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Sample records for agt power-train system

  1. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-01-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training. Key points Aerobic dance provides sufficient training stimuli for the improvement of explosive power. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism is associated with individual variation in the change of power-related phenotypes in response to aerobic dance training. The C allele carriers of the AGT gene M235T polymorphism show greater improvements of jump

  2. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-12-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training.

  3. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E. G.

    1982-01-01

    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

  6. AGT M235T and ACE ID polymorphisms and exercise blood pressure in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, T; Gagnon, J; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Rice, T; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and exercise training responses of resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). BP at rest and during submaximal (50 watts) and maximal exercise tests was measured before and after 20 wk of endurance training in 476 sedentary normotensive Caucasian subjects from 99 families. AGT M235T and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms were typed with PCR-based methods. Men carrying the AGT MM and MT genotypes showed 3. 7 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg reductions, respectively, in diastolic BP at 50 watts (DBP(50)), whereas, in the TT homozygotes, the decrease was 0.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.016 for trend, adjusted for age, body mass index, and baseline DBP(50)). Men with the ACE DD genotype showed a slightly greater decrease in DBP(50) (4.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg) than the II and ID genotypes (2.8 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.050). Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.022) interaction effect between the AGT and ACE genes was noted for DBP(50); the AGT TT homozygotes carrying the ACE D allele showed no response to training. Men with the AGT TT genotype had greater (P = 0.007) diastolic BP (DBP) response to acute maximal exercise at baseline. However, the difference disappeared after the training period. No associations were found in women. These data suggest that, in men, the genetic variation in the AGT locus modifies the responsiveness of submaximal exercise DBP to endurance training, and interactions between the AGT and ACE loci can alter this response.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  8. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Representative Application Areas for AGT

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of the Application Area Definition task is to define the travel demands and guideway networks for a set of representative AGT system deployments. These demands and networks, when combined with detailed descriptions of the systems and thei...

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  10. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems - Classification and Definition of AGT Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-02-01

    The report describes the development of an AGT classification structure. Five classes are defined based on three system characteristics: service type, minimum travelling unit capacity, and maximum operating velocity. The five classes defined are: Per...

  11. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  12. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  14. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  15. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Quantitative Analysis of Alternative AGT Operational Control Strategies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-10-01

    The objectives of the Systems Operation Studies (SOS) for automated guideway transit (AGT) systems are to develop models for the analysis of system operations, to evaluate performance and cost, and to establish guidelines for the design and operation...

  16. Extended System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Procedure for the Analysis of Representative AGT Deployments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a general procedure for using the SOS software to analyze AGT systems. Data to aid the analyst in specifying input information, required as input to the software, are summarized in the appendices. The data are...

  17. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  18. Association between ACE and AGT polymorphism and cardiovascular risk in acromegalic patients.

    PubMed

    Erbas, Tomris; Cinar, Nese; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Gedik, Arzu; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Ugur; Kabakci, Giray; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    Whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a role or not in the development of cardiovascular morbidity in acromegaly patients is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between ACE (I/D) and AGT (M235T) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in the acromegaly. The study included one hundred and seventeen acromegalic patients (62 F/55 M, age: 50.2 ± 12.3 years) and 106 healthy controls (92 F/14 M, age: 41.4 ± 11.3 years). PCR method was used to evaluate the prevalence of ACE and AGT genotype. The genotypes of ACE polymorphism in acromegalic patients were distributed as follows; 41.0% (n: 48) for DD, 44.4% (n: 52) for ID and 14.5% (n: 17) for II genotype. The control group had significantly different distribution of the ACE polymorphism [48.1% (n: 51) for DD, 25.5% (n: 27) for ID and 26.4% (n: 28) for II genotype]compared to acromegalic group. Regarding AGT polymorphism, AGT-MT genotype was seen in 88.9% of the acromegalic patients while MM and TT genotype (9.4% and 1.7%, respectively) were present in the rest. The controls had similar distribution of the AGT genotype with the acromegaly group (80.2% MT genotype, 15.1% MM genotype and 4.7% TT genotype). Due to the small number of patients with TT allele (n: 2), T carriers for AGT genotype (AGT-MT+TT) were subgrouped and compared to those with AGT-MM group. ACE-DD, ID and II groups had similar anthropometric measures, blood pressure values and baseline GH and IGF-1 levels. Significantly higher baseline GH levels were found in AGT-MM group compared to T allele carriers [40 (16-60) vs. 12 (5-36) µg/L, p < 0.05]. The compared groups in both polymorphisms had similar fasting plasma glucose levels. Patients with ACE-II genotype had significantly higher HDL-C levels compared to those with ACE-DD and ACE-ID polymorphisms (p < 0.05) whereas there was no significant difference in lipid profile between AGT-MM group and AGT-T allele carriers

  19. Simulation Models for the Electric Power Requirements in a Guideway Transit System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-04-01

    This report describes a computer simulation model developed at the Transportation Systems Center to study the electrical power distribution characteristics of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems. The objective of this simulation effort is to pro...

  20. Living high training low induces physiological cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by down-regulation and redistribution of the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Meszaros, J Gary; Zeng, Shao-ju; Sun, Ying-yu; Zuo, Ming-xue

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Living high training low” (LHTL) is an exercise-training protocol that refers living in hypoxia stress and training at normal level of O2. In this study, we investigated whether LHTL caused physiological heart hypertrophy accompanied by changes of biomarkers in renin-angiotensin system in rats. Methods: Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, and trained on living low-sedentary (LLS, control), living low-training low (LLTL), living high-sedentary (LHS) and living high-training low (LHTL) protocols, respectively, for 4 weeks. Hematological parameters, hemodynamic measurement, heart hypertrophy and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) level of the rats were measured. The gene and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II receptor I (AT1) in heart tissue was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly improved cardiac function, increased hemoglobin concentration and RBC. At the molecular level, LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly decreased the expression of ACE, AGT and AT1 genes, but increased the expression of ACE and AT1 proteins in heart tissue. Moreover, ACE and AT1 protein expression was significantly increased in the endocardium, but unchanged in the epicardium. Conclusion: LHTL training protocol suppresses ACE, AGT and AT1 gene expression in heart tissue, but increases ACE and AT1 protein expression specifically in the endocardium, suggesting that the physiological heart hypertrophy induced by LHTL is regulated by region-specific expression of renin-angiotensin system components. PMID:23377552

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT): Power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.; Smith, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine is described. The general effort was concentrated on building an engine for test starting in July. The buildup progressed with only routine problems and the engine was delivered to the test stand 9 July. In addition to the engine build effort, work continued in selected component areas. Ceramic turbine parts were built and tested. Burst tests of ceramic rotors show strengths are approaching that achieved in test bars; proof testing is required for acceptable strength ceramic vanes. Over 25 hours was accumulated on the combustor rig in three test modes: pilot nozzle only, start nozzle, and main nozzle operation. Satisfactory ignition was achieved for a wide range of starting speeds and the lean blowout limit was as low as 0.06 kg/b (0.14 lb/hr). Lean blowout was more a function of nozzle atomization than fuel/air ratio. A variety of cycle points were tested. Transition from start nozzle flow to main nozzle flow was done manually without difficulty. Regenerator parts were qualification tested without incident and the parts were assembled on schedule. Rig based performance matched first build requirements. Repeated failures in the harmonic drive gearbox during rig testing resulted in that concept being abandoned for an alternate scheme.

  3. AGT100 turbomachinery. [for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, D. L.; Mckain, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    High-performance turbomachinery components have been designed and tested for the AGT100 automotive engine. The required wide range of operation coupled with the small component size, compact packaging, and low cost of production provide significant aerodynamic challenges. Aerodynamic design and development testing of the centrifugal compressor and two radial turbines are described. The compressor achieved design flow, pressure ratio, and surge margin on the initial build. Variable inlet guide vanes have proven effective in modulating flow capacity and in improving part-speed efficiency. With optimum use of the variable inlet guide vanes, the initial efficiency goals have been demonstrated in the critical idle-to-70% gasifier speed range. The gasifier turbine exceeded initial performance goals and demonstrated good performance over a wide range. The radial power turbine achieved 'developed' efficiency goals on the first build.

  4. Expedition 29/30 crew training during Electrical Power System Major Case training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-22

    PHOTO DATE: 22 June 2011 LOCATION: Bldg. 5, Space Station Training Facility. SUBJECT: Expedition 29/30 crew training during Electrical Power System Major Case training event. Astronauts Dan Burbank, Don Pettit and Andre Kuipers working together in mockup. PHOTOGRAPHER: Mark Sowa

  5. [Aliskiren inhibits proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive mice in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Fan, Su-Jing; Li, Shu-Min; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Na

    2016-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of aliskiren on the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive (dTH) mice. The cultured CFs from AGT-REN dTH mice were divided into AGT-REN group (dTH) and aliskiren group (ALIS). Cultured CFs from C57B6 mice were served as control (WT). The effect of different concentration of aliskiren (1 × 10 -6 , 1 × 10 -7 , 1 × 10 -8 , 1 × 10 -9 mol/L) on CFs proliferation was determined by MTT assay. After treatment with 1 × 10 -7 mol/L aliskiren for 24 h, α-SMA, collagen I, III and NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice were detected by Western blot. The collagen synthesis in CFs was assessed by hydroxyproline kit. The expression of ROS was determined by DHE. Results showed that the blood pressure and plasma Ang II levels were significantly increased and CFs proliferation was significantly increased as well in AGT-REN dTH mice compared with WT group. However, aliskiren intervention decreased CFs proliferation, myofibroblast transformation, as well as the collagen I and III synthesis in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice. Meanwhile, aliskiren inhibited ROS content and NOX2/NOX4 protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice. These results suggest that aliskiren decreases the cell proliferation, myofibroblast transformation and collagen production in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice, which might be through inhibition of oxidative stress response.

  6. Genetic variants of ACE (Insertion/Deletion) and AGT (M268T) genes in patients with diabetes and nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rozeena; Shahid, Syed M; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad; Azhar, Abid

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been a growing epidemic worldwide and poses a major socio-economic challenge. The leading cause of DM death is nephropathy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aims to identify the possible association of I/D variants of the ACE gene and M268T (rs699) of the AGT gene of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Study subjects include 115 patients with DM, 110 with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and 110 controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and PCR amplification of specific regions of the ACE and AGT genes using primers. The distribution of ACE (I/D) II 28.8%, ID 35.6% and DD 35.6% while in DN II 24.5%, ID 41% and DD 34.5%. The AGT (M268T) genotypes were distributed in DM as TT 30.4%, MT 66.9% and MM 2.6% while in DN subjects TT 56.4%, MT 42.7% and MM 0.9%. Significant differences were observed in the DD genotype and D allele of the ACE gene and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT genes between diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. The study may conclude that the D allele polymorphism in the ACE gene and the T allele polymorphism in AGT gene may be considered as genetic risk factors for the development of nephropathy in diabetes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Development of gait training system powered by pneumatic actuator like human musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) patient. This system consists of an orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and a piece of equipment of body weight support. The attachment of powered orthosis can be fit to individual subjects with different body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuators arranged as a pair of agonistic and antagonistic bi-articular muscle models and two pairs of agonistic and antagonistic mono-articular muscle models like the human musculoskeletal system. The body weight support equipment suspends the subject's body in a wire harness, with the body weight is supported continuously by a counterweight. The powered orthosis is attached to the body weight support equipment by a parallel linkage, and its movement of powered orthosis is limited at the sagittal plane. The weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by a parallel linkage with a gas-spring. In this paper, we report the detailed mechanics of this body weight support gait training system and the results of several experiments for evaluating the system. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Power System Electrician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The graduate of the Power System Electrician apprenticeship training is a journeyman who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyman; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) use and maintain hand and power tools to the standards of competency and safety required in the trade; (4) read and interpret drawing,…

  9. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill atmore » the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.« less

  10. AGT Activity Towards Intrastrand Crosslinked DNA is Modulated by the Alkylene Linker.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Derek K; Wilds, Christopher J

    2017-12-05

    DNA oligomers containing dimethylene and trimethylene intrastrand crosslinks (IaCLs) between the O4 and O6 atoms of neighboring thymidine (T) and 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) residues were prepared by solid-phase synthesis. UV thermal denaturation (T m ) experiments revealed that these IaCLs had a destabilizing effect on the DNA duplex relative to the control. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested these IaCLs induced minimal structural distortions. Susceptibility to dealkylation by reaction with various O 6 -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferases (AGTs) from human and Escherichia coli was evaluated. It was revealed that only human AGT displayed activity towards the IaCL DNA, with reduced efficiency as the IaCL shortened (from four to two methylene linkages). Changing the site of attachment of the ethylene linkage at the 5'-end of the IaCL to the N3 atom of T had minimal influence on duplex stability and structure, and was refractory to AGT activity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Thr505 and Ser557 residues of the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporter are critical for maltotriose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Smit, A; Moses, S G; Pretorius, I S; Cordero Otero, R R

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify amino acid residues in the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporter (Agt1p) that are critical for efficient transport of maltotriose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequences of two AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters with different efficiencies of maltotriose transport in two Saccharomyces strains (WH310 and WH314) were compared. The sequence variations and discrepancies between these two proteins (Agt1p(WH310) and Agt1p(WH314)) were investigated for potential effects on the functionality and maltotriose transport efficiency of these two AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters. A 23-amino-acid C-terminal truncation proved not to be critical for maltotriose affinity. The identification of three amino acid differences, which potentially could have been instrumental in the transportation of maltotriose, were further investigated. Single mutations were created to restore the point mutations I505T, V549A and T557S one by one. The single site mutant V549A showed a decrease in maltotriose transport ability, and the I505T and T557S mutants showed complete reduction in maltotriose transport. The amino acids Thr(505) and Ser(557), which are respectively located in the transmembrane (TM) segment TM(11) and on the intracellular segment after TM(12) of the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters, are critical for efficient transport of maltotriose in S. cerevisiae. Improved fermentation of starch and its dextrin products, such as maltotriose and maltose, would benefit the brewing and whisky industries. This study could facilitate the development of engineered maltotriose transporters adapted to starch-efficient fermentation systems, and offers prospects for the development of yeast strains with improved maltose and maltotriose uptake capabilities that, in turn, could increase the overall fermentation efficiencies in the beer and whisky industries.

