the recoil proton polarization, polarized response functions, and cross section for the p{rvec e}, e{prime} {rvec p} {pi}{sup o} reaction at a center-of-mass energy centered at W = 1232 MeV--the peak of the {Delta}(1232) resonance--and at a four-momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Both the recoil proton polarization and polarized response function results will be presented in this thesis.

  9. Longitudinal Spin Transfer in Inclusive {lambda} and {lambda}-bar Production in Polarized Proton-proton Collisions at {radical}(s) =200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Qinghua

    2007-06-13

    This contribution reports on a proof-of-principle measurement of the longitudinal spin transfer DLL in inclusive {lambda} and {lambda}-bar production in polarized proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy {radical}(s) = 200 GeV. The data sample consists of about 3 x 106 minimum bias events collected in the year 2005 by the STAR experiment at RHIC with proton beam polarizations of up to 50%. The {lambda}({lambda}-bar) candidates are reconstructed at mid-rapidity (|{eta}| < 1) using the STAR Time Projection Chamber via the dominant decay channel {lambda} {yields} p{pi}- ({lambda}-bar {yields} p-bar{pi}+). Their mean transverse momentum pT is about 1.3 GeV/c and longitudinal momentum fraction xF = 7.5 x 10-3. The longitudinal {lambda}({lambda}-bar) polarization is determined using a method in which the detector acceptance mostly cancels.

  10. Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Bruno; King, Martin; Gray, Ross J.; Wilson, Robbie; Dance, Rachel J.; Powell, Haydn; Maclellan, David A.; McCreadie, John; Butler, Nicholas M. H.; Hawkes, Steve; Green, James S.; Murphy, Chris D.; Stockhausen, Luca C.; Carroll, David C.; Booth, Nicola; Scott, Graeme G.; Borghesi, Marco; Neely, David; McKenna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Control of the collective response of plasma particles to intense laser light is intrinsic to relativistic optics, the development of compact laser-driven particle and radiation sources, as well as investigations of some laboratory astrophysics phenomena. We recently demonstrated that a relativistic plasma aperture produced in an ultra-thin foil at the focus of intense laser radiation can induce diffraction, enabling polarization-based control of the collective motion of plasma electrons. Here we show that under these conditions the electron dynamics are mapped into the beam of protons accelerated via strong charge-separation-induced electrostatic fields. It is demonstrated experimentally and numerically via 3D particle-in-cell simulations that the degree of ellipticity of the laser polarization strongly influences the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of multi-MeV protons. The influence on both sheath-accelerated and radiation pressure-accelerated protons is investigated. This approach opens up a potential new route to control laser-driven ion sources. PMID:27624920

  11. Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Bruno; King, Martin; Gray, Ross J; Wilson, Robbie; Dance, Rachel J; Powell, Haydn; Maclellan, David A; McCreadie, John; Butler, Nicholas M H; Hawkes, Steve; Green, James S; Murphy, Chris D; Stockhausen, Luca C; Carroll, David C; Booth, Nicola; Scott, Graeme G; Borghesi, Marco; Neely, David; McKenna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Control of the collective response of plasma particles to intense laser light is intrinsic to relativistic optics, the development of compact laser-driven particle and radiation sources, as well as investigations of some laboratory astrophysics phenomena. We recently demonstrated that a relativistic plasma aperture produced in an ultra-thin foil at the focus of intense laser radiation can induce diffraction, enabling polarization-based control of the collective motion of plasma electrons. Here we show that under these conditions the electron dynamics are mapped into the beam of protons accelerated via strong charge-separation-induced electrostatic fields. It is demonstrated experimentally and numerically via 3D particle-in-cell simulations that the degree of ellipticity of the laser polarization strongly influences the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of multi-MeV protons. The influence on both sheath-accelerated and radiation pressure-accelerated protons is investigated. This approach opens up a potential new route to control laser-driven ion sources. PMID:27624920

  12. Spin Asymmetry Measurements for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on Polarized Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seder, Erin; CLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons, particularly nucleons, in terms of their elementary constituents, quarks and gluons. Spin asymmetry measurements in the reaction e --> p --> --> ep γ, such as the proton target spin asymmetry which is directly proportional to the imaginary part of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering amplitude, give access to different combinations of GPDs. Combined measurements of proton target spin asymmetry (TSA), electron beam helicity asymmetry (BSA), and electron-proton double spin asymmetry (DSA) at the same kinematic points allows access to GPDs through a semi-model independent extraction of Compton Form Factors (CFFs). Preliminary TSA, BSA, and DSA studies for the reaction e --> p --> --> ep γ and extracted CFFs will be presented from a dedicated experiment at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam, a polarized solid state 14 NH3 target, and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) equipped with an additional Inner Calorimeter (IC). The accessible kinematic range for these measurements covers 1 < Q2 < 4.5 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58, and 0.08 < - t < 1.8 GeV2.

  13. Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Bruno; King, Martin; Gray, Ross J.; Wilson, Robbie; Dance, Rachel J.; Powell, Haydn; MacLellan, David A.; McCreadie, John; Butler, Nicholas M. H.; Hawkes, Steve; Green, James S.; Murphy, Chris D.; Stockhausen, Luca C.; Carroll, David C.; Booth, Nicola; Scott, Graeme G.; Borghesi, Marco; Neely, David; McKenna, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Control of the collective response of plasma particles to intense laser light is intrinsic to relativistic optics, the development of compact laser-driven particle and radiation sources, as well as investigations of some laboratory astrophysics phenomena. We recently demonstrated that a relativistic plasma aperture produced in an ultra-thin foil at the focus of intense laser radiation can induce diffraction, enabling polarization-based control of the collective motion of plasma electrons. Here we show that under these conditions the electron dynamics are mapped into the beam of protons accelerated via strong charge-separation-induced electrostatic fields. It is demonstrated experimentally and numerically via 3D particle-in-cell simulations that the degree of ellipticity of the laser polarization strongly influences the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of multi-MeV protons. The influence on both sheath-accelerated and radiation pressure-accelerated protons is investigated. This approach opens up a potential new route to control laser-driven ion sources.

  14. Theoretical estimate on tensor-polarization asymmetry in proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, S.; Song, Qin-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Tensor-polarized parton distribution functions are new quantities in spin-1 hadrons such as the deuteron, and they could probe new quark-gluon dynamics in hadron and nuclear physics. In charged-lepton deep inelastic scattering, they are studied by the twist-2 structure functions b1 and b2. The HERMES Collaboration found unexpectedly large b1 values compared to a naive theoretical expectation based on the standard deuteron model. The situation should be significantly improved in the near future by an approved experiment to measure b1 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). There is also an interesting indication in the HERMES result that finite antiquark tensor polarization exists. It could play an important role in solving a mechanism on tensor structure in the quark-gluon level. The tensor-polarized antiquark distributions are not easily determined from the charged-lepton deep inelastic scattering; however, they can be measured in a proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process with a tensor-polarized deuteron target. In this article, we estimate the tensor-polarization asymmetry for a possible Fermilab Main-Injector experiment by using optimum tensor-polarized parton distribution functions to explain the HERMES measurement. We find that the asymmetry is typically a few percent. If it is measured, it could probe new hadron physics, and such studies could create an interesting field of high-energy spin physics. In addition, we find that a significant tensor-polarized gluon distribution should exist due to Q2 evolution, even if it were zero at a low Q2 scale. The tensor-polarized gluon distribution has never been observed, so it is an interesting future project.

  15. Measurement of Polarization Observables in the Electro-Excitation of the Proton to its First Excited State

    SciTech Connect

    Rikki Roche

    2003-08-01

    This thesis reports results from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Hall A experiment E91-011, which measured double-polarization observables in the pion electroproduction reaction from the proton. Specifically, the experiment measured the recoil proton polarization, polarized response functions, and cross section for the p({rvec e}, e{prime} {rvec p}) {pi}{sup o} reaction at a center-of-mass energy centered at W = 1232 MeV--the peak of the Delta(1232) resonance--and at a four-momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Both the recoil proton polarization and polarized response function results will be presented in this thesis. Data were collected at Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Virginia during the summer of 2000. A 4.53 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off of a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton polarization was measured in the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP), located in one of the two High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) in Hall A. A maximum likelihood method was used to determine the polarized response functions directly from the measured polarizations and cross sections. A simultaneous fit of the cross sections, the recoil proton polarizations, and angular distributions of the polarized response functions will provide a determination of individual multipole amplitudes. Some of these multipole amplitudes are related to the concept of proton deformation. Both the recoil proton polarizations and polarized response functions were compared to two phenomenological models: MAID and SAID, which have all free parameters fixed, based on fits to previous world data. The measured helicity dependent observables, which are dominated by imaginary parts of Delta(1232)-resonance excitation multipole amplitudes, agree very well with the two models. The measured helicity independent observables, which are dominated by real parts of background multipole amplitudes, do not agree completely with either

  16. Run05 Proton Beam Polarization Measurements by pC-Polarimeter (ver. 1.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa,I.; Alekseev, I.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bravar, A.; Bunce, G.; Dhawan, S.; Eyser, K.O.; Gill, R.; Haeberli, W.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nass, A.; Okada, H.; Stephenson, E.; Svirida, D.N.; Wise, T.; Wood, J.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-07-01

    The polarization of the proton beams [1, 2] at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[3] RHIC ring. The H-Jet polarimeter is located at the collision point allowing measurements of absolute normalization is provided by the hydrogen polarimeter, which measures over 1 {approx} 2 another measurement rather than measuring the absolute polarization. both beams. Two identical pC-polarimeters are equipped in the yellow and blue rings, where carbon ribbon target, providing fast feedback to beam operations and experiments. The days to obtain {approx} 5% statistical uncertainty (in Run05). Thus, the operation of the carbon is measured using both an atomic beam source hydrogen gas jet (H-Jet)[4, 5] and proton-carbon polarimeters was focused on better control of relative stability between one measurement to statistical accuracy within 20 to 30 seconds using an ultra-thin (typically 6 {approx} 8 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) the rings are separated. The pC-polarimeter measures relative polarization to a few percent.

  17. Observation of Counter Propagating Alfven Waves with Perpendicular Polarizations and the Associated Proton Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Pei, Z. T.; Wang, L.; Tu, C. Y.; Marsch, E.; Yao, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is believed that MHD turbulence cascading is mainly caused by the collisions between Alfven waves, which propagate oppositely and are polarized perpendicularly to each other. Nonlinear interaction will vanish if the counter-propagating Alfven waves have their polarization aligned with each other. However, the Alfven waves satisfying these collision criteria have not yet been found in the solar wind observations. Here we report the existence of Alfven waves with opposite propagation and non-aligned polarization in the solar wind. In one case of anti-sunward magnetic sector, with RTN as the coordinates, the magnetic fluctuations in T-component (BT) are anti-correlated with the velocity fluctuations in T-component (VT), while BR and BN fluctuations are in positive correlation with VR and VN fluctuations, respectively. These features suggest a possible nonlinear interaction between outward propagating Alfven wave with polarization in T-direction and inward propagating Alfven wave with polarization in R&N-directions. Moreover, the associated proton kinetics shows the existence of field-aligned sunward beam rather than anti-sunward beam, which may indicate a parallel Landau heating by sunward kinetic Alfven waves. A statistical study including more cases is also conducted.

  18. Asymmetries in ozone depressions between the polar stratospheres following a solar proton event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, K.; Heath, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone depletions in the polar stratosphere during the energetic solar proton event on 4 August 1972 were observed by the backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) experiments on the Nimbus 4 satellite. The observed ozone contents, the ozone depressions and their temporal variations above the 4 mb level exhibited distinct asymmetries between the northern and southern hemispheres. Since the ozone destroying solar particles precipitate rather symmetrically into the two polar atmospheres, due to the geomagnetic dipole field, it is suggested that these asymmetries may be explained in terms of the differences in dynamics between the summer and the winter polar atmospheres. In the summer (northern) hemisphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric ozone depletion and recovery are smooth functions of time due to the preponderance of undistributed orderly flow in this region. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the upper stratospheric ozone in the winter polar atmosphere (southern hemisphere) exhibits large amplitude irregularities. These characteristic differences between the two polar atmospheres are also evident in the vertical distributions of temperatures and winds observed by balloons and rocket soundings.

  19. Measurement of Top Quark Polarization in Top-Antitop Events from Proton-Proton Collisions at s=7TeV Using the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Bunse, M.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Caso, C.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Daniells, A. C.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliot, F.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Demirkoz, B.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dinut, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Dwuznik, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, M. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Florez Bustos, A. C.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. 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L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Pohl, M.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quilty, D.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radloff, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rao, K.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodrigues, L.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Saddique, A.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarrazin, B.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaelicke, A.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tuna, A. N.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-12-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7fb-1 of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at s=7TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of αℓP, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, αℓPCPC=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and αℓPCPV=0.020±0.016(stat)-0.017+0.013(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  20. Study of the proton structure by measurements of polarization transfers in real Compton scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano Fanelli; Cisbani, Evarostp; Hamilton, David; Salme, G.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-03-01

    A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70°), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions, one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized.

  1. Measurement of the Induced Proton Polarization Pn in the 12C(e, e', p) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, R J; Barkhuff, David; Bertozzi, William; Chen, Jian-ping; Dale, Dan; Dodson, G; Dow, K A; Epstein, Marty; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Finn, Mike; Gilad, Shalev; Jones, Mark K; Joo, Kyungseon; Kelly, James; Kowalski, Stanley; Lourie, Bob; Madey, Richard; Margaziotis, Dimitri; Markowitz, Pete; McIntyre, Justin; Mertz, Christoph; Milbrath, Brian; Mitchell, Joseph; Perdrisat, Charles F; Punjabi, Vina; Rutt, Paul; Sarty, Adam; Tieger, D; Tschalaer, C; Turchinetz, William; Ulmer, Paul E; Van Verst, S P; Vellidis, C; Warren, Glen; Weinstein, Lawrence

    1998-01-19

    The first measurements of the induced proton polarization Pn for the 12C(e,e',p) reaction are reported. The experiment was performed at quasifree kinematics for energy and momentum transfer (w,q) = (294 MeV, 765 MeV/c) and sampled a missing momentum range of 0-250 MeV/c. The induced polarization arises from final-state interactions and for these kinematics is dominated by the real part of the spin-orbit optical potential. The distorted-wave impulse approximation provides good agreement with data for the 1 p3/2 shell. The data for the continuum suggest that both the 1s1/2 shell and underlying l > 1 configurations contribute.

  2. Evaluating the dynamic aperture evaluation for the new RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-03-28

    To increase luminosity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider's (RHIC's) polarized proton 250 GeV operations, we are considering reducing {beta}* to 0.65 m at the interaction points (IPs), and increasing bunch intensity. The new working point near the 2/3 integer will used on the ramp to preserve polarization. In addition, we plan to adjust the betatron-phase advances between IP6 and IP8 to (k+1/2)*{pi} so to lower the dynamic beta-beat from the beam-beam interaction. The effects of all these changes will impact the dynamic aperture, and hence, it must be evaluated carefully. In this article, we present the results of tracking the dynamic aperture with the proposed lattices.

  3. Polarized proton-deuteron scattering as a test of time-reversal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.

    2016-09-01

    Scattering of protons with transversal polarization pyp on deuterons with tensor polarization Px z provides a null-test signal for time-reversal (T) invariance violating but parity (P) conserving effects. We calculate the corresponding null-test observable at beam energies 100 -1000 MeV within the spin-dependent Glauber theory considering T-violating P-conserving nucleon-nucleon interactions. The S -wave component of the deuteron wave function as well as the D wave are taken into account and the latter is found to play an important role for the magnitude and the energy dependence of the observable in question. Specifically, with inclusion of the D wave the maximum of the obtained signal is shifted to higher beam energies, i.e., to 700 -800 MeV.

  4. Neutron spin structure with polarized deuterons and spectator proton tagging at EIC

    DOE PAGES

    Cosyn, W.; Guzey, V.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Hyde, C.; Kuhn, S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Sargsian, M.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2014-10-27

    The neutron's deep-inelastic structure functions provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, and precision studies of QCD phenomena in the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet sectors. Thus, traditional inclusive measurements on nuclear targets are limited by dilution from scattering on protons, Fermi motion and binding effects, final-state interactions, and nuclear shadowing at x << 0.1. An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of neutron structure with polarized deuteron beams and detection of forward-moving spectator protons over a wide range of recoil momenta (0 < pR << several 100 MeV in the nucleusmore » rest frame). The free neutron structure functions could be obtained by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum distributions to the on-shell point. The method eliminates nuclear modifications and can be applied to polarized scattering, as well as to semi-inclusive and exclusive final states. We review the prospects for neutron structure measurements with spectator tagging at EIC, the status of R&D efforts, and the accelerator and detector requirements.« less

  5. Neutron spin structure with polarized deuterons and spectator proton tagging at EIC

    SciTech Connect

    Cosyn, W.; Guzey, V.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Hyde, C.; Kuhn, S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Sargsian, M.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2014-10-27

    The neutron's deep-inelastic structure functions provide essential information for the flavor separation of the nucleon parton densities, the nucleon spin decomposition, and precision studies of QCD phenomena in the flavor-singlet and nonsinglet sectors. Thus, traditional inclusive measurements on nuclear targets are limited by dilution from scattering on protons, Fermi motion and binding effects, final-state interactions, and nuclear shadowing at x << 0.1. An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of neutron structure with polarized deuteron beams and detection of forward-moving spectator protons over a wide range of recoil momenta (0 < pR << several 100 MeV in the nucleus rest frame). The free neutron structure functions could be obtained by extrapolating the measured recoil momentum distributions to the on-shell point. The method eliminates nuclear modifications and can be applied to polarized scattering, as well as to semi-inclusive and exclusive final states. We review the prospects for neutron structure measurements with spectator tagging at EIC, the status of R&D efforts, and the accelerator and detector requirements.

  6. The AGS Booster control system

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper.

  7. High-intensity polarized H-(proton), deuteron and 3He++ion source development at BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski,A.

    2008-06-23

    New techniques for the production of polarized electron, H{sup -} (proton), D (D+) and {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL. An Optically Pumped Polarized H{sup -} Ion Source (OPPIS) delivers beam for polarization studies in RHIC. The polarized deuteron beam will be required for the deuteron Electron Dipole Moment (EDM) experiment, and the {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beam is a part of the experimental program for the future eRHIC (Electron Ion) collider.

  8. Characteristic plateau in the L{sub 1}-subshell ionization cross section of Ag induced by proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kavcic, M.; Smit, Z.

    2009-12-15

    A characteristic dependence of the proton-induced 2s subshell ionization cross section generated by the nodal structure of the 2s wave function was probed via high-resolution measurements of the Lbeta{sub 3} (L{sub 1}-M{sub 3}) and Lbeta{sub 6} (L{sub 3}-N{sub 1}) x-ray lines of Ag. The intensity ratio of the measured lines depends strongly on the proton energy exhibiting a pronounced maximum around 0.4 MeV. The experimental intensities are critically compared to the theoretically predicted values. The latter were obtained using the ionization cross sections calculated within the semiclassical approximation employing hydrogenlike and Dirac-Fock electron wave functions.

  9. Modeling a large solar proton event in the southern polar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Ulich, Thomas; SeppäLä, Annika; Turunen, Esa; Botman, Aurelein; Thomson, Neil R.

    2005-09-01

    We have modeled the effects of the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry model (SIC) electron density profiles on VLF propagation across the southern polar region during the first few days of the 4-10 November 2001 solar proton event (SPE). The results show that the SIC model is accurately reproducing the changes in ionization during the SPE. These results were obtained by approximating the SIC electron density profiles to the Wait β and h' profiles where the densities were below 1000 el cm-3, a limitation that means during SPEs the technique is typically sensitive in the altitude range 50-60 km. The calculated values of β and h' were applied to the part of the propagation path poleward of the L = 4 boundary for the Hawaii (NPM)-Halley great circle path. Comparing the change in amplitude of NPM at Halley during the SPE with the GOES satellite proton flux measurements, we observe a good correlation and thus conclude that the variability observed in the VLF data is primarily caused by >50 MeV proton fluxes. This suggests that the SPE produced ionization dominates all other precipitation sources at these altitudes during 4 and 5 November 2001. Consequently, these results suggest that the assumption made during the SIC modeling runs of 4-5 November 2001 of only having proton precipitation and no significant energetic electron precipitation was reasonable. Our work strongly suggests that VLF subionospheric propagation is a reliable tool for the study of SPEs and that it is particularly effective when used in conjunction with an atmospheric model such as SIC.

  10. Search for azimuthal asymmetry of. pi. sup 0 -meson production in beam fragmentation region on polarized protons and deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Apokin, V.D.; Astafiev, O.V.; Belikov, N.I.; Chujko, B.V.; Derevshchikov, A.A.; Ermolin, Yu.V.; Grachev, O.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Meshchanin, A.P.; Morozov, A.A.; Mochalov, V.V.; Mysnik, A.I.; Mjalitsyn, V.K.; Nurushev, S.B.; Prudkogliad, A.F.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovianov, V.L.; Soloviev, L.F.; Sytin, A.N.; Vasiliev, A.N. ); Borisov, N.S.; Kazarinov, Yu.M.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Liburg, M.Yu.; Matafonov, V.N.; Neganov, A.B.; Usov, Yu.A. ); Bagaturia, Yu.Sh.; Glonti, L.N.; Macharashvili, G.G.; Ocherashvili, A.I.; Sakhelashvili, T.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The inclusive production of {pi}{sup 0}'s in the interaction of unpolarized {pi}{sup {minus}}, {ital k}{sup {minus}}, and antiproton beams with polarized proton and deuteron targets has been studied at IHEP. The absolute value of the asymmetry for {pi}{sup 0} production in the polarized proton and deuteron targets is between zero and fiften percent for large {ital x}={ital P}*/{ital P}*{sub max} and small {ital P}{sub {ital t}} and independent on the quark flavor. Results are presented and compared with theoretical calculations. (AIP)

  11. Polarity dependence of the electrical characteristics of Ag reflectors for high-power GaN-based light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Seong; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Han, Jaecheon; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2014-04-28

    We report on the polarity dependence of the electrical properties of Ag reflectors for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes. The (0001) c-plane samples become ohmic after annealing in air. However, the (11–22) semi-polar samples are non-ohmic after annealing, although the 300 °C-annealed sample shows the lowest contact resistivity. The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the Ga 2p core level for the c-plane samples experiences larger shift toward the valence band than that for the semi-polar samples. The XPS depth profile results show that unlike the c-plane samples, the semi-polar samples contain some amounts of oxygen at the Ag/GaN interface regions. The outdiffusion of Ga atoms is far more significant in the c-plane samples than in the semi-polar samples, whereas the outdiffusion of N atoms is relatively less significant in the c-plane samples. On the basis of the electrical and XPS results, the polarity dependence of the electrical properties is described and discussed.

  12. Production polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1990-10-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + is 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magneton.

  13. Polarized optical sensing and band-edge transitions in Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Pan, Chia-Chi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    The polarization dependence of band-edge excitonic transitions in Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 has been characterized using polarized thermoreflectance (PTR). The polarization-sensitive behavior of the E\\text{A}\\text{ex} and E\\text{B}\\text{ex} band-edge excitons was detected and characterized by angle-dependent PTR measurements from θ = 0 [E\\parallel < 11\\bar{1}> ] to 90° [E \\perp < 11\\bar{1}> ] with respect to the chalcopyrite crystal’s needle axis. The polarized photoconductivity of Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 has also been characterized using an array of white light-emitting diodes with the polarization angles ranging from 0 to 360°. The experimental results demonstrate that Ag(In0.5Al0.5)S2 is a suitable material for the fabrication of polarization-sensitive photodetectors applied in the visible region.

  14. Longitudinal spin transfer in inclusive Lambda and Lambda barproduct ion in polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt s = 200GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qinghua; STAR Collaboration

    2006-10-01

    This contribution reports on a proof-of-principle measurement of the longitudinal spin transfer D{sub LL} in inclusive {Lambda} and {Lambda} production in polarized proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV. The data sample consists of about 3 x 10{sup 6} minimum bias events collected in the year 2005 by the STAR experiment at RHIC with proton beam polarizations of up to 50%. The {Lambda}({bar {Lambda}}) candidates are reconstructed at mid-rapidity (|{eta}| < 1) using the STAR Time Projection Chamber via the dominant decay channel {Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup -} ({Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +}). Their mean transverse momentum p{sub T} is about 1.3 GeV/c and longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} = 7.5 x 10{sup -3}. The longitudinal {Lambda}({bar {Lambda}}) polarization is determined using a method in which the detector acceptance mostly cancels.

  15. The effect of atomic structure on interface spin-polarization of half-metallic spin valves: Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag epitaxial interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Hasnip, Philip J.; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Higgins, Edward; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Bell, Gavin R.; Oogane, Mikihiko; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2015-11-23

    Using density functional theory calculations motivated by aberration-corrected electron microscopy, we show how the atomic structure of a fully epitaxial Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag interfaces controls the local spin-polarization. The calculations show clear difference in spin-polarization at Fermi level between the two main types: bulk-like terminated Co/Ag and Mn-Si/Ag interfaces. Co/Ag interface spin-polarization switches sign from positive to negative, while in the case of Mn-Si/Ag, it is still positive but reduced. Cross-sectional atomic structure analysis of Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag interface, part of a spin-valve device, shows that the interface is determined by an additional layer of either Co or Mn. The presence of an additional Mn layer induces weak inverse spin-polarisation (−7%), while additional Co layer makes the interface region strongly inversely spin-polarized (−73%). In addition, we show that Ag diffusion from the spacer into the Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode does not have a significant effect on the overall Co{sub 2}MnSi /Ag performance.

  16. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.

  17. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  18. Measurement of the beam-recoil polarization in low-energy virtual Compton scattering from the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, L.; Janssens, P.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Baumann, D.; Bensafa, I.; Benali, M.; Beričič, J.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; D'Hose, N.; Defaÿ, X.; Ding, M.; Distler, M. O.; Fonvieille, H.; Friedrich, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Laveissière, G.; Makek, M.; Marroncle, J.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pasquini, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Postavaru, O.; Potokar, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Seimetz, M.; Širca, S.; Tamas, G.; Van de Vyver, R.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Van Overloop, A.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Double-polarization observables in the reaction e ⃗p →e'p ⃗'γ have been measured at Q2=0.33 (GeV/c ) 2 . The experiment was performed at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration using the 855 MeV polarized electron beam provided by the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) and a recoil proton polarimeter. From the double-polarization observables the structure function PLT ⊥ is extracted for the first time, with the value (-15.4 ±3 .3(stat .)-2.4+1.5(syst.)) GeV-2 , using the low-energy theorem for virtual Compton scattering. This structure function provides a hitherto unmeasured linear combination of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton.

  19. Measurement of the polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured using a sample of 70 000 Ξ¯ + decays. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009, compared to -0.102+/-0.012+/-0.010 for the Ξ-. The large polarization found for the Ξ¯ + is not expected in any model for polarization of inclusively produced hyperons. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + was measured to be 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magnetons (μN), compared to (-0.674+/-0.021+/-0.020)μN for the Ξ-, in good agreement with CPT invariance.

  20. Impact of the January 2012 solar proton event on polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, C. G.; Marsh, D. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Hervig, M. E.; Randall, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    We use data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere mission and simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to determine the impact of the 23-30 January 2012 solar proton event (SPE) on polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) and mesospheric water vapor. We see a small heating and loss of ice mass on 26 January that is consistent with prior results but is not statistically significant. We also find a previously unreported but statistically significant ~10% increase in ice mass and in water vapor in the sublimation area in the model that occurs in the 7 to 14 days following the start of the event. The magnitude of the response to the January 2012 SPE is small compared to other sources of variability like gravity waves and planetary waves; however, sensitivity tests suggest that with larger SPEs this delayed increase in ice mass will increase, while there is little change in the loss of ice mass early in the event. The PMC response to SPEs in models is dependent on the gravity wave parameterization, and temperature anomalies from SPEs may be useful in evaluating and tuning gravity wave parameterizations.

  1. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  2. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  3. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  4. Observations of secondary emission chamber degradation from very high intensity proton beams at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Chiang, I.H.; Pendzick, A.; Tallerico, T.

    1997-08-01

    Degradation of Secondary Emission Chamber (SEC) efficiencies has been seen in the past. As a result, instruments in use today are built to minimize any such effects. With beam intensities as high as 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse incident on these devices the authors are again observing significant degradation in SEC efficiencies. In this report the authors will present observations of these effects and methods they have developed to cope with them.

  5. EPR detected polarization transfer between Gd3+ and protons at low temperature and 3.3 T: the first step of dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Vijayasarathi; Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2010-06-01

    Electron-electron double resonance pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 95 GHz (3.3 T) is used to follow the dynamics of the electron spin polarization during the first stages of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids. The experiments were performed on a frozen solution of Gd(+3) (S=7/2) in water/glycerol. Focusing on the central vector -1/2 --> vector +1/2 transition we measured the polarization transfer from the Gd(3+) electron spin to the adjacent (1)H protons. The dependence of the echo detected EPR signal on the length of the microwave irradiation at the EPR "forbidden" transition corresponding to an electron and a proton spin flip is measured for different powers, showing dynamics on the microsecond to millisecond time scales. A theoretical model based on the spin density matrix formalism is suggested to account for this dynamics. The central transition of the Gd(3+) ion is considered as an effective S = 1/2 system and is coupled to (1)H (I = 1/2) nuclei. Simulations based on a single electron-single nucleus four level system are shown to deviate from the experimental results and an alternative approach taking into account the more realistic multinuclei picture is shown to agree qualitatively with the experiments.

  6. Polarized proton and antiproton experiments at Fermilab E-581/704

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the production at large x, and experiments with polarized beams during the next fixed-target period. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  8. W Boson Cross Sections and Single Spin Asymmetries in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at s =500 GeV at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Ross

    Understanding the structure of the proton is an ongoing effort in the particle physics community. Existing in the region of nonperturbative QCD, the various models for proton structure must be informed and constrained by experimental data. In 2009, the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Lab recorded over 12 pb-1 of data from polarized p⃗+p⃗ collisions at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy provided by the RHIC accelerator. This has offered a first look at the spin-dependent production of W +(-) bosons, and hence at the spin-flavor structure of the proton, where the main production mode is through d¯+u (u+d) annihilation. Using STAR's large Time Projection Chamber and its wide-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeters, it is possible to identify the e+ + nu (e- + nu) decay mode of the W bosons produced. This thesis presents the first STAR measurement of charge-separated W production, both the pseudorapidity-dependent ratio and the longitudinal single-spin asymmetry. These results show good agreement with theoretical expectations, validating the methods used and paving the way for the analysis of larger datasets that will be available soon. In the near future the range of this measurement will be augmented with the Forward GEM Tracker. A discussion of the design and implementation of this upgrade is also included, along with projections for its impact. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  9. The First Transverse Single Spin Measurement in High Energy Polarized Proton-Nucleus Collision at the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, I.

    2016-08-01

    Large single spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production seen using the PHENIX zero-degree calorimeters are a long established feature of transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC. Neutron production near zero degrees is well described by the one-pion exchange framework. The absorptive correction to the OPE generates the asymmetry as a consequence of a phase shift between the spin flip and non-spin flip amplitudes. However, the amplitude predicted by the OPE is too small to explain the large observed asymmetries. A model introducing interference of pion and a 1-Reggeon exchanges has been successful in reproducing the experimental data. During the RHIC experiment in year 2015, RHIC delivered polarized proton collisions with Au and Al nuclei for the first time, enabling the exploration of the mechanism of transverse single-spin asymmetries with nuclear collisions. The observed asymmetries showed surprisingly strong A-dependence in the inclusive forward neutron production, while the existing framework which was successfull in p+p only predicts moderate A- dependence. Thus the observed data are absolutely unexpected and unpredicted. In this report, experimental and theoretical efforts are discussed to disentangle the observed A-dependence using somewhat semi-inclusive type measurements and Monte-Carlo study, respectively.

  10. Spin-rotation parameter Q for elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from WO, UCa, and SYPb

    SciTech Connect

    Fergerson, R.W.

    1985-10-01

    The spin-rotation parameter Q was measured for WO, UCa, and SYPb using the 800 MeV proton beam produced at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The experiment was carried out using the High Resolution Spectrometer equipped with a focal-plane polarimeter to determine the scattered polarization components in all three directions. These data (when combined with previous cross section and analyzing power data) determine the amplitude describing the elastic scattering of protons from these spin-zero nuclei to within an overall phase. Q is shown to be more sensitive than either the cross section or analyzing power to differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic scattering theories that describe the proton-nucleus reaction in terms of fundamental proton-nucleon input. The nonrelativistic predictions for Q generally lie below the data but consistently have the correct structure. The relativistic predictions for the UCa and SYPb Q data are quite good (better than the nonrelativistic predictions). The relativistic predictions for the WO Q data show much more structure than is evident in the data. 51 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  12. Polarization Observables for K{sup +}{Lambda} and K{sup +}{Sigma}{sup 0} Photoproduction form Polarized Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Walford, Natalie K.; Klein, Franz J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The search for undiscovered excited states of the nucleon continues to be a focus of experiments at Jefferson Lab. Recent LQCD calculations have confirmed long-standing quark-model predictions of many more states than have so far been identified. A large effort for the N* program has been launched using the CLAS detector to provide the database that will allow nearly model-independent partial wave analyses to be carried out in the search for such states. Polarization observables play a crucial role in this effort, as they are essential in disentangling overlapping resonant and non-resonant amplitudes. In 2010, double-polarization data were taken at JLab using circularly polarized photons incident on a transversely polarized frozen-spin butanol target. Our current analysis yields preliminary data of the T and F asymmetries of the K{sup +}{Lambda} and K{sup +}{Sigma}{sup 0} final states, which are compared to predictions of recent multipole analyses. This work is the first of its kind and will significantly broaden the world database for these reactions.

  13. The Possible Responses Of Polar Ozone Depletion To Solar Proton Events In 2012 By FY-3 Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Zhang, X.; Cao, D.; Huang, F.; Wang, W.; Xiao, Z.; Liu, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, according to FY-3 observations (measurements of Total Ozone Unit (TOU), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Sounder (SBUS) and Space Environment Monitor (SEM)), we analyze polar ozone depletions with Solar Proton Events (SPE) which occurred in late January and early March. Ozone distributions change with increasing energetic proton flux (particle energy is over 100MeV) at altitude of 30km. Total ozone content reduces 4%-5% during February in high latitude regions of both hemispheres that the ozone depletions contain season variations and SPE effects. From ozone profile anomaly analyses, the short-term effects of SPE can be distinguished from long-term effects of ozone season variations after SPEs took place. At the upper stratosphere, the SPE-related ozone depletions are more significant in the Northern Hemisphere in January and the short-term effects are more pronounced in March in the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  15. Double Polarization Observable E in η, π0, and 2π0 Photoproduction off Protons and Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterle, Manuel; Witthauer, Lilian

    Helicity dependent cross sections σ1/2, σ3/2, and the polarization observable E for π0, π0π0, and η photoproduction from quasi-free protons and neutrons in the second and third nucleon resonance region were measured for the first time at the electron accelerator facility MAMI. Different methods for the extraction of the observables were used to determine the systematics of the measurements. The results will provide stringent constraints on the resonances that contribute to the excitation spectrum of the nucleon and will clearly help to improve its theoretical understanding.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of polar MnO ultrathin film grown on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2016-05-01

    Surface electronic structure of ultrathin polar MnO film was studied by Low-energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Photoemission Spectroscopic (PES) techniques. Epitaxial monolayer to facet formation with increasing film thickness has been observed by LEED. Our LEED result shows p(2x2) surface reconstruction along with facet formation, stabilize the polar MnO(111) surface. The core levels and the valence band electronic structure of MnO films have been studied as a function of film thickness using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques.

  17. Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.

    2012-05-20

    Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

  18. Polarization of the light from the 3P(1)-2S(1) transition in proton beam excited helium. Ph.D. Thesis; [target gas pressure effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinhous, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the polarization of the light from the 3 1p-2 1s transition in proton beam excited Helium have shown both a proton beam energy and Helium target gas pressure dependence. Results for the linear polarization fraction range from +2.6% at 100 keV proton energy to -5.5% at 450 keV. The zero crossover occurs at approximately 225 keV. This is in good agreement with other experimental work in the field, but in poor agreement with theoretical predictions. Measurements at He target gas pressures as low as .01 mtorr show that the linear polarization fraction is still pressure dependent at .01 mtorr.

  19. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-10-15

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets.

  20. Unique dielectric tunability of Ag(Nb1-xTax)O3 (x = 0-0.5) ceramics with ferrielectric polar order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Spreitzer, Matjaž; Suvorov, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric tunability and hysteresis loops of Ag(Nb1-xTax)O3 (x = 0-0.5) ceramics were characterized at room temperature with various bias electric fields to determine the polar order. When the maximum bias electric field is 75-125 kV/cm, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss first decrease and then rise with increasing the bias electric field for x = 0 (AgNbO3). The unique response was analyzed and addressed to a mixed response of ferroelectricity (FE)-like and antiferroelectricity (AFE)-like tunable properties, and is explained by the ferrielectricity (FIE) of AgNbO3. Similar dielectric tunability was also observed for x = 0.2 and 0.35, while the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase monotonously with bias electric field for x = 0.5, indicating the transition in polar order from FIE to AFE for Ag(Nb1-xTax)O3 ceramics with increasing Ta content. The results are consistent with the M1 (Pmc21)-M2 (Pbcm) phase transition at x = 0.4. In comparison, AFE-like double hysteresis loops could not be observed with the applied electric field up to 125 kV/cm, which proved that the tunability measurement is a much more sensitive tool for determining the polar order compared to hysteresis loop measurement.

  1. Induced Proton Polarization for pi0 Electroproduction at Q2 = 0.126 GeV2/c2 Around the Delta(1232) Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Warren; Ricardo Alarcon; Christopher Armstrong; Burin Asavapibhop; David Barkhuff; William Bertozzi; Volker Burkert; J. Chen; Jian-Ping Chen; Joseph Comfort; Daniel Dale; George Dodson; S. Dolfini; K. Dow; Martin Epstein; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; John Finn; Shalev Gilad; Ralf Gothe; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Kyungseon Joo; A. Karabarbounis; James Kelly; Stanley Kowalski; C. Kunz; D. Liu; R.W. Lourie; Richard Madey; Demetrius Margaziotis; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; C. Mertz; Brian Milbrath; Rory Miskimen; Joseph Mitchell; S. Mukhopadhyay; Costas Papanicolas; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Liming Qin; Paul Rutt; Adam Sarty; Jeffrey Shaw; S.B. Soong; D. Tieger; Christoph Tschalaer; William Turchinetz; Paul Ulmer; Scott Van Verst; C. Vellidis; Lawrence Weinstein; Steven Williamson; Rhett Woo; Alaen Young

    1998-12-01

    We present a measurement of the induced proton polarization P{sub n} in {pi}{sup 0} electroproduction on the proton around the {Delta} resonance. The measurement was made at a central invariant mass and a squared four-momentum transfer of W = 1231 MeV and Q{sup 2} = 0.126 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, respectively. We measured a large induced polarization, P{sub n} = -0.397 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.009. The data suggest that the scalar background is larger than expected from a recent effective Hamiltonian model.

  2. Enhanced polarization properties of ferrielectric AgNbO3 single crystals grown by Czochralski method under high-pressure oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Egawa, Takuya; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    We report crystal growth under high oxygen pressure (P O2) atmosphere that yields high-quality single crystals of AgNbO3. X-ray fluorescence analysis reveals that an increase in P O2 during crystal growth effectively suppresses the deficiency of Ag and then leads to low leakage currents. Single crystals grown via the Czochralski method at a P O2 of 0.9 MPa are demonstrated to show ferrielectric switching with enhanced polarization under electric fields along the [110] direction.

  3. Excited-state proton coupled charge transfer modulated by molecular structure and media polarization.

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Alexander P; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2013-02-01

    Charge and proton transfer reactions in the excited states of organic dyes can be coupled in many different ways. Despite the complementarity of charges, they can occur on different time scales and in different directions of the molecular framework. In certain cases, excited-state equilibrium can be established between the charge-transfer and proton-transfer species. The interplay of these reactions can be modulated and even reversed by variations in dye molecular structures and changes of the surrounding media. With knowledge of the mechanisms of these processes, desired rates and directions can be achieved, and thus the multiple emission spectral features can be harnessed. These features have found versatile applications in a number of cutting-edge technological areas, particularly in fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  4. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-05-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light.

  5. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-01-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light. PMID:27157123

  6. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Precision Measurement of Parity Violation in Polarized Cold Neutron Capture on the Proton: the NPDGamma Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Lauss; J.D. Bowman; R. Carlini; T.E. Chupp; W. Chen; S. Corvig; M. Dabaghyan; D. Desai; S.J. Freeman; T.R. Gentile; M.T. Gericke; R.C. Gillis; G.L. Greene; F.W. Hersman; T. Ino; T. Ito; G.L. Jones; M. Kandes; M. Leuschner; B. Lozowski; R. Mahurin; M. Mason; Y. Masuda; J. Mei; G.S. Mitchell; S. Muto; H. Nann; S.A. Page; S.I. Penttila; W.D. Ramsay; S. Santra; P.-N. Seo; E.I. Sharapov; T.B. Smith; W.M. Snow; W.S. Wilburn; V. Yuan; H. Zhu

    2005-10-24

    The NPD{gamma} experiment at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is dedicated to measure with high precision the parity violating asymmetry in the {gamma} emission after capture of spin polarized cold neutrons in para-hydrogen. The measurement will determine unambiguously the weak pion-nucleon-nucleon ({pi} NN) coupling constant (line integral){sub {pi}}{sup l}.

  8. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness.

    PubMed Central

    Paula, S; Volkov, A G; Van Hoek, A N; Haines, T H; Deamer, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths. PMID:8770210

  9. Permeation of protons, potassium ions, and small polar molecules through phospholipid bilayers as a function of membrane thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Van Hoek, A. N.; Haines, T. H.; Deamer, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for solute permeation of lipid bilayers. Partitioning into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, followed by diffusion, is accepted by many for the permeation of water and other small neutral solutes, but transient pores have also been proposed to account for both water and ionic solute permeation. These two mechanisms make distinctively different predictions about the permeability coefficient as a function of bilayer thickness. Whereas the solubility-diffusion mechanism predicts only a modest variation related to bilayer thickness, the pore model predicts an exponential relationship. To test these models, we measured the permeability of phospholipid bilayers to protons, potassium ions, water, urea, and glycerol. Bilayers were prepared as liposomes, and thickness was varied systematically by using unsaturated lipids with chain lengths ranging from 14 to 24 carbon atoms. The permeability coefficient of water and neutral polar solutes displayed a modest dependence on bilayer thickness, with an approximately linear fivefold decrease as the carbon number varied from 14 to 24 atoms. In contrast, the permeability to protons and potassium ions decreased sharply by two orders of magnitude between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, and leveled off, when the chain length was further extended to 24 carbon atoms. The results for water and the neutral permeating solutes are best explained by the solubility-diffusion mechanism. The results for protons and potassium ions in shorter-chain lipids are consistent with the transient pore model, but better fit the theoretical line predicted by the solubility-diffusion model at longer chain lengths.

  10. Comparison of kinetic and hydrodynamic descriptions of the proton polar wind in the transition to collisionless flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Øystein; Olsen, Espen Lyngdal

    1998-03-01

    We have compared kinetic and fluid model descriptions of the proton polar wind outflow, from the collision-dominated, subsonic regime at lower altitudes, through the transition to supersonic flow, and well into the supersonic flow regime. The kinetic model is based on the Fokker-Planck collision operator, and the two fluid models employed are based on the 8-moment expansion and the 16-moment bi-Maxwellian expansions, respectively. We find excellent agreement between the kinetic description and the fluid models for the proton density and flux, even in the transonic and supersonic flow regimes. The models are also in qualitative agreement for the temperature and heat flux moments, although neither fluid model reproduces the negative (downward) kinetic heat fluxes found at high altitudes. The 16-moment fluid model gives a temperature anisotropy similar to the anisotropy derived from the kinetic solution. The assumed forms for the velocity distribution, on which the fluid expansions are based, do not agree with the kinetic velocity distribution, except in the subsonic region where the departure from a Maxwellian distribution is small. Near the fluid critical point the kinetic model develops a double-hump distribution, with an isotropic, low-energy core and an anisotropic, high-energy tail, and at higher altitudes the distribution function develops a ``kidney bean'' shape.

  11. Measurement of the parity-violating longitudinal single-spin asymmetry for W± boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 500 GeV.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anderson, B D; Anson, C D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Dash, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Jin, F; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kizka, V; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Lukashov, E V; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nayak, T K; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Ruan, L; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Leeuwen, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xie, W; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2011-02-11

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating single-spin asymmetries for midrapidity decay positrons and electrons from W+ and W- boson production in longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 500 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured asymmetries, A(L)(W+) = -0.27 ± 0.10(stat.) ± 0.02(syst.) ± 0.03(norm.) and A(L)(W-) = 0.14 ± 0.19(stat.) ± 0.02(syst.) ± 0.01(norm.), are consistent with theory predictions, which are large and of opposite sign. These predictions are based on polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions constrained by polarized deep-inelastic scattering measurements. PMID:21405460

  12. Induced polarization imaging applied to exploration for low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Seongsan mineralized district, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Man-Ho; Shin, Seung Wook; Park, Samgyu; Cho, Seong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The determination of mineralization boundaries during mineral exploration for undiscovered low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits is a significant challenge because of the extensive survey areas required. Induced polarization (IP) imaging is an effective geophysical technique for the detection of sulfides or clay. Thus, this method is considered useful to determine the boundaries of subsurface mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal deposits. We used 2D and 3D IP imaging to define the silicification and mineralization boundaries of the Moisan deposit in the Seongsan mineralized district, which is geologically well-known. The boundaries of the silicification zone were defined by high resistivity values of 600 Ω-m, and those of the mineralization zone were defined by high global chargeability values of 3 mV V-1. The continuity of the high resistivity anomaly corresponded well to the silicification (quartz veins) exposed in outcrop. In addition, it is geologically reasonable that the chargeability anomaly, ⩾3 mV V-1, associated with the mineralization/hydrothermal alteration zone was concentrated at near-surface depths, and extensively surrounding the resistivity anomaly, ⩾600 Ω-m, associated with the silicification zone.

  13. The RHIC p-Carbon CNI Polarimeter Upgrade For The Beam Polarization And Intensity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Bazilevski, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nemesure, S.; Russo, T.; Steski, D.; Sivertz, M.

    2009-08-04

    Proton polarization measurements in the AGS and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the beam energies 24-250 GeV) are based on proton-carbon and proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region. Polarimeter operation in the scanning mode also gives polarization profile and beam intensity profile (beam emittance) measurements. Bunch by bunch emittance measurement is a very powerful tool for machine setup. Presently, the polarization and beam intensity profile measurements (in both vertical and horizontal planes) are restricted by the long target switching time and possible target destruction during this complicated motion. The RHIC polarimeters were operated near the limit of the counting rate for present silicon strip detectors. The ongoing polarimeter upgrade for the 2009 run will address all these problems. The upgrade should allow significant reduction of the polarization measurement errors by making feasible the complete polarization measurements, which includes polarization profiles in both the horizontal and vertical planes.

  14. Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry and cross section for inclusive jet production in polarized proton collisions at square root of s = 200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S-L; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; de Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Dephillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Mazumdar, M R Dutta; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Gutierrez, T D; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; LaPointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lehocka, S; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reinnarth, J; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimanskiy, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Sumbera, M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Buren, G Van; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Molen, A M Vander; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yurevich, V I; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2006-12-22

    We report a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A(LL) and the differential cross section for inclusive midrapidity jet production in polarized proton collisions at square root of s = 200 GeV. The cross section data cover transverse momenta 5 < pT < 50 GeV/c and agree with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD evaluations. The A(LL) data cover 5 < pT < 17 GeV/c and disfavor at 98% C.L. maximal positive gluon polarization in the polarized nucleon. PMID:17280342

  15. Hamiltonian methods for the study of polarized proton beam dynamics in accelerators and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Balandin, Vladimir; Golubeva, Nina

    1997-02-01

    The equations of classical spin-orbit motion can be extended to a Hamiltonian system in 9-dimensional phase space by introducing a coupled spin-orbit Poisson bracket and Hamiltonian function. After this extension it becomes possible to apply the methods of the theory of Hamiltonian systems to the study of polarized particles beam dynamics in circular accelerators and storage rings. Some of those methods have been implemented in the computer code FORGET-ME-NOT.

  16. Opportunities for Polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenauer E.; Deshpande, A.; Fischer, W.; Derbenev, S.; Milner, R.; Roser, T.; Zelenski, A.

    2011-10-01

    The workshop on opportunities for polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC was targeted at finding practical ways of implementing and using polarized He-3 beams. Polarized He-3 beams will provide the unique opportunity for first measurements, i.e, to a full quark flavor separation measuring single spin asymmetries for p{sup +}, p{sup -} and p{sup 0} in hadron-hadron collisions. In electron ion collisions the combination of data recorded with polarized electron proton/He-3 beams allows to determine the quark flavor separated helicity and transverse momentum distributions. The workshop had sessions on polarized He-3 sources, the physics of colliding polarized He-3 beams, polarimetry, and beam acceleration in the AGS Booster, AGS, RHIC, and ELIC. The material presented at the workshop will allow making plans for the implementation of polarized He-3 beams in RHIC.

  17. Improvement the equation of polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at different channel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, I.

    2015-12-01

    The polarization curve of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is an important parameter which is expressed by the change of voltage and current of it that indicates the performance of the cell. The voltage of the cell is a function of temperature that is expressed by the Nernst equation and the equation of voltage losses such as activation loss, ohmic loss and concentration loss. In this study a new correlation for polarization curve is obtained that it in addition to temperature, a new parameter is involved in it that shows the effect of the geometry of cross-section area of channels. For this purpose three PEM fuel cells with different channels geometry of rectangular, elliptical and triangular have constructed. The active area of each cell is 25 cm2 that its weight is 1300 g. The material of the gas diffusion layer is carbon clothes, the membrane is nafion 117 and the catalyst layer is a plane with 0.004 g/cm2 platinum. Also a test bench designed and constructed for testing the cell and a series of experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the geometry of the cell on performance of the cell. The results show that when the geometry of channel is rectangular the performance of the cell is better than the triangular and elliptical channel.

  18. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  19. Hamiltonian methods for the study of polarized proton beam dynamics in accelerators and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Balandin, V. |; Golubeva, N.

    1997-02-01

    The equations of classical spin-orbit motion can be extended to a {bold Hamiltonian system} in 9-dimensional phase space by introducing a coupled spin-orbit {bold Poisson bracket} (3) and {bold Hamiltonian function} (5). After this extension it becomes possible to apply the {bold methods of the theory of Hamiltonian systems} to the study of polarized particles beam dynamics in circular accelerators and storage rings. Some of those methods have been implemented in the computer code {bold FORGET-ME-NOT} [1], [2]. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes studied using 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark F; Gennett, Thomas; Dillon, Anne C; Jones, Kim M; Heben, Michael J

    2005-12-14

    The reversible protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in sulfuric acid and Nafion was investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies. Magic-angle spinning (MAS) was used to obtain high-resolution 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra. The 13C NMR chemical shifts are reported for bulk SWNTs, H2SO4-treated SWNTs, SWNT-Nafion polymer composites, SWNT-AQ55 polymer composites, and SWNTs in contact with water. Protonation occurs without irreversible oxidation of the nanotube substrate via a charge-transfer process. This is the first report of a chemically induced change in a SWNT 13C resonance brought about by a reversible interaction with an acidic proton, providing additional evidence that carbon nanotubes behave as weak bases. Cross polarization was found to be a powerful technique for providing an additional contrast mechanism for studying nanotubes in contact with other chemical species. The CP studies confirmed polarization transfer from nearby protons to nanotube carbon atoms. The CP technique was also applied to investigate water adsorbed on carbon nanotube surfaces. Finally, the degree of bundling of the SWNTs in Nafion films was probed with the 1H-13C CP-MAS technique. PMID:16332107

  1. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with a Polarized Proton Target

    SciTech Connect

    S. Chen; H. Avakian; V. Burkert; P. Eugenio

    2006-05-05

    The longitudinal target-spin asymmetry A{sub UL} for the exclusive electroproduction of high energy photons was measured for the first time in p(e,e'p/gamma). The data have been accumulated at Jefferson Lab with the CLAS spectrometer using 5.7 GeV electrons and a longitudinally polarized NH{sub 3} target. A significant azimuthal angular dependence was observed, resulting from the interference of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The amplitude of the sin(phi) moment is 0.252 +/- 0.042(stat) +/- 0.020(sys). Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the magnitude and the kinematic dependence of the target-spin asymmetry, which is sensitive to the generalized parton distributions H and H-tilde.

  2. Analysis of AGS E880 polarimeter data at Ggamma = 12.5

    SciTech Connect

    Cadman, R. V.; Huang, H.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    2012-01-27

    Data were collected with the AGS internal (E880) polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5 during the FY04 polarized proton run. Measurements were made with forward scintillation counters in coincidence with recoil counter telescopes, permitting an absolute calibration of the polarimeter for both nylon and carbon targets. The results are summarized and they will also be useful for an absolute calibration of the AGS CNI polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5.