  12. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engine testing, ceramic component fabrication and evaluation, component performance rig testing, and analytical studies comprised AGT 100 activities during the 1985 year. Ten experimental assemblies (builds) were evaluated using two engines. Accrued operating time was 120 hr of burning and 170 hr total, bringing cumulative total operating time to 395 hr, all devoid of major failures. Tests identified the generator seals as the primary working fluid leakage sources. Power transfer clutch operation was demonstrated. An alpha SiC gasifier rotor engine test resulted in blade tip failures. Recurring case vibration and shaft whip have limited gasifier shaft speeds to 84%. Ceramic components successfully engine tested now include the SiC scroll assembly, Si3N3 turbine rotor, combustor assembly, regenerator disk bulkhead, turbine vanes, piston rings, and couplings. A compressor shroud design change to reduce heat recirculation back to the inlet was executed. Ceramic components activity continues to focus on the development of state-of-the-art material strength characteristics in full-scale engine hardware. Fiber reinforced glass-ceramic composite turbine (inner) backplates were fabricated by Corning Glass Works. The BMAS/III material performed well in engine testing. Backplates of MAS material have not been engine tested.

  13. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  14. AGT/ℤ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Bruno; Turiaci, Gustavo J.

    2017-12-01

    We relate Liouville/Toda CFT correlators on Riemann surfaces with boundaries and cross-cap states to supersymmetric observables in four-dimensional N=2 gauge theories. Our construction naturally involves four-dimensional theories with fields defined on different ℤ2 quotients of the sphere (hemisphere and projective space) but nevertheless interacting with each other. The six-dimensional origin is a ℤ2 quotient of the setup giving rise to the usual AGT correspondence. To test the correspondence, we work out the ℝℙ4 partition function of four-dimensional N=2 theories by combining a 3d lens space and a 4d hemisphere partition functions. The same technique reproduces known ℝℙ2 partition functions in a form that lets us easily check two-dimensional Seiberg-like dualities on this nonorientable space. As a bonus we work out boundary and cross-cap wavefunctions in Toda CFT.

  15. Component qualification and initial build of the AGT 100 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    In advance of initial dynamometer testing of the AGT 100 engine, all prime components and subsystems were bench/rig tested. Included were compressor, combustor, turbines, regenerator, ceramic components, and electronic control system. Results are briefly reviewed. Initial engine buildup was completed and rolled-out for test cell installation in July 1982. Shakedown testing included motoring and sequential firing of the combustor's three fuel nozzles.

  16. Peroxisomal Alanine: Glyoxylate Aminotransferase AGT1 Is Indispensable for Appressorium Function of the Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2012-01-01

    The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)+pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD+ in peroxisomes

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  18. The relationship between ACE/AGT gene polymorphisms and the risk of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Wang, Min; Pan, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Tian, Fang; Chen, Yin-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. We consecutively included 1491 patients for the assessment of ACE I/D and AGT M/T gene polymorphisms in 345 DR cases and 1146 patients without retinopathy (DNR). Albuminuria was defined by urine albumin creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate. Compared with the NDR patients, the DR cases displayed a higher proportion of diabetic nephropathy (32.68% vs. 6.52%, χ 2 = 150.713, p < 0.001). The DR cases and DNR individuals did not differ in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of ACE I/D and AGT M/T (all p > 0.05). Intriguingly, DR patients with obesity showed higher frequency of DD (χ 2 = 4.181, p = 0.041), but no significant difference exists in the other stratified BMI and hypertension analyses (all p > 0.05). Binary logistic regression displays that the association of the ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in DR patients is not significant after adjusting for confounding covariates in all the comparisons. The ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms are not associated with the progress of diabetes developing into retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, more investigations are needed to further prove the association.

  19. AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.

  20. The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; ...

    2006-01-01

    Background . The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. Methods and results . A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt ( Agt -KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt/Agt -KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt ) was studied. Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt -KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. aP2- Agt mice exhibited increased adiposity andmore » plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also elevated in kidney of aP2- Agt mice. Conclusion . These findings demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  1. Improved fermentation performance of a lager yeast after repair of its AGT1 maltose and maltotriose transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Huuskonen, Anne; Virtanen, Hannele; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2009-04-01

    The use of more concentrated, so-called high-gravity and very-high-gravity (VHG) brewer's worts for the manufacture of beer has economic and environmental advantages. However, many current strains of brewer's yeasts ferment VHG worts slowly and incompletely, leaving undesirably large amounts of maltose and especially maltotriose in the final beers. alpha-Glucosides are transported into Saccharomyces yeasts by several transporters, including Agt1, which is a good carrier of both maltose and maltotriose. The AGT1 genes of brewer's ale yeast strains encode functional transporters, but the AGT1 genes of the lager strains studied contain a premature stop codon and do not encode functional transporters. In the present work, one or more copies of the AGT1 gene of a lager strain were repaired with DNA sequence from an ale strain and put under the control of a constitutive promoter. Compared to the untransformed strain, the transformants with repaired AGT1 had higher maltose transport activity, especially after growth on glucose (which represses endogenous alpha-glucoside transporter genes) and higher ratios of maltotriose transport activity to maltose transport activity. They fermented VHG (24 degrees Plato) wort faster and more completely, producing beers containing more ethanol and less residual maltose and maltotriose. The growth and sedimentation behaviors of the transformants were similar to those of the untransformed strain, as were the profiles of yeast-derived volatile aroma compounds in the beers.

  2. Analysis of Polymorphism of Angiotensin System Genes (ACE, AGTR1, and AGT) and Gene ITGB3 in Patients with Arterial Hypertension in Combination with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zotova, T Yu; Kubanova, A P; Azova, M M; Aissa, A Ait; Gigani, O O; Frolov, V A

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the frequencies of genotypes and mutant alleles of ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and ITGB3 genes were analyzed in patients with arterial hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (N=15) and compared with population data and corresponding parameters in patients with isolated hypertension (N=15). Increased frequency of genotype ID of ACE gene (hypertension predictor) was confirmed for both groups. In case of isolated hypertension, M235M genotype (gene AGT) was more frequent, in case of hypertension combined with metabolic syndrome, the frequency of genotypes A1166C and C1166C of the gene AGTR1 was higher in comparison with population data. Comparison of mutant allele frequencies in the two groups showed that at the 90% significance level allele T of the AGT gene was more frequent in hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.26) and genotype A1166A of the AGTR1 gene was more frequent in the group with isolated hypertension.

  3. Role of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to diabetes mellitus type 2 in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Wollinger, L M; Dal Bosco, S M; Rempe, C; Almeida, S E M; Berlese, D B; Castoldi, R P; Arndt, M E; Contini, V; Genro, J P

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the InDel polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the rs699 polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in a sample population from Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 228 patients with DM2 and 183 controls without DM2. The ACE InDel polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, followed by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. The AGT rs699 polymorphism was genotyped using a real-time PCR assay. No significant association between the ACE InDel polymorphism and DM2 was detected (P = 0.97). However, regarding the AGT rs699 polymorphism, DM2 patients had a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype and lower frequency of the GG genotype when compared to the controls (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that there is an association between the AGT rs699 polymorphism and DM2 in a Brazilian sample.

  4. Comparison of different vehicle power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizsey, Peter; Newson, Esmond

    Four different alternatives of mobile power train developments (hybrid diesel, fuel cell operating with hydrogen produced on a petrochemical basis, methanol reformer-fuel cell system, gasoline reformer-fuel cell system), are compared with the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE), for well-to-wheel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions, and investment costs. Although the ICE requires the lowest investment cost, it is not competitive in well-to-wheel efficiencies and less favourable than the above alternatives for CO 2 emissions. The hybrid diesel power train has the highest well-to-wheel efficiency (30%), but its well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission is similar to that of the fuel cell power train operated with compressed hydrogen produced on a centralised petrochemical basis. This latter case, however, has the advantage over the hybrid diesel power train that the carbon dioxide emission is concentrated and easier to control than the several point-like sources of emissions. Among the five cases studied only the on-board reforming of methanol offers the possibility of using a renewable energy source (biomass).

  5. Polymorphisms of three genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are not associated with blood pressure salt sensitivity: A systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Min; Miao, Song; Xi, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that polymorphisms of three key genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) play important roles in the development of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity, but they have revealed inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible published articles. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to pool odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals based on whether there was significant heterogeneity between studies. In total, seven studies [237 salt-sensitive (SS) cases and 251 salt-resistant (SR) controls] for ACE gene I/D polymorphism, three studies (130 SS cases and 221 SR controls) for AGT gene M235T polymorphism and three studies (113 SS cases and 218 SR controls) for CYP11B2 gene C344T polymorphism were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there was no significant association between polymorphisms of these three polymorphisms in the RAAS and BP salt sensitivity under three genetic models (all p > 0.05). The meta-analysis suggested that three polymorphisms (ACE gene I/D, AGT gene M235T, CYP11B2 gene C344T) in the RAAS have no significant effect on BP salt sensitivity.

  6. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Engine testing, ceramic component fabrication and evaluation, component performance rig testing, and producibility experiments at Pontiac comprised AGT 100 activities of this period, January to December 1984. Two experimental engines were available and allowed the evaluation of eight experimental assemblies. Operating time accumulated was 115 hr of burning and 156 hr total. Total cumulative engine operating time is now 225 hr. Build number 11 and 12 of engine S/N 1 totaled 28 burning hours and constituted a single assembly of the engine core--the compressor, both turbines, and the gearbox. Build number 11 of engine S/N 1 included a 1:07 hr continuous test at 100% gasifier speed (86,000 rpm). Build number 8 of engine S/N 2 was the first engine test with a ceramic turbine rotor. A mechanical loss test of an engine assembly revealed the actual losses to be near the original design allowance. Component development activity included rig testing of the compressor, combustor, and regenerator. Compressor testing was initiated on a rig modified to control the transfer of heat between flow path, lubricating oil, and structure. Results show successful thermal decoupling of the rig and lubricating/cooling oil. Rig evaluation of a reduced-friction compressor was initiated. Combustor testing covered qualification of ceramic parts for engine use, mapping of operating range limits, and evaluation of a relocated igniter plug. Several seal refinements were tested on the hot regenerator rig. An alternate regenerator disk, extruded MAS, was examined and found to be currently inadequate for the AGT 100 application. Also, a new technique for measuring leakage was explored on the regenerator rig. Ceramic component activity has focused on the development of state-of-the-art material strength characteristics in full-scale hardware. Injection-molded sintered alpha-SiC rotors were produced at Carborundum in an extensive process and tool optimization study.

  7. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes and Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Sodium Excretion in African American Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Park, Jung-Jun; Johnson, Jennifer; Vizcaino, Dave; Hand, Brian; Ferrell, Robert; Weir, Matthew; Dowling, Thomas; Obisesan, Thomas; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes could predict changes in urinary sodium excretion in response to short-term aerobic exercise training (AEX). Design Longitudinal intervention. Setting The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Baltimore, and the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center. Participants 31 (age 53 ± 2 years) sedentary, hypertensive (146 ± 2/88 ± 2 mm Hg) African Americans. Intervention Aerobic exercise training (AEX) consisted of seven or eight consecutive days, 50 minutes per day, at 65% of heart rate reserve. Participants underwent a 24-hour period of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and urine collection at baseline and 14–18 hours after the last exercise session. Main Outcome Measures Angiotensiongen (AGT) M235T and ACE I/D genotype and sodium excretion and ambulatory BP. Results Average sodium excretion for the entire group independent of genotype increased after AEX (108 ± 9 vs 143 ± 12 mEq/day, P=.003). Sodium excretion significantly increased after exercise training in the ACE II (114 ± 22 vs 169 ± 39 mEq/day, P=.04), but not in the ID (100 ± 8 vs 133 ± 17 mEq/day, P=.12) or DD (113 ± 18 vs 138 ± 11 mEq/day, P=.13) genotype groups. In the II genotype group, the increase in sodium excretion was significantly and inversely correlated with decreases in 24-hour diastolic (r=−.88, P=.02) and mean (r=−.95, P=.004) BP. The AGT TT and MT+MM genotype groups similarly increased their sodium excretion by 34 ± 16 (P=.05) and 37 ± 17 (P=.05) mEq/day respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that African American hypertensives with the ACE II genotype may be more susceptible to sodium balance and BP changes with exercise training compared with those with the ID and DD genotypes. PMID:16937603

  8. Evaluation of training programs and entry-level qualifications for nuclear-power-plant control-room personnel based on the systems approach to training

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Hanley, M J

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. Variables (performance shaping factors) of potential importance to personnel selection and training are identified, and research to more rigorously define an operationally useful taxonomy of those variables is recommended. A high-level model of the Systems Approach to Training for use in the nuclear industry, which could serve as a model for NRC evaluation of industrymore » programs, is presented. The model is consistent with current publically stated NRC policy, with the approach being followed by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, and with current training technology. Checklists to be used by NRC evaluators to assess training programs for NPP control-room personnel are proposed which are based on this model.« less

  9. Novel regulation of Skp1 by the Dictyostelium AgtA α-galactosyltransferase involves the Skp1-binding activity of its WD40 repeat domain.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Christopher M; Sheikh, M Osman; Zhang, Dongmei; West, Christopher M

    2014-03-28

    The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-α type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in α-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function.

  10. Novel Regulation of Skp1 by the Dictyostelium AgtA α-Galactosyltransferase Involves the Skp1-binding Activity of Its WD40 Repeat Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Christopher M.; Sheikh, M. Osman; Zhang, Dongmei; West, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-α type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in α-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function. PMID:24550398

  11. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  12. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  13. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  14. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  15. Molecular analysis of maltotriose active transport and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a determinant role for the AGT1 permease.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sergio L; Herberts, Ricardo A; Hollatz, Claudia; Trichez, Debora; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-03-01

    Incomplete and/or sluggish maltotriose fermentation causes both quality and economic problems in the ale-brewing industry. Although it has been proposed previously that the sugar uptake must be responsible for these undesirable phenotypes, there have been conflicting reports on whether all the known alpha-glucoside transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MALx1, AGT1, and MPH2 and MPH3 transporters) allow efficient maltotriose utilization by yeast cells. We characterized the kinetics of yeast cell growth, sugar consumption, and ethanol production during maltose or maltotriose utilization by several S. cerevisiae yeast strains (both MAL constitutive and MAL inducible) and by their isogenic counterparts with specific deletions of the AGT1 gene. Our results clearly showed that yeast strains carrying functional permeases encoded by the MAL21, MAL31, and/or MAL41 gene in their plasma membranes were unable to utilize maltotriose. While both high- and low-affinity transport activities were responsible for maltose uptake from the medium, in the case of maltotriose, the only low-affinity (K(m), 36 +/- 2 mM) transport activity was mediated by the AGT1 permease. In conclusion, the AGT1 transporter is required for efficient maltotriose fermentation by S. cerevisiae yeasts, highlighting the importance of this permease for breeding and/or selection programs aimed at improving sluggish maltotriose fermentations.

  16. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project annual report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Carborundum Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. The Project is administered by Mr. Thomas N. Strom, Project Manager, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1984 through June 30, 1985.

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  18. A novel base change leading to Hb Vanderbilt [β89(F5)Ser→Arg, AGT>AGA].

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Matthew J; Elhassadi, Ezzat I; Percy, Melanie J; McMullin, Mary F

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb) variant (Hb Vanderbilt) as a result of a heterozygous novel base change from T to A at codon 89 (AGT>AGA) leading to an amino acid change from serine to arginine.

  19. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary layouts were made for the exhaust system, air induction system, and battery installation. Points of interference were identified and resolved by altering either the vehicle or engine designs. An engine general arrangement evolved to meet the vehicle engine compartment constraints while minimizing the duct pressure losses and the heat rejection. A power transfer system (between gasifier and power turbines) was developed to maintain nearly constant temperatures throughout the entire range of engine operation. An advanced four speed automatic transmission was selected to be used with the engine. Performance calculations show improvements in component efficiencies and an increase in fuel economy. A single stage centrifugal compressor design was completed and released for procurement. Gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, generator, secondary systems, materials, controls, and transmission development are reported.

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans AGXT-1 is a mitochondrial and temperature-adapted ortholog of peroxisomal human AGT1: New insights into between-species divergence in glyoxylate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Torres, Noel; Calvo, Ana C; Oppici, Elisa; Titelbaum, Nicholas; Montioli, Riccardo; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Cellini, Barbara; Salido, Eduardo; Pey, Angel L

    2016-09-01

    In humans, glyoxylate is an intermediary product of metabolism, whose concentration is finely balanced. Mutations in peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (hAGT1) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), which results in glyoxylate accumulation that is converted to toxic oxalate. In contrast, glyoxylate is used by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans through a glyoxylate cycle to by-pass the decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thus contributing to energy production and gluconeogenesis from stored lipids. To investigate the differences in glyoxylate metabolism between humans and C. elegans and to determine whether the nematode might be a suitable model for PH1, we have characterized here the predicted nematode ortholog of hAGT1 (AGXT-1) and compared its molecular properties with those of the human enzyme. Both enzymes form active PLP-dependent dimers with high specificity towards alanine and glyoxylate, and display similar three-dimensional structures. Interestingly, AGXT-1 shows 5-fold higher activity towards the alanine/glyoxylate pair than hAGT1. Thermal and chemical stability of AGXT-1 is lower than that of hAGT1, suggesting temperature-adaptation of the nematode enzyme linked to the lower optimal growth temperature of C. elegans. Remarkably, in vivo experiments demonstrate the mitochondrial localization of AGXT-1 in contrast to the peroxisomal compartmentalization of hAGT1. Our results support the view that the different glyoxylate metabolism in the nematode is associated with the divergent molecular properties and subcellular localization of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  2. Gender-related association of AGT gene variants (M235T and T174M) with essential hypertension--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mohana, Vamsi U; Swapna, N; Surender, Reddy S; Vishnupriya, S; Padma, Tirunilai

    2012-01-01

    The human angiotensinogen (AGT) is a promising candidate gene for evaluating susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to assess the association of the variants of AGT gene and the extent of risk involved in developing EH. A case-control study was designed to compare 279 hypertensive patients with 200 normotensive subjects. The frequency distribution of M235T and T174M polymorphisms of AGT gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. A haplotype analysis was done to determine the risk conferred by the combination of alleles of the two polymorphisms for EH. The genotype distribution of the T174M variant differed significantly between hypertensives and normotensives, whereas genotypes of M235T variant did not show such difference. For M235T, MM genotype conferred an increase in risk for hypertension in women (odds ratios (OR) = 2.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-6.49). For the variant T174M, the TM genotype frequency was elevated in hypertensive females (36.5%) as compared to controls (18.8 %; P = .034). The 174M allele was more prevalent among female hypertensives than among female controls (0.20 vs. 0.12; P = .059). The haplotype analysis showed a significant association for the haplotypes of paired markers (M235 and 174M) with a χ(2) value of 8.037 (P = .045). Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variants of AGT gene-M235T and T174M-show association with hypertension.

  3. Training Effectiveness of The Inertial Training and Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Naczk, Mariusz; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Naczk, Alicja; Adach, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inertial training with different external loads using a new original device - the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Forty-six physical education male students were tested. The participants were randomly divided into three training groups and a control group (C group). The training groups performed inertial training with three different loads three times weekly for four weeks. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), the T5 and T10 groups had an additional 5 and 10 kg on the flywheel, respectively. Each training session included three exercise sets involving the shoulder joint adductors. Before and after training, the maximal torque and power were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer during adduction of the shoulder joint. Simultaneously, the electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle was recorded. Results of the study indicate that ITMS training induced a significant increase in maximal muscle torque in the T0, T5, T10 groups (15.5%, 13.0%, and 14.0%, respectively). Moreover, ITMS training caused a significant increase in power in the T0, T5, T10 groups (16.6%, 19.5%, and 14.5%, respectively). The percentage changes in torque and power did not significantly differ between training groups. Electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle increased only in the T0 group after four weeks of training. Using the ITMS device in specific workouts allowed for an increase of shoulder joint adductors torque and power in physical education students. PMID:25713662

  4. The adipose renin-angiotensin system modulates sysemic markers of insulin sensitivity activates the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie

    2006-07-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of data provides increasing evidence that the adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass. Beyond its paracrine actions within adipose tissue, adipocyte-derived angiotensin II (Ang II) may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a genetic approach to manipulate adipose RAS activity in mice and then study the consequences on metabolic parameters and on feedback regulation of the RAS. The models included deletion of the angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Agt-KO), its expression solely in adipose tissue under the control of an adipocyte-specific promoter (aP2-Agt/ Agt-KO),more » and overexpression in adipose tissue of wild type mice (aP2-Agt). Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt-KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. Overexpression of Agt in adipose tissue resulted in increased adiposity and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also markedly elevated in kidney of aP2-Agt mice, suggesting that hypertension in these animals may be in part due to stimulation of the intrarenal RAS. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results from this study demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly alter both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  5. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  6. Associations of ACE I/D, AGT M235T gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension in Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Nie, Shaofa; Yan, Weirong

    2012-09-01

    There have been many studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among Chinese populations. However, the results were inconsistent, prompting the necessity of meta-analysis. Studies published in English and Chinese were mainly searched in EMbase, PubMed and CBM up to January 2012. Twenty-three studies with 3,551 subjects for ACE I/D and seven studies with 1,296 subjects for AGT M235T were included. Significant associations were found between ACE I/D and PIH under dominant, recessive and allelic models. A separate analysis confined to preeclampsia suggested that ACE I/D was associated with preeclampsia under recessive model and allelic model, but not dominant model. Stratified analyses were conducted as meta-regression analysis indicated that the sample size of case group was a significant source of heterogeneity, which suggested no significant association between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Associations were found between AGT M235T and PIH under dominant genetic model (OR = 1.59; 95 %CI: 1.04-2.42), recessive genetic model (OR = 1.60; 95 %CI: 1.07-2.40), and allelic model (OR = 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.17-1.68). No publication bias was found in either meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis suggested significant associations between ACE I/D, AGT M235T and PIH in Chinese populations. However, no significant association was found between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to investigate the associations between gene polymorphisms and PIH in Chinese populations.

  7. CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene-gene interactions in community-acquired pneumonia pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Smelaya, Tamara V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Rubanovich, Alexander V; Moroz, Viktor V

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to establish the possible contribution of functional gene polymorphisms in detoxification/oxidative stress and vascular remodeling pathways to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) susceptibility in the case-control study (350 CAP patients, 432 control subjects) and to predisposition to the development of CAP complications in the prospective study. All subjects were genotyped for 16 polymorphic variants in the 14 genes of xenobiotics detoxification CYP1A1, AhR, GSTM1, GSTT1, ABCB1, redox-status SOD2, CAT, GCLC, and vascular homeostasis ACE, AGT, AGTR1, NOS3, MTHFR, VEGFα. Risk of pulmonary complications (PC) in the single locus analysis was associated with CYP1A1, GCLC and AGTR1 genes. Extra PC (toxic shock syndrome and myocarditis) were not associated with these genes. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and cumulative gene risk score approaches. The final model which included >5 risk alleles in the CYP1A1 (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943), GCLC, AGT, and AGTR1 genes was associated with pleuritis, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, all PC and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We considered CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene set using Set Distiller mode implemented in GeneDecks for discovering gene-set relations via the degree of sharing descriptors within a given gene set. N-acetylcysteine and oxygen were defined by Set Distiller as the best descriptors for the gene set associated in the present study with PC and ARF. Results of the study are in line with literature data and suggest that genetically determined oxidative stress exacerbation may contribute to the progression of lung inflammation.