  3. Analysis of AGS E880 polarimeter data at Gy = 12.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Cadman, R.; Huang, H.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    2012-02-23

    Data were collected with the AGS internal (E880) polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5 during the FY04 polarized proton run. Measurements were made with forward scintillation counters in coincidence with recoil counter telescopes, permitting an absolute calibration of the polarimeter for both nylon and carbon targets. The results are summarized and they will also be useful for an absolute calibration of the AGS CNI polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5.

  4. Ground- and excited-state proton transfers in reversed micelles. Polarity restrictions and isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Politi, M.J.; Brandt, O.; Fendler, J.H.

    1985-05-23

    Ground- and excited-state proton transfers have been investigated with 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate, POH, in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, AOT, reversed micelle solubilized water pools in isooctane. Since POH is a much stronger acid in the singlet excited state, (POH)*, than in the ground state (pK/sub a/ = 7.2, pK/sub a/* = 0.5), excitation of POH by 1-5-mJ, 8-ns, 353-nm laser pulses, at pH values such that pK/sub a/* < pH < pK/sub a/, results in the dissociation of POH, governed by k/sub off/*. PO/sup -/ reprotonation rate, K/sub on/ values, have been determined by laser flash photolysis. In reversed micelles k/sub on/ values were found to depend on the water-to-AOT ratio(w values). Deuterium solvent isotope effects of 1.3 and 2.2 have been determined for k/sub on//k/sub on/(D/sub 2/O) in w = 33 and 12 AOT solubilized reversed micelles in isooctane. Combining these values with pK/sub a/ of POH led to isotope effects of 7.8 and 8.4 on k/sub off/ in the corresponding solutions. Steady-state and subnanosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been utilized for assessing POH excited-state deprotonation, governed by k/sub off/*(D/sub 2/O), and reprotonation, governed by k/sub on/*(D/sub 2/O), in pure D/sub 2/O and in AOT entrapped water and AOT-d entrapped D/sub 2/O pools in isooctane. 51 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Polarized-target asymmetry in pion-proton bremsstrahlung at 298 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, A.; Amsler, C.; Bistirlich, J.A.; van den Brandt, B.; Crowe, K.M.; Doebeli, M.; Doser, M.; Haddock, R.P.; Konter, J.A.; Ljungfelt, S.; Loude, J.F.; Mango, S.; Meyer, C.A.; Perroud, J.P.; Riedlberger, J.; Renker, D.; Schaad, M.; Sober, D.I.; Truoel, P.; Weymuth, P. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 10024 )

    1990-05-28

    First data are presented for the polarized-target asymmetry in the reaction {pi}{sup +}{ital p}{r arrow}{pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma} at an incident pion energy of 298 MeV. The geometry was chosen to maximize the sensitivity to the radiation of the magnetic dipole moment {mu}{sub {Delta}} of the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232 MeV). A fit of the asymmetry in the cross section {ital d}{sup 5}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega}{sub {pi}} {ital d}{Omega}{sub {gamma}} {ital dk} as a function of the photon energy {ital k} to predictions from a recent isobar-model calculation with {mu}{sub {Delta}} as the only free parameter yields {mu}{sub {Delta}}=1.64({plus minus}0.19exp{Delta},{plus minus}0.14 theor){mu}{sub {ital p}}. Though this value agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction {mu}{sub {Delta}}=2{mu}{sub {ital p}}, further clarifications on the model dependence of the result are needed, in particular since the isobar model fails to describe both the cross section and the asymmetry at the highest photon energies.

  6. Progress and status of the AGS Booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T. )

    1989-01-01

    New physics opportunities, such as: rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demand that a rapid-cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The circumference of the Booster ring is one-quarter that of the AGS. Three modes of operation for various particles are envisioned. For unpolarized protons, four Booster pulses would be injected at a 7.5 Hz repetition rate within a 400 ms flat bottom of the AGS, enabling the present 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp to be increased to 6 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. The protons would be accelerated to 1.5 GeV although the bending capability provided for heavy ions would eventually allow protons to be accelerated to 2.5 GeV. For heavy ions the rep rates is about 1 Hz and only one pulse would be injected into the AGS. For polarized protons 20 or so pulses can be stored in the Booster ring before injecting them into the AGS. Provisions for mixed modes of operation into a super cycle has been provided for future needs. In this paper, the lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed and major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Polarization of Lambda0 and anti-Lambda0 inclusively produced by 610-GeV/c Sigma- and 525-GeV/c proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Lopez, J.L.; Nelson, K.D.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, A.S.; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; /Ball State U. /Bogazici U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Moscow, ITEP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /St. Petersburg, INP

    2007-06-01

    We have measured the polarization of {Lambda}{sup 0} and {bar {Lambda}{sup 0}} inclusively produced by 610 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} and 525 GeV/c proton beams in the experiment SELEX during the 1996/7 fixed target run at Fermilab. The polarization was measured as a function of the {Lambda} longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} and transverse momentum p{sub t}. For the {Lambda}{sup 0} produced by {Sigma}{sup -} the polarization is increasing with x{sub F} , from slightly negative at x{sub F} {approx} 0 to about 15% at large x{sub F} ; it shows a non-monotonic behavior as a function of p{sub t}. For the proton beam, the {Lambda}{sup 0} polarization is negative and decreasing as a function of x{sub F} and p{sub t}. The {bar {Lambda}{sup 0}} polarization is compatible with 0 for both beam particles over the full kinematic range. The target dependence was examined but no statistically significant difference was found.

  8. Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry and cross section for inclusivejet production in polarized proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2006-08-10

    We report a measurement of the longitudinal double-spinasymmetry A_LL and the differential cross section for inclusivemidrapidity jet production in polarized proton collisions at sqrt(s)=200GeV. The cross section data cover transverse momenta 5polarization in the polarizednucleon.

  9. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Riu, I; Rivoltella, G; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodrigues, L; Roe, A; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Romeo, G; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, A; Rose, M; Rosendahl, P L; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Ruckstuhl, N; Rud, V I; Rudolph, C; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rumyantsev, L; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ruzicka, P; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryder, N C; Saavedra, A F; Saddique, A; Sadeh, I; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salek, D; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; 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Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; 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Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-12-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7  fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s=7  TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of α(ℓ)P, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, α(ℓ)P(CPC)=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and α(ℓ)P(CPV)=0.020±0.016(stat)(-0.017)(+0.013)(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  10. Analysis of AGS polarimeter data at G{gamma}=7.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Cadman, R. V.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.

    2003-02-18

    Data were collected with the AGS internal polarimeter at G{gamma} = 7.5 during the recent FY02 polarized proton run. The addition of new forward scintillation counters permitted an absolute calibration of the polarimeter for both nylon and carbon targets. The results are summarized, and the polarization measured at G{gamma} = 7.5 is compared to that at 200 MeV.

  11. Ion dynamics during the parametric instabilities of a left-hand polarized Alfvén wave in a proton-electron-alpha plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Hao, Yufei; Tao, Xin; Wang, Shui; Li, Xing

    2014-01-01

    The parametric instabilities of an Alfvén wave in a proton-electron plasma system are found to have great influence on proton dynamics, where part of the protons can be accelerated through the Landau resonance with the excited ion acoustic waves, and a beam component along the background magnetic field is formed. In this paper, with a one-dimensional hybrid simulation model, we investigate the evolution of the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic left-hand polarized Alfvén wave in a proton-electron-alpha plasma with a low beta. When the drift velocity between the protons and alpha particles is sufficiently large, the wave numbers of the backward daughter Alfvén waves can be cascaded toward higher values due to the modulational instability during the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instabilities, and the alpha particles are resonantly heated in both the parallel and perpendicular direction by the backward waves. On the other hand, when the drift velocity of alpha particles is small, the alpha particles are heated in the linear growth stage of the parametric instabilities due to the Landau resonance with the excited ion acoustic waves. Therefore, the heating occurs only in the parallel direction, and there is no obvious heating in the perpendicular direction. The relevance of our results to the preferential heating of heavy ions observed in the solar wind within 0.3 AU is also discussed in this paper.

  12. Influence of a polar near-neighbor on incipient proton transfer in a strongly hydrogen bonded complex.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sherri W; Higgins, Kelly J; Craddock, Matthew B; Brauer, Carolyn S; Leopold, Kenneth R

    2003-11-12

    Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations have been used to characterize the complexes H(3)N-HF and H(3)N-HF-HF in the gas phase. H(3)N-HF is a C(3v) symmetric, hydrogen bonded system with an NF distance of 2.640(21) A and an N...H hydrogen bond length of 1.693(42) A. The H(3)N-HF-HF complex, on the other hand, forms a six-membered HN-HF-HF ring, in which both the linear hydrogen bond in the H(3)N-HF moiety and the F-H-F angle of (HF)(2) are perturbed relative to those in the corresponding dimers. The N...F and F...F distances in the trimer are 2.4509(74) A and 2.651(11) A, respectively. The N...H hydrogen bond length in H(3)N-HF-HF is 1.488(12) A, a value which is 0.205(54) A shorter than that in H(3)N-HF. Similarly, the F...F distance, 2.651(11) A, is 0.13(2) A shorter than that in (HF)(2). Counterpoise-corrected geometry optimizations are presented, which are in good agreement with the experimental structures for both the dimer and trimer, and further characterize small, but significant, changes in the NH(3) and HF subunits upon complexation. Analysis of internal rotation in the spectrum of H(3)N-HF-HF gives the potential barrier for internal rotation of the NH(3) unit, V(3), to be 118(2) cm(-1). Ab initio calculations reproduce this number to within 10% if the monomer units and the molecular frame are allowed to fully relax as the internal rotation takes place. The binding energies of H(3)N-HF and H(3)N-HF-HF, calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error are 12.3 and 22.0 kcal/mol, respectively. Additional energy calculations have been performed to explore the lowest frequency vibration of H(3)N-HF-HF, a ring-opening motion that increases the NFF angle. The addition of one HF molecule to H(3)N-HF represents the first step of microsolvation of a hydrogen bonded complex and the results of this study demonstrate that a single, polar near-neighbor has a significant influence on the extent of proton transfer across

  13. EISCAT and ESRAD radars observations of polar mesosphere winter echoes during solar proton events on 11-12 November 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, E.; Kirkwood, S.; Sergienko, T.

    2013-07-01

    Polar mesosphere winter echoes (PMWE) were detected by two radars, ESRAD at 52 MHz located near Kiruna, Sweden, and EISCAT at 224 MHz located near Tromsø, Norway, during the strong solar proton event on 11-12 November 2004. PMWE maximum volume reflectivity was estimated to be 3 × 10-15 m-1 for ESRAD and 2 × 10-18 m-1 for EISCAT. It was found that the shape of the echo power spectrum is close to Gaussian inside the PMWE layers, and outside of them it is close to Lorentzian, as for the standard ion line of incoherent scatter (IS). The EISCAT PMWE spectral width is about 5-7 m s-1 at 64-67 km and 7-10 m s-1 at 68-70 km. At the lower altitudes the PMWE spectral widths are close to those for the IS ion line derived from the EISCAT data outside the layers. At the higher altitudes the PMWE spectra are broader by 2-4 m s-1 than those for the ion line. The ESRAD PMWE spectral widths at 67-72 km altitude are 3-5 m s-1, that is, 2-4 m s-1 larger than ion line spectral widths modelled for the ESRAD radar. The PMWE spectral widths for both EISCAT and ESRAD showed no dependence on the echo strength. It was found that all these facts cannot be explained by turbulent origin of the echoes. We suggested that evanescent perturbations in the electron gas generated by the incident infrasound waves may explain the observed PMWE spectral widths. However, a complete theory of radar scatter from this kind of disturbance needs to be developed before a full conclusion can be made.

  14. Measurement of Parity-Violating y-ray Asymmetry in the Capture of Polarized Cold Neutrons on Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Gericke, M. T.; Bowman, James D; Greene, Geoffrey L; Penttila, Seppo; NPD, Gamma

    2011-01-01

    The NPDGamma collaboration reports results from the first phase of a measurement of the parity violating up-down asymmetry A{sub {gamma}} with respect to the neutron spin direction of {gamma} rays emitted in the reaction n + p {yields} d + {gamma} using the capture of polarized cold neutrons on the protons in a liquid parahydrogen target. One expects parity-odd effects in the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons to be induced by the weak interaction between quarks. A{sub {gamma}} in n + p {yields} d + {gamma} is dominated by a {Delta}I = 1, {sup 3}S{sub 1-}{sup 3}P{sub 1} parity-odd transition amplitude in the n-p system. The first phase of the measurement was completed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center spallation source (LANSCE), with the result A{sub {gamma}} = [-1.2 {+-} 2.1 (stat.) {+-} 0.2 (sys.)] x 10{sup -7}. We also report the first measurement of an upper limit for the parity-allowed left-right asymmetry in this reaction, with the result A{sub {gamma}LR} = [-1.8 {+-} 1.9 (stat.) {+-} 0.2 (sys.)] x 10{sup -7}. In this paper we give a detailed report on the theoretical background, experimental setup, measurements, extraction of parity-odd and parity-allowed asymmetries, analysis of potential systematic effects, and LANSCE results. The asymmetry has an estimated size of 5 x 10{sup -8} and the aim of the NPDGamma collaboration is to measure it to 1 x 10{sup -8}. The second phase of the measurement will be performed at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-13C2]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5–3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water 1H signal. © 2014 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. PMID:24523064

  16. Measurement of the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at √{s }=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javå¯Rek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. 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A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The transverse polarization of Λ and Λ ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is measured. The analysis uses 760 μ b-1 of minimum bias data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2010. The measured transverse polarization averaged over Feynman xF from 5 ×1 0-5 to 0.01 and transverse momentum pT from 0.8 to 15 GeV is -0.010 ±0.005 (stat)±0.004 (syst) for Λ and 0.002 ±0.006 (stat)±0.004 (syst) for Λ ¯. It is also measured as a function of xF and pT, but no significant dependence on these variables is observed. Prior to this measurement, the polarization was measured at fixed-target experiments with center-of-mass energies up to about 40 GeV. The ATLAS results are compatible with the extrapolation of a fit from previous measurements to the xF range covered by this measurement.

  17. Measurement of the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2015-02-10

    We measure the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of mass energy of 7 TeV is measured. The analysis uses 760 μb₋1 of minimum bias data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2010. The measured transverse polarization averaged over Feynman xF from 5 × 10₋5 to 0.01 and transverse momentum pT from 0.8 to 15 GeV is ₋0.010 ± 0.005(stat) ± 0.004(syst) for Λ and 0.002 ± 0.006(stat) ± 0.004(syst) for Λ¯ . It is also measured as a function of xF and pT, but we observed nomore » significant dependence on these variables. Prior to this measurement, the polarization was measured at fixed-target experiments with center-of-mass energies up to about 40 GeV. The ATLAS results are compatible with the extrapolation of a fit from previous measurements to the xF range covered by this measurement.« less

  18. Uncertainty minimization in NMR measurements of dynamic nuclear polarization of a proton target for nuclear physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Dustin M.

    2013-11-01

    A comprehensive investigation into the measurement uncertainty in polarization produced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization is outlined. The polarization data taken during Jefferson Lab experiment E08-007 is used to obtain error estimates and to develop an algorithm to minimize uncertainty of the measurement of polarization in irradiated View the ^14NH_3 targets, which is readily applied to other materials. The target polarization and corresponding uncertainties for E08-007 are reported. The resulting relative uncertainty found in the target polarization is determined to be less than or equal to 3.9%.

  19. Residues in the Polar Loop of Subunit c in Escherichia coli ATP Synthase Function in Gating Proton Transport to the Cytoplasm*

    PubMed Central

    Steed, P. Ryan; Fillingame, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Rotary catalysis in F1F0 ATP synthase is powered by proton translocation through the membrane-embedded F0 sector. Proton binding and release occur in the middle of the membrane at Asp-61 on the second transmembrane helix (TMH) of subunit c, which folds in a hairpin-like structure with two TMHs. Previously, the aqueous accessibility of Cys substitutions in the transmembrane regions of subunit c was probed by testing the inhibitory effects of Ag+ or Cd2+ on function, which revealed extensive aqueous access in the region around Asp-61 and on the half of TMH2 extending to the cytoplasm. In the current study, we surveyed the Ag+ and Cd2+ sensitivity of Cys substitutions in the loop of the helical hairpin and used a variety of assays to categorize the mechanisms by which Ag+ or Cd2+ chelation with the Cys thiolates caused inhibition. We identified two distinct metal-sensitive regions in the cytoplasmic loop where function was inhibited by different mechanisms. Metal binding to Cys substitutions in the N-terminal half of the loop resulted in an uncoupling of F1 from F0 with release of F1 from the membrane. In contrast, substitutions in the C-terminal half of the loop retained membrane-bound F1 after metal treatment. In several of these cases, inhibition was shown to be due to blockage of passive H+ translocation through F0 as assayed with F0 reconstituted into liposomes. The results suggest that the C-terminal domain of the cytoplasmic loop may function in gating H+ translocation to the cytoplasm. PMID:24297166

  20. Exclusion of a Proton ATPase from the Apical Membrane Is Associated with Cell Polarity and Tip Growth in Nicotiana tabacum Pollen Tubes[W

    PubMed Central

    Certal, Ana C.; Almeida, Ricardo B.; Carvalho, Lara M.; Wong, Eric; Moreno, Nuno; Michard, Erwan; Carneiro, Jorge; Rodriguéz-Léon, Joaquín; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.; Feijó, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized growth in pollen tubes results from exocytosis at the tip and is associated with conspicuous polarization of Ca2+, H+, K+, and Cl− -fluxes. Here, we show that cell polarity in Nicotiana tabacum pollen is associated with the exclusion of a novel pollen-specific H+-ATPase, Nt AHA, from the growing apex. Nt AHA colocalizes with extracellular H+ effluxes, which revert to influxes where Nt AHA is absent. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that Nt AHA moves toward the apex of growing pollen tubes, suggesting that the major mechanism of insertion is not through apical exocytosis. Nt AHA mRNA is also excluded from the tip, suggesting a mechanism of polarization acting at the level of translation. Localized applications of the cation ionophore gramicidin A had no effect where Nt AHA was present but acidified the cytosol and induced reorientation of the pollen tube where Nt AHA was absent. Transgenic pollen overexpressing Nt AHA-GFP developed abnormal callose plugs accompanied by abnormal H+ flux profiles. Furthermore, there is no net flux of H+ in defined patches of membrane where callose plugs are to be formed. Taken together, our results suggest that proton dynamics may underlie basic mechanisms of polarity and spatial regulation in growing pollen tubes. PMID:18364468

  1. Polarization of Λ and Λ¯ in 920 GeV fixed-target proton nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hera-B Collaboration; Abt, I.; Adams, M.; Agari, M.; Albrecht, H.; Aleksandrov, A.; Amaral, V.; Amorim, A.; Aplin, S. J.; Aushev, V.; Bagaturia, Y.; Balagura, V.; Bargiotti, M.; Barsukova, O.; Bastos, J.; Batista, J.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Belkov, A.; Belkov, Ar.; Belotelov, I.; Bertin, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Böcker, M.; Bogatyrev, A.; Bohm, G.; Bräuer, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Bruschi, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buran, T.; Carvalho, J.; Conde, P.; Cruse, C.; Dam, M.; Danielsen, K. M.; Danilov, M.; de Castro, S.; Deppe, H.; Dong, X.; Dreis, H. B.; Egorytchev, V.; Ehret, K.; Eisele, F.; Emeliyanov, D.; Erhan, S.; Essenov, S.; Fabbri, L.; Faccioli, P.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Flammer, J.; Fominykh, B.; Funcke, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Gellrich, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Gläß, J.; Goloubkov, D.; Golubkov, Y.; Golutvin, A.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbounov, I.; Gorišek, A.; Gouchtchine, O.; Goulart, D. C.; Gradl, S.; Gradl, W.; Grimaldi, F.; Guilitsky, Yu.; Hansen, J. D.; Hernández, J. M.; Hofmann, W.; Hohlmann, M.; Hott, T.; Hulsbergen, W.; Husemann, U.; Igonkina, O.; Ispiryan, M.; Jagla, T.; Jiang, C.; Kapitza, H.; Karabekyan, S.; Karpenko, N.; Keller, S.; Kessler, J.; Khasanov, F.; Kiryushin, Yu.; Kisel, I.; Klinkby, E.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kolanoski, H.; Korpar, S.; Krauss, C.; Kreuzer, P.; Križan, P.; Krücker, D.; Kupper, S.; Kvaratskheliia, T.; Lanyov, A.; Lau, K.; Lewendel, B.; Lohse, T.; Lomonosov, B.; Männer, R.; Mankel, R.; Masciocchi, S.; Massa, I.; Matchikhilian, I.; Medin, G.; Medinnis, M.; Mevius, M.; Michetti, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.; Mizuk, R.; Muresan, R.; Zur Nedden, M.; Negodaev, M.; Nörenberg, M.; Nowak, S.; Núñez Pardo de Vera, M. T.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Padilla, C.; Peralta, D.; Pernack, R.; Pestotnik, R.; Petersen, B. Aa.; Piccinini, M.; Pleier, M. A.; Poli, M.; Popov, V.; Pose, D.; Prystupa, S.; Pugatch, V.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Pyrlik, J.; Reeves, K.; Reßing, D.; Rick, H.; Riu, I.; Robmann, P.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rybnikov, V.; Sánchez, F.; Sbrizzi, A.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schreiner, A.; Schröder, H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwartz, A. J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Schwenninger, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Shuvalov, S.; Silva, L.; Sözüer, L.; Solunin, S.; Somov, A.; Somov, S.; Spengler, J.; Spighi, R.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanovnik, A.; Starič, M.; Stegmann, C.; Subramania, H. S.; Symalla, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Tsakov, I.; Uwer, U.; van Eldik, C.; Vassiliev, Yu.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Vukotic, I.; Wahlberg, H.; Walenta, A. H.; Walter, M.; Wang, J. J.; Wegener, D.; Werthenbach, U.; Wolters, H.; Wurth, R.; Wurz, A.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zeuner, T.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Z.; Zimmermann, R.; Živko, T.; Zoccoli, A.

    2006-07-01

    A measurement of the polarization of Λ and Λ¯ baryons produced in pC and pW collisions at s=41.6 GeV has been performed with the HERA-B spectrometer. The measurements cover the kinematic range of 0.6 GeV/cpolarization results from the two different targets agree within the statistical error. In the combined data set, the largest deviation from zero, +0.054±0.029, is measured for x≲-0.07. Zero polarization is expected at x=0 in the absence of nuclear effects. The polarization results for the Λ agree with a parametrization of previous measurements which were performed at positive x values, where the Λ polarization is negative. Results of Λ¯ polarization measurements are consistent with zero.

  2. Implications of Saito's coronal density model on the polar solar wind flow and heavy ion abundances. [mathematical models of proton flux density and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of polar solar wind proton flux upper limits derived using a coronal density model, with Lyman alpha measurements of the length of the neutral H tail of comet Bennet at high latitudes, shows that either extended heating beyond 2 solar radii is necessary some of the time or that the model's polar densities are too low. Whichever possibility is the case, the fact that the solar wind particle flux does not appear to decrease with increasing latitude indicates that the heavy element content of the high latitude wind may be similar to that observed in the ecliptic. It was then shown that solar wind heavy ion observations at high latitudes allow a determination of the electron temperature at heights which bracket the nominal location of the coronal temperature maximum thus providing information concerning the magnitude and extent of mechanical dissipation in the intermediate corona.

  3. Neutral pion cross section and spin asymmetries at intermediate pseudorapidity in polarized proton collisions at √s =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barber, B.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Dion, A.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; He, W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jena, C.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Nord, P. M.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Pochron, W.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Powell, C. B.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schaub, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The differential cross section and spin asymmetries for neutral pions produced within the intermediate pseudorapidity range 0.8<η<2.0 in polarized proton-proton collisions at √s =200 GeV are presented. Neutral pions were detected using the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter in the STAR detector at RHIC. The cross section was measured over a transverse momentum range of 5polarization. The parity-violating asymmetry AL is also measured and found to be consistent with zero. The transverse single-spin asymmetry AN is measured over a previously unexplored kinematic range in Feynman-x and pT. Such measurements may aid our understanding of the onset and kinematic dependence of the large asymmetries observed at more forward pseudorapidity (η ≈3) and their underlying mechanisms. The AN results presented are consistent with a twist-3 model prediction of a small asymmetry over the present kinematic range.

  4. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2} = 3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    V. Punjabi; C.F. Perdrisat; et al

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub E{sub p}}/G{sub M{sub p}} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been re-analyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

  5. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q{sup 2}=3.5 GeV{sup 2} by polarization transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Gerstner, G.; Pentchev, L.; Rutledge, G.; Strauch, S.; Wijesooriya, K.; Aniol, K.A.; Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Baker, F.T.; Templon, J.A.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Besson, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Jaminion, S.; Laveissiere, G.

    2005-05-01

    The ratio of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub l}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic e{sup {yields}}p{yields}ep{sup {yields}}reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single-photon exchange approximation, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to P{sub t}/P{sub l}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub l} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and their systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than those reported previously.