  8. The effects of training with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions vs. traditional power training

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Ramón, M.; Hernández-Davó, J. L.; Fernandez-Fernandez, J.; Sabido, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that strength training effects (i.e. neural or structural) vary, depending on the total repetitions performed and velocity loss in each training set. Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two training programmes (i.e. one with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions, and the other following traditional power training). Methods Twenty-five males were divided into three groups (optimum power [OP = 10], traditional training [TT = 9] and control group [CG = 6]). The training load used for OP was individualised using loads that maximised power output (41.7% ± 5.8 of one repetition maximum [1RM]) and repetitions at maximum power (4 to 9 repetitions, or ‘reps’). Volume (sets x repetitions) was the same for both experimental groups, while intensity for TT was that needed to perform only 50% of the maximum number of possible repetitions (i.e. 61.1%–66.6% of 1RM). The training programme ran over 11 weeks (2 sessions per week; 4–5 sets per session; 3-minute rests between sets), with pre-, intermediate and post-tests which included: anthropometry, 1RM, peak power output (PPO) with 30%, 40% and 50% of 1RM in the bench press throw, and salivary testosterone (ST) and cortisol (SC) concentrations. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were recorded in all sessions. Results Following the intermediate test, PPO was increased in the OP group for each load (10.9%–13.2%). Following the post-test, both experimental groups had increased 1RM (11.8%–13.8%) and PPO for each load (14.1%–19.6%). Significant decreases in PPO were found for the TT group during all sets (4.9%–15.4%), along with significantly higher RPE (37%). Conclusion OP appears to be a more efficient method of training, with less neuromuscular fatigue and lower RPE. PMID:29053725

  9. Urinary angiotensinogen as a potential biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity in Chinese chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Xu, B; Xu, C

    2015-06-01

    Urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) mainly derives from the AGT produced in proximal tubular cells. Evidence exists that supports the correlation between urinary AGT and circulating AGT. To investigate the role of urinary AGT as a potential biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity in Chinese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. ELISA-based method used to quantify urinary AGT. Analyzed the relationship between urinary AGT and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in 128 CKD patients. ELISA was applied to measure the urinary and plasma renin activity, AGT, Ang II and aldosterone. Furthermore expression levels of intrarenal renin, AGT, Ang II and Ang II receptor were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (IHCS) in 72 CKD patients undergoing renal biopsy. The logarithmic transformation Log(urinary AGT/UCre) levels showed a normal distribution. Therefore, Log(urinary AGT/UCre) levels were used for the analyses. Average urinary AGT was 2.02 ± 0.55 ng/(mg Cr). Hypertension, urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary type IV collagen (Col IV) positively correlated with urinary AGT. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary sodium and serum AGT negatively correlated with urinary AGT. Multiple regression analysis indicated that low serum AGT, high urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary Col IV correlated significantly with high urinary AGT. We observed positive correlation between urinary AGT and positive IHCS area of AGT, Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor in renal tissue. These data suggest that urinary AGT might be a potential biomarker of intrarenal Ang II activity in CKD patients.

  10. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  11. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operatormore » conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.« less

  12. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  13. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This studymore » applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.« less

  14. [Power training for patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Weisser, B; Richter, H; Siewers, M

    2006-11-23

    Nowadays, not only endurance training but also power training is recommended for patients with hypertension. In appropriately doses programs (no forced respiration), a number of studies have documented a blood pressure lowering effect. In the elderly hypertensive in particular, positive effects of power training that go beyond the simple lowering of elevated blood pressure may be expected.

  15. Training Systems Product Group (TSPG) Training Systems Acquisition (TSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-23

    ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12 . DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Planned Actions • TSA III – Acquisition Strategy – Small Business • TSA II Points of Contact 3 Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today...Provides ready access to Large and Small Businesses Specializing in Air Force Training Systems Primarily Supporting Wright Patterson AFB OH and Hill AFB

  16. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  17. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase

  18. Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems (Supplement IV)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-12-01

    By the end of 1982, automated guideway transit (AGT) systems will have carried over 500 million passengers since their first commercial operation of the Tampa International Airport in 1971. To keep abreast of the domestic use of AGT systems in the U....

  19. Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?

    PubMed

    Helland, Christian; Hole, Eirik; Iversen, Erik; Olsson, Monica Charlotte; Seynnes, Olivier; Solberg, Paul Andre; Paulsen, Gøran

    2017-04-01

    This efficacy study investigated the effects of 1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), 2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and 3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power. Thirty-nine young athletes (20 ± 3 yr; ice hockey, volleyball, and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in two to three sessions per week for 8 wk. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, whereas the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions × kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJ (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30-m sprint. Secondary variables were squat one-repetition maximum (1RM), body composition, quadriceps thickness, and architecture. OWL resulted in trivial improvements and inferior gains compared with FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, DJ, and 1RM. MSPT demonstrated small but robust effects on SJ, DJ, loaded CMJ, and 1RM (3%-13%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30-m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4%-7%). MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions.

  20. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-11-01

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  1. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  2. Intelligent power management in a vehicular system with multiple power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Yi L.; Chen, ZhiHang; Kiliaris, Leonidas; Masrur, M. Abul

    This paper presents an optimal online power management strategy applied to a vehicular power system that contains multiple power sources and deals with largely fluctuated load requests. The optimal online power management strategy is developed using machine learning and fuzzy logic. A machine learning algorithm has been developed to learn the knowledge about minimizing power loss in a Multiple Power Sources and Loads (M_PS&LD) system. The algorithm exploits the fact that different power sources used to deliver a load request have different power losses under different vehicle states. The machine learning algorithm is developed to train an intelligent power controller, an online fuzzy power controller, FPC_MPS, that has the capability of finding combinations of power sources that minimize power losses while satisfying a given set of system and component constraints during a drive cycle. The FPC_MPS was implemented in two simulated systems, a power system of four power sources, and a vehicle system of three power sources. Experimental results show that the proposed machine learning approach combined with fuzzy control is a promising technology for intelligent vehicle power management in a M_PS&LD power system.

  3. Computer Aided System for Developing Aircrew Training (CASDAT).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    sequence of training within the phase of training. An example lesson code and title is: FAPA 20 fuel system The lesson reference number can be...syllabus. Some typical titles and their sequence numbers are: FAPA 20 Fuel System FAPA 40 Power Plant System FAPA 60 Hydraulic System FAPA 80...portion of the syllabus worksheet. 59 NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 79-C-0076-1 SYLLABUS WORKSHEET *** FAPA 20 NORMAL COMMUNCATIONS VT-VIDEO TAPE NIL-MEDIATED

  4. Energy Systems Training Programs and Certifications Survey White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2017-02-01

    Compressed air system, industrial refrigeration system, chilled water system, pump system, fan system, steam system, process heating system, and combined heat and power system are the major industrial energy systems. By helping enhance knowledge and skills of workforce, training and certification programs on these systems are essential to improve energy efficiency of manufacturing facilities. A literature survey of currently available training and certification programs on these systems was conducted.

  5. Experimental study of a fuel cell power train for road transport application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F. E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles requires the on-board integration of fuel cell systems and electric energy storage devices, with an appropriate energy management system. The optimization of performance and efficiency needs an experimental analysis of the power train, which has to be effected in both stationary and transient conditions (including standard driving cycles). In this paper experimental results concerning the performance of a fuel cell power train are reported and discussed. In particular characterization results for a small sized fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 2.5 kW PEM stack, alone and coupled to an electric propulsion chain of 3.7 kW are presented and discussed. The control unit of the FCS allowed the main stack operative parameters (stoichiometric ratio, hydrogen and air pressure, temperature) to be varied and regulated in order to obtain optimized polarization and efficiency curves. Experimental runs effected on the power train during standard driving cycles have allowed the performance and efficiency of the individual components (fuel cell stack and auxiliaries, dc-dc converter, traction batteries, electric engine) to be evaluated, evidencing the role of output current and voltage of the dc-dc converter in directing the energy flows within the propulsion system.

  6. 75 FR 72664 - System Personnel Training Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Under section 215 of the Federal Power Act, the Commission approves two Personnel Performance, Training and Qualifications (PER) Reliability Standards, PER-004-2 (Reliability Coordination--Staffing) and PER-005-1 (System Personnel Training), submitted to the Commission for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the Electric Reliability Organization certified by the Commission. The approved Reliability Standards require reliability coordinators, balancing authorities, and transmission operators to establish a training program for their system operators, verify each of their system operators' capability to perform tasks, and provide emergency operations training to every system operator. The Commission also approves NERC's proposal to retire two existing PER Reliability Standards that are replaced by the standards approved in this Final Rule.

  7. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  8. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  9. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  10. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  11. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  12. Modeling the effect of 3 missense AGXT mutations on dimerization of the AGT enzyme in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    Robbiano, Angela; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Jan; Zadro, Cristina; Ulivi, Sheila; Bevilacqua, Elena; Mandrile, Giorgia; De Marchi, Mario; Miertus, Stanislav; Amoroso, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the AGXT gene encoding the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase liver enzyme (AGT) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). Here we report a molecular modeling study of selected missense AGXT mutations: the common Gly170Arg and the recently described Gly47Arg and Ser81Leu variants, predicted to be pathogenic using standard criteria. Taking advantage of the refined 3D structure of AGT, we computed the dimerization energy of the wild-type and mutated proteins. Molecular modeling predicted that Gly47Arg affects dimerization with a similar effect to that shown previously for Gly170Arg through classical biochemical approaches. In contrast, no effect on dimerization was predicted for Ser81Leu. Therefore, this probably demonstrates pathogenic properties via a different mechanism, similar to that described for the adjacent Gly82Glu mutation that affects pyridoxine binding. This study shows that the molecular modeling approach can contribute to evaluating the pathogenicity of some missense variants that affect dimerization. However, in silico studies--aimed to assess the relationship between structural change and biological effects--require the integrated use of more than 1 tool.

  13. Advanced Technology Training System on Motor-Operated Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Widjaja, T. Kiki; Yasutake, Joseph Y.; Isoda, Hachiro

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes how features from the field of Intelligent Tutoring Systems are applied to the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Advanced Technology Training System (ATTS). The MOV ATTS is a training system developed at Galaxy Scientific Corporation for the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. The MOV ATTS combines traditional computer-based training approaches with system simulation, integrated expert systems, and student and expert modeling. The primary goal of the MOV ATTS is to reduce human errors that occur during MOV overhaul and repair. The MOV ATTS addresses this goal by providing basic operational information of the MOV, simulating MOV operation, providing troubleshooting practice of MOV failures, and tailoring this training to the needs of each individual student. The MOV ATTS integrates multiple expert models (functional and procedural) to provide advice and feedback to students. The integration also provides expert model validation support to developers. Student modeling is supported by two separate student models: one model registers and updates the student's current knowledge of basic MOV information, while another model logs the student's actions and errors during troubleshooting exercises. These two models are used to provide tailored feedback to the student during the MOV course.

  14. Metroliner Auxiliary Power Electrical System Reliability Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-06-01

    The reliability of the electrical system of any vehicle is greatly affected by the way the system is configured. The propulsion and braking systems of a train must be unaffected by failures occurring in the nonessential power areas. With these criter...

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system initial development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The powertrain consists of a single shaft regenerated gas turbine engine utilizing ceramic hot section components, coupled to a slit differential gearbox with an available variable stator torque converter and an available Ford intergral overdrive four-speed automatic transmission. Predicted fuel economy using gasoline fuel over the combined federal driving cycle (CFDC) is 15.3 km/1, which represents a 59% improvement over the spark-ignition-powered baseline vehicle. Using DF2 fuel, CFDC mileage estimates are 17.43 km/1. Zero to 96.6 km/hr acceleration time is 11.9 seconds with a four-second accleration distance of 21.0 m. The ceramic radial turbine rotor is discussed along with the control system for the powertrain.

  16. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  17. Power Mobility Training for Young Children with Multiple, Severe Impairments: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Gallagher, Cailee; Hammond, Lyndsay; Webster, Lauren M; Aldrich, Naomi J

    2017-02-01

    Young children with neurodevelopmental conditions are often limited in their ability to explore and learn from their environment. The purposes of this case series were to (1) describe the outcomes of using an alternative power mobility device with young children who had multiple, severe impairments; (2) develop power mobility training methods for use with these children; and (3) determine the feasibility of using various outcome measures. Three children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels IV, V, and V) ages 17 months to 3.5 years participated in the case series. Examination included the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) and the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ). An individualized, engaging power mobility training environment was created for each participant. Intervention was provided for 60 minutes per week over 12 weeks. All participants exhibited improvements in power mobility skills. Post-intervention PEDI-CAT scores increased in various domains for all participants. Post-intervention DMQ scores improved in Participants 1 and 2. The participants appeared to make improvements in their beginning power mobility skills. Additional research is planned to further explore the impact of power mobility training in this unique population.

  18. [Alpha power voluntary increasing training for cognition enhancement study].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, M V; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Sapina, E V; Bazanova, O M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim simultaneous alpha EEG stimulating and EMG decreasing biofeedback training impact on the alpha-activity and cognitive functions 27 healthy male subjects (18-34 years) were investigated in pre- and post 10 training sessions of the voluntary increasing alpha power in individual upper alpha range. The accuracy of conceptual span task, fluency and flexibility in alternatives use task performance and alpha-activity indices were compared in real (14 participants) and sham (13 participants) biofeedback groups for the discrimination of the feedback role in training. The follow up effect oftrainings was studied through month over the training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did not change the cognitive performance. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock biofeedback training has no such effect. It could be concluded that alpha-EEG-EMG biofeedback has application not only for cognition enhancement, but also in prognostic aims in clinical practice and brain-computer interface technology.

  19. Improved Functional Power Over a 5-Week Period: Comparison of Combined Weight Training to Flexible Barbell Training.

    PubMed

    Caterisano, Anthony; Hutchison, Randolph; Parker, Clarence; James, Scott; Opskar, Stephen

    2018-06-14

    Caterisano, A, Hutchison, R, Parker, C, James, S, and Opskar, S. Improved functional power over a 5-week period: Comparison of combined weight training with flexible barbell training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previous studies demonstrated increased power development with various resistance-training modes over short training periods of 4-7 weeks through neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different power-training regimens over a 5-week period: combined weight training program (CT) using speed-lifts and plyometrics vs. flexible barbell (FB) training. College football players (n = 28) were randomly assigned to either FB or CT training groups. The CT group followed a combined weight training program using 45-65% of 1 repetition maximum, and the FB group used an FB with a fixed mass of 56.82 kg for all lifts. Both groups performed similar lifts 4 days per week in a split routine, alternating muscle groups. Subjects were tested before and after the training period by the vertical jump (VJ), long jump, medicine ball (MB) throw, and Margaria-Kalamen stair power test. Pre- to post-tests, both groups experienced significant increases in VJ (CT: 57.9 ± 8.9 to 64.5 ± 7.9 cm, FB: 68.1 ± 6.9 to 74.9 ± 6.6 cm) and MB (CT: 513.3 ± 69.3 to 594.9 ± 78.2 cm, FB: 510.0 ± 41.4 to 613.9 ± 52.6 cm) that were not significantly different between training modes. Long jump improved significantly only in FB (248.4 ± 23.1 to 254.3 ± 24.6 cm) and not in CT. The Margaria-Kalamen stair power test result improved in both groups but FB improved at a significantly higher level than CT (CT: 40.6 ± 2.3 to 44.3 ± 2.2 W, FB: 41.0 ± 1.7 to 48.8 ± 1.8 W). The results suggest that both FB and CT training improved power over a 5-week training period, but that FB training may be more effective than CT in lower-body power development.

  20. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  1. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P < or = 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P < or = 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength

  2. Availability Simulation of AGT Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-02-01

    The report discusses the analytical and simulation procedures that were used to evaluate the effects of failure in a complex dual mode transportation system based on a worst case study-state condition. The computed results are an availability figure ...

  3. Development and content validation of the power mobility training tool.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Cain, Brett; King, Emily; VandenBerg, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This paper outlines the development and content validation of the power mobility training tool (PMTT), an observational tool designed to assist therapists in developing power mobility training programs for children who have multiple, severe impairments. Initial items on the PMTT were developed based on a literature review and in consultation with therapists experienced in the use of power mobility. Items were trialled in clinical settings, reviewed, and refined. Items were then operationalized and an administration manual detailing scoring for each item was created. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to establish content validity via a 15 member, international expert panel. The content validity ratio (CVR) was determined for each possible item. Of the 19 original items, 10 achieved minimum required CVR values and were included in the final version of the PMTT. Items related to manoeuvring a power mobility device were merged and an item related to the number of switches used concurrently to operate a power mobility device were added to the PMTT. The PMTT may assist therapists in developing training programs that facilitate the acquisition of beginning power mobility skills in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation The Power Mobility Training Tool (PMTT) was developed to help guide the development of power mobility intervention programs for children who have multiple, severe impairments. The PMTT can be used with children who access a power mobility device using either a joystick or a switch. Therapists who have limited experience with power mobility may find the PMTT to be helpful in setting up and conducting power mobility training interventions as a feasible aspect of a plan of care for children who have multiple, severe impairments.

  4. Minimally invasive surgical video analysis: a powerful tool for surgical training and navigation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, P; Oropesa, I; Gómez, E J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of minimally invasive surgical videos is a powerful tool to drive new solutions for achieving reproducible training programs, objective and transparent assessment systems and navigation tools to assist surgeons and improve patient safety. This paper presents how video analysis contributes to the development of new cognitive and motor training and assessment programs as well as new paradigms for image-guided surgery.

  5. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  6. Extended System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-02-01

    The objectives of the System Operations Studies (SOS) of the Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) program was to develop models for the analysis of system operations, to evaluate AGT system performance and cost, and to establish guidelines fo...

  7. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  8. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Young, James D; Whitten, Joseph H D; Reid, Jonathan C; Quigley, Patrick J; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D; Hodgson, Daniel D; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  9. Three weeks of eccentric training combined with overspeed exercises enhances power and running speed performance gains in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-05-01

    Eccentric and overspeed training modalities are effective in improving components of muscular power. Eccentric training induces specific training adaptations relating to muscular force, whereas overspeed stimuli target the velocity component of power expression. We aimed to compare the effects of traditional or eccentric training with volume-matched training that incorporated overspeed exercises. Twenty team-sport athletes performed 4 counterbalanced 3-week training blocks consecutively as part of a preseason training period: (1) traditional resistance training; (2) eccentric-only resistance training; (3) traditional resistance training with overspeed exercises; and (4) eccentric resistance training with overspeed exercises. The overspeed exercises performed were assisted countermovement jumps and downhill running. Improvements in bench press (15.0 ± 5.1 kg; effect size [ES]: 1.52), squat (19.5 ± 9.1 kg; ES: 1.12), and peak power in the countermovement jump (447 ± 248 W; ES: 0.94) were observed following the 12-week training period. Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities (ES: 0.72-1.09) with no effect of the overspeed stimuli on these measures (p > 0.05). Eccentric training with overspeed stimuli was more effective than traditional resistance training in increasing peak power in the countermovement jump (94 ± 55 W; ES: 0.95). Eccentric training induced no beneficial training response in maximal running speed (p > 0.05); however, the addition of overspeed exercises salvaged this relatively negative effect when compared with eccentric training alone (0.03 ± 0.01 seconds; ES: 1.33). These training results achieved in 3-week training blocks suggest that it is important to target-specific aspects of both force and movement velocity to enhance functional measures of power expression.

  10. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  11. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  12. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : System Availability Model User's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The System Availability Model (SAM) is a system-level model which provides measures of vehicle and passenger availability. The SAM operates in conjunction with the AGT discrete Event Simulation Model (DESM). The DESM output is the normal source of th...

  13. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  14. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  15. A system-level mathematical model for evaluation of power train performance of load-leveled electric-vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purohit, G. P.; Leising, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The power train performance of load leveled electric vehicles can be compared with that of nonload leveled systems by use of a simple mathematical model. This method of measurement involves a number of parameters including the degree of load leveling and regeneration, the flywheel mechanical to electrical energy fraction, and efficiencies of the motor, generator, flywheel, and transmission. Basic efficiency terms are defined and representative comparisons of a variety of systems are presented. Results of the study indicate that mechanical transfer of energy into and out of the flywheel is more advantageous than electrical transfer. An optimum degree of load leveling may be achieved in terms of the driving cycle, battery characteristics, mode of mechanization, and the efficiency of the components. For state of the art mechanically coupled flyheel systems, load leveling losses can be held to a reasonable 10%; electrically coupled systems can have losses that are up to six times larger. Propulsion system efficiencies for mechanically coupled flywheel systems are predicted to be approximately the 60% achieved on conventional nonload leveled systems.

  16. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jim, Nichols

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students alsomore » participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.« less

  17. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16). We measured gait kinematics (stride characteristic and joint kinematics) and isokinetic power of the ankle plantarflexor (20°·s, 40°·s, and 60°·s) and knee extensor and flexor (60°·s, 120°·s, and 180°·s) muscles at weeks 0, 10, and 20. Power training improved isokinetic muscle power by ~30% (P ≤ 0.001) and fast (5.9%, P < 0.05) but not habitual gait velocity. Ankle plantarflexor velocity measured during gait at fast pace decreased by 7.9% (P < 0.05). The changes isokinetic muscle power and joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity. The mechanisms that increased fast gait velocity involved higher cadence (r = 0.86, P ≤ 0.001) rather than longer strides (r = 0.49, P = 0.066). Detraining did not reverse the training-induced increases in muscle power and fast gait velocity. Because increases in muscle power and modifications in joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity, kinematic mechanisms seem to play a minor role in improving healthy old adults' fast gait velocity after power training.

  18. Anaerobic power and physical function in strength-trained and non-strength-trained older adults.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jill M; Miszko, Tanya A; Laity, Jennifer H; Agrawal, Subodoh K; Cress, M Elaine

    2002-03-01

    Challenging daily tasks, such as transferring heavy items or rising from the floor, may be dependent on the ability to generate short bursts of energy anaerobically. The purposes of this study were to determine if strength-trained (ST) older adults have higher anaerobic power output compared with non-strength-trained (NST) older adults and to determine the relationship between anaerobic power and performance-based physical function. Thirty-five men and women (age 71.5 +/- 6.4 years, mean +/- SD; NST: n = 18, ST: n = 17) were grouped by training status. Outcome variables included relative anaerobic power (Wingate test), physical function measured with the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP, scaled 0 to 100), and anthropometric lean thigh volume (LTV). Analysis of covariance (with age and sex as covariates) was used to determine group differences in the dependent variables listed above. Pearson's r was used to determine the relationship between anaerobic power, CS-PFP total score (TOT), and CS-PFP lower body strength domain score (LBS). The ST group had significantly higher mean anaerobic power (NST 58.9 +/- 16 W/l, ST 96.3 +/- 23 W/l), CS-PFP total (NST 61.2 +/- 13, ST 73.7 +/- 8), and LBS (NST 54.1 +/- 17, ST 70.9 +/- 8) compared with the NST group (p <.05). However, LTV was similar for both groups (NST 3.323 +/- 0.75; ST 3.179 +/- 0.79), which suggests that the ST group had higher muscle quality compared with the NST group. Anaerobic power was significantly related to TOT (r =.611, p =.001) and LBS (r =.650, p =.001). High levels of physical function in ST older adults may in part be explained by higher levels of anaerobic power associated with strength training.

  19. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    DOEpatents

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  20. Joint-level energetics differentiate isoinertial from speed-power resistance training-a Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Liew, Bernard X W; Drovandi, Christopher C; Clifford, Samuel; Keogh, Justin W L; Morris, Susan; Netto, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    There is convincing evidence for the benefits of resistance training on vertical jump improvements, but little evidence to guide optimal training prescription. The inability to detect small between modality effects may partially reflect the use of ANOVA statistics. This study represents the results of a sub-study from a larger project investigating the effects of two resistance training methods on load carriage running energetics. Bayesian statistics were used to compare the effectiveness of isoinertial resistance against speed-power training to change countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and joint energetics. Active adults were randomly allocated to either a six-week isoinertial ( n  = 16; calf raises, leg press, and lunge), or a speed-power training program ( n  = 14; countermovement jumps, hopping, with hip flexor training to target pre-swing running energetics). Primary outcome variables included jump height and joint power. Bayesian mixed modelling and Functional Data Analysis were used, where significance was determined by a non-zero crossing of the 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (CrI). The gain in CMJ height after isoinertial training was 1.95 cm (95% CrI [0.85-3.04] cm) greater than the gain after speed-power training, but the gain in SJ height was similar between groups. In the CMJ, isoinertial training produced a larger increase in power absorption at the hip by a mean 0.018% (equivalent to 35 W) (95% CrI [0.007-0.03]), knee by 0.014% (equivalent to 27 W) (95% CrI [0.006-0.02]) and foot by 0.011% (equivalent to 21 W) (95% CrI [0.005-0.02]) compared to speed-power training. Short-term isoinertial training improved CMJ height more than speed-power training. The principle adaptive difference between training modalities was at the level of hip, knee and foot power absorption.

  1. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Availability Model Functional Specification

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The System Availability Model (SAM) is a system-level model which provides measures of vehicle and passenger availability. The SAM will be used to evaluate the system-level influence of availability concepts employed in AGT systems. This functional s...

  2. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  3. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  4. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power flow classification for static security assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, D.; Germond, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the classification of power system states using an artificial neural network model, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map. The ultimate goal of this classification is to assess power system static security in real-time. Kohonen's self-organizing feature map is an unsupervised neural network which maps N-dimensional input vectors to an array of M neurons. After learning, the synaptic weight vectors exhibit a topological organization which represents the relationship between the vectors of the training set. This learning is unsupervised, which means that the number and size of the classes are not specified beforehand. In the application developed in this report, the input vectors used as the training set are generated by off-line load-flow simulations. The learning algorithm and the results of the organization are discussed.

  5. Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Takeshi; Okada, Sadanori; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nishijima, Yoko; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Olmesartan and azilsartan decrease blood pressure more effectively than other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs additionally decrease the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), a urinary albumin marker, and urinary angiotensinogen (u-AGT), an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity marker. We examined the effects of these ARBs on blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods Patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with conventional ARBs, excluding olmesartan and azilsartan, for over 8 weeks were enrolled. We randomly switched patients from their prior ARBs to either olmesartan or azilsartan, and followed them for 24 weeks. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. UACR and u-AGT also decreased at 24 weeks in both groups. There were no significant differences in SBP, DBP, cSBP, UACR, or u-AGT between the groups. Therefore, we combined both groups for further analyses. After combining, SBP (160.5 ± 16.4 to 139.6 ± 15.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), DBP (88.4 ± 13.7 to 80.7 ± 13.2 mm Hg, P = 0.008), cSBP (167.4 ± 20.8 to 146.6 ± 24.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), UACR (13.8 to 9.0 mg/g Cre, P = 0.0096), and u-AGT (4.13 to 2.32 μg/g Cre, P = 0.0074) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. Patients with microalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g Cre) had significantly greater ΔUACR (−39.4 vs 0.27, P = 0.0024) and Δu-AGT (−11.9 vs −0.61, P = 0.0235) than patients without microalbuminuria. The changes in u-AGT were significantly associated with changes in UACR (r = 0.411, P = 0.046); however, there was no significant relationship between the changes in u-AGT and those in SBP or DBP. Conclusion Olmesartan and azilsartan decreased blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT more than the other ARBs, and exerted depressor and renoprotective effects. PMID:29683146

  6. Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Takami, Takeshi; Okada, Sadanori; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nishijima, Yoko; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Olmesartan and azilsartan decrease blood pressure more effectively than other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs additionally decrease the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), a urinary albumin marker, and urinary angiotensinogen (u-AGT), an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity marker. We examined the effects of these ARBs on blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with conventional ARBs, excluding olmesartan and azilsartan, for over 8 weeks were enrolled. We randomly switched patients from their prior ARBs to either olmesartan or azilsartan, and followed them for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. UACR and u-AGT also decreased at 24 weeks in both groups. There were no significant differences in SBP, DBP, cSBP, UACR, or u-AGT between the groups. Therefore, we combined both groups for further analyses. After combining, SBP (160.5 ± 16.4 to 139.6 ± 15.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), DBP (88.4 ± 13.7 to 80.7 ± 13.2 mm Hg, P = 0.008), cSBP (167.4 ± 20.8 to 146.6 ± 24.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), UACR (13.8 to 9.0 mg/g Cre, P = 0.0096), and u-AGT (4.13 to 2.32 μg/g Cre, P = 0.0074) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. Patients with microalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g Cre) had significantly greater ΔUACR (-39.4 vs 0.27, P = 0.0024) and Δu-AGT (-11.9 vs -0.61, P = 0.0235) than patients without microalbuminuria. The changes in u-AGT were significantly associated with changes in UACR (r = 0.411, P = 0.046); however, there was no significant relationship between the changes in u-AGT and those in SBP or DBP. Olmesartan and azilsartan decreased blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT more than the other ARBs, and exerted depressor and renoprotective effects.