  6. Polarization of Λ and Λbar in 920 GeV fixed-target proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Adams, M.; Agari, M.; Albrecht, H.; Aleksandrov, A.; Amaral, V.; Amorim, A.; Aplin, S. J.; Aushev, V.; Bagaturia, Y.; Balagura, V.; Bargiotti, M.; Barsukova, O.; Bastos, J.; Batista, J.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Belkov, A.; Belkov, Ar.; Belotelov, I.; Bertin, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Böcker, M.; Bogatyrev, A.; Bohm, G.; Bräuer, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Bruschi, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buran, T.; Carvalho, J.; Conde, P.; Cruse, C.; Dam, M.; Danielsen, K. M.; Danilov, M.; De Castro, S.; Deppe, H.; Dong, X.; Dreis, H. B.; Egorytchev, V.; Ehret, K.; Eisele, F.; Emeliyanov, D.; Erhan, S.; Essenov, S.; Fabbri, L.; Faccioli, P.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Flammer, J.; Fominykh, B.; Funcke, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Gellrich, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Gläß, J.; Goloubkov, D.; Golubkov, Y.; Golutvin, A.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbounov, I.; Gorišek, A.; Gouchtchine, O.; Goulart, D. C.; Gradl, S.; Gradl, W.; Grimaldi, F.; Guilitsky, Yu.; Hansen, J. D.; Hernández, J. M.; Hofmann, W.; Hohlmann, M.; Hott, T.; Hulsbergen, W.; Husemann, U.; Igonkina, O.; Ispiryan, M.; Jagla, T.; Jiang, C.; Kapitza, H.; Karabekyan, S.; Karpenko, N.; Keller, S.; Kessler, J.; Khasanov, F.; Kiryushin, Yu.; Kisel, I.; Klinkby, E.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kolanoski, H.; Korpar, S.; Krauss, C.; Kreuzer, P.; Križan, P.; Krücker, D.; Kupper, S.; Kvaratskheliia, T.; Lanyov, A.; Lau, K.; Lewendel, B.; Lohse, T.; Lomonosov, B.; Männer, R.; Mankel, R.; Masciocchi, S.; Massa, I.; Matchikhilian, I.; Medin, G.; Medinnis, M.; Mevius, M.; Michetti, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.; Mizuk, R.; Muresan, R.; zur Nedden, M.; Negodaev, M.; Nörenberg, M.; Nowak, S.; Núñez Pardo de Vera, M. T.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Padilla, C.; Peralta, D.; Pernack, R.; Pestotnik, R.; Petersen, B. AA.; Piccinini, M.; Pleier, M. A.; Poli, M.; Popov, V.; Pose, D.; Prystupa, S.; Pugatch, V.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Pyrlik, J.; Reeves, K.; Reßing, D.; Rick, H.; Riu, I.; Robmann, P.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rybnikov, V.; Sánchez, F.; Sbrizzi, A.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schreiner, A.; Schröder, H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwartz, A. J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Schwenninger, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Shuvalov, S.; Silva, L.; Sözüer, L.; Solunin, S.; Somov, A.; Somov, S.; Spengler, J.; Spighi, R.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanovnik, A.; Starič, M.; Stegmann, C.; Subramania, H. S.; Symalla, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Tsakov, I.; Uwer, U.; van Eldik, C.; Vassiliev, Yu.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Vukotic, I.; Wahlberg, H.; Walenta, A. H.; Walter, M.; Wang, J. J.; Wegener, D.; Werthenbach, U.; Wolters, H.; Wurth, R.; Wurz, A.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zeuner, T.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Z.; Zimmermann, R.; Živko, T.; Zoccoli, A.; HERA-B Collaboration

    2006-07-01

    A measurement of the polarization of Λ and Λbar baryons produced in pC and pW collisions at √{ s} = 41.6 GeV has been performed with the HERA-B spectrometer. The measurements cover the kinematic range of 0.6 GeV / c polarization results from the two different targets agree within the statistical error. In the combined data set, the largest deviation from zero, + 0.054 ± 0.029, is measured for xF ≲ - 0.07. Zero polarization is expected at xF = 0 in the absence of nuclear effects. The polarization results for the Λ agree with a parametrization of previous measurements which were performed at positive xF values, where the Λ polarization is negative. Results of Λbar polarization measurements are consistent with zero.

  7. OVERCOMING DEPOLARIZING RESONANCES IN THE AGS WITH TWO HELICAL PARTIAL SNAKES

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.; BROWN, K.A.; GARDNER, C.J.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    Dual partial snake scheme has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5 x 10{sup 11} intensity and 65% polarization for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) spin program. To overcome the residual polarization loss due to horizontal resonances in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), a new string of quadrupoles have been added. The horizontal tune can then be set in the spin tune gap generated by the two partial snakes, such that horizontal resonances can also be avoided. This paper presents the accelerator setup and preliminary results.

  8. Recoil Polarization and Beam-Recoil Double Polarization Measurement of {eta} Electroproduction on the Proton in the Region of the S{sub 11}(1535) Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Bernauer, J. C.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M. O.; Doria, L.; Friedrich, J.; Mueller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Tiator, L.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.; Bosnar, D.; Makek, M.; Cheymol, B.; Fonvieille, H.

    2007-09-28

    The beam-recoil double polarization P{sub x{sup '}}{sup h} and P{sub z{sup '}}{sup h} and the recoil polarization P{sub y{sup '}} were measured for the first time for the p(e-vector,e{sup '}p-vector){eta} reaction at a four-momentum transfer of Q{sup 2}=0.1 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} and a center of mass production angle of {theta}=120 deg. at the Mainz Microtron MAMI-C. With a center of mass energy range of 1500 MeVpolarized-target asymmetry.

  9. THE AGS-BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WENG,W.T.; DIWAN,M.; RAPARIA,D.

    2004-10-08

    After more than 40 years of operation, the AGS is still at the heart of the Brookhaven hadron accelerator complex. This system of accelerators presently comprises a 200 MeV linac for the pre-acceleration of high intensity and polarized protons, two Tandem Van der Graaffs for the pre-acceleration of heavy ion beams, a versatile Booster that allows for efficient injection of all three types of beams into the AGS and, most recently, the two RHIC collider rings that produce high luminosity heavy ion and polarized proton collisions. For several years now, the AGS has held the world intensity record with more than 7 x 10{sup 13} protons accelerated in a single pulse. The requirements for the proton beam for the super neutrino beam are summarized and a schematic of the upgraded AGS is shown. Since the present number of protons per fill is already close to the required number, the upgrade is based on increasing the repetition rate and reducing beam losses (to avoid excessive shielding requirements and to maintain activation of the machine components at workable level). It is also important to preserve all the present capabilities of the AGS, in particular its role as injector to RHIC. The AGS Booster was built not only to allow the injection of any species of heavy ion into the AGS but to allow a fourfold increase of the AGS intensity. It is one-quarter the circumference of the AGS with the same aperture. However, the accumulation of four Booster loads in the AGS takes about 0.6 s, and is therefore not well suited for high average beam power operation. To minimize the injection time to about 1 ms, a 1.2 GeV linac will be used instead. This linac consists of the existing warm linac of 200 MeV and a new superconducting linac of 1.0 GeV. The multi-turn H{sup -} injection from a source of 30 mA and 720 {micro}s pulse width is sufficient to accumulate 9 x 10{sup 13} particle per pulse in the AGS[10]. The minimum ramp time of the AGS to full energy is presently 0.5 s; this must

  10. Potential protonation sites in the Al2SiO5 polymorphs based on polarized FTIR spectroscopy and properties of the electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, Jason B.; Ross, Nancy L.; Gibbs, Gerald V.; Rossman, George R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2007-07-01

    Potential protonation sites within the three aluminosilicate polymorphs, kyanite, sillimanite, and andalusite, have been examined through analysis of (3,-3) bond critical point information in comparison with polarized FTIR spectroscopy of single crystals of kyanite and sillimanite from previous studies and examination with the polarized infrared spectrum of andalusite from this study. Seven peaks were observed, four strong peaks at 3440 cm-1, 3460 cm-1, 3530 cm-1, and 3600 cm-1 and three weak peaks at 3480 cm-1, 3520 cm-1, and 3650 cm-1, when the electric vector is parallel with a, six peaks, three strong at 3440 cm-1, 3460 cm-1, and 3530 cm-1 and three weak peaks at 3480 cm-1, 3520 cm-1, and 3560 cm-1, when the electric vector is parallel with b, and no peaks when the electric vector is parallel with c. The results indicate that hydrogen is located in the (001) plane of andalusite and sillimanite and the (11-1) plane in kyanite as determined from the polarized FTIR spectrum of the three minerals. The concentration of water in the samples of andalusite examined varied between 10 and 15 ppm H20 by weight. Examination of the (3,-3) critical points in comparison with the polarized FTIR indicates that hydrogen will prefer bonding to the O1 and O2 oxygen atoms in andalusite and the O2 and O4 oxygens in sillimanite, which correspond to the oxygen with the highest Laplacian value and the underbonded oxygen in the two structures. In kyanite, comparison of the FTIR spectrum and the bond critical points indicate that hydrogen will bond to the two four-coordinated oxygens, O4 and O6.

  11. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  12. Transfer of polarized 3He ions in the AtR beam transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    In addition to collisions of electrons with various unpolarized ion species as well as polarized protons, the proposed electron-hadron collider (eRHIC) will facilitate the collisions of electrons with polarized {sup 3}He ions. The AGS is the last acceleration stage, before injection into one of the RHIC's collider ring for final acceleration. The AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line will be utilized to transport the polarized {sup 3}He ions from AGS into one of the RHIC's collider rings. Some of the peculiarities of the AtR line's layout (simultaneous horizontal and vertical bends) may degrade the matching of the stable spin direction of the AtR line with that of RHIC's. In this paper we discuss possible simple modifications of the AtR line to accomplish a perfect matching of the stable spin direction of the injected {sup 3}He beam with the stable spin direction at the injection point of RHIC.

  13. QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Akushevich, Igor V.; Ilyichev, Alexander; Shumeiko, Nikolai M

    2014-08-01

    Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized ep-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

  14. Polarized Parton Distributions and the Polarized Gluon Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    The flavor-dependent valence, sea quark and antiquark spin distributions can be determined separately from theoretical assumptions and experimental data. We have determined the valence distributions using the Bjorken sum rule and have extracted polarized sea distributions, assuming that the quarks and anti-quarks for each flavor are symmetric. Other experiments have been proposed which will allow us to completely break the SU(3) symmetry of the sea flavors. To create a physical model for the polarized gluons, we investigate the gluon spin asymmetry in a proton, AG(x, Q2) = (Δ G(x, Q2))/(G(x, Q2)). By assuming that htis is is approximately Q2 invariant, we can completely determine the x-dependence of this asymmetry, which satisfies constituent counting rules and reproduces the basic results of the Bremsstrahlung model originated by Close and Sivers. This asymmetry can be combined with the measured unpolarized gluon density, G(x,Q2) to provide a prediction for Δ G(x,Q2). Existing and proposed experiments can test both the prediction of scale-invariance for AG(x,Q2) and the nature of Δ G itself. These models will be discussed along with suggestions for specific experiments which can be performed at energies typical of HERA, RHIC and LHC to determine the nature of these polarized distributions.

  15. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, Walter

    2015-02-01

    In the last five decades, proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion-ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  16. Comments on Injector Proton Beam Study in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    During the entire period of injector proton study in run 2014, it seems that the beam transverse emittance out of Booster is larger than that in run 2013. The emittance measured at the BtA transfer line and also the transmission from Booster late to AGS late are presented for this argument. In addition to this problem, it seems that the multiturn Booster injection, which defines the transverse emittance, needs more attention. Moreover, for high intensity operations, the space charge effect may be already relevant in RHIC polarized proton runs. With the RHIC proton intensity improvement in the next several years, higher Booster input intensity is needed, therefore, the space charge effect at the Booster injection and early ramp may become a new limiting factor.

  17. K-italic-shell ionization cross sections for Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag by protons and oxygen ions in the energy range 0. 3--6. 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M.; Benka, O.

    1986-08-01

    Absolute K-italic-shell ionization cross sections have been measured for thin targets of Al, Ti, and Cu for protons in the energy range 0.3--2.0 MeV and for thin targets of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag for oxygen ions in the energy range 1.36--6.4 Mev. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) approximation with energy-loss (E), Coulomb (C), and relativistic (R) corrections, i.e., the ECPSSR approximation (Brandt and Lapicki), to the semiclassical approximation (Laegsgaard, Andersen, and Lund), and to a theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1s-italicsigma molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud (MS)). The proton results agree within 3% with empirical reference cross sections. Also, the ECPSSR provides best overall agreement for protons. For oxygen ions, ECPSSR and MS predict experimental results satisfactorily for scaled velocities xi> or =0.4. For lower scaled velocities, the experimental cross sections become considerably higher than theoretical predictions for Coulomb ionization. This deviation increases with increasing Z-italic/sub 1//Z/sub 2/; it cannot be explained by electron transfer to the projectile or by ionization due to target recoil atoms.

  18. Simulations with CAO-3D model of photochemical response caused by precipitating electrons and solar protons at both polar regions during geomagnetic storms in October-November 2003 (preliminary comparison with MIPAS data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Banin, Max; Maik Wissing, Jan; Vyushkova, Tatyana

    Relativistic electrons precipitating from radiation belts and solar protons can penetrate below 100 km into the polar atmosphere sometimes reaching the stratospheric levels wasting its energy and causing the ionization. It leads to additional production of NOx and HOx chemical com-pounds which destroy ozone in the chemical catalytic cycles. One of the strongest geomagnetic storms accompained by a strong Solar Proton Eevent (SPE) occured in October-November 2003. This period was covered also by observations with MIPAS instrument placed on board of ENVISAT satellite. The response of atmospheric chemical composition in both polar regions was studied with CAO-3D photochemical-transport model. In order to calculate ionization rates induced by precipitating electrons and solar protons during late October and November 2003, corresponding proton and electron fluxes in different energetic channels from GOES-10 and POES-15/16 have been used. The Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabruck -AIMOS /Wissing and Kallenrode, 2009/ was used to calculate 3D fields of ionization rates separately by electrons and protons. Photochemical simulations showed that Northern and Southern po-lar regions had different photochemical response. Such difference mostly is the result of the two factors: polar cap expansion during the geomagnetic storm and the effect of horizontal transport. The calculated members of NOy, HOx, Cly families were preliminary compared with corresponding observed data measured by MIPAS and showed a general agreement. The sensitivity of calculated chemical response to the efficiencies of NOx and HOx production by en-ergetic particles have been studied also. This work was supported by Russian Science Foudation for Basic Research (grant 09-05-009949) and by contract 1-6-08 under Russian Sub-Program "Reseach and Investigation of Antarctica".

  19. Small-scale structure of O2(+) and proton hydrates in a Noctilucent Cloud and polar mesospheric summer echo of August 9/10 1991 above Kiruna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, F.; Kopp, E.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K. M.; Walchli, U.

    1993-01-01

    A novel mass spectrometer designed to measure simultaneously positive ion composition in the mesosphere, was successfully launched during the NLC-91 project. Instruments supporting the mass spectrometer were a probed to measure both electrons and positive ions as well as a wave propagation experiment. The location of the Noctilucent Clouds (NLC) was determined by a particle impact sensor to detect secondary electrons and ions from the impact of NLC particle. The density of proton hydrates and of the related total ions is depleted in the NLC region at 83 km. An improved detection limit of 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu m for positive ions and improved height resolution revealed for the first time large gradients in the O2(+), H(+)(H2O)2 and H(+)(H2O)6 densities within a small height range of the order of 50 m. Such gradients at the altitude of NLC and Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) are associated with strong variability of mesospheric water vapor, temperature and neutral air density.

  20. Polarization of Lyman-α and Balmer-α emission in proton-hydrogen collisions: a study using first-order Born-Faddeev-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, R.; Bolorizadeh, M. A.; Shojaei Akbarabadi, F.; Brunger, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    A three-body Born-Faddeev model is devised to calculate the total cross sections of Balmer-α and Lyman-α emissions, for the excitation of hydrogen atoms by proton impact in the energy range of 100 keV-7 MeV. In addition, the polarization alignment factor A20 is calculated and compared against available experimental data to further test the theory. Specifically, here we use the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism to study the excitation of atomic hydrogen from its ground state to the excited states of n = 2 and 3 and magnetic sublevels l = 0, 1 and 2, wherever applicable. The first-order electronic, A(1)e, and the first-order nuclear, A(1)n, amplitudes are considered in order to calculate the excitation transition matrix (TPT), while a near-the-shell condition is assumed throughout. In addition, our results were used to calculate the first-order form factors. The present results are compared, where possible, with those of other theoretical and experimental works that are currently available in the literature.

  1. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Leif

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  2. Noncoplanarity effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Liou, M.K.; Timmermans, R.; Gibson, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    Noncoplanarity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung is investigated. Significant effects are observed for certain photon polar angles, {psi}{sub {gamma}}. Such noncoplanarity effects, not of dynamical origin, are possibly responsible for past disagreements between theory and experiment. The Harvard noncoplanar coordinate system, which avoids kinematic singularities in the cross section, is used in our calculations and is recommended for use in the analysis of experimental data. Alternative methods of presenting cross sections are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Calculation of polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful.

  4. Tribological properties of ag-based amphiphiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ag-based materials are amphiphilic because they comprise polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule. One of the major categories of amphiphilic ag-based materials are seed oils, which are actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum in a wide variety of consumer and industrial a...

  5. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  6. Optimization of the AGS superconducting helical partial snake strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,F.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.U.; Roser, T.

    2008-06-23

    Two helical partial snakes, one super-conducting (a.k.a cold snake) and one normal conducting (a.k.a warm snake), have preserved the polarization of proton beam up to 65% in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the extraction energy from 85% at injection. In order to overcome spin resonances, stronger partial snakes would be required. However, the stronger the partial snake, the more the stable spin direction tilted producing a stronger horizontal intrinsic resonance. The balance between increasing the spin tune gap generated by the snakes and reducing the tilted stable spin direction has to be considered to maintain the polarization. Because the magnetic field of the warm snake has to be a constant, only the cold snake with a maximum 3T magnetic field can be varied to find out the optimum snake strength. This paper presents simulation results by spin tracking with different cold snake magnetic fields. Some experimental data are also analyzed.

  7. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  8. Effects of “excessive” exciton interactions in polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in 2-butynoic acid crystals: Proton transfer induced by dynamical co-operative interactions involving hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flakus, Henryk T.; Hachuła, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we present the results of our study of polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in crystals of 2-butynoic acid (CH 3C tbnd CCOOH) as well as in crystals of its deuterium derivative (CH 3C tbnd CCOOD). 2-Butynoic acid can exist in two polymorphous crystalline forms: in the "α" form, based on a classic dimer motif and in the "β" form, based on the catamer pattern of the hydrogen bond arrangement. By cooling the melted substance crystals of the "β" phase were obtained selectively. The polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in the "β" form of 2-butynoic acid crystals were measured at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen in the νO-H and νO-D band frequency ranges. In terms of the "strong-coupling" theory the fine structure patterns of the νO-H and νO-D polarized bands were quantitatively explained along with the dichroic and the H/D isotopic effects in the spectra. To interpret the main properties of the spectra the existence of a non-conventional effect concerning a self-stimulated concerted proton position rearrangements in the neighboring cells in the lattice had to be assumed. On the basis of the spectra of isotopically diluted crystalline samples of 2-butynoic acid it was suggested that a random distribution of protons and deuterons occurred in the open chains of the hydrogen bonded molecules. However, coordination in the mutual arrangement of protons and deuterons in the neighboring hydrogen bonds from the closely spaced molecular chains was found to be non-random. This fact was ascribed to dynamical co-operative interactions, most strongly involving hydrogen bonds from different chains in the modified lattice. These non-conventional interactions were responsible for appearance of the so-called H/D "self-organization" isotopic effects in the spectra.

  9. Planning and Prototyping for a Storage Ring Measurement of the Proton Electric Dipole Moment

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Electron and proton EDM's can be measured in "frozen spin" (with the beam polarization always parallel to the orbit, for example) storage rings. For electrons the "magic" kinetic energy at which the beam can be frozen is 14.5 MeV. For protons the magic kinetic energy is 230 MeV. The currently measured upper limit for the electron EDM is much smaller than the proton EDM upper limit, which is very poorly known. Nevertheless, because the storage ring will be an order of magnitude cheaper, a sensible plan is to first build an all-electric electron storage ring as a prototype. Such an electron ring was successfully built at Brookhaven, in 1954, as a prototype for their AGS ring. This leaves little uncertainty concerning the cost and performance of such a ring. (This is documentedin one of the Physical Review papers mentioned above.)

  10. Exclusive studies of 130-270 MeV {sup 3}He- and 200-MeV proton-induced reactions on {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup 197}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, D. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Hsi, W.-C.; Hudan, S.; Cornell, E.; Souza, R. T. de; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.

    2008-09-15

    Exclusive light-charged-particle and IMF spectra have been measured with the ISiS detector array for bombardments of {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup 197}Au nuclei with 130-270-MeV {sup 3}He and 200-MeV protons. The results are consistent with previous interpretations based on inclusive data that describe the global yield of complex fragments in terms of a time-dependent process. The emission mechanism for energetic nonequilibrium fragments observed at forward angles with momenta up to twice the beam momentum is also investigated. This poorly understood mechanism, for which the angular distributions indicate formation on a time scale comparable to the nuclear transit time, are accompanied primarily by thermal-like emissions. The data are most consistent with a schematic picture in which nonequilibrium fragments are formed in a localized region of the target nucleus at an early stage in the energy-dissipation process, where the combined effects of high energy density and Fermi motion produce the observed suprathermal spectra.

  11. Gluon polarization in the proton: Constraints at low x from the measurement of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry for forward-rapidity hadrons with the PHENIX detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Cameron Palmer

    In the 1980s, polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering experiments revealed that only about a third of the proton's spin of ½ h is carried by the quarks and antiquarks, leaving physicists with the puzzle of how to account for the remaining spin. As gluons carry roughly 50% of the proton's momentum, it seemed most logical to look to the gluon spin as another significant contributor. However, lepton-nucleon scattering experiments only access the gluon helicity distribution, Delta g, through effects on the quark distributions via scaling violations. Constraining Deltag through scaling violations requires experiments that together cover a large range of Q 2. Such experiments had been carried out with unpolarized beams, leaving g(x) (the unpolarized gluon distribution) relatively well-known, but the polarized experiments have only thus far provided weak constraints on Deltag in a limited momentum fraction range. With the commissioning in 2000 of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the first polarized proton-proton (pp) collider, and the first polarized pp running in 2002, the gluon distributions could be accessed directly by studying quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions. In 2009, data from measurements of double longitudinal spin asymmetries, ALL, at the STAR and PHENIX experiments through 2006 were included in a QCD global analysis performed by Daniel de Florian, Rodolfo Sassot, Marco Stratmann, and Werner Vogelsang (DSSV), yielding the first direct constraints on the gluon helicity. The DSSV group found that the contribution of the gluon spin to the proton spin was consistent with zero, but the data provided by PHENIX and STAR was all at mid-rapidity, meaning Delta g was constrained by data only a range in x from 0.05 to 0.2, leaving out helicity contributions from the huge number of low- x gluons. A more recent analysis by DSSV from 2014 including RHIC data through 2009 for the first time points to significant gluon polarization at intermediate

  12. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast (˜100 Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  13. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  14. Ranking and validation of the spallation models for description of intermediate mass fragment emission from p + Ag collisions at 480 MeV incident proton beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Bogusław; Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef

    2016-06-01

    Double-differential cross-sections d2σ/dΩ dE for isotopically identified intermediate mass fragments ( 6Li up to 27Mg from nuclear reactions induced by 480 MeV protons impinging on a silver target were analyzed in the frame of a two-step model. The first step of the reaction was described by the intranuclear cascade model INCL4.6 and the second one by four different models (ABLA07,GEM2, GEMINI++, and SMM). The experimental spectra reveal the presence of low-energy, isotropic as well as high-energy, forward-peaked contributions. The INCL4.6 model offers a possibility to describe the latter contribution for light intermediate mass fragments by coalescence of the emitted nucleons. The qualitative agreement of the model predictions with the data was observed but the high-energy tails of the spectra were significantly overestimated. The shape of the isotropic part of the spectra was reproduced by all four models. The GEM2 model strongly underestimated the value of the cross-sections for heavier IMF whereas the SMM and ABLA07 models generally overestimated the data. The best quantitative description of the data was offered by GEMINI++, however, a discrepancy between the data and the model cross-sections still remained for almost all reaction products, especially at forward angles. It indicates that non-equilibrium processes are present which cannot be reproduced by the applied models. The goodness of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors, the H-factor and the M-factor, as a tool for ranking and validation of the theoretical models.

  15. Precision measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production in polarized proton collisions at √s = 200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.

    2015-08-26

    We report a new measurement of the midrapidity inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, ALL, in polarized pp collisions at center-of-mass energy √s = 200 GeV. The STAR data place stringent constraints on polarized parton distribution functions extracted at next-to-leading order from global analyses of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), semi-inclusive DIS, and RHIC pp data. Lastly, the measured asymmetries provide evidence at the 3σ level for positive gluon polarization in the Bjorken-x region x > 0.05 .

  16. Precision measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production in polarized proton collisions at √s = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, L.

    2015-08-26

    We report a new measurement of the midrapidity inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, ALL, in polarized pp collisions at center-of-mass energy √s = 200 GeV. The STAR data place stringent constraints on polarized parton distribution functions extracted at next-to-leading order from global analyses of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), semi-inclusive DIS, and RHIC pp data. Lastly, the measured asymmetries provide evidence at the 3σ level for positive gluon polarization in the Bjorken-x region x > 0.05 .

  17. Exploring universality of transversity in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radici, Marco; Ricci, Alessandro M.; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-08-01

    We consider the azimuthal correlations of charged hadron pairs with large total transverse momentum and small relative momentum, produced in proton-proton collisions with one transversely polarized proton. One of these correlations directly probes the chiral-odd transversity parton distribution in connection with a chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. We present predictions for this observable based on previous extractions of transversity (from charged pion pair production in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering) and of the interference fragmentation function (from the production of back-to-back charged pion pairs in electron-positron annihilations). All analyses are performed in the framework of collinear factorization. We compare our predictions to the recent data on proton-proton collisions released by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC, and we find them reasonably compatible. This comparison confirms for the first time the predicted role of transversity in proton-proton collisions, and it allows us to test its universality.

  18. Where is the proton's spin

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future. 33 refs.

  19. 3D inversion of magnetic and electrical resistivity-induced polarization data for an epithermal Au-Ag and underlying porphyry deposit: A case study from British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, B.; Huebert, J.; Liu, L.; Lee, B.; Cheng, L.; Richards, J. P.; Unsworth, M. J.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Newton property is an epithermal Au-Ag deposit containing precious metals in association with disseminated sulfide minerals such as pyrite. This type of deposit often shows variable geological patterns, so it is important to find fast and cost-efficient methods for their exploration. Aeromagnetic surveys and ground electrical resistivity-induced polarization methods were applied over the Newton property. From preliminary 3D inversion of ZTEM and aeromagnetic data, and joint 3D inversion of electrical resistivity-induced polarization data, we show that low-resistivity and high-chargeability regions are signatures of disseminated sulfide mineralization. Potassic alteration, characterized by hydrothermal biotite (now mostly chloritized) and magnetite is also present locally, and may be related to underlying porphyry-type mineralization. This type of alteration can be identified from its magnetic signature, but the occurrence of other magnetic formations in the deposit area made interpretations of magnetic data difficult. We show that filtering geological noises related to background magnetic anomalies is an essential step in focusing on potassic alteration zones. We used electrical resistivity and induced polarization chargeability models to remove the signals of barren magnetic zones to focus on the susceptibilities pertaining to deep potassic alterations. In order to test the credibility of these interpretations, extensive petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and gamma ray spectra) were collected on drill-core samples. We show that potassic alteration can also be characterized accurately from high levels of potassium to thorium ratio (K/Th) in gamma ray spectrometric measurements, and that this correlation is stronger than the magnetic signal (likely because hydrothermal magnetite is variable in abundance). Therefore, we focused on magnetic susceptibility values correlated with high K/Th ratios in order to reduce the

  20. Polarized 3He+2 ions in the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron to RHIC transfer line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; Méot, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2016-09-01

    The proposed electron-hadron collider (eRHIC) to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will allow the collisions of 20 GeV polarized electrons with 250 GeV polarized protons, or 100 GeV /n polarized 3He+2 ions, or other unpolarized ion species. The large value of the anomalous magnetic moment of the 3He nucleus GHe=(g -2 )/2 =-4.184 (where g is the g -factor of the 3He nuclear spin) combined with the peculiar layout of the transfer line which transports the beam bunches from the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) makes the transfer and injection of polarized 3He ions from AGS to RHIC (AtR) a special case as we explain in the paper. Specifically in this paper we calculate the stable spin direction of a polarized 3He beam at the exit of the AtR line which is also the injection point of RHIC, and we discuss a simple modifications of the AtR beam-transfer-line, to perfectly match the stable spin direction of the injected polarized 3He beam to that of the circulating beam, at the injection point of RHIC.