  7. Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Yasuda, Hideo

    2017-05-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a critical role in the pathophysiology of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury, independent of circulating RAS. Although it is clear that the circulating RAS has a circadian rhythm, reports of a circadian rhythm in tissue-specific RAS are limited. Clinical studies evaluating intrarenal RAS activity by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) levels have indicated that urinary AGT levels were equally low during both the daytime and nighttime in individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that urinary AGT levels were higher during the daytime than at nighttime in patients with CKD. Moreover, urinary AGT levels of the night-to-day (N/D) ratio of urinary AGT were positively correlated with the levels of N/D of urinary protein, albumin excretion and BP. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that the expression of intrarenal RAS components, such as AGT, angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type 1 receptor proteins, increased and peaked at the same time as BP and urinary protein excretion during the resting phase, and the amplitude of the oscillations of these proteins was augmented in a chronic progressive nephritis animal compared with a control. Thus, the circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation may lead to renal damage and hypertension, which both are associated with diurnal variations in BP. It is possible that augmented glomerular permeability increases AGT excretion levels into the tubular lumen and that circadian fluctuation of glomerular permeability influences the circadian rhythm of the intrarenal RAS.

  8. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  9. Design and implementation of artistic gymnastics training guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Limin; Luo, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Artistic gymnastics (AG) has developed into a favorite sports activity among many university students; recent years saw not only the increase of AG learners, but also the emergence of more and more problems in the training. Based on surveys in different forms, students' physical quality and their performance in the AG training were analyzed and summarized; and with the aid of the computer technology, Artistic Gymnastics Training Guidance System was designed and implemented to meet the students' needs for personalized training schemes and improve AG teaching quality. The System can provide convenient ways for scientific training in a targeted and oriented manner on the basis of the differences in physical quality. Also, it can provide teachers with detailed data about the students' physical quality and their AG training; through the visualization of valuable statistical data, it is able to provide a powerful basis for decision makers of teaching departments and thus facilitate the perfection of AG teaching methods.

  10. Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT): The evolution of an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Jeffrey E.; Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Johnson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT) uses Intelligent Tutoring System (OTS) technology to deliver diagnostic training in a variety of complex technical domains. Over the past six years, MITT technology has been used to develop training systems for nuclear power plant diesel generator diagnosis, Space Shuttle fuel cell diagnosis, and message processing diagnosis for the Minuteman missile. Presented here is an overview of the MITT system, describing the evolution of the MITT software and the benefits of using the MITT system.

  11. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall securitymore » posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.« less

  12. High-speed power training: a novel approach to resistance training in older men and women. A brief review and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Stephen P

    2007-05-01

    Over the past century, increases in both longevity and the number of older adults in the U.S.A. have given rise to greater numbers of functionally limited and disabled older adults. This has resulted in a decline in the quality of life of our elderly population, as well as an increased burden on our health care system. Resistance training (RT) with a strengthening component has traditionally been recommended to improve health and physical functioning in older adults. Muscle power (force x velocity), or the ability to produce force rapidly, has recently emerged as an important predictor of functioning in older men and women and has been the current focus of many RT studies. In this review, the physiological changes that contribute to the declines in muscle strength and power with aging will first be examined, followed by a discussion of the prevailing theories behind the use of traditional RT in older men and women. The rationale for high-velocity RT will then be explored, and the recent literature on novel training interventions designed to improve muscle power in older adults will be discussed. Finally, some preliminary evidence demonstrating the benefits of high-velocity power training in older men and women will be presented.

  13. Voltage control on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  14. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance.... (d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics: (1...

  15. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance.... (d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics: (1...

  16. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance.... (d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics: (1...

  17. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  18. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Petré, Henrik; Löfving, Pontus; Psilander, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO 2max ) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO 2max ), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8) or HIIT (n = 8) in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM) during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk). Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p < 0.01), with no difference between the groups. However, aerobic power (VO 2max ) only improved after RT + HIIT (4 ± 3%, p < 0.01). We conclude that strength gains can be obtained after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO 2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training.

  19. The Development of Dispatcher Training Simulator in a Thermal Energy Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, D. L.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasan, B.

    2018-01-01

    A dispatcher training simulator (DTS) is a real-time Human Machine Interface (HMI)-based control tool that is able to visualize industrial control system processes. The present study was aimed at developing a simulator tool for boilers in a thermal power station. The DTS prototype was designed using technical data of thermal power station boilers in Indonesia. It was then designed and implemented in Wonderware Intouch 10. The resulting simulator came with component drawing, animation, control display, alarm system, real-time trend, historical trend. This application used 26 tagnames and was equipped with a security system. The test showed that the principles of real-time control worked well. It is expected that this research could significantly contribute to the development of thermal power station, particularly in terms of its application as a training simulator for beginning dispatchers.

  20. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p < 0.05). Additionally, their change rate abilities were substantially superior to those of the traditional resistance training (p < 0.05). The low-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p < 0.05). However, traditional resistance training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that jump performance, speed, and muscle power significantly improved after 10 weeks of PLP training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to

  1. Blood pressure and interactions between the angiotensin polymorphism AGT M235T and sodium intake: a cross-sectional population study.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Bowman, Richard; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Intervention studies have indicated an interaction between the blood pressure response to a low-sodium or a low-fat and high-fruit and -vegetable diet and the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) polymorphisms G-6A and M235T. We investigated whether this interaction is also present in a large free-living population. Urinary sodium, potassium as biomarkers of intake, and blood pressure were measured in 11 384 men and women aged 45-79 y participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation of Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC). The M235T polymorphism was assessed by pyrosequencing. Highly significant associations between sodium and blood pressure were shown for all genotypes (P < 0.001), but the regression coefficient for systolic blood pressure associated with each unit of sodium for each of the MT and TT genotypes was approximately double that for the MM homozygotes (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity between genotypes). Differences were evident at high exposures to sodium but not at low exposures. There were no significant associations between blood pressure and dietary or urinary potassium. This large cross-sectional study supports public health recommendations to reduce salt consumption in the population as a whole, and it confirms intervention trial data showing the greatest response to intervention in persons with the AA and TT genotype in the AGT G-6A and M235T polymorphisms. Genotype effects in populations at low exposure to sodium are not likely to be seen.

  2. Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Rademacher, Holger; Huesgen, Silke; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.

  3. Deficiency of angiotensinogen in hepatocytes markedly decreases blood pressure in lean and obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Larian, Nika; Thompson, Joel; English, Victoria L; Charnigo, Richard; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Cassis, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    We recently demonstrated that adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen (AGT) ablated high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations and obesity-hypertension in male mice. Hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT. Therefore, in this study, we defined the contribution of hepatocyte-derived AGT to obesity-induced elevations in plasma AGT concentrations and hypertension. Male Agt(fl/fl) mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase were bred to female Agt(fl/fl) mice to generate Agt(fl/fl) or hepatocyte AGT-deficient male mice (Agt(Alb)). Mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency had no significant effect on body weight. Plasma AGT concentrations were increased in obese Agt(fl/fl) mice. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency markedly reduced plasma AGT and Ang II concentrations in lean and obese mice. Moreover, hepatocyte AGT deficiency reduced the content and release of AGT from adipose explants. Systolic blood pressure was markedly decreased in lean (by 18 mm Hg) and obese Agt(Alb) mice (by 54 mm Hg) compared with Agt(fl/fl) controls. To define mechanisms, we quantified effects of Ang II on mRNA abundance of megalin, an AGT uptake transporter, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ang II stimulated adipocyte megalin mRNA abundance and decreased media AGT concentrations. These results demonstrate that hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT in both lean and obese mice. Moreover, reductions in plasma angiotensin concentrations in obese hepatocyte AGT-deficient mice may have limited megalin-dependent uptake of AGT into adipocytes for the production of Ang II in the development of obesity-hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Disciplinary power and the process of training informal carers on stroke units.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Euan; Hawkins, Rebecca; Clarke, David J; Godfrey, Mary; Dickerson, Josie; McKevitt, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the process of training informal carers on stroke units using the lens of power. Care is usually assumed as a kinship obligation but the state has long had an interest in framing the carer and caring work. Training carers in healthcare settings raises questions about the power of the state and healthcare professionals as its agents to shape expectations and practices related to the caring role. Drawing on Foucault's notion of disciplinary power, we show how disciplinary forms of power exercised in interactions between healthcare professionals and carers shape the engagement and resistance of carers in the process of training. Interview and observational field note extracts are drawn from a multi-sited study of a training programme on stroke units targeting family carers of people with stroke to consider the consequences of subjecting caring to this intervention. We found that the process of training informal carers on stroke units was not simply a matter of transferring skills from professional to lay person, but entailed disciplinary forms of power intended to shape the conduct of the carer. We interrogate the extent to which a specific kind of carer is produced through such an approach, and the wider implications for the participation of carers in training in healthcare settings and the empowerment of carers. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. A Repeated Power Training Enhances Fatigue Resistance While Reducing Intraset Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Moras, Gerard; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2018-04-04

    Oliver, GS, Julio, TF, Moras, G, José Luis, AS, and Alberto, MV. A repeated power training enhances fatigue resistance while reducing intraset fluctuations. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The present study analyzed the effects of adding an upper-body repeated power ability (RPA) training to habitual strength training sessions. Twenty young elite male basketball players were randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10) or repeated power group (RPG, n = 10) and evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1RM), incremental load, and RPA tests in the bench press exercise before and after a 7-week period and a 4-week cessation period. Repeated power group performed 1-3 blocks of 5 sets of 5 repetitions using the load that maximized power output with 30 seconds and 3 minute of passive recovery between sets and blocks, respectively. Between-group analysis showed substantial greater improvements in RPG compared with CON in: best set (APB), last set (APL), mean power over 5 sets (APM), percentage of decrement, fluctuation decrease during APL and RPA index (APLpost/APBpre) during the RPA test (effect size [ES] = 0.64-1.86), and 1RM (ES = 0.48) and average power at 80% of 1RM (ES = 1.11) in the incremental load test. The improvements of APB and APM were almost perfectly correlated. In conclusion, RPA training represents an effective method to mainly improve fatigue resistance together with the novel finding of a better consistency in performance (measured as reduced intraset power fluctuations) at the end of a dynamic repeated effort.

  6. Role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has many well-documented pathophysiologic functions in both blood pressure regulation and renal disease development. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major bioactive product of the RAS. It induces inflammation, renal cell growth, mitogenesis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. In addition, Ang II regulates the gene expression of bioactive substances and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that are involved in renal damage. Activation of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor pathway results in the production of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which in turn facilities renal injury. Involvement of angiotensinogen (AGT) in intrarenal RAS activation and development of renal disease has previously been reported. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that the urinary excretion rates of AGT provide a specific index of the intrarenal RAS status. Enhanced intrarenal AGT levels have been observed in experimental models of renal disease, supporting the concept that AGT plays an important role in the development and progression of renal disease. In this review, we focus on the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathophysiology of renal disease. Additionally, we explored the potential of urinary AGT as a novel biomarker of intrarenal RAS status in renal disease.

  7. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems: Feeder Systems Model Functional Specification

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    This document specifies the functional requirements for the AGT-SOS Feeder Systems Model (FSM), the type of hardware required, and the modeling techniques employed by the FSM. The objective of the FSM is to map the zone-to-zone transit patronage dema...

  8. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Petré, Henrik; Löfving, Pontus; Psilander, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8) or HIIT (n = 8) in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM) during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk). Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p < 0.01), with no difference between the groups. However, aerobic power (VO2max) only improved after RT + HIIT (4 ± 3%, p < 0.01). We conclude that strength gains can be obtained after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training. Key points Lower body maximal strength is improved after concurrent strength and endurance training in highly trained individuals. The magnitude of this strength improvement is not influenced by the type of endurance training, i

  9. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  10. Automated Guideway Transit System Passenger Security Guidebook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This uidebook provides AGT system planners, designers and operators with information on available crime countermeasures and their relative effectiveness against transit crime. : Crime countermeasures on current transit systems have been reviewed and ...