  1. The axisymmetric stellar wind of AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Hillier, D. John; Harries, Tim J.; Howarth, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical linear spectropolarimetry of the Luminous Blue Variable AG Carinae obtained after a recent visual brightness increase. The absence of He II lambda 4686 emission, together with the weakening of the He I spectrum and the appearance of Fe lines in the region around 5300 A, confirm that AG Car has started a new excursion across the HR diagram. The H alpha line profile exhibits very extended line wings that are polarized differently in both amount and position angle from either the continuum or the line core. The polarization changes across H alpha, together with variable continuum polarization, indicate the presence of intrinsic polarization. Coexistence of the line-wing polarization with extended flux-line wings evidences that both are formed by electron scattering in a dense wind. The position angle rotates across the line profiles, in a way that presently available models suggest is due to rotation and expansion of the scattering material. AG Car displays very large variations of its linear polarization with time, Delta P approximately 1.2%, indicating significant variations in envelope opacity. We find that the polarization varies along a preferred position angle of approximately 145 deg (with a scatter of +/- 10 deg) which we interpret as a symmetry axis of the stellar wind (with an ambiguity of 90 deg). This position angle is co-aligned with the major axis of the AG Car ring nebula and perpendicular to the AG Car jet. Our observations thus suggest that the axisymmetric geometry seen in the resolved circumstellar environment at various distances already exists within a few stellar radii of AG Car. From the H alpha polarization profile we deduce an interstellar polarization of Q = 0.31%, U = -1.15% at H alpha. The inferred interstellar polarization implies that the intrinsic polarization is not always of the same sign. This indicates either significant temporal changes in the envelope geometry, or it may arise from effects of multiple scattering

  2. Nuclear Polarization of H{sub 2} Molecules formed from Polarized Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, T.; Balewski, J.T.; Daehnick, W.W.; Doskow, J.; Friesel, D.; Haeberli, W.; Kolster,H.; Lorentz, B.; Meyer, H.O.; Pancella, P.V.; Pollock, R.E.; Przewoski, B.v.; Quin, P.A.; Rathmann, F.; Rinckel, T.; Saha, Swapan K.; Schwartz, B.; Wellinghausen, A.

    2000-12-31

    A planned experiment to measure the nuclear polarization of H{sub 2} molecules formed by recombination of polarized H atoms is described. Polarization will be measured with a longitudinally polarized 200-MeV proton beam and a longitudinally polarized storage cell gas target at the IUCF cooler ring.

  3. Spin models of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1988-10-20

    We have constructed a model of the proton spin based on a broken SU(6) parameterization for the spin-weighted valence quark distributions in a longitudinally polarized proton. The polarized sea and gluon distributions are assumed to have simple relations to the corresponding unpolarized structure functions. The sum rules, which involve the non-singlet components of the structure function xg/sub 1/, imply that the valence quarks carry about 78% of the proton spin, while the spin carried by sea quarks is negative. Recent EMC data suggest a model in which the sea quarks carry a large negative polarization, whereas certain theoretical arguments favor a model with a smaller negatively polarized sea. These models are discussed with reference to the sum rules. Experiments are suggested which will discriminate between these models. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Gluon-spin contribution to the proton spin from the double-helicity asymmetry in inclusive pi0 production in polarized p+p collisions at [sqrt]s=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chand, P; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Das, K; David, G; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Henni, A Hadj; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, K B; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niita, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunecka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomásek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wessels, J; White, S N; Williamson, S; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2009-07-01

    The double helicity asymmetry in neutral pion production for pT=1 to 12 GeV/c was measured with the PHENIX experiment to access the gluon-spin contribution, DeltaG, to the proton spin. Measured asymmetries are consistent with zero, and at a theory scale of micro2=4 GeV2 a next to leading order QCD analysis gives DeltaG[0.02,0.3]=0.2, with a constraint of -0.7polarized deep inelastic scattering data. We also consider the dependence of the DeltaG constraint on the choice of the theoretical scale, a dominant uncertainty in these predictions.

  5. Intramolecular, Exciplex-Mediated, Proton-Coupled, Charge-Transfer Processes in N,N-Dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium Cations: Influence of Anion, Solvent Polarity, and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Safko, Trevor M; Faleiros, Marcelo M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-16

    An intramolecular exciplex-mediated, proton-coupled, charge-transfer (PCCT) process has been investigated for a series of N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium cations with different anions (PyS) in solvents of low to intermediate polarity over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediates both the equilibrium between conformations of the cation that place the pyrenyl and ammonium groups in proximity (conformation C) or far from each other (conformation O) and the ability of the ammonium group to transfer a proton adiabatically in the PyS excited singlet state. Thus, exciplex emission, concurrent with the PCCT process, was observed only in hydrogen-bond accepting solvents of relatively low polarity (tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane) and not in dichloromethane. From the exciplex emission and other spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, the acidity of the ammonium group in conformation C of the excited singlet state of PyS (pKa*) has been estimated to be ca. -3.4 in tetrahydrofuran. The ratios between the intensities of emission from the exciplex and the locally excited state (IEx/ILE) appear to be much more dependent on the nature of the anion than are the rates of exciplex formation and decay, although the excited state data do not provide a quantitative measure of the anion effect on the C-O equilibrium. The activation energies associated with exciplex formation in THF are calculated to be 0.08 to 0.15 eV lower than for the neutral amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-amine. Decay of the exciplexes formed from the deprotonation of PyS is hypothesized to occur through charge-recombination processes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which photoacidity and intramolecular exciplex formation (i.e., a PCCT reaction) are coupled.

  6. Intramolecular, Exciplex-Mediated, Proton-Coupled, Charge-Transfer Processes in N,N-Dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium Cations: Influence of Anion, Solvent Polarity, and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Safko, Trevor M; Faleiros, Marcelo M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-16

    An intramolecular exciplex-mediated, proton-coupled, charge-transfer (PCCT) process has been investigated for a series of N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium cations with different anions (PyS) in solvents of low to intermediate polarity over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediates both the equilibrium between conformations of the cation that place the pyrenyl and ammonium groups in proximity (conformation C) or far from each other (conformation O) and the ability of the ammonium group to transfer a proton adiabatically in the PyS excited singlet state. Thus, exciplex emission, concurrent with the PCCT process, was observed only in hydrogen-bond accepting solvents of relatively low polarity (tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane) and not in dichloromethane. From the exciplex emission and other spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, the acidity of the ammonium group in conformation C of the excited singlet state of PyS (pKa*) has been estimated to be ca. -3.4 in tetrahydrofuran. The ratios between the intensities of emission from the exciplex and the locally excited state (IEx/ILE) appear to be much more dependent on the nature of the anion than are the rates of exciplex formation and decay, although the excited state data do not provide a quantitative measure of the anion effect on the C-O equilibrium. The activation energies associated with exciplex formation in THF are calculated to be 0.08 to 0.15 eV lower than for the neutral amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-amine. Decay of the exciplexes formed from the deprotonation of PyS is hypothesized to occur through charge-recombination processes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which photoacidity and intramolecular exciplex formation (i.e., a PCCT reaction) are coupled. PMID:27268751

  7. Transverse impedance measurement in RHIC and the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Blaskiewicz, M.; Dutheil, Y.; Liu, C.; Mernick, M.; Minty, M.; White, S. M.

    2014-05-12

    The RHIC luminosity upgrade program aims for an increase of the polarized proton luminosity by a factor 2. To achieve this goal a significant increase in the beam intensity is foreseen. The beam coupling impedance could therefore represent a source of detrimental effects for beam quality and stability at high bunch intensities. For this reason it is essential to quantify the accelerator impedance budget and the major impedance sources, and possibly cure them. In this MD note we summarize the results of the 2013 transverse impedance measurements in the AGS and RHIC. The studies have been performed measuring the tune shift as a function of bunch intensity and deriving the total accelerator machine transverse impedance. For RHIC, we could obtain first promising results of impedance localization measurements as well.

  8. Measurement of longitudinal-transverse, transverse- transverse, and longitudinal-transverse' response functions in the quasi-elastic deuterium(polarized electron, electron'proton) reaction at 200 (MeV/c) missing momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Shiao-Bin

    We report in this thesis the simultaneous measurement of the longitudinal-transverse response functions, fLT and fLT' , and the transverse-transverse response function fTT of the deuteron. The quasi- elastic H2(e->, e'p)n experiment reported here was conducted at the MIT/Bates Linear Accelerator Center in February, 1997. The experiment was carried out with a 40% polarized, 800 MeV electron beam. The measurement took place in the Bates South Hall using the One Hundred Inch Proton Spectrometer (OHIPS) as the electron spectrometer. It was placed at an angle of 37.27° and the energy transfer, ω, was set for quasi-elastic kinematics with the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q 2, equal to -0.22(GeV/c) 2 . Three out-of- plane proton spectrometers (OOPS) were positioned at fcmpq = (0°, 90°, 180°), respectively, for a given qlabpq of 23.5°. This allowed the simultaneous measurement of fLT,fTT and fLT' at a central missing momentum of ~200 (MeV/ c). The measured asymmetries, cross sections and response functions are compared with different theoretical models. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  9. New versions of sources for nuclear polarized negative ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L. ); Wojtsekhowski, B.B. ); Belov, A.S.; Kuzik, V.E.; Plohinsky, Y.V.; Yakushev, V.P. )

    1992-10-05

    Several variants of sources for nuclear polarized negative ion production have been proposed and tested. The simple adaptation of a high intensity polarized proton source for nuclear polarized H[sup [minus

  10. Correcting the AGS depolarizing resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    For the 1986 AGS run, the technique of correcting an imperfection resonance using a beat harmonic instead of the direct harmonic was applied and found to be useful in achieving a 22 GeV/c polarized beam. Both conventional and modified techniques are explained. (LEW)

  11. Proton, Helium and Minor Ion Interactions with Circularly Polarized Alfven and Ion-cyclotron waves in the Expanding Solar Wind: Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velli, M.; Liewer, P. C.; Goldstein, B. E.

    2000-05-01

    We present simulations of parallel propagating Alfvén waves in the accelerating solar wind and their interactions with protons, alpha particles, and minor ions using an expanding box hybrid code (Liewer et al., 1999). In this model, the average solar wind flow speed is a given external function, and the simulation domain follows a plasma parcel as it expands both in the radial and transverse directions accordingly: the decrease of Alfvén speed and density with distance from the Sun are taken into account self-consistently. It is therefore possible to carry out a detailed study of frequency drifting and the coming into resonance with the waves at different radial locations of particles with differing charge to mass ratios. Simulations of monochromatic waves as well as waves with well-developed spectra are presented for plasmas with one, two and three ion species. We observe preferential heating and acceleration of protons and minor ions. Under some conditions, we obtain the scaling observed in coronal hole solar wind: the heavy ion temperature is proportional to its mass (Liewer et al., 2000). A comparison with predictions from models based on such quasi-linear or linear analyses will also be presented. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli and B. E. Goldstein, in Solar Wind Nine, S. Habbal, R. Esser, J. V. Hollweg, P. A. Isenberg, eds., (AIP Conference Proceedings 471, 1999) 449. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli, and B. E. Goldstein, in Proc. ACE 2000 Conference (2000) to be published.

  12. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  13. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  14. Physics with Polarized Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2008-04-30

    Polarized antiprotons will provide access to a wealth of double- (and single-) spin observables, thereby opening a window to physics uniquely accessible with the HESR at FAIR. This include a first direct measurement of the transversity distribution of the valence quarks in the proton and a first measurement of the moduli and phase of the time-like electric and magnetic form factors G{sub E,M} of the proton. Additional applications of a polarized antiproton beam can be forseen in hadron spectroscopy, and nucleon-antinucleon scattering.

  15. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum-classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent.

    PubMed

    Kojima, H; Yamada, A; Okazaki, S

    2015-05-01

    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute-solvent interactions.

  16. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum–classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Yamada, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2015-05-07

    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum–classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute–solvent interactions.

  17. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum-classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent.

    PubMed

    Kojima, H; Yamada, A; Okazaki, S

    2015-05-01

    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute-solvent interactions. PMID:25956108

  18. Pulsed power supply system for the fast quadrupoles in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Lambiase, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    In the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, a number of depolarizing resonances will be encountered. Depolarization due to the so-called intrinsic resonances will be minimized by crossing each resonance in less than one beam revolution period (approx. 2 ..mu..s). This will be accomplished with a set of twelve fast tune-shifting quadrupoles distributed symmetrically around the ring. During a typical acceleration cycle, the fast quads will be energized with a burst of alternating polarity, fast rise/slow fall triangular current pulses. The amplitude of these pulses will vary from 160 A to about 2700 A peak. This paper describes the development of the pulsed power supply for the fast quads, the construction of a prototype modulator, and some of the initial test results obtained with the prototype.

  19. Understanding the proton's spin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Myhrer; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the tremendous progress that has been towards an understanding of how the spin of the proton is distributed on its quark and gluon constituents. This is a problem that began in earnest twenty years ago with the discovery of the proton "spin crisis" by the European Muon Collaboration. The discoveries prompted by that original work have given us unprecedented insight into the amount of spin carried by polarized gluons and the orbital angular momentum of the quarks.

  20. Measurements of Polarization Transfers in Real Compton Scattering by a proton target at JLAB. A new source of information on the 3D shape of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-03-01

    In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will

  1. Corrections for the polarization-dependent efficiency and new neutron-proton analyzing power data at 7.6 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisel, G. J.; Braun, R. T.; Tornow, W.

    2010-08-01

    We present new corrections for the polarization-dependent efficiency (PDE), which introduces a false asymmetry into measurements of n-p analyzing power Ay(θ) caused by double scattering in the neutron side detectors. To accomplish this, we created a new database of C12(n⃗,n) Ay(θ) by using a combination of fits to data, phase-shift analysis, and R-matrix analysis. Our recorrection for PDE of previously reported n-p Ay(θ) data at 7.6 and 12.0 MeV and new data at 7.6 MeV indicate that we have achieved a superior representation of C12(n⃗,n). Our results continue to suggest a possible charge dependence of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  2. Corrections for the polarization-dependent efficiency and new neutron-proton analyzing power data at 7.6 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Weisel, G. J.; Braun, R. T.; Tornow, W.

    2010-08-15

    We present new corrections for the polarization-dependent efficiency (PDE), which introduces a false asymmetry into measurements of n-p analyzing power A{sub y}({theta}) caused by double scattering in the neutron side detectors. To accomplish this, we created a new database of {sup 12}C(n-vector,n) A{sub y}({theta}) by using a combination of fits to data, phase-shift analysis, and R-matrix analysis. Our recorrection for PDE of previously reported n-p A{sub y}({theta}) data at 7.6 and 12.0 MeV and new data at 7.6 MeV indicate that we have achieved a superior representation of {sup 12}C(n-vector,n). Our results continue to suggest a possible charge dependence of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  3. PHYSICS OF POLARITY AT RHIC-VOLUME 10.

    SciTech Connect

    IMAI,K.; FIELDS,D.

    1998-08-04

    The RBRC Workshop on Physics of Polarimetry at RHIC was held from Aug 4 to 7, 1998 at BNL. The primary motive of the workshop is (1) to discuss the RHIC polarimeter using the elastic proton-carbon scattering at Coulomb-nuclear interference region (p-C CNI polarimeter) in detail and write a proposal for the test experiment a t the AGS, (2) to discuss the related physics, (3) and to discuss other options for the RHIC polarimetry. The idea of the p-C CNI polarimeter was proposed last year as a simple, inexpensive and efficient polarimeter for RHIC. In order to establish this polarimeter, we have decided to carry out a test experiment by using a polarized beam at the AGS. We have made a draft of the proposal during the workshop. For the p-C CNI polarimeter, a telescope detector using both the micro-channel plate (MCP) and the SSD was proposed to detect low energy recoil carbon ions, based on the test measurements at IUCF and Kyoto, where the carbon ions as low as 200 keV were successfully detected. The kinetic energy of carbon ion is measured with the SSD, and the velocity is measured by TOF between the two detectors and between the accelerator rf pulse and the two detectors. Counting rates for the background and true events were estimated. With the proposed polarimeter, one can expect to measure the beam polarization at the AGS and RHIC at an accuracy of 10% within a reasonable time period. We will test this detector system at Kyoto as soon as possible and install it in the AGS ring for the test measurement of A{sub N} during E880 which is scheduled early in the next year.

  4. ENGINEERING OF THE AGS SNAKE COIL ASSEMBLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ANERELLA,M.GUPTA,R.KOVACH,P.MARONE,A.PLATE,S.POWER,K.SCHMALZLE,J.WILLEN,E.

    2003-05-12

    A 30% Snake superconducting magnet is proposed to maintain polarization in the AGS proton beam, the magnetic design of which is described elsewhere. The required helical coils for this magnet push the limits of the technology developed for the RHIC Snake coils. First, fields must be provided with differing pitch along the length of the magnet. To accomplish this, a new 3-D CAD system (''Pro/Engineer'' from PTC), which uses parametric techniques to enable fast iterations, has been employed. Revised magnetic field calculations are then based on the output of the mechanical model. Changes are made in turn to the model on the basis of those field calculations. To ensure that accuracy is maintained, the final solid model is imported directly into the CNC machine programming software, rather than by the use of graphics translating software. Next, due to the large coil size and magnetic field, there was concern whether the structure could contain the coil forces. A finite element analysis was performed, using the 3-D model, to ensure that the stresses and deflections were acceptable. Finally, a method was developed using ultrasonic energy to improve conductor placement during coil winding, in an effort to minimize electrical shorts due to conductor misplacement, a problem that occurred in the RHIC helical coil program. Each of these activities represents a significant improvement in technology over that which was used previously for the RHIC snake coils.

  5. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  6. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  7. Polarized noble gas MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Brookeman, James R.; Mugler, John P. III; Lange, Eduard E. de; Knight-Scott, Jack; Maier, Therese; Bogorad, Paul; Driehuys, Bastiaan; Cates, Gordon; Happer, William; Daniel, Thomas M.; Truwit, Jonathon D.

    1998-01-20

    The development of convenient methods to polarize liter quantities of the noble gases helium-3 and xenon-129 has provided the opportunity for a new MRI method to visualize the internal air spaces of the human lung. These spaces are usually poorly seen with hydrogen-based MRI, because of the limited water content of the lung and the low thermal polarization of the water protons achieved in conventional magnets. In addition, xenon, which has a relatively high solubility and a sufficiently persistent polarization level in blood and biological tissue, offers the prospect of providing perfusion images of the lung, brain and other organs.

  8. Gluon-Spin Contribution to the Proton Spin from the Double-Helicity Asymmetry in Inclusive pi(0) Production in Polarized p plus p Collisions at s = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; Young, Glenn R; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The double helicity asymmetry in neutral pion production for p{sub T} = 1 to 12 GeV/c was measured with the PHENIX experiment to access the gluon-spin contribution, {Delta}G, to the proton spin. Measured asymmetries are consistent with zero, and at a theory scale of {mu}{sup 2} = 4 GeV{sup 2} a next to leading order QCD analysis gives {Delta}G{sup [0.02,0.3]} = 0.2, with a constraint of -0.7 < {Delta}G{sup [0.02,0.3]} < 0.5 at {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} = 9 (-3{sigma}) for the sampled gluon momentum fraction (x) range, 0.02 to 0.3. The results are obtained using predictions for the measured asymmetries generated from four representative fits to polarized deep inelastic scattering data. We also consider the dependence of the {Delta}G constraint on the choice of the theoretical scale, a dominant uncertainty in these predictions.

  9. The upgraded ring loss radiation monitorinng system at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.W.; Beadle, E.; Castille, V.; Witkover, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    With the Booster the AGS will accelerate protons to 3 /times/ 10/sup 13/ per cycle, polarized protons at 10/sup 12/, and ions from Carbon to Gold at intensities from 50 to 3 /times/ 10/sup 9/. A loss monitoring system is being developed to facilitate tuning, and to reduce personnel radiation exposure by minimizing residual induced activity and by allowing remote monitoring of activity in the accelerator enclosure. The monitoring system must have a large dynamic range to monitor high intensity beam losses and to measure induced activity down to the level of a few mrad/hour. Various detectors are being evaluated, including ion chambers, proportional counters, and aluminium cathode electronmultipliers. Measurements of the prompt ionization distribution in the median plane at various energies from point targets at two representative locations in the accelerator lattice have been completed. Details of the monitoring system will be presented, as well as the experimental measurements of the prompt radiation field, and a comparable Monte Carlo calculation. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  10. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  11. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  12. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between "chiral" and "invariant" spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  13. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony W.

    2008-10-13

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between 'chiral' and 'invariant' spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  14. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  15. IFSERF, an isotope-filtered SERF experiment for the precise measurement of proton-proton coupling constants between chemically equivalent protons.

    PubMed

    Nolis, Pau; Roglans, Anna; Parella, Teodor

    2005-04-01

    An isotope-filtered selective refocusing (IFSERF) experiment is presented for the sensitive and precise measurement of the proton-proton coupling constant between chemically equivalent protons. The 2D NMR method combines an initial doubly selective isotope filter based on heteronuclear cross-polarization followed by a selective J-resolved block. The coupling topologies obtained from several 2D variants of the IFSERF experiment are described for the simultaneous measurement of both proton-proton and proton-carbon coupling constants in the involved AA'XX' spin system. Application on the determination of the relative configuration of double bonds in symmetrical molecules is illustrated.

  16. DESIGN OF A THIN QUADRUPOLE TO BE USED IN THE AGS SYNCHROTRON

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS, L.; ALFORQUE, R.; BAI, M.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) employs two partial helical snakes[l] to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during acceleration. In order to compensate for the focusing effect of the partial helical snakes on the beam optics in the AGS during acceleration of the beam, we introduced eight quadrupoles in straight sections of the AGS at the proximity of the partial snakes. At injection energies, the strength of each quad is set at a high value, and is ramped down to zero as the effect of the snakes diminishes by the square of beam's rigidity. Four of the eight compensation quadrupoles had to be placed in very short straight sections -30 cm in length, therefore the quadruples had be thin with an overall length of less than 30 cm. In this paper we will discus: (a) the mechanical and magnetic specifications of the ''thin'' quadrupole. (b) the method to minimize the strength of the dodecapole harmonic, (c) the method to optimize the thickness of the laminations that the magnet iron is made, (d) mechanical tolerances of the magnet, (e) comparison of the measured and calculated magnetic multipoles of the quadrupole.

  17. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. The Spin of the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2007.12.039
    The twenty years since the announcement of the proton spin crisis by the European Muon Collaboration has seen tremendous progress in our knowledge of the distribution of spin within the proton. The problem is reviewed, beginning with the original data and the suggestion that polarized gluons may play a crucial role in resolving the problem through the U(1) axial anomaly. The discussion continues to the present day where not only have strong limits have been placed on the amount of polarized glue in the proton but the experimental determination of the spin content has become much more precise. It is now clear that the origin of the discrepancy between experiment and the naive expectation of the fraction of spin carried by the quarks and anti-quarks in the proton lies in the non-perturabtive structure of the proton. We explain how the features expected in a modern, relativistic and chirally symmetric description of nucleon str

  19. The upgrade project for the RF system for the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Hayes, T.; Meth, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Otis, A.; Pirkl, W.; Sanders, R.; Spitz, R.; Toldo, F.; Zaltsman, A.

    1993-01-01

    The AGS operates a varied program of proton, heavy ion, and polarized proton acceleration for fixed-target experiments and will soon serve as the injector of these beams into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. The new Booster synchrotron extends the range of intensities and masses that can be accelerated. The 1.5 GeV injection energy increases the space charge limit by a factor of four to more than 6 [times] 10[sup 13] protons per pulse. To accommodate the increased beam current the rf system will be upgraded to provide more power and lower impedance to the beam. The flexibility of the rf system will also be enhanced by virtue of a new rf beam control system and installation of individual tuning servos for the ten rf cavities. The fundamental necessity for upgrading the rf system is to deliver more power to the accelerating beam. Three key ingredients of the upgrade project addressing this problem is (1) new power amplifiers provide the necessary power, and are closely coupled to the cavities, (2) wideband rf feedback reduces the effective impedance by a factor of 10, and (3) the capacitors loading the acceleration gaps (four per cavity) are increased from 275 pF to 600 pF.

  20. The upgrade project for the RF system for the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Hayes, T.; Meth, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Otis, A.; Pirkl, W.; Sanders, R.; Spitz, R.; Toldo, F.; Zaltsman, A.

    1993-06-01

    The AGS operates a varied program of proton, heavy ion, and polarized proton acceleration for fixed-target experiments and will soon serve as the injector of these beams into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. The new Booster synchrotron extends the range of intensities and masses that can be accelerated. The 1.5 GeV injection energy increases the space charge limit by a factor of four to more than 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. To accommodate the increased beam current the rf system will be upgraded to provide more power and lower impedance to the beam. The flexibility of the rf system will also be enhanced by virtue of a new rf beam control system and installation of individual tuning servos for the ten rf cavities. The fundamental necessity for upgrading the rf system is to deliver more power to the accelerating beam. Three key ingredients of the upgrade project addressing this problem is (1) new power amplifiers provide the necessary power, and are closely coupled to the cavities, (2) wideband rf feedback reduces the effective impedance by a factor of 10, and (3) the capacitors loading the acceleration gaps (four per cavity) are increased from 275 pF to 600 pF.

  1. High intensity proton synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.

    1986-10-01

    Strong initiatives are being pursued in a number of countries for the construction of ``kaon factory'' synchrotrons capable of producing 100 times more intense proton beams than those available now from machines such as the Brookhaven AGS and CERN PS. Such machines would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos of all varieties)—or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux—opening new avenues to various fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics. Major areas of investigation would be rare decay modes, CP violation, meson and hadron spectroscopy, antinucleon interactions, neutrino scattering and oscillations, and hypernuclear properties. Experience with the pion factories has already shown how high beam intensities make it possible to explore the ``precision frontier'' with results complementary to those achievable at the ``energy frontier''. This paper will describe proposals for upgrading and AGS and for building kaon factories in Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States, emphasizing the novel aspects of accelerator design required to achieve the desired performance (typically 100 μA at 30 GeV).

  2. Personal History of Nucleon Polarization Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, O.

    1984-09-01

    The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner.

  3. The Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Carlos Garcia; Sassot, Rodolfo

    2003-10-01

    In this talk we present a collection of selected topics concerning the structure of the proton and the fundamental interactions as seen inside it. These topics have been thoroughly covered by high energy experiments with ever increasing precision in recent years and beautifully illustrate our present knowledge of the standard model.

  4. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  5. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  6. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  7. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  8. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  9. E sub T distributions, nuclear stopping'', and correlations among measurements from the 4 detector systems in AGS E802

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-04-01

    As part of AGS Experiment 802, an array of 245 Lead Glass blocks, covering half the azimuth, with a polar angular acceptance approximately 8{degree} {le} {theta} {le} 32{degree}, which corresponds roughly to a laboratory pseudo rapidity range 1.25 {le} {eta} {le} 2.50 with good acceptance, when edges and corners are taken into account, measured the transverse energy (E{sub T}) distributions from primary beams of protons, {sup 16}O, and {sup 28}Si, at 14.6 A Gev/c, incident on targets of Be, Al, Cu and Au. The lead glass is most sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, but also responds to charged hadrons. The total detector response provides a good measure of the global pion yield in the central rapidity region of these reactions. Correlations among the 4 detector systems in E802 are shown to be a powerful diagnostic tool. Latest results of the analysis in progress, including dE{sub T}/d{eta} distributions, are presented, with emphasis on the proton -- nucleus data. Additionally, these data, and previous measurements of pseudorapidity distributions of multiplicity and Transverse Energy at both the AGS and CERN are analyzed in an acceptance-independent and model-independent method, with the conclusion that simple considerations of nuclear geometry do not provide an explanation of the different {radical}{sup s}NN dependences observed in {sup 16}O + Au and p-p reactions. 37 refs., 25 figs.

  10. Electron and Proton Auroral Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Gerard, J. C.; Hubert, B.; Fuselier, S.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Gladstone, R.; Burch, J. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Data from the Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) sensitive to far ultraviolet auroras and from the Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, sensitive to proton precipitation induced Lyman alpha were analyzed during a high altitude orbit segment of the IMAGE spacecraft. This segment began during the expansive phase of a substorm. The aurora changed into a double oval configuration, consisting of a set of discrete pole-ward forms and a separate diffuse auroral oval equatorwards, Although IMF Bz was strongly southward considerable activity could be seen poleward of the discrete auroras in the region that was considered to be the polar cap. The SI12 Doppler shifted Lyman alpha signature of precipitating protons show that the proton aurora is on the equatorward side of the diffuse aurora. In the following several hours the IMF Bz field changed signed. Although the general character of the proton and electron aurora did not change, the dayside aurora moved equatorward when the Bz was negative and more bright aurora was seen in the central polar cap during periods of positive Bz.

  11. Protons @ interfaces: implications for biological energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Heberle, Joachim; Cherepanov, Dmitry A

    2006-08-01

    The review focuses on the anisotropy of proton transfer at the surface of biological membranes. We consider (i) the data from "pulsed" experiments, where light-triggered enzymes capture or eject protons at the membrane surface, (ii) the electrostatic properties of water at charged interfaces, and (iii) the specific structural attributes of proton-translocating enzymes. The pulsed experiments revealed that proton exchange between the membrane surface and the bulk aqueous phase takes as much as about 1 ms, but could be accelerated by added mobile pH-buffers. Since the accelerating capacity of the latter decreased with the increase in their electric charge, it was concluded that the membrane surface is separated from the bulk aqueous phase by a barrier of electrostatic nature. The barrier could arise owing to the water polarization at the negatively charged membrane surface. The barrier height depends linearly on the charge of penetrating ions; for protons, it has been estimated as about 0.12 eV. While the proton exchange between the surface and the bulk aqueous phase is retarded by the interfacial barrier, the proton diffusion along the membrane, between neighboring enzymes, takes only microseconds. The proton spreading over the membrane is facilitated by the hydrogen-bonded networks at the surface. The membrane-buried layers of these networks can eventually serve as a storage/buffer for protons (proton sponges). As the proton equilibration between the surface and the bulk aqueous phase is slower than the lateral proton diffusion between the "sources" and "sinks", the proton activity at the membrane surface, as sensed by the energy transducing enzymes at steady state, might deviate from that measured in the adjoining water phase. This trait should increase the driving force for ATP synthesis, especially in the case of alkaliphilic bacteria.

  12. Proton Conductivities of Lamellae-Forming Bioinspired Block Copolymer Thin Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsui, Jun; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Nagao, Yuki

    2016-09-20

    Size-controlled metal nanoparticles (NPs) were spontaneously formed when the amphiphilic diblock copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl catechol) and polystyrene (PVCa-b-PSt) were used as reductants and templates for NPs. In the present study, the proton conductivity of well-aligned lamellae structured PVCa-b-PSt films with Ag NPs was evaluated. We found that the proton conductivity of PVCa-b-PSt film was increased 10-fold by the addition of Ag NPs into the proton conduction channels filled with catechol moieties. In addition, the effect of humidity and the origin of proton conductivity enhancement was investigated. PMID:27589224

  13. Proton Conductivities of Lamellae-Forming Bioinspired Block Copolymer Thin Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsui, Jun; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Nagao, Yuki

    2016-09-20

    Size-controlled metal nanoparticles (NPs) were spontaneously formed when the amphiphilic diblock copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl catechol) and polystyrene (PVCa-b-PSt) were used as reductants and templates for NPs. In the present study, the proton conductivity of well-aligned lamellae structured PVCa-b-PSt films with Ag NPs was evaluated. We found that the proton conductivity of PVCa-b-PSt film was increased 10-fold by the addition of Ag NPs into the proton conduction channels filled with catechol moieties. In addition, the effect of humidity and the origin of proton conductivity enhancement was investigated.

  14. Spin Filtering of Stored (Anti)Protons: from FILTEX to COSY to AD to FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Nikolai; Pavlov, Fyodor

    2008-04-30

    We review the theory of spin filtering of stored (anti) protons by multiple passage through a polarized internal target (PIT). The implications for the antiproton polarization buildup in the proposed PAX experiment at FAIR are discussed.

  15. Spin Filtering of Stored (Anti)Protons: from FILTEX to COSY to AD to FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Nikolai; Pavlov, Fyodor

    2007-06-13

    We review the theory of spin filtering of stored (anti)protons by multiple passage through the polarized internal target (PIT). Implications for the antiproton polarization buildup in the proposed PAX experiment at FAIR GSI are discussed.

  16. Pion content of the nucleon in polarized semi-inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, W.; Thomas, A.W.

    1994-04-01

    An explicit pionic component of the nucleon may be identified by measuring polarized {Delta}{sup ++} fragments produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off polarized protons. The pion-exchange model predicts highly correlated polarizations of the {Delta}{sup ++} and target proton, in marked contrast with the competing diquark fragmentation process.

  17. SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Štěpán, Jiří; Heinzel, Petr

    2013-11-20

    There is ongoing debate about the origin and even the very existence of a high degree of linear polarization of some chromospheric spectral lines observed in solar flares. The standard explanation of these measurements is in terms of the impact polarization caused by non-thermal proton and/or electron beams. In this work, we study the possible role of resonance line polarization due to radiation anisotropy in the inhomogeneous medium of the flare ribbons. We consider a simple two-dimensional model of the flaring chromosphere and we self-consistently solve the non-LTE problem taking into account the role of resonant scattering polarization and of the Hanle effect. Our calculations show that the horizontal plasma inhomogeneities at the boundary of the flare ribbons can lead to a significant radiation anisotropy in the line formation region and, consequently, to a fractional linear polarization of the emergent radiation of the order of several percent. Neglecting the effects of impact polarization, our model can provide a clue for resolving some of the common observational findings, namely: (1) why a high degree of polarization appears mainly at the edges of the flare ribbons; (2) why polarization can also be observed during the gradual phase of a flare; and (3) why polarization is mostly radial or tangential. We conclude that radiation transfer in realistic multi-dimensional models of solar flares needs to be considered as an essential ingredient for understanding the observed spectral line polarization.

  18. Ion polarization in the MEIC figure-8 ion collider ring

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang, P. Chevtsov, A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko, Yu.N. Filatov

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear physics program envisaged at the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) currently being developed at the Jefferson Lab calls for collisions of 3-11 GeV/c longitudinally polarized electrons and 20-100 GeV/c, in equivalent proton momentum, longitudinally/ transversely polarized protons/ deuterons/ light ions. We present a scheme that provides the required ion polarization arrangement in the MEIC's ion collider ring.

  19. Proton scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  20. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs.; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J.; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-08-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells.

  1. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design

    PubMed Central

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs.; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J.; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells. PMID:27488426

  2. Asymmetry-induced resistive switching in Ag-Ag2S-Ag memristors enabling a simplified atomic-scale memory design.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Agnes; Manrique, Dávid Zs; Pósa, László; Lambert, Colin J; Mihály, György; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing models of resistive switching arising from electrochemical formation of conducting filaments across solid state ionic conductors commonly attribute the observed polarity of the voltage-biased switching to the sequence of the active and inert electrodes confining the resistive switching memory cell. Here we demonstrate stable switching behaviour in metallic Ag-Ag2S-Ag nanojunctions at room temperature exhibiting similar characteristics. Our experimental results and numerical simulations reveal that the polarity of the switchings is solely determined by the geometrical asymmetry of the electrode surfaces. By the lithographical design of a proof of principle device we demonstrate the merits of simplified fabrication of atomic-scale, robust planar Ag2S memory cells. PMID:27488426

  3. Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, Marco

    2009-08-04

    We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.

  4. Baryon Spectroscopy with Polarization Observables from CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  5. Review of polarized ion sources (invited).

    PubMed

    Zelenski, A

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H(-) ion (proton), D(-) (D(+)), and (3)He(++) ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL and other laboratories. Polarized deuteron beams will be required for the polarization program at the Dubna Nuclotron and at the deuteron electric dipole moment experiment at BNL. Experiments with polarized (3)He(++) ion beams are a part of the experimental program at the future electron ion collider.

  6. Baryon Spectroscopy with Polarization Observables from CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Steffen

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  7. Ion-proton pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  8. Explore the possibility of accelerating polarized He-3 beam in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2012-05-20

    As the world's first high energy polarized proton collider, RHIC has made significant progresses in measuring the proton spin structure in the past decade. In order to have better understanding of the contribution of up quarks and down quarks to the proton spin structure, collisions of high energy polarized neutron beams are required. Polarized He-3 beams offer an effectiveway to provide polarized neutron beams. In this paper, we present studies of accelerating polarized He-3 in RHIC with the current dual snake configuration. Possibilities of adding two more pairs of snakes for accelerating polarized He-3 were explored. Results of six snake configuration in RHIC are also reported in the paper.

  9. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  10. Self-similarity of proton spin and z-scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, M.; Zborovský, I.

    2016-02-01

    The concept of z-scaling previously developed for analysis of inclusive reactions in proton-proton collisions is applied for description of processes with polarized particles. Hypothesis of self-similarity of the proton spin structure is discussed. The possibility of extracting information on spin-dependent fractal dimensions of hadrons and fragmentation process from the cross sections and asymmetries is justified. The double longitudinal spin asymmetry ALL of jet and π0-meson production and the coefficient of polarization transfer DLL measured in proton-proton collisions at √s = 200 GeV at RHIC are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. The spin-dependent fractal dimension of proton is estimated.

  11. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  12. Distribution of computer functionality for accelerator control at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    A set of physical and functional system components and their interconnection protocols have been established for all controls work at the AGS. Portions of these designs were tested as part of enhanced operation of the AGS as a source of polarized protons and additional segments will be implemented during the continuing construction efforts which are adding heavy ion capability to our facility. Included in our efforts are the following computer and control system elements: a broad band local area network, which embodies MODEMS; transmission systems and branch interface units; a hierarchical layer, which performs certain data base and watchdog/alarm functions; a group of work station processors (Apollo's) which perform the function of traditional minicomputer host(s) and a layer, which provides both real time control and standardization functions for accelerator devices and instrumentation. Data base and other accelerator functionality is assigned to the most correct level within our network for both real time performance, long-term utility, and orderly growth.

  13. Two-photon exchange and elastic electron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Blunden; Wally Melnitchouk; John Tjon

    2003-06-01

    Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic electron-proton scattering cross sections are evaluated in a simple hadronic model including the finite size of the proton. The corrections are found to be small, but with a strong angular dependence at fixed Q{sup 2}. This is significant for the Rosenbluth technique for determining the ratio of electric and magnetic form factors of the proton, and partly reconciles the apparent discrepancy with the results of the polarization transfer technique.

  14. Femtochemistry of Intramolecular Charge and Proton Transfer Reactions in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Sanz, Mikel; Carranza, Maria Angeles; Organero, Juan Angel; Tormo, Laura

    2005-03-17

    We report on the first observation of ultrafast intramolecular charge- and proton-transfer reactions in 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DAMF) in solution. Upon femtosecond excitation of a non-planar structure of DMAF in apolar medium, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) does not occur, and a slow (2 ps) proton motion takes place. However, in polar solvents, the ICT is very fast (100-200 fs) and the produced structure is stabilized that proton motion takes place in few or tens of ps.

  15. Ultra-cold methods for polarized atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Luppov, V. G.; Arnold, J. D.; Blinov, B. B.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Krisch, A. D.; Lin, A. M. T.; Raymond, R. S.; Bychkov, M. A.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Mochalov, V. V.; Semenov, P. A.

    1998-01-20

    Using the ultra-cold electron-spin-polarized atomic hydrogen technique, one can produce a slow monochromatic beam for use as a polarized jet target. We will first review the development of the ultra-cold technique and then discuss the recent progress on Michigan's Mark-II ultra-cold proton-spin-polarized hydrogen jet target.

  16. Experimental effects of orbit on polarization loss in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar V.; Bai, M.; Huang, H.; Marusic, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Minty, M.

    2012-05-20

    We are performing several experiments during the RHIC ramp to better understand the impact of orbit errors on the polarization at our current working point. These will be conducted by exciting specified orbit harmonics during the final two large intrinsic resonance crossing in RHIC during the 250 GeV polarized proton ramp. The resultant polarization response will then be measured.

  17. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  18. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron helicity retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. He also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  19. Kaon pair production in proton-nucleus collisions at 2.83 GeV kinetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Yu. T.; Hartmann, M.; Polyanskiy, A.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Barsov, S.; Büscher, M.; Dymov, S.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Lorentz, B.; Maeda, Y.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Ohm, H.; Serdyuk, V.; Sibirtsev, A.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Stein, H. J.; Ströher, H.; Trusov, S.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Wüstner, P.; Ye, Q. J.

    2015-12-01

    The production of non-ϕ K+K- pairs by protons at 2.83 GeV kinetic energy on C, Cu, Ag, and Au targets has been investigated by using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. The K- momentum dependence of the differential cross section has been measured for laboratory polar angles θK±≤12∘ over the 0.2-0.9 GeV/c range. The comparison of the data with detailed model calculations indicates an attractive K--nucleus potential of about -60 MeV at normal nuclear matter density at a mean momentum of 0.5 GeV/c . However, this approach has difficulty in reproducing the smallness of the observed cross sections at low-K- momenta.

  20. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  1. Preliminary results for the helicity asymmetry E for eta photoproduction on the proton

    SciTech Connect

    B. T. Morrison, M. Dugger, B. G. Ritchie, CLAS Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    Polarization observables are an important tool for clarifying the nucleon resonance spectrum. No previous measurements for double polarization asymmetries have been published for eta photoproduction. Double polarization measurements have been made at Jefferson Lab using a polarized photon beam and protons in a polarized frozen spin target (FROST). Data were taken during the first running period of FROST using the CLAS detector with photon energies from 0.33 to 2.35 GeV. Preliminary results for the E polarization observable for eta meson photoproduction from the proton at threshold and above, along with comparisons to several theoretical predictions are presented.

  2. Cysteine-Ag Cluster Hydrogel Confirmed by Experimental and Numerical Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina

    2015-10-01

    The native cysteine (Cys)-Ag3 cluster hydrogel is approved for the first time by both experimental and theoretical studies. From the detailed molecular structure and energy information, three factors are found to ensure the self-assembly of Cys and Ag3 , and result in the hydrogel. First, the Ag-S bonds make Cys and Ag3 form Cys-Ag3 -Cys monomer. Second, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups of adjacent monomer push them self-assembled. Third, more monomer precisely self-assemble to produce the -[Cys-Ag3 -Cys]n multimer, e.g., a single molecular chain with the left-handed helix conformation, via a benign thermodynamic process. These multimers entangle together to form micro-network to trap water and produce hydorgel in situ. The hydrogen bonds of hydrogel are sensitive to thermal and proton stimuli, and the hydrogel presents lysosome targeting properties via fluorescent imaging with biocompatibility.

  3. Cysteine-Ag Cluster Hydrogel Confirmed by Experimental and Numerical Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina

    2015-10-01

    The native cysteine (Cys)-Ag3 cluster hydrogel is approved for the first time by both experimental and theoretical studies. From the detailed molecular structure and energy information, three factors are found to ensure the self-assembly of Cys and Ag3 , and result in the hydrogel. First, the Ag-S bonds make Cys and Ag3 form Cys-Ag3 -Cys monomer. Second, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups of adjacent monomer push them self-assembled. Third, more monomer precisely self-assemble to produce the -[Cys-Ag3 -Cys]n multimer, e.g., a single molecular chain with the left-handed helix conformation, via a benign thermodynamic process. These multimers entangle together to form micro-network to trap water and produce hydorgel in situ. The hydrogen bonds of hydrogel are sensitive to thermal and proton stimuli, and the hydrogel presents lysosome targeting properties via fluorescent imaging with biocompatibility. PMID:26248576

  4. Study of elastic proton-proton scattering with the STAR detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Rafal

    2015-09-01

    The STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is equipped with system of dedicated Silicon Strip Detectors housed inside Roman Pot vessels, allowing to detect protons scattered at small angles. Data from polarized proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass system (c.m.s.) energy √s = 200 GeV collected with special settings of RHIC magnet lattice (β * = 22 m) allow to study proton-proton elastic scattering at very low values of squared four-momentum transfer (Mandelstam t), 0:003 <= -t <= 0:035 GeV2=c2. Results of analysis of systematic effects and large statistics of collected data sample reveal possibility of measurement of the Nuclear Slope Parameter with precision not yet achieved at this c.m.s. energy.

  5. Direct observation of Ag filament growth and unconventional SET-RESET operation in GeTe amorphous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Yusuke; Kida, Shimon; Nakaoka, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    We report on the direct observation of Ag filament growth and a peculiar resistance switching in amorphous GeTe films with a lateral electrode geometry. The Ag filament growth was monitored by in-situ optical microscopy. The resistance switching was studied in three electrode pairs, Ag-Ag, Pt-Ag, and Pt-Ag/Pt (Ag electrode covered with Pt). In all the three electrode pairs, similar dendritic Ag filaments were clearly observed growing along both directions from one electrode to the other, according to the applied bias polarity. However, the SET and RESET processes are quite different. The Ag-Ag pair produces a unipolar clockwise switching. The Pt-Ag pair shows a bipolar counter-clockwise switching, as predicted in the basic electrochemical metallization theory, but the observed switching polarity is exactly opposite to the basic theory prediction. The Pt-Ag/Pt pair produces a unipolar counter-clockwise switching. The peculiar SET/RESET processes are explained on the basis of strong Ag diffusion into GeTe matrix resulting in an asymmetric effective electrode pair. The findings suggest that the SET/RESET processes are controlled by the amount of Ag and the electrode geometry.

  6. Measurement of the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV using the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. 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R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. 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R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A.; Khodinov, A.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T. J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. 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A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-02-10

    We measure the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of mass energy of 7 TeV is measured. The analysis uses 760 μb₋1 of minimum bias data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2010. The measured transverse polarization averaged over Feynman xF from 5 × 10₋5 to 0.01 and transverse momentum pT from 0.8 to 15 GeV is ₋0.010 ± 0.005(stat) ± 0.004(syst) for Λ and 0.002 ± 0.006(stat) ± 0.004(syst) for Λ¯ . It is also measured as a function of xF and pT, but we observed no significant dependence on these variables. Prior to this measurement, the polarization was measured at fixed-target experiments with center-of-mass energies up to about 40 GeV. The ATLAS results are compatible with the extrapolation of a fit from previous measurements to the xF range covered by this measurement.

  7. Polarization developments

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  8. Protonated water clusters in TPC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Yunus; Kalkan, Yalçın; Veenhof, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Water vapour is added to the ALICE TPC gas to enhance its stability. These polar molecules create large protonated water clusters around a H+ core. In this context, the reactions H3O+(H2 O) n - 1 +H2 O →H3O+(H2O)n (n=1-9) were studied in the gas phase. Structures for these clusters are suggested and the most stable structures for each cluster size are shown. The thermodynamic parameters Δ Hn-1,n0, Δ Gn-1,n0, Δ Sn-1,n0 and equilibrium constants K n - 1 , n for the reaction were calculated to determine the size of the water clusters. The results are close to experimental data found in the literature. Protonated water clusters at stp have a size of 6-9 which corresponds to a mass of 127.1 - 181.2 g / mole.

  9. Neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tetsuya; Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-06-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally distinct processes called axons and dendrites. This polarization underlies the directional flow of information in the central nervous system, so the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarization is crucial for correct development and function. Great progress in our understanding of how neurons establish their polarity has been made through the use of cultured hippocampal neurons, while recent technological advances have enabled in vivo analysis of axon specification and elongation. This short review and accompanying poster highlight recent advances in this fascinating field, with an emphasis on the signaling mechanisms underlying axon and dendrite specification in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  11. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  12. Opportunities with Polarized Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzon, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Spin physics at future hadron facilities provide unique opportunities for the study of QCD well beyond those available at existing facilities. Opportunities with polarized protons in the Fermilab Main Injector are discussed that encompass polarized Drell-Yan scattering of unprecedented precision and also enable measurements of transversity, helicty and other transverse momentum dependent distributions. Forthcoming measurements at COMPASS-II that aim to test fundamental predictions of non-perturbative QCD, and complementary studies at RHIC-Spin that address, among others, open puzzles such as the sharing of the nucleon spin among its constituents are also discussed.

  13. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  14. Polar Bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.D.; ,; Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

  15. Polarized rainbow.

    PubMed

    Können, G P; de Boer, J H

    1979-06-15

    The Airy theory of the rainbow is extended to polarized light. For both polarization directions a simple analytic expression is obtained for the intensity distribution as a function of the scattering angle in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. This approach is valid at least down to droplet diameters of 0.3 mm in visible light. The degree of polarization of the rainbow is less than expected from geometrical optics; it increases with droplet size. For a droplet diameter >1 mm the locations of the supernumerary rainbows are equal for both polarization directions, but for a diameter <1 mm the supernumerary rainbows of the weaker polarization component are located between those in the strong component. PMID:20212586

  16. The SH3/PH domain protein AgBoi1/2 collaborates with the Rho-type GTPase AgRho3 to prevent nonpolar growth at hyphal tips of Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Philipp; Wendland, Jürgen; Philippsen, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Unlike most other cells, hyphae of filamentous fungi permanently elongate and lack nonpolar growth phases. We identified AgBoi1/2p in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii as a component required to prevent nonpolar growth at hyphal tips. Strains lacking AgBoi1/2p frequently show spherical enlargement at hyphal tips with concomitant depolarization of actin patches and loss of tip-located actin cables. These enlarged tips can repolarize and resume hyphal tip extension in the previous polarity axis. AgBoi1/2p permanently localizes to hyphal tips and transiently to sites of septation. Only the tip localization is important for sustained elongation of hyphae. In a yeast two-hybrid experiment, we identified the Rho-type GTPase AgRho3p as an interactor of AgBoi1/2p. AgRho3p is also required to prevent nonpolar growth at hyphal tips, and strains deleted for both AgBOI1/2 and AgRHO3 phenocopied the respective single-deletion strains, demonstrating that AgBoi1/2p and AgRho3p function in a common pathway. Monitoring the polarisome of growing hyphae using AgSpa2p fused to the green fluorescent protein as a marker, we found that polarisome disassembly precedes the onset of nonpolar growth in strains lacking AgBoi1/2p or AgRho3p. AgRho3p locked in its GTP-bound form interacts with the Rho-binding domain of the polarisome-associated formin AgBni1p, implying that AgRho3p has the capacity to directly activate formin-driven actin cable nucleation. We conclude that AgBoi1/2p and AgRho3p support polarisome-mediated actin cable formation at hyphal tips, thereby ensuring permanent polar tip growth. PMID:16950929

  17. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  18. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  19. Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcucci, Laura Elisa; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, MIchele

    2013-05-01

    The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.

  20. Proton-proton weak capture in chiral effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2013-05-10

    The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium β decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030±0.006)×10(-23) MeV fm(2), with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10(-23) MeV fm(2). The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence.

  1. Proton-proton weak capture in chiral effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2013-05-10

    The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium β decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030±0.006)×10(-23) MeV fm(2), with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10(-23) MeV fm(2). The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence. PMID:23705703

  2. Polarization Preservation and Control in a Figure-8 Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, Ya. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Lin, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab’s proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider’s experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  3. PROTON BEAM EMITTANCE GROWTH AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.; PTITSYN, V.

    2007-06-25

    With significant beam intensity improvement in RHIC polarized proton runs in 2005 and 2006, the emittance growth becomes a luminosity limiting factor. The beam emittance growth has a dependence on the dynamic pressure rise, which in RHIC proton runs is mainly caused by the electron cloud. The beam instability is usually absent, and the emittance growth rate is much slower than the ones caused by the head-tail instability. It is suspected that the emittance growth is caused by the electron cloud below the instability threshold.

  4. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues. PMID:22400143

  5. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  6. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  7. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  8. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  9. Asymmetries in inclusive pion production at large x{sub F} = (0.5 to 0.8) and p{sub T} {ge} 0.8 GeV/c with a polarized beam for a RHIC polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, K.; LeCompte, T.; Spinka, H.

    1996-08-26

    The authors propose to measure asymmetries in the inclusive reactions, using a transversely polarized beam, a liquid hydrogen target, and a carbon target. The measurements would be made using the 23-GeV/c proton beam in an extracted beam line from the AGS, a spectrometer consisting of an analyzing magnet, scintillation hodoscopes, scintillation trigger counters, and a gas threshold Cerenkov counter. The kinematic range covered by the experiments would be p{sub T} up to 1.0 GeV/c and x{sub F} = p*{sub L}/p*{sub max} {approx} 0.5 to 0.8. The purpose of this proposal is to obtain basic information in order to design a polarimeter for the RHIC polarized beams. The RHIC polarimeter is a crucial item for the success of the RHIC spin program.