  11. On the Spike Train Variability Characterized by Variance-to-Mean Power Relationship.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a statistical method for modeling the non-Poisson variability of spike trains observed in a wide range of brain regions. Central to our approach is the assumption that the variance and the mean of interspike intervals are related by a power function characterized by two parameters: the scale factor and exponent. It is shown that this single assumption allows the variability of spike trains to have an arbitrary scale and various dependencies on the firing rate in the spike count statistics, as well as in the interval statistics, depending on the two parameters of the power function. We also propose a statistical model for spike trains that exhibits the variance-to-mean power relationship. Based on this, a maximum likelihood method is developed for inferring the parameters from rate-modulated spike trains. The proposed method is illustrated on simulated and experimental spike trains.

  12. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  13. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this...

  14. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  15. Genetic variability among power athletes: The stronger vs. the faster.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav

    2016-01-29

    Athletic events can be divided into "aerobic-type event" or "anaerobic-type event" based on energetic usage. Power, speed, and strength, also used to specify sports subtypes. Weightlifters, sprinters, and jumpers feature high-intensity efforts lasting few seconds. However, their performance requires different proportions of power, speed, and strength. The aim of the current study was to examine genetic differences between subtypes of anaerobic athletes in 3 genetic variants: ACTN3 R577X, which is associated with muscle contractions, AGT Met235Thr which is associated with muscle growth, and PPARD T/C, which is associated with aerobic capacity. 71 sprinters and jumpers (S/J), 54 weightlifters (WL) and 86 controls participated in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using standard protocol. Genotypes were determined using Taqman allelic discrimination assay. ACTN3 RR-genotype frequency was significantly higher among S/J (39.4%) compared to WL (22.2%) and controls (18.6%). AGT ThrThr-genotype was significantly higher among WL (25.9%) compared to S/J (4.2%) and controls (12.8%). PPARD T294C genotype frequencies did not differ between groups. The results suggest that there may be a specific genetic makeup enabling an athlete to excel in speed-oriented events (sprints), rather than in strength-oriented events (weightlifting).

  16. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)

  17. M-theoretic derivations of 4d-2d dualities: from a geometric Langlands duality for surfaces, to the AGT correspondence, to integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Meng-Chwan

    2013-07-01

    In part I, we extend our analysis in [arXiv:0807.1107], and show that a mathematically conjectured geometric Langlands duality for complex surfaces in [1], and its generalizations — which relate some cohomology of the moduli space of certain ("ramified") G-instantons to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of certain affine (sub) G-algebras, where G is any compact Lie group — can be derived, purely physically, from the principle that the spacetime BPS spectra of string-dual M-theory compactifications ought to be equivalent. In part II, to the setup in part I, we introduce Omega-deformation via fluxbranes and add half-BPS boundary defects via M9-branes, and show that the celebrated AGT correspondence in [2, 3], and its generalizations — which essentially relate, among other things, some equivariant cohomology of the moduli space of certain ("ramified") G-instantons to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of certain affine -algebras — can likewise be derived from the principle that the spacetime BPS spectra of string-dual M-theory compactifications ought to be equivalent. In part III, we consider various limits of our setup in part II, and connect our story to chiral fermions and integrable systems. Among other things, we derive the NekrasovOkounkov conjecture in [4] — which relates the topological string limit of the dual Nekrasov partition function for pure G to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of an affine G-algebra — and also demonstrate that the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the "fullyramified" Nekrasov instanton partition function for pure G is a simultaneous eigenfunction of the quantum Toda Hamiltonians associated with the Langlands dual of an affine G-algebra. Via the case with matter, we also make contact with Hitchin systems and the "ramified" geometric Langlands correspondence for curves.

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  19. Development/Deployment Investigation of Cabintaxi/Cabinlift Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the Cabintaxi/Cabinlift automated guideway transit (AGT) systems under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. These systems have not been conceived and designed for a particular transpo...

  20. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Colozza, A. J.; Merolla, A.

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys and provided a six-person field team with the power to run personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lightning, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering 1.5 kW peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for each of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both and environmental and cost standpoint is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system will also provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  1. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Merolla, Anthony; Colozza, Anthony

    1993-12-01

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys, and provided a six-person field team with electrical power for personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lighting, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering a total of 1.5 kWe peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and an electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for ease of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both an environmental and cost standpoint, is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system also will provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  2. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Merolla, Anthony; Colozza, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys, and provided a six-person field team with electrical power for personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lighting, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering a total of 1.5 kWe peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and an electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for ease of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both an environmental and cost standpoint, is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system also will provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  3. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Colozza, A. J.; Merolla, A.

    1994-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys and provided a six-person field team with the power to run personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lightning, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering 1.5 kW peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for each of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both and environmental and cost standpoint is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system will also provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  4. The impact of power clean ability and training age on adaptations to weightlifting-style training.

    PubMed

    James, Lachlan P; Comfort, Paul; Suchomel, Timothy J; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M; Haff, G Gregory

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether weightlifting actions are a viable method for improving athletic performance amongst weaker, inexperienced lifters when compared to individuals with a greater power clean result, and hence weightlifting ability and experience. Two groups of males with distinctly different power clean performances (higher performance (HP): N = 8; BM = 78.1±4.0 kg; 1RM PC = 1.08±0.09 kgBM; lower performance (LP): N = 8; BM=82.6±14.0 kg; 1RM PC=0.78±0.1 kg·BM) and resistance training age (HP: resistance training experience=3.5±1.2 years; LP: resistance training experience=1.44±1.50 years) undertook 10 weeks of training involving weightlifting derivatives, in addition to supplemental ballistic and plyometric exercises. Testing of athletic performance (represented by measures derived from the countermovement jump) occurred at baseline, after five weeks of training, and after ten weeks of training. Both groups significantly improved across the majority of outcome variables following training (Hedges g=0.98-2.55, P≤0.01-0.05). Only the HP participants experienced significant changes at mid-test (g = 0.99-1.27, P ≤ 0.01-0.05), while no significant changes were revealed between mid- and post-test in this group. In contrast to this, the LP participants displayed a significant improvement in relative impulse (g=1.39, P<0.01) and rate of force development (g=1.91, P<0.01) during this final period (P<0.01). As weaker, inexperienced lifters underwent a significant and meaningful enhancement in maximal neuromuscular measures following weightlifting derivative focused training, practitioners should consider early implementation of such exercises. However, it is important for coaches to note that a delayed training effect might be present in weaker, less experienced lifters.

  5. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 7: PEP logistics and training plan requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for logistics activities and logistics planning are presented based on the assumption that a system prime contractor will perform logistics functions to support all program hardware and will implement a logistics system to include the planning and provision of products and services to assure cost effective coverage of the following: maintainability; maintenance; spares and supply support; fuels; pressurants and fluids; operations and maintenance documentation training; preservation, packaging and packing; transportation and handling; storage; and logistics management information reporting. The training courses, manpower, materials, and training aids required will be identified and implemented in a training program.

  6. Intelligent Computerized Training System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Loftin, R. Bowen; Hua, Grace C.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent computer-aided training system gives trainees same experience gained from best on-the-job training. Automated system designed to emulate behavior of experienced teacher devoting full time and attention to training novice. Proposes challenging training scenarios, monitors and evaluates trainee's actions, makes meaningful comments in response to errors, reponds to requests for information, gives hints when appropriate, and remembers strengths and weaknesses so it designs suitable exercises. Used to train flight-dynamics officers in deploying satellites from Space Shuttle. Adapted to training for variety of tasks and situations, simply by modifying one or at most two of its five modules. Helps to ensure continuous supply of trained specialists despite scarcity of experienced and skilled human trainers.

  7. The ALICE analysis train system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Markus; ALICE Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    In the ALICE experiment hundreds of users are analyzing big datasets on a Grid system. High throughput and short turn-around times are achieved by a centralized system called the LEGO trains. This system combines analysis from different users in so-called analysis trains which are then executed within the same Grid jobs thereby reducing the number of times the data needs to be read from the storage systems. The centralized trains improve the performance, the usability for users and the bookkeeping in comparison to single user analysis. The train system builds upon the already existing ALICE tools, i.e. the analysis framework as well as the Grid submission and monitoring infrastructure. The entry point to the train system is a web interface which is used to configure the analysis and the desired datasets as well as to test and submit the train. Several measures have been implemented to reduce the time a train needs to finish and to increase the CPU efficiency.

  8. Synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on essential hypertension in Kazakhs in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shudong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Keyong; Zhu, Pengcheng; Li, Jingping; Sun, Yujing; He, Ning; Zhang, Mingtao; Gao, Zhiying; Li, Xueyan; Simayi, Amuti; Ge, Jie; Cong, Mingyu; Zhou, Wenna; Qiu, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    To assess the synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on essential hypertension (EH) in Kazakhs in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional case-control association study was conducted in 52 1 hypertensive and 623 normotensive subjects of Kazakh ethnicity on eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interspersed over five genes of the RAAS. SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Interactions among the SNPs were analyzed by the multifactor dimensionality reduction method (MDR). In single-locus analysis, subjects with AGT -6G, ACE D, and CYP11B2 -344C had increased susceptibility to EH (OR: 1.249; 1.425; 1.201). When subgrouped by sex, males with the t allele of REN Taq I had decreased risk for EH (OR: 0.529), and those with AGT -6G and CYP11B2 -344 C had increased risk for EH (OR: 1.498; 1.449). In females, carrying ACE D increased the risk for EH. (OR: 1.327). In six AGT haplotypes, H1 was protective, while H3 increased susceptibility to EH (OR: 0.683; 2.025). Interaction analysis by MDR showed that there was a strong synergistic effect between ACE I/D and CY11B2 (T-344C) and a moderate interaction between both ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and AGT A-6G. There was a strong synergistic effect between ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and a moderate effect between both ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and AGT A-6G. AGT -6G, ACE D, and CY11B2 -344C increased susceptibility to EH. REN Taq I, AGT -6G, CY11B2 -344 C and ACE D were associated with male and female EH, respectively. H1 and H3 of AGT were protective and risk haplotypes, respectively.

  9. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Marian K J; van den Berg, Berber R; Denissen, Ad J M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha brain activity has been associated with neural inhibition during processes of selective attention, for improving efficiency in information processing. Here we hypothesised that eyes open alpha power training by music teaches athletes to (1) learn to self-regulate their brain activity, and (2) learn to increase their baseline alpha power, herewith improving mental capacities such as focusing the allocation of attention. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Twelve elite gymnasts were either given eyes open alpha power training or random beta power training (controls). Results indicate small improvements in sleep quality, mental and physical shape. In our first attempt at getting a grip on mental capacities in athletes, we think this novel training method can be promising. Because gymnastics is one of the most mentally demanding sports, we value even small benefits for the athlete and consider them indicative for future research.

  10. Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satomi; Takehata, Chisato; Sasahara, Ikuko; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao; Taguchi, Motoko

    2017-08-21

    An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L -1 ) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L -1 ; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L -1 ; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL -1 ) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL -1 ) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL -1 ) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL -1 ). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study's findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp.

  11. Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Satomi; Takehata, Chisato; Sasahara, Ikuko; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao; Taguchi, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L−1) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL−1) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL−1) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL−1) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL−1). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study’s findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. PMID:28825668

  12. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  13. Promoting self-exploration and function through an individualized power mobility training program.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John; Brockway, Kaelee; Hannum, Nanette; Proctor, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the development and implementation of an intervention program that used a Power Wheelchair Trainer (Trainer) to enable an individual with severe impairments to participate in power mobility training. The participant was an 18 year-old female with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification Level V. The examination included the Power Mobility Screen and the Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD). Switches on the participant's headrest provided control of the Trainer. Intervention consisted of power mobility training in an engaging environment that was set-up to focus on specific power mobility skills. Scores on the Power Mobility Screen and the CPCHILD were higher after intervention. The outcomes of this case report appear to support the use of the Trainer, which allowed the participant to practice power mobility skills and participate in self-exploration of her environment.

  14. Vibration training: could it enhance the strength, power, or speed of athletes?

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Ian M; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Keogh, Justin W L

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this literature review was to determine whether vibration training could produce chronic improvements in the physical performance of trained athletes. Although the main objective was to analyze any performance benefits, a brief review of possible mechanisms linked to performance enhancement is also included. Vibration causes an increase in the g-forces acting on the muscles, increasing the loading parameters of any exercise. Increased loading should aid muscle hypertrophy, and some authors have suggested that vibration may enhance neuromuscular potentiation. Considering the 6 studies on trained athletes, there does seem to be some evidence to suggest that vibration may provide a small benefit to maximal strength (1-repetition maximum) and power (countermovement jumps) of trained athletes. Speed does not seem to be enhanced by vibration training. There is a lack of evidence to support the theory that long-term vibration training increases neuromuscular potentiation in trained athletes. What mechanism(s) could be responsible for possible strength and power enhancement is unclear. Because whole-body vibration does not seem to be detrimental to performance when used in a controlled manner, it could provide an additional training stimulus for athletes. However, further research is required to determine optimum vibration training protocols and to clarify whether vibration training produces performance benefits greater than those of traditional training methods.

  15. Comparing short-term complex and compound training programs on vertical jump height and power output.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Jason P; Libby, Jeremiah J; Battaglini, Claudio L; McMurray, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in vertical jump height and lower body power production gains between complex and compound training programs. A secondary purpose was to determine whether differences in gains were observed at a faster rate between complex and compound training programs. Thirty-one college-aged club volleyball players (11 men and 20 women) were assigned into either a complex training group or a compound training group based on gender and pre-training performance measures. Both groups trained twice per week for 4 weeks. Work was equated between the 2 groups. Complex training alternated between resistance and plyometric exercises on each training day; whereas, compound training consisted of resistance training on one day and plyometric training on the other. Our analyses showed significant improvements in vertical jump height in both training groups after only 3 weeks of training (P < 0.0001); vertical jump height increased by approximately 5% and 9% in the complex and compound training groups, respectively. However, neither group improved significantly better than the other, nor did either group experience faster gains in vertical leap or power output. The results of this study suggest that performing a minimum of 3 weeks of either complex or compound training is effective for improving vertical jump height and power output; thus, coaches should choose the program which best suits their training schedules.

  16. [The hygienic assessment of the organization of the vocational study practice of students training for the job of power-generating unit operator].

    PubMed

    Shpangenberg, S

    1992-01-01

    The study is carried out with schoolchildren from the educative and industrial complex of energetics (two classes with total 60 students) at the age of 17-18, from the Technical College of Energetics "V. Pick"--Sofia. They are trained for the profession "operator on power aggregates". The investigation is performed during the educative and industrial practice of the students in the Heat Power Station "Tr. Kostov" and the Heat Power Station "Sofia", as well as in the training shop of the technical college. Studies are made on: the functional adaptation of the organism through the reactivity of the CNS, some analysers, the cardiovascular system and the sympathetic-adrenal system, haemopoiesis; the factors of the educative and industrial environment; working/professional maturity of the students; health status of the adolescents. The results of the examination show low effectiveness of the education and industrial training in the Heat power station or low daily and annual exposure, leading to monotony, hypodynamia especially when working in second shift. It is recommended the education and industrial practice in the secondary special schools and technical colleges to be carried out in training shops, educative and industrial workshops and at standardization of the environmental factors and organization of rational regime of work and rest.

  17. Application of Superconducting Power Cables to DC Electric Railway Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Lv, Zhen; Sekino, Masaki; Tomita, Masaru

    For novel design and efficient operation of next-generation DC electric railway systems, especially for their substantial energy saving, we have studied the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to them. In this paper it is assumed that a superconducting power cable is applied to connect substations supplying electric power to trains. An analysis model line was described by an electric circuit, which was analyzed with MATLAB-Simulink. From the calculated voltages and currents of the circuit, the regenerative brake and the energy losses were estimated. In addition, assuming the heat loads of superconducting power cables and the cryogenic efficiency, the energy saving of the total system was evaluated. The results show that the introduction of superconducting power cables could achieve the improved use of regenerative brake, the loss reduction, the decreased number of substations, the reduced maintenance, etc.

  18. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  19. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Simulators (2004) An Assessment of V-IMTS (2004) Evaluation of the Virtual Squad Training System (2007) Perceived Usefulness of TTES : A Second Look (1995...Center-White Sands Missile Range, V-IMTS – Virtual Integrated MOUT ( Military Operation in Urban Terrain) Training System, VIRTSIM – Virtual... military grid reference system coordinate. There currently is no indication or capability to determine the distance traveled (e.g., pace count

  20. Coordinated train control and energy management control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Lehrer, D.G.

    1998-05-01

    The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, in collaboration with Hughes Aircraft Company and Harmon Industries, as in the process of developing an Advanced Automatic Train Control (AATC) system to replace the current fixed-block automatic system. In the long run, the AATC system is expected to not only allow for safe short headway operation, but also to facilitate coordinated train control and energy management. This new system will employ spread spectrum radios, installed onboard trains, at wayside locations, and at control stations, to determine train locations and reliably transfer control information. Sandia National Laboratories has worked cooperatively with BART tomore » develop a simulator of the train control and the power consumption of the AATC system. The authors are now in the process of developing enhanced train control algorithms to supplement the safety critical controller in order to smooth out train trajectories through coordinated control of multiple trains, and to reduce energy consumption and power infrastructure requirements. The control algorithms so far considered include (1) reducing peak power consumption to avoid voltage sags, especially during an outage or while clearing a backup, (2) rapid and smooth recovery from a backup, (3) avoiding oscillations due to train interference, (4) limiting needle peaks in power demand at substations to some specified level, (5) coasting, and (6) coordinating train movement, e.g., starts/stops and hills.« less

  1. Effects of nine weeks isokinetic training on power, golf kinematics, and driver performance in pre-elite golfers.

    PubMed

    Parker, James; Lagerhem, Charlie; Hellström, John; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers. Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than -3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT). The IK group completed 12 sessions of isokinetic power training on a standing rotation exercise (10% body weight at 1 m/s) and barbell squat (25 kg plus 10% body weight at 0.5 m/s). The IT group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime. Participants were tested for rotational power, lower body power, golf swing kinematics, and driver performance before and after a nine-week training period. After the nine-week training period both the IK and the IT groups increased their dominant side rotational force and power (effect sizes between 0.50-0.96) and magnitude based inference indicated that IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial increase in dominant side rotational force and power. For swing kinematics, IK had a likely (> 80%) more beneficial improvement in lead arm speed and acceleration compared to the IT group. For driver performance, IK had a possible (65%) beneficial effect on ball speed and likely (78%) beneficial effect on carry distance when compared to IT, whereas neither of the groups improved club head speed. In the present study on pre-elite golfers we found that 9 weeks of isokinetic training increased seated rotational force and power, peak arm speed and arm acceleration, ball speed, and carry distance more compared to

  2. Exposure to ultrafine particles and black carbon in diesel-powered commuter trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Traub, Alison; Evans, Greg J.

    2017-04-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP), black carbon (BC) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations measured during 43 trips on diesel-powered commuter trains revealed elevated exposures under some conditions. When the passenger coaches were pulled by a locomotive, the geometric mean concentrations of UFP, LDSA, and BC were 18, 10, and 6 times higher than the exposure levels when the locomotive pushed the coaches, respectively. In addition, UFP, LDSA, and BC concentrations in pull-trains were 5, 3, and 4 times higher than concentrations measured while walking on city sidewalks, respectively. Exposure to these pollutants was most elevated in the coach located closest to the locomotive: geometric means were 126,000 # cm-3 for UFP, 249 μm2 cm-3 for LDSA, and 17,800 ng m-3 of BC; these concentrations are much higher than those previously reported for other modes of public transportation. Markedly high levels of diesel exhaust are present in passenger trains powered by diesel locomotives operated in pull-mode. Thus, it is recommended that immediate steps be taken to evaluate, and where needed, mitigate exposure in diesel-powered passenger trains, both commuter and inter-city.

  3. A Systematic Case Study of the Course, Offshore Survival Systems Training, To Improve the Practice of Marine Survival Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambon, Franco

    A major applied research project evaluated the effectiveness of a novel course, Offshore Survival Systems Training. The major course outcome that was evaluated was the increase in frequency with which offshore personnel correctly launched the covered powered survival craft on offshore drilling rigs. The evaluation methodology included the 628…

  4. Renin-Angiotensin System Gene Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Influence of Angiotensinogen

    PubMed Central

    Joyce-Tan, Siew Mei; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P = 0.05) but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15–3.20, permuted P = 0.012); however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk. PMID:26682227

  5. Reducing the cognitive workload: Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. Mission control operators are well-trained experts but they can not afford to have their attention diverted by extraneous information. During normal operating conditions monitoring the status of the components of a complex system alone is a big task. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe are its potential uses.

  6. [Implementation of control system and software design for limbs rehabilitation training based on PCI-1240].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenchao; Xu, Xiulin; Hu, Xiufang; An, Meijun

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the design of a motion control system for seated lower-limb rehabilitation training. The system is composed of lower limb exoskeleton, motor drive circuit, program of motion control, and so forth. The power of lower limbs joints is provided by six motors. The PCI-1240 motion control card is used as the core. This study achieved repetitive rotation training and gait trajectory training of lower limbs joints, of which the velocity, angle and time can be accurately controlled and adjusted. The experimental results showed that the motion control system can meet the requirement of repetitive rehabilitation training for patients with lower limb dysfunction. This article provides a new method to the research of motion control system in rehabilitation training, which can promote industrial automation technique to be used for health care, and conducive to the further study of the rehabilitation robot.

  7. AFSOC Training Systems (Briefing Slides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-25

    ATARS II contract Aircrew Courseware Loadmaster PTT Integrated Cockpit Maintenance Trainer Weapon Systems Trainer Visual Awareness Recognition System...Training Systems Support CLS Aircrew Training and Rehearsal Support ( ATARS ) II contract, 2007 Prime: Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training & Support...Larry Allen, AFSOC/A5RT, (850) 884-5568 ATARS II: 677 AESG/SYCC, Capt Shane Smoot, (937) 255-3391 AFSOC/A3TS, Scott Murphy, (850) 884-5773 MC/AC-130J

  8. Training courses on neutron detection systems on the ISIS research reactor: on-site and through internet training

    SciTech Connect

    Lescop, B.; Badeau, G.; Ivanovic, S.

    Today, ISIS research reactor is an essential tool for Education and Training programs organized by the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) from CEA. In the field of nuclear instrumentation, the INSTN offers both, theoretical courses and training courses on the use of neutron detection systems taking advantage of the ISIS research reactor for the supply of a wide range of neutron fluxes. This paper describes the content of the training carried out on the use of neutron detectors and detection systems, on-site or remote. The ISIS reactor is a 700 kW open core pool type reactor. Themore » facility is very flexible since neutron detectors can be inserted into the core or its vicinity, and be used at different levels of power according to the needs of the course. Neutron fluxes, typically ranging from 1 to 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}.s, can be obtained for the characterisation of the neutron detectors and detection systems. For the monitoring of the neutron density at low level of power, the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system of the reactor is equipped with two detection systems, named BN1 and BN2. Each way contains a fission chamber, type CFUL01, connected to an electronic system type SIREX.The system works in pulse mode and exhibits two outputs: the counting rate and the doubling time. For the high level of power, the I and C is equipped with two detection systems HN1 and HN2.Each way contain a boron ionization chamber (type CC52) connected to an electronics system type SIREX. The system works in current mode and has two outputs: the current and the doubling time. For each mode, the trainees can observe and measure the signal at the different stages of the electronic system, with an oscilloscope. They can understand the role of each component of the detection system: detector, cable and each electronic block. The limitation of the detection modes and their operating range can be established from the measured signal. The trainees can

  9. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  10. Effects of a Resistance Training Intervention on Strength, Power, and Performance in Adolescent Dancers.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Rebecca A; McGuigan, Mike R; Harrison, Craig

    2017-11-01

    Dowse, RA, McGuigan, MR, and Harrison, C. Effects of a resistance training intervention on strength, power, and performance in adolescent dancers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine whether a 9-week resistance training program could have a significant effect on maximum lower-body strength and power, dynamic balance, and dance performance in adolescent dancers. Twelve competitive adolescent female dancers trained in jazz, ballet, and contemporary were recruited from local dance schools and assigned to a resistance training group (dance experience 9.2 ± 2.4 years; age 14.2 ± 1.9 years; height 155.6 ± 9.1 cm; and mass 48.9 ± 13.8 kg). Anthropometry (height, seated height, mass, and skinfolds), subjective dancing performance, dynamic balance (eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), maximum lower-body strength (isometric midthigh pull), and power (vertical countermovement jump, squat jump, and single-leg countermovement jump) were assessed before and after the 9-week intervention period. Posttesting identified a significant improvement EO overall stability (p = 0.003; effect size [ES] = 0.88), EO anterior-posterior stability (p = 0.003; ES = 0.92), peak force (p < 0.001; ES = 0.61), peak power (p = 0.021; ES = 0.22), and subjective dancing performance (p = 0.008; ES = 0.76). These results were accompanied by a trivial but significant change in mass (p = 0.023; ES = 0.09) that was attributed to growth and no significant change in body fat or the sum of skinfolds. This study demonstrated that resistance training can have a significant effect on dynamic balance, maximum lower-body strength, and power without adversely affecting artistic or esthetic components. The results suggest that incorporating resistance training may enhance strength and power adaptations and manage growth-related changes in adolescent dancers.

  11. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  12. Effectiveness of the Power Dry-Land Training Programmes in Youth Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Gromisz, Wilhelm; NiŸnikowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the dry-land power training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in youth swimmers. Twenty six male swimmers, free from injuries and training regularly at least 6 times a week, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (n=14, mean age 14.0 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.67±0.08 m and mean body mass 55.71 ±9.55 kg) and control (n=12, mean age 14.1 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.61±0.11 m and mean body mass 49.07 ±8.25 kg). The experimental group took part in a combined swimming and dry-land