  10. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  11. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  12. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. PMID:24074929

  13. High-energy test of proton radiography concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, J.F.; Atencio, L.G.; Espinoza, C.J.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of high energy protons to produce radiographs of heavy metal test objects. The authors executed a proof-of-principle experiment using GeV proton beams available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The experiment produced proton radiographs of a suitably dense, unclassified test object. The experiment tested capabilities in data collection, image reconstruction, and hydro-code simulation and validated models of high-energy proton radiography. A lens was designed using existing quadrupole magnets, constructed on the A1 beam line of the AGS and used to image 10-GeV protons. The results include: (1) images made with an integrating detector, (2) measurements of the background and measurements of the resolution functions, and (3) forward model fits to the transmission data. In all cases the results agree with initial estimates and provide strong support for the utility of proton radiography as a new hydrotest diagnostic.

  14. Effect of Ag nanoparticle concentration on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ag/P(VDF-TrFE) composite films

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Haemin; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the Ag nanoparticles on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Ag/poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) composite films. We found that the remanent polarization and direct piezoelectric coefficient increased up to 12.14 μC/cm2 and 20.23 pC/N when the Ag concentration increased up to 0.005 volume percent (v%) and decreased down to 9.38 μC/cm2 and 13.45 pC/N when it increased up to 0.01 v%. Further increase in Ag concentration resulted in precipitation of Ag phase and significant leakage current that hindered any meaningful measurement of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. 46% increase of the remanent polarization value and 27% increase of the direct piezoelectric coefficient were observed in the film with the 0.005 v% of the Ag nanoparticles added without significant changes to the crystalline structure confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments. These enhancements of both the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are attributed to the increase in the effective electric field induced by the reduction in the effective volume of P(VDF-TrFE) that results in more aligned dipoles. PMID:26336795

  15. Effect of Ag nanoparticle concentration on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ag/P(VDF-TrFE) composite films

    DOE PAGES

    Paik, Haemin; Choi, Yoon -Young; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-09-04

    We investigated the effect of the Ag nanoparticles on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Ag/poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) composite films. We found that the remanent polarization and direct piezoelectric coefficient increased up to 12.14 μC/cm2 and 20.23 pC/N when the Ag concentration increased up to 0.005 volume percent (v%) and decreased down to 9.38 μC/cm2 and 13.45 pC/N when it increased up to 0.01 v%. Further increase in Ag concentration resulted in precipitation of Ag phase and significant leakage current that hindered any meaningful measurement of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. 46% increase of the remanent polarization value and 27% increasemore » of the direct piezoelectric coefficient were observed in the film with the 0.005 v% of the Ag nanoparticles added without significant changes to the crystalline structure confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments. The enhancements of both the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are attributed to the increase in the effective electric field induced by the reduction in the effective volume of P(VDF-TrFE) that results in more aligned dipoles.« less

  16. Effect of Ag nanoparticle concentration on the electrical and ferroelectric properties of Ag/P(VDF-TrFE) composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, Haemin; Choi, Yoon -Young; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-09-04

    We investigated the effect of the Ag nanoparticles on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Ag/poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) composite films. We found that the remanent polarization and direct piezoelectric coefficient increased up to 12.14 μC/cm2 and 20.23 pC/N when the Ag concentration increased up to 0.005 volume percent (v%) and decreased down to 9.38 μC/cm2 and 13.45 pC/N when it increased up to 0.01 v%. Further increase in Ag concentration resulted in precipitation of Ag phase and significant leakage current that hindered any meaningful measurement of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. 46% increase of the remanent polarization value and 27% increase of the direct piezoelectric coefficient were observed in the film with the 0.005 v% of the Ag nanoparticles added without significant changes to the crystalline structure confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments. The enhancements of both the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are attributed to the increase in the effective electric field induced by the reduction in the effective volume of P(VDF-TrFE) that results in more aligned dipoles.

  17. Central Exclusive Production in Proton-Proton Collisions with the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryn, Włodek

    2016-07-01

    We shall describe the physics program with tagged forward protons, focusing on Central Exclusive Production in polarized proton-proton collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with the STAR detector at √s = 200 GeV. Preliminary results in CEP of two oppositely charged pions and kaons produced in the processes pp → ppπ+π- and pp → ppK+K- shall be presented. Those Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) processes, allow the final states to be dominated by gluonic exchanges. Silicon strip detectors placed in Roman Pots were used for measuring forward protons. The preliminary results are based on the measurement of the recoil system of charged particles in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Ionization energy loss, dE/dx, of charged particles was used for particle identification (PID).

  18. Proton-driven electromagnetic instabilities in high-speed solar wind streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham-Shrauner, B.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities of the field-aligned, right-hand circularly polarized magnetosonic wave and the left-hand circularly polarized Alfven wave driven by two drifted proton components are analyzed for model parameters determined from Imp 7 solar wind proton data measured during high-speed flow conditions. Growth rates calculated using bi-Lorentzian forms for the main and beam proton as well as core and halo electron velocity distributions do not differ significantly from those calculated using bi-Maxwellian forms. Using distribution parameters determined from 17 measured proton spectra, we show that considering the uncertainties the magnetosonic wave may be linearly stable and the Alfven wave is linearly unstable. Because proton velocity distribution function shapes are observed to persist for times long compared to the proton gyroperiod, the latter result suggests that linear stability theory fails for proton-driven ion cyclotron waves in the high-speed solar wind.

  19. Mixing of Proton and Electron Scales - Effects of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Electron Firehose Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A. F.; Poedts, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We perform kinetic linear theory instability analysis in a non-drifting anisotropic electron-proton plasma to study the effects of proton temperature anisotropies on the electron firehose instability in the collisionless solar wind. We solve the Vlasov linear theory dispersion relation for hot highly anisotropic electron-proton plasma in high-beta regime to study the behavior of the solar wind plasma close to the instability thresholds as observed by different spacecraft at 1 AU. We consider temperature and anisotropy regimes for which the electrons and the protons can interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters simultaneous electron and proton firehose instabilities can be observed with the growth rate of the electron firehose instability extending towards the proton scales. The co-existance of the proton and the electron firehose and the mixing of scales for the electromagnetic fluctuations excited by the two instabilities depends on the initial temperatures, anisotropies and angle of propagation. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. We calculate the maximum growth rate of the oblique electron firehose as a function of the proton temperature anisotropy and discuss the implications of the electron-proton scale mixing for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in the undisturbed solar wind.

  20. What's the matter in the Proton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beise, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    It has been over 70 years since the Nobel Prize was awarded to Otto Stern for the discovery that the proton has an anomalously large magnetic moment, nearly three times what one expects from a spin-1/2 object with no internal structure. This was one of the first hints of the spatial extent of protons and neutrons that make up nearly all of the visible matter in the universe. Not long after this discovery, this interior landscape began to be explored in detail through the use of electron scattering, a precision microscope with which one can peer deep inside the nucleon. Recent experiments, using polarized beams, light polarized targets, recoil detection and complementary views via the weak interaction are now changing our traditional textbook view of the nucleon and its lowest-lying excited states. This talk will be a review of the recent experimental results and a summary of near future opportunities.

  1. Impedance studies of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag. Technical report No. 15, August 1987-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, M.W.; Drstak, H.; Maly-Schreiber, M.

    1988-07-01

    The construction of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag is described. The impedance of this cell was measured between .001 and 10000 Hz at temperatures between 20 and 550 C. At temperatures below 100 C the cell impedance is determined to a large extent by the bulk resistance of the AgI layer and to a smaller extent by the impedance of the interface Ag/Agi. At temperatures between 160 and 350 C the impedance is controlled by the bulk resistance of the Ag beta alumina and an impedance due to contact problems between Ag and AgI. The bulk resistance of the beta' alumina becomes predominant between 350 and 550 C. A hindrance due to the transfer of silver ions from AgI to Ag beta' alumina was not observable in the whole temperature range.

  2. OPPIS UPGRADE FOR 2003 POLARIZED RUN IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZELENSKI,A.ALESSI,J.BRISCOE,B.KPONOU,A.KOKHANOVSKI,S.KLENOV,V.LODESTRO,V.RITTER,J.ZUBETS,V.

    2002-11-06

    The polarization dilution by molecular ions which are produced in the ECR primary proton source is discussed. The molecular component can be reduced to about 5% by ECR source-operation optimization. It is further suppressed by optimization of the extraction electrode optics and by the decelerating einzel lens in the 35 keV LEBT line. As a result, the proton polarization of the accelerated beam was increased to over 80%. as measured in the 200 MeV proton-deuterium polarimeter. The OPPIS upgrade for 6 2/3 Hz repetition rate operation is also discussed.

  3. Review of Polarized Internal Gas Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmann, Frank

    2000-12-31

    Experiments utilizing polarized internal gas targets are reviewed. For a few years now these targets have been used at electron and proton machines, and the progress made in operating these targets on a routine basis has been pronounced. The focus in this paper is on experimental aspects, such as the design and construction of storage cells and different methods employed for polarimetry.

  4. Polarization Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    1998-01-01

    As light passes through a optical system the reflections and refractions will in general change the polarization state of the light. If we assume that all of the materials in the thin film coatings and substrate are isotropic and homogeneous then calculating the amount of "instrumental" polarization is a relatively straight forward task. In the following sections we will present a of the steps required to perform a 'polarization ray trace' calculation for a single ray and monochromatic and hence polarized light. The thin film portion of the calculation is also shown. The reason for explicitly showing the thin film equations is that there are sign conventions imposed on the boundary value equations by the orientation and handedness of the various coordinate frames which are attached to the geometric rays. The attenuation of light through a optical system, is relatively simple, and requires at the very least a lens (average) reflectivity or transmissivity. Determining the polarization sensitivity of a optical system is still relatively straight forward requiring at least a knowledge of the behavior of the "s" and "p" components at each interface for the chief ray. Determining the thin film induced aberrations of a optical system are somewhat more demanding. Questions about the arithmetic sign of the phase factors and how this relates to the overall "OPD" of a ray are ubiquitous. Many rays are required to construct a wavefront. Thin film codes which modify the OPD's of rays are a requirement for this last mentioned computation. This requires a consistent scheme of coordinate frames and sign conventions and is probably the most demanding task of a polarization ray trace. Only the electric field will used in the discussion. This is not a restriction as the Stokes parameters are functions of the electric field. The following does not attempt to explain, but only to present all of the required concepts and formulas.

  5. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  6. Pulsars as cosmic ray particle accelerators: Proton orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielheim, K. O.

    1985-01-01

    Proton orbits are calculated in the electromagnetic vacuum field of a magnetic point dipole rotating with its angular velocity omega perpendicular to its dipole moment mu by numerical integration of the Lorentz-Dirac equation. Trajectories are shown and discussed for various initial conditions. A critical surface is shown separating initial positions of protons which finally hit the pulsar in the polar region from those which finally recede to infinity.

  7. Instrumentation and control of the AGS Booster vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabusi, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.C.; Rosas, P.; Sandburg, J.; Shen, B.; Stattel, P.; Zapasek, R.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. A pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} Torr is required for the acceleration of the partially stripped, low {Beta}, very heavy ions. This paper describes the power supplies and controls for this ultra-high vacuum system with the emphasis on the operation of the ion gauge system over long cable length and on equipment interlock 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-01

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  9. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl.

    PubMed

    Tahara, S; Kawakita, Y; Shimakura, H; Ohara, K; Fukami, T; Takeda, S

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  10. Modelling of the AGS using Zgoubi - Status

    SciTech Connect

    Meot F.; Ahrens, L.; Dutheil, Y.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tsoupas, N.

    2012-05-20

    This paper summarizes the progress achieved so far, and discusses various outcomes, regarding the development of a model of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the RHIC collider. The model, based on stepwise ray-tracing methods, includes beam and polarization dynamics. This is an on-going work, and a follow-on of code developments and particle and spin dynamics simulations that have been subject to earlier publications at IPAC and PAC [1, 2, 3]. A companion paper [4] gives additional informations, regarding the use of the measured magnetic field maps of the AGS main magnets.

  11. PAX: Polarized Antiproton eXperiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lenisa, P.

    2005-10-06

    Polarized antiprotons produced by spin filtering with an internal polarized gas target provide access to a wealth of single- and double-spin observables, thereby opening a window to physics uniquely accessible with the HESR at FAIR. This includes a first measurement of the transversity distribution of the valence quarks in the proton, and a first measurement of the moduli and the relative phase of the time-like electric and magnetic form factors GE,M of the proton. In polarized and unpolarized pp-bar elastic scattering open questions like the contribution from the odd charge-symmetry Landshoff-mechanism at large vertical bar t vertical bar and spin-effects in the extraction of the forward scattering amplitude at low vertical bar t vertical bar can be addressed.

  12. Pulsed polarization transfer for 13C NMR in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Ad; Szeverenyi, Nikolaus M.; Maciel, Gary E.

    A new pulsed polarization transfer experiment method is described for the polarization of 13C spins in a solid by magnetization transfer from protons. The method is directly analogous to the INEPT sequence for liquids introduced by Freeman and Morris. As polarization is transferred in PPT between individual 1H 13C pairs, rather than between spin reservoirs, different opportunities exist for structurally selective experiments. Results on p-diethoxybenzene and coronene are presented.

  13. Ultra-cold methods for polarized atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Luppov, V.G.; Arnold, J.D.; Blinov, B.B.; Bychkov, M.A.; Gladycheva, S.E.; Krisch, A.D.; Lin, A.M.; Raymond, R.S.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Bychkov, M.A.; Mochalov, V.V.; Semenov, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Using the ultra-cold electron-spin-polarized atomic hydrogen technique, one can produce a slow monochromatic beam for use as a polarized jet target. We will first review the development of the ultra-cold technique and then discuss the recent progress on Michigan{close_quote}s Mark-II ultra-cold proton-spin-polarized hydrogen jet target. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. A H+/Ag+ dual-target responsive label-free light-up probe based on a DNA triplex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Guo, Yahui; Wang, Jine; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hong, Shanni; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Jianye; Pei, Renjun

    2015-05-01

    We developed a dual-target responsive sensor for label-free light-up fluorescent detection of protons (H(+)) and silver ions (Ag(+)) using an "OR'' logic gate. Berberine, a cost-effective and non-toxic indicator, partially intercalates the formed triplex DNA in the presence of H(+) or Ag(+), generating enhanced fluorescence. The designed Ag(+) probe has high selectivity and desirable sensitivity, which is necessary for practical use. The robust "OR" logic gate is capable of a rapid and reversible response to the H(+) and/or Ag(+) inputs. PMID:25663002

  15. Conceptual design of a polarized 3He neutron spin filter for polarized neutron spectrometer POLANO at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, T.; Ohoyama, K.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Ohkawara, M.; Kira, H.; Hayashida, H.; Sakai, K.; Hiroi, K.; Oku, T.; Kakurai, K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) has been designed for a new polarized neutron chopper spectrometer called the Polarization Analysis Neutron Spectrometer with Correlation Method (POLANO) at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It is designed to fit in a limited space on the spectrometer as an initial neutron beam polarizer and is polarized in situ by spin exchange optical pumping. This will be the first generation 3He NSF on POLANO, and a polarized neutron beam up to 100 meV with a diameter of 50 mm will be available for research on magnetism, hydrogen materials, and strongly correlated electron systems.

  16. The Carrington Event: Possible Solar Proton Intensity-Time Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; McCracken, K. G.

    2004-05-01

    We evaluate the >30 MeV proton fluence associated with the Carrington event as 1.9 x 10**10 protons per sqcm based on the analysis of solar proton generated NO(y) radicals that are deposited in polar ice. (See McCracken et al., JGR, 106, 21,585, 2001.) We construct a possible intensity-time profile of the solar particle flux for this event by assuming that it is part of the class of interplanetary shock dominated events where the maximum particle flux is observed as the shock passes the earth. We show that most of the very large solar proton fluence events (those with >30 MeV omnidirectonal fluence exceeding 1 x 10**9 protons per cmsq) observed at the earth during the last 50 years belong to this class of event.

  17. Lyman-alpha emission from nonthermal proton beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orrall, F. Q.; Zirker, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Nonthermal fast protons penetrating an atmosphere containing neutral hydrogen will produce some nonthermal fast neutrals which will radiate Doppler-shifted photons. The hydrogen line profiles observed from such an atmosphere will thus have nonthermal, partially polarized wings that contain information on the flux, energy spectrum, and direction of the incident proton beam. This paper develops the theory of this effect and applies it to proton beams from impulsive solar flares impacting on the sun's atmosphere. Calculations of the L-alpha profile from the region of impact have been made for the Vernazza-Avrett-Loeser solar atmosphere assuming proton energy fluxes and power-law spectra similar to those inferred for the electron beams believed responsible for hard X-ray bursts. The resulting profiles show that the effect should be detectable and that it could serve as a diagnostic for flare protons near their place of origin on the sun.

  18. Simulation study of proton transport in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2008-03-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe that proton transport through this polymer electrolyte membrane is accompanied by morphological changes that include the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer side chains assemble into clusters, which then form rod-like formations, and these cylindrical structures then assemble into a hexagonally ordered array aligned with the direction of current flow. For dry ionomers, at current densities in excess of 1 A/cm^2 these rod-like clusters undergo an inner micro-phase separation, in which distinct wire-like lines of sulfonate head groups are accompanied by similar wire-like alignments of bound protons. The clusters appear to be of two types. If there are two, four, or five lines of sulfonates then there is an equal number of lines of protons, but if there are three lines of sulfonates then they are accompanied by four lines of protons. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexagonal array of rod-like structures remains, but the microphase separation disappears below the threshold current of 1 A/cm^2.

  19. Nanoantioxidant-driven plasmon enhanced proton-coupled electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Blattmann, Christoph O.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2015-12-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the transfer of a proton and an electron and play an important role in a number of chemical and biological processes. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, plasmon-enhanced PCET, which is manifested using SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles functionalized with gallic acid (GA), a natural antioxidant molecule that can perform PCET. These GA-functionalized nanoparticles show enhanced plasmonic response at near-IR wavelengths, due to particle agglomeration caused by the GA molecules. Near-IR laser irradiation induces strong local hot-spots on the SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles, as evidenced by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This leads to plasmon energy transfer to the grafted GA molecules that lowers the GA-OH bond dissociation enthalpy by at least 2 kcal mol-1 and therefore facilitates PCET. The nanoparticle-driven plasmon-enhancement of PCET brings together the so far unrelated research domains of nanoplasmonics and electron/proton translocation with significant impact on applications based on interfacial electron/proton transfer.Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the transfer of a proton and an electron and play an important role in a number of chemical and biological processes. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, plasmon-enhanced PCET, which is manifested using SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles functionalized with gallic acid (GA), a natural antioxidant molecule that can perform PCET. These GA-functionalized nanoparticles show enhanced plasmonic response at near-IR wavelengths, due to particle agglomeration caused by the GA molecules. Near-IR laser irradiation induces strong local hot-spots on the SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles, as evidenced by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This leads to plasmon energy transfer to the grafted GA molecules that lowers the GA-OH bond dissociation enthalpy by at least 2 kcal mol-1 and therefore facilitates PCET. The nanoparticle-driven plasmon

  20. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  1. Polar Diving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free.

    Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  2. Polar Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroding mesas of frozen carbon dioxide in the martian south polar residual cap. During the summer season, the scarps that bound each pit and mesa in the south polar region become dark as carbon dioxide sublimes away. The darkening might result from the roughening of the surfaces from which ice is subliming, or from the concentration of trace amounts of dust on these slopes, or both.

    Location near: 84.7oS, 48.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Liquid hydrogen in protonic chabazite.

    PubMed

    Zecchina, Adriano; Bordiga, Silvia; Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Carlo; Spoto, Giuseppe; Bjørgen, Morten; Lillerud, Karl Petter

    2005-05-01

    Due to its fully reversible nature, H(2) storage by molecular adsorption could represent an advantage with respect to dissociative processes, where kinetic effects during the charging and discharging processes are present. A drawback of this strategy is represented by the extremely weak interactions that require low temperature and high pressure. High surface area materials hosting polarizing sites can represent a viable way toward more favorable working conditions. Of these, in this contribution, we have studied hydrogen adsorption in a series of zeolites using volumetric techniques and infrared spectroscopy at 15 K. We have found that in H-SSZ-13 zeolite the cooperative role played by high surface area, internal wall topology, and presence of high binding energy sites (protons) allows hydrogen to densify inside the nanopores at favorable temperature and pressure conditions. PMID:15853343

  4. Proton and Ion Beams Generated with Picosecond CO{sub 2} Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, Igor; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Stolyarov, Daniil; Shkolnikov, Peter; Chen Min; Pukhov, Alexander; McKenna, Paul; Carroll, David; Neely, David; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Willingale, Louise; Stolyarova, Elena; Flynn, George

    2009-01-22

    1-TW, 6-ps, circularly polarized CO{sub 2} laser pulses focused onto thin Al foils are used to drive ion acceleration. The spectra of ions and protons generated in the direction normal to the rear surface, detected with a compact magnet spectrometer with CR39, reveals a broad proton high-energy peak at {approx}1 MeV. This observation conforms to the theoretical predictions that circularly polarized laser pulses are less efficient than linearly polarized pulses in driving ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Instead, there is evidence that the circularly polarized laser may provide direct ponderomotive acceleration of ions and protons. We report also the first application of the BNL proton source in nano-science. Irradiation of graphite and graphene films produced local defects and membranes for variety of applications.

  5. Proton Spin Structure in the Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    F. R. Wesselmann; K. Slifer; S. Tajima; A. Aghalaryan; A. Ahmidouch; R. Asaturyan; F. Bloch; W. Boeglin; P. Bosted; C. Carasco; R. Carlini; J. Cha; J. P. Chen; M. E. Christy; L. Cole; L. Coman; D. Crabb; S. Danagoulian; D. Day; J. Dunne; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; H. Fenker; E. Frlez; L. Gan; D. Gaskell; J. Gomez; B. Hu; M. K. Jones; J. Jourdan; C. Keith; C. E. Keppel; M. Khandaker; A. Klein; L. Kramer; Y. Liang; J. Lichtenstadt; R. Lindgren; D. Mack; P. McKee; D. McNulty; D. Meekins; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Nasseripour; I. Niculescu; K. Normand; B. Norum; D. Pocanic; Y. Prok; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; D. Rohe; O. A. Rondon; N. Savvinov; B. Sawatzky; M. Seely; I. Sick; C. Smith; G. Smith; S. Stepanyan; L. Tang; G. Testa; W. Vulcan; K. Wang; G. Warren; S. Wood; C. Yan; L. Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-10-11

    The RSS collaboration has measured the spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} of the proton at Jefferson Lab using the lab's polarized electron beam, the Hall C HMS spectrometer and the UVa polarized solid target. The asymmetries A{sub parallel} and A{sub perp} were measured at the elastic peak and in the region of the nucleon resonances (1.085 GeV < W < 1.910 GeV) at an average four momentum transfer of Q{sup 2} = 1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extracted spin structure functions and their kinematic dependence make a significant contribution in the study of higher-twist effects and polarized duality tests.

  6. Effects of slow clinorotation on lipid contents and proton permeability of thylakoid membranes of pea chloroplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylenko, N. F.; Sytnik, S. K.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Photochemical characteristics and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes from 12 day-old pea leaves that were exposed to slow clino-rotation were examined and compared with a vertical control. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes was estimated from light-induced proton uptake (ΔH+) and post-illumination proton efflux in chloroplast suspensions. The ΔpH magnitude was calculated from the level of light-induced quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence. Proton permeability of thylakoid membranes increased during exposure to clino-rotation. When subsequently transferred to darkness, proton efflux increased almost 2-fold in clinorotated leaves. The results were compared with data on pigment and polar lipid composition of photosynthetic membranes in clino-rotated and control plants. It was concluded that both the increase of proton permeability and the decrease of polar lipid content in chloroplasts were induced by clino-rotation.

  7. Morphological and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Zn–Ag nanoparticle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Punith Kumar, M.K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm were chemically synthesized and used to fabricate Zn–Ag composite coatings. The Zn–Ag composite coatings were generated by electrodeposition method using a simple sulfate plating bath dispersed with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and texture co-efficient calculations revealed that Ag nanoparticles appreciably influenced the morphology, micro-structure and texture of the deposit. It was also noticed that agglomerates of Ag nanoparticles, in the case of high bath load conditions, produced defects and dislocations on the deposit surface. Ag nanoparticles altered the corrosion resistance property of Zn–Ag composite coatings as observed from Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance analysis and an immersion test. Reduction in corrosion rate with increased charge transfer resistance was observed for Zn–Ag composite coatings when compared to a pure Zn coating. However, the particle concentration in the plating bath and their agglomeration state directly influenced the surface morphology and the subsequent corrosion behavior of the deposits. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm • Fabrication of Zn/nano Ag composite coating on mild steel • Composite coatings showed better corrosion resistance. • Optimization of particle concentration is necessary.

  8. The Schwarzschild Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Haramein, Nassim

    2010-11-24

    We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage ({approx}10{sup -39}%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be {approx}10{sup -38} to 10{sup -40} weaker than the strong force. Gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10{sup -23} s and a frequency of 10{sup 22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

  9. TWO-PHOTON EXCHANGE IN ELECTRON-PROTON ELASTIC SCATTERING: THEORY UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Afanasev

    2007-05-21

    Recent theoretical developments in the studies of two-photon exchange effects in elastic electron-proton scattering are reviewed. Two-photon exchange mechanism is considered a likely source of discrepancy between polarized and unpolarized experimental measurements of the proton electric form factor at momentum transfers of several GeV$^2$. This mechanism predicts measurable effects that are currently studied experimentally.

  10. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  11. Polar Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of carbon dioxide ice in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The scarps that outline each small mesa have retreated about 3 meters (10 feet) per Mars year since MGS began orbiting the red planet in 1997.

    Location near: 87.0oS, 31.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  12. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a slope upon which are exposed some of the layered materials that underlie the south polar cap of Mars. The layers are generally considered to be sediments--perhaps dust--that may have been cemented by water ice.

    Location near: 84.1oS, 343.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  14. Medical Applications: Proton Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2009-05-01

    Proton therapy is a highly advanced and precise form of radiation treatment for cancer. Due to the characteristic Bragg peak associated with ion energy deposition, proton therapy provides the radiation oncologist with an improved method of treatment localization within a patient, as compared with conventional radiation therapy using X-rays or electrons. Controlling disease and minimizing side effects are the twin aims of radiation treatment. Proton beams enhance the opportunity for both by facilitating maximal dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding tissue. In the United States, five proton radiotherapy centers currently treat cancer patients, with more in the construction phase. New facilities and enabling technologies abound. An overview of the treatment modality generally, as well as of the capabilities and research planned for the field and for the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute in particular, will be presented.

  15. Quarkonium production in high energyproton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    del Valle, Z C; Corcella, G; Fleuret, F; Ferreiro, E G; Kartvelishvili, V; Kopeliovich, B; Lansberg, J P; Lourenco, C; Martinez, G; Papadimitriou, V; Satz, H; Scomparin, E; Ullrich, T; Teryaev, O; Vogt, R; Wang, J X

    2011-03-14

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarization studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  16. Experiments with longitudinally polarized electrons in a storage ring using a siberian snake

    PubMed

    Poolman; Boersma; Harvey; Higinbotham; Passchier; Six; Alarcon; van Amersfoort PW; Bauer; Boer Rookhuizen H; van Den Brand JF; van Buuren LD; Bulten; Ent; Ferro-Luzzi; Geurts; Heimberg; de Jager CW; Klimin; Koop; Kroes; van Der Laan J; Luijckx; Lysenko; Militsyn; Nesterenko

    2000-04-24

    We report on first measurements with polarized electrons stored in a medium-energy ring and with a polarized internal target. Polarized electrons were injected at 442 MeV (653 MeV), and a partial (full) Siberian snake was employed to preserve the polarization. Longitudinal polarization at the interaction point and polarization lifetime of the stored electrons were determined with laser backscattering. Spin observables were measured for electrodisintegration of polarized 3He, with simultaneous detection of scattered electrons, protons, neutrons, deuterons, and 3He nuclei, over a large phase space. PMID:11019223

  17. EFFECT OF ORBIT DISTORTIONS LAND BETATRON TUNE ON THE RHIC POLARIZED BEAM.

    SciTech Connect

    LUCCIO,A.U.; PILAT,F.; PTITSYN,V.

    2001-06-18

    Polarized protons have been stored and accelerated in RHIC from G{sub {gamma}} = 46.5 to 60 during Run2000 with only one Siberian snake installed. We simulated with the spin tracking code Spink the behavior of polarized protons, in particular the effect of closed orbit distortions and betatron tune variation on the spin dynamics. According to simulation results, closed orbit and tune effects will be translated into requirements for the tune and orbit correction systems for the RHIC polarized proton Run2001, when both Siberian snakes will be available.

  18. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  19. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02153 Polar Layers

    This image of the south polar region shows layered material. It is not known if the layers are formed yearly or if they form over the period of 10s to 100s of years or more.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.3N, Longitude 296.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Polar Ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03662 Polar Ridges

    This ridge system is located in the south polar region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -81.7N, Longitude 296.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Polar Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03638 Polar Textures

    This image illustrates the variety of textures that appear in the south polar region during late summer.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.5S, Longitude 57.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Polar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  4. Polar Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03577 Polar Terrains

    The region surrounding the South Polar Cap contains many different terrain types. This image shows both etched terrain and a region of 'mounds'.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 75S, Longitude 286.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  6. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  7. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  8. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 {times} 10{sup 9} ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  10. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  11. FY2014 Parameters for Helions and Gold Ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-08-15

    The nominal parameters for helions (helion is the bound state of two protons and one neutron, the nucleus of a helium-3 atom) and gold ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the FY2014 running period. The parameters are found using various formulas to derive mass, helion anomalous g-factor, kinetic parameters, RF parameters, ring parameters, etc..

  12. Structural determinants of proton blockage in aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Roux, Benoît; Pomès, Régis

    2004-10-15

    Aquaporins are an important class of membrane channels selective for water and linear polyols but impermeable to ions, including protons. Recent computational studies have revealed that the relay of protons through the water-conduction pathway of aquaporin channels is opposed by a substantial free energy barrier peaking at the signature NPA motifs. Here, free-energy simulations and continuum electrostatic calculations are combined to examine the nature and the magnitude of the contribution of specific structural elements to proton blockage in the bacterial glycerol uptake facilitator, GlpF. Potential of mean-force profiles for both hop and turn steps of structural diffusion in the narrow pore are obtained for artificial variants of the GlpF channel in which coulombic interactions between the pore contents and conserved residues Asn68 and Asn203 at the NPA signature motifs, Arg206 at the selectivity filter, and the peptidic backbone of the two half-helices M3 and M7, which are arranged in head-to-head fashion around the NPA motifs, are turned off selectively. A comparison of these results with electrostatic energy profiles for the translocation of a probe cation throughout the water permeation pathway indicates that the free-energy profile for proton movement inside the narrow pore is dominated by static effects arising from the distribution of charged and polar groups of the channel, whereas dielectric effects contribute primarily to opposing the access of H+ to the pore mouths (desolvation penalty). The single most effective way to abolish the free-energy gradients opposing the movement of H+ around the NPA motif is to turn off the dipole moments of helices M3 and M7. Mutation of either of the two NPA Asn residues to Asp compensates for charge-dipole and dipole-dipole effects opposing the hop and turn steps of structural diffusion, respectively, and dramatically reduces the free energy barrier of proton translocation, suggesting that these single mutants could

  13. Photoemission from Shockley surface state on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkare, Siddharth; Wan, Weishi; Feng, Jun; Padmore, Howard

    We present measurements of quantum yield and transverse momentum distributions of electrons emitted from the Shockley surface state on Ag(111) surface using near threshold photons. Our measurements shed light on the validity of the conservation of transverse momentum during photoemission when the kinetic energy of electrons is less than 0.1 eV. We also develop a one-step photoemission model that quantitatively explains photoemission from single crystal metal surfaces. This model accurately calculates the dependence of the electron yield on the angle of incidence and the polarization of incident light (vectorial photoelectric effect). We show excellent agreement between the measured and calculated photoemission properties of the Ag(111) surface. Our measurements show that Ag(111) surface can act as an excellent electron source for several applications like Free Electron Lasers and Ultra-fast Electron Diffraction.

  14. Conceptual design of a proton polarimeter for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Belikov, N.; Bunce, G.

    1996-12-01

    A two-arm pion polarimeter utilizing toroidal magnets is being considered for use with the polarized protons beam at RHIC. The system will enable measurements of beam polarization at all RHIC energies from injection to flattop. This is a necessary diagnostic tool for tuning the RHIC snake magnets and other polarization controlling elements. Toroidal magnets constrain the pion trajectories allowing the device to be compact so that it can fit within the limited space available. A viable magnet design has been completed and suitable target configuration and operating scenario have been identified.

  15. Anomalous polarization dependence of Raman scattering and crystallographic orientation of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Hyo Ju; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Changgu; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2015-11-28

    We investigated polarization dependence of the Raman modes in black phosphorus (BP) using five different excitation wavelengths. The crystallographic orientation was determined by comparing polarized optical microscopy with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. In polarized Raman spectroscopy, the B2g mode shows the same polarization dependence regardless of the excitation wavelength or the sample thickness. On the other hand, the Ag(1) and Ag(2) modes show a peculiar polarization behavior that depends on the excitation wavelength and the sample thickness. The thickness dependence can be explained by considering the anisotropic interference effect due to the birefringence and dichroism of the BP crystal, but the wavelength dependence cannot be explained. We propose a simple and fail-proof procedure to determine the orientation of a BP crystal by combining polarized Raman scattering with polarized optical microscopy. PMID:26503032

  16. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  17. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  18. Organic pollutant photodecomposition by Ag/KNbO3 nanocomposites: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ping; Lei, Wanying; Rodriguez, J. A.; Yu, Jiaguo; Qi, Yang; Liu, Gang; Liu, Minghua

    2016-01-12

    In this study, Ag nanoparticles supported on well-defined perovskite orthorhombic KNbO3 nanowires are synthesized via facile photoreduction and systematically characterized by XRD, Raman, DRUV–vis, XPS, PL, TEM, HRTEM, and HAADF-STEM. The photoreactivity of Ag/KNbO3 nanocomposites as a function of Ag contents (0.4–2.8 wt %) is assessed toward aqueous rhodamine B degradation under UV- and visible-light, respectively. It is found that the UV-induced photoreactivity initially increases and then decreases with increasing Ag contents. At an optimal Ag content (ca. 1.7 wt %), the greatest photoreactivity is achieved under UV light, with the photocatalytic reaction rate of 1.7 wt % Ag/KNbO3 exceedingmore » that of pristine KNbO3 by a factor of ca. 13. In contrast, visible light-induced photoreactivity monotonically increases with increasing Ag contents in the range of 0.4–2.8 wt %. On the basis of the detected active species and intermediate products in the photocatalytic processes, conjugated structure cleavage and N-deethylation are revealed to be the respective predominant pathway under UV and visible-light illumination. To gain an insight into the observed photoreactivity, the electronic properties of Ag/KNbO3 have been investigated using spin-polarized DFT calculations. Herein, Ag extended adlayers (1–4 ML) on the slab models of KNbO3 (101) are employed to mimic large supported Ag nanoparticles. A Bader analysis of the electron density shows a small net charge transfer (ca. 0.1 e) from KNbO3 to Ag. The electron localization function of Ag/KNbO3 (101) illustrates that Ag adlayers with thickness larger than 2 ML are essentially metallic, and weak polarization occurs at the interface. In addition, the metallic Ag adlayers generate a continuum of Ag bandgap states, which play a key role in determining different Ag content-dependent behavior between UV and visible-light illumination.« less

  19. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-Proton and Proton-Water Scattering at 1.5 GeV/c

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mischke, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; MacArthur, D.; Nagle, D. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R. L.

    1984-07-01

    Experiments searching for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 1.5 GeV/c (800 MeV) polarized protons from an unpolarized water target and a liquid hydrogen target are described. The intensity of the incident proton beam was measured upstream and downstream of the target by a pair of ionization detectors. The beam helicity was reversed at a 30-Hz rate. Auxiliary detectors monitored beam properties that could give rise to false effects. The result for the longitudinal asymmetry from the water is A{sub L} = (1.7 +- 3.3 +- 1.4) x 10{sup -7}, where the first error is statistical and the second is an estimate of systematic effects. The hydrogen data yield a preliminary result of A{sub L} = (1.0 +- 1.6) x 10{sup -7}. The systematic errors for p-p are expected to be < 1 x 10{sup -7}.

  20. Strangeness in the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberg, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Both perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms contribute to strangeness in the proton sea. We have developed a hybrid model in which non-perturbative contributions are calculated in a meson cloud model which expands the proton in terms of meson-baryon states, and perturbative contributions are calculated in a statistical model which expands the proton in terms of quark-gluon states. The perturbative contributions are represented in the parton distributions of the ``bare'' hadrons in the meson cloud. We compare our results to the recent experimental data of ATLAS and HERMES. This research has been supported in part by NSF Award 1205686.

  1. Are protons nonidentical fermions?

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We briefly review the progress of our investigation on the electric (charge) radius of the proton. In order to explain the recently measured proton radius, which is significantly smaller than the standard CODATA value, we assume that the real protons radii are not identical, they are randomly distributed in a certain range. To obtain the measured radius we average the radii and fit both the mean radius and the range. By using an averaged dipole form factor we obtain the charge radius r{sub E} = 0.8333 fm, in accordance with the recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.

  2. Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03581 Polar Layers

    This image shows just one example of the bright and dark markings that appear during summer time. The marks are related to the polar layers. If you happen to see a wild-eyed guy sticking his tongue out at you, you'll know why this image qualifies for the old 'art' category of THEMIS releases.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6S, Longitude 34.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. PEPSI — a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Schäfer, A.; Veltri, M.

    1992-09-01

    We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions), a Monte Carlo program for polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction, and explain how to use it. The code is a modification of the LEPTO 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering. The hard virtual gamma-parton scattering is generated according to the polarization-dependent QCD cross-section of the first order in α S. PEPSI requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to simulate the fragmentation into final hadrons.

  4. Phenomenological determination of polarized quark distributions in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanisław

    1996-03-01

    We present a fit to spin asymmetries which gives polarized quark distributions. These functions are closely related to the ones given by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarized structure functions. The integrals of polarized distributions are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained from neutron and hyperon β-decay data. We use the combination of proton, neutron and deuteron spin asymmetries in order to determine the coefficients of our polarized quark distributions. Our fit shows that phenomenologically there is no need for taking polarized gluons into account.

  5. Discovery of Polarized Line Emission in SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Carswell, R. F.; Long, K. S.; Cracraft, M.

    2015-12-01

    Laming predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ∼3000 km s‑1 shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission with a polarization degree of 1.3% and position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is ≈2.0%, close to the predictions of Laming. The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN 1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams, and conductive interfaces.

  6. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZED LINE EMISSION IN SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Long, K. S.; Cracraft, M.; Carswell, R. F.

    2015-12-10

    Laming predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ∼3000 km s{sup −1} shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission with a polarization degree of 1.3% and position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is ≈2.0%, close to the predictions of Laming. The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN 1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams, and conductive interfaces.

  7. The Proton Form Factor Ratio Measurements at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, Vina A.; Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2014-03-01

    The ratio of the proton form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, has been measured from Q{sup 2} of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} to 8.5 GeV{sup 2}, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The discovery that the proton form factor ratio measured in these experiments decreases approximately linearly with four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, for values above ~1 GeV{sup 2}, is one of the most significant results to come out of JLab. These results have had a large impact on progress in hadronic physics; and have required a significant rethinking of nucleon structure. The increasingly common use of the double-polarization technique to measure the nucleon form factors, in the last 15 years, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the quality of all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}, G{sub Mp}, G{sub En} and G{sub Mn}. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(V), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV{sup 2}. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

  8. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  9. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  10. Limits of proton conductivity.

    PubMed

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  11. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Solar flares, proton showers, and the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given the hazards posed to Space Shuttle crews by energetic proton radiation from inherently unpredictable solar flares, such as that of April 10-13, 1981, which was experienced by the Space Shuttle Columbia. The most energetic protons from this flare reached the earth's atmosphere an hour after flare onset, and would have posed a potentially lethal threat to astronauts engaged in extravehicular activity in a polar or geosynchronous orbit rather than the low-latitude, low-altitude orbit of this mission. It is shown that proton-producing flares are associated with energization in shocks, many of which are driven by coronal mass ejections. Insights gained from the Solar Maximum Year programs allow reconsideration of proton shower forecasting, which will be essential in the prediction of the weather that Space Shuttle astronauts will encounter during extravehicular activities.

  13. Electron- and positron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein

    2009-08-01

    There is a significant disagreement between measurements of the proton electric form factor, G{sup p}{sub E}, using Rosenbluth separations and polarization transfer. This disagreement, if not explained, could pose a fundamental challenge to our understanding of electron scattering or proton structure. Two-photon exchange (TPE) processes, although not fully calculable, are the most likely explanation of this disagreement. We will definitively test this assertion by comparing the electron-proton and positron-proton elastic scattering cross section in the Jefferson Lab CLAS. We will make a mixed identical electron and positron tertiary beam by passing a 5.5 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to make a photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a converter to make electron-positron pairs. Measuring the elastic cross sections simultaneously using identical lepton beams should significantly reduce systematic uncertainties.

  14. Michigan ultra-cold polarized atomic hydrogen jet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, B. B.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Kageya, T.; Kantsyrev, D. Yu.; Krisch, A. D.; Luppov, V. G.; Morozov, V. S.; Murray, J. R.; Raymond, R. S.; Borisov, N. S.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Grishin, V. N.; Mysnik, A. I.; Kleppner, D.

    2001-06-01

    To study spin effects in high energy collisions, we are developing an ultra-cold high-density jet target of proton-spin-polarized hydrogen atoms. The target uses a 12 Tesla magnetic field and a 0.3 K separation cell coated with superfluid helium-4 to produce a slow monochromatic electron-spin-polarized atomic hydrogen beam, which is then focused by a superconducting sextupole into the interaction region. In recent tests, we studied a polarized beam of hydrogen atoms focused by the superconducting sextupole into a compression tube detector, which measured the polarized atoms' intensity. The Jet produced, at the detector, a spin-polarized atomic hydrogen beam with a measured intensity of about 2.8.1015 H s-1 and a FWHM area of less than 0.13 cm2. This intensity corresponds to a free jet density of about 1.1012 H cm-3 with a proton polarization of about 50%. When the transition RF unit is installed, we expect a proton polarization higher than 90%. .

  15. Do Unpolarized Electrons Affect the Polarization of a Stored Beam?

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmann, Frank

    2009-08-04

    We present a short overview of the PAX physics case for polarized antiprotons. In order to progress towards a stored polarized antiproton beam, it is crucial to understand the interaction of polarized protons with unpolarized electrons. Therefore investigations that address in particular the contributions of electrons to the polarization buildup of a stored proton beam are presented here in more detail. The measurement of the depolarizing p-vectore cross section settled a long-standing controversy about the role of electrons in the polarization buildup of a stored beam by spin-filtering. Instead of studying the buildup of polarization in an initially unpolarized beam, here the inverse situation was investigated by observation of the depolarization of an initially polarized beam. For the first time, electrons in the electron cooler have been used as a target to study their depolarizing effect on a 49.3 MeV proton beam orbiting in COSY. The foreseen spin-filtering experiments at COSY-Juelich and at the AD of CERN are briefly discussed as well.

  16. Proton transport by halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Varo, G.; Brown, L.S.; Needleman, R.

    1996-05-28

    In halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis, a light-driven chloride pump, the chloride binding site also binds azide. When azide is bound at this location the retinal Schiff base transiently deprotonates after photoexcitation with light >530 nm, like in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. As in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin, pyranine detects the release of protons to the bulk. The subsequent reprotonation of the Schiff base is also dependent on azide, but with different kinetics that suggest a shuttling of protons from the surface as described earlier for halorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarium. The azide-dependent, bacteriorhodopsin-like photocycle results in active electrogenic proton transport in the cytoplasmic to extracellular direction, detected in cell envelope vesicle suspensions both with a potential-sensitive electrode and by measuring light-dependent pH change. We conclude that in halorhodopsin an azide bound to the extracellular side of the Schiff base, and another azide shuttling between the Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, fulfill the functions of Asp-85 and Asp-96, respectively, in bacteriorhodopsin. Thus, although halorhodopsin is normally a chloride ion pump, it evidently contains all structural requirements, except an internal proton acceptor and a donor, of a proton pump. This observation complements our earlier finding that when a chloride binding site was created in bacteriorhodopsin through replacement of Asp-85 with a threonine, that protein became a chloride ion pump. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Measurements of VLF polarization and wave normal direction on OGO-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A major achievement of the F-24 experiment on OGO 6 was a verification of the theory of the polarization of proton whistlers. As predicted, the electron whistler was found to be right-hand polarized and the proton whistler left hand polarized. The transition from right- to left-hand polarization was found to occur very rapidly. Thus it appears that the experimental technique may allow great accuracy in the measurement of the cross-over frequency, a frequency that provides information on the ionic composition of the ionosphere.

  18. ATOMIC BEAM POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT OF THE RHIC POLARIZED H-JET TARGET.

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; NASS,A.; GRAHAM,D.; KPONOU,A.; MAHLER,G.; MENG,W.; RITTER,J.; ET AL.

    2005-01-28

    The RHIC polarized H-Jet measures the polarization of the RHIC proton beam via elastic scattering off a nuclear polarized atomic hydrogen beam. The atomic beam is produced by a dissociator, a beam forming system and sextupole magnets. Nuclear polarization is achieved by exchanging occupation numbers of hyperfine states using high frequency transitions. The polarization was measured using a modified form of a Breit-Rabi polarimeter including focusing magnets and another set of high frequency transitions. The sampling of a large part of the beam and low noise electronics made it possible to measure the polarization to a high degree of accuracy in a very short time period (1 min). Using this system, we measured no depolarization of the atomic beam due to the RF fields of the bunched proton beam. Time-of-Flight measurements were done using a fast chopper and a QMA at the position of the RHIC interaction point to determine the areal density of the atomic beam seen by the RHIC beam.

  19. Complexation and phase evolution at dimethylformamide-Ag(111) interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Wentao; Leung, Kevin; Shao, Qian; Gaskell, Karen J.; Reutt-Robey, Janice E.

    2016-09-15

    The interaction of solvent molecules with metallic surfaces impacts many interfacial chemical processes. We investigate the chemical and structure evolution that follows adsorption of the polar solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) on Ag(111). An Ag(DMF)2 coordination complex forms spontaneously by DMF etching of Ag(111), yielding mixed films of the complexes and DMF. Utilizing ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM), in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) computations, we map monolayer phases from the 2-D gas regime, consisting of a binary mixture of DMF and Ag(DMF)2, through the saturation monolayer limit, in which these two chemical species phasemore » separate into ordered islands. Structural models for the near-square DMF phase and the chain-like Ag(DMF)2 phase are presented and supported by DFT computation. Interface evolution is summarized in a surface pressure-composition phase diagram, which allows structure prediction over arbitrary experimental conditions. In conclusion, this work reveals new surface coordination chemistry for an important electrolyte-electrode system, and illustrates how surface pressure can be used to tune monolayer phases.« less

  20. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  1. [Proton generator of superhigh frequency].

    PubMed

    Liberman, E A; Eĭdus, V L

    1981-01-01

    Possible mechanism of superhigh frequency (10(10)-10(12) Hz) electromagnetic oscillation generation by an external proton in a system of hydrogen bonds of biomacromolecules is briefly discussed. The external proton in a proton channel deforms the potential profile of the proton of hydrogen bond in such a way, that there appears a possibility of the low frequency proton tunneling along the hydrogen bond. The interaction with the neighbouring bonds leads to further lowering of the generated frequency.

  2. Quantum Dynamics in Continuum for Proton Transport I: Basic Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Proton transport is one of the most important and interesting phenomena in living cells. The present work proposes a multiscale/multiphysics model for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of proton transport in transmembrane proteins. We describe proton dynamics quantum mechanically via a density functional approach while implicitly model other solvent ions as a dielectric continuum to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. The densities of all other ions in the solvent are assumed to obey the Boltzmann distribution. The impact of protein molecular structure and its charge polarization on the proton transport is considered explicitly at the atomic level. We formulate a total free energy functional to put proton kinetic and potential energies as well as electrostatic energy of all ions on an equal footing. The variational principle is employed to derive nonlinear governing equations for the proton transport system. Generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and Kohn-Sham equation are obtained from the variational framework. Theoretical formulations for the proton density and proton conductance are constructed based on fundamental principles. The molecular surface of the channel protein is utilized to split the discrete protein domain and the continuum solvent domain, and facilitate the multiscale discrete/continuum/quantum descriptions. A number of mathematical algorithms, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, matched interface and boundary method, Gummel iteration, and Krylov space techniques are utilized to implement the proposed model in a computationally efficient manner. The Gramicidin A (GA) channel is used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed proton transport model and validate the efficiency of proposed mathematical algorithms. The electrostatic characteristics of the GA channel is analyzed with a wide range of model parameters. The proton conductances are studied over a number of applied voltages and reference concentrations. A

  3. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on physics with polarized nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, G.; Gibbs, W.; Hoffmann, G.; Jarmer, J.J.; Tanaka, N.

    1986-08-01

    Topics of discussion included static and dynamic methods for polarizing nuclei, proton and pion nucleus scattering experiments, and possible future experiments at LAMPF. Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 papers in this report. (DWL)

  4. The proton spin contents'': Current status perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ta-Pei . Dept. of Physics); Li, Ling-Fong . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs.

  5. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  6. Cooperative proton transfer and tunneling in dye doped benzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaud, Ch.; Trommsdorff, H. P.

    1999-06-01

    In seleno-indigo doped benzoic acid crystals, the energy level structure of a pair of benzoic acid dimers coupled to the impurity center is characterized by optical spectroscopy and transient hole burning in electric fields. The lowest energy states involve degenerate, polar proton configurations. Proton tunneling lifts this degeneracy. The tunneling matrix element for proton transfer in a benzoic acid dimer equals 6.5±1.5 GHz, a value comparable to those found with other guest molecules. Relaxation between the two ground state levels involves the concerted motion of four protons and determines the intensity distribution of the fine structure observed in hole burning.

  7. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer. PMID:26347997

  8. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer.

  9. Microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Owens, Tuba; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Savukov, Igor M.; Gomez, John J.; Espy, Michelle A.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at microtesla fields is a promising imaging method that combines the pre-polarization technique and broadband signal reception by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors to enable in vivo MRI at microtesla-range magnetic fields similar in strength to the Earth magnetic field. Despite significant advances in recent years, the potential of microtesla MRI for biomedical imaging is limited by its insufficient signal-to-noise ratio due to a relatively low sample polarization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used approach that allows polarization enhancement by 2-4 orders of magnitude without an increase in the polarizing field strength. In this work, the first implementation of microtesla MRI with Overhauser DNP and SQUID signal detection is described. The first measurements of carbon-13 NMR spectra at microtesla fields are also reported. The experiments were performed at the measurement field of 96 μT, corresponding to Larmor frequency of 4 kHz for protons and 1 kHz for carbon-13. The Overhauser DNP was carried out at 3.5-5.7 mT fields using rf irradiation at 120 MHz. Objects for imaging included water phantoms and a cactus plant. Aqueous solutions of metabolically relevant sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, labeled with carbon-13, were used for NMR studies. All the samples were doped with TEMPO free radicals. The Overhauser DNP enabled nuclear polarization enhancement by factor as large as -95 for protons and as large as -200 for carbon-13, corresponding to thermal polarizations at 0.33 T and 1.1 T fields, respectively. These results demonstrate that SQUID-based microtesla MRI can be naturally combined with Overhauser DNP in one system, and that its signal-to-noise performance is greatly improved in this case. They also suggest that microtesla MRI can become an efficient tool for in vivo imaging of hyperpolarized carbon-13, produced by low-temperature dissolution DNP.

  10. RHIC Performance with polarized protons in run-6

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, S.; Brown, K.A.; et al.

    2006-10-02

    In this study, an array of vibration measurements at the undisturbed NSLS II site has been performed in order to establish the 'green-field' vibration environment and its spectral characteristics. The interaction of the green-field vibration environment with the NSLS II accelerator structure and the quantification of the storage ring vibration, both in terms of amplitude and spectral content have been assessed through a state-of-the-art wave propagation and scattering analysis. This paper focuses on the wave propagation and scattering aspect as well as on the filtering effects of accelerator structural parameters.

  11. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  12. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  13. A Future Polarized Drell-Yan Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinjan, David William

    2015-06-04

    The topic is treated in a series of slides under the following headings: Motivation (Nucleon Spin Puzzle, Quark Orbital Momentum and the Sivers Function, Accessing Sivers via Polarized Drell-Yan (p+p↑ → μ+μ-)); Transition of Seaquest (E906 → E1039) (Building a Polarized proton Target, Status of Polarized Target); and Outlook. The nucleon spin puzzle: when the quark and gluon contributions to the proton spin are evaluated, nearly 50% of the measured spin is missing; lattice QCD calculations indicate as much as 50% may come from quark orbital angular momentum. Sea quarks should carry orbital angular momentum (O.A.M.). The E1039 Polarized Target Drell-Yan Experiment provides opportunity to study possible Sea Quark O.A.M. Data taking is expected to begin in the spring of 2017.

  14. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  15. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO's substation.

  16. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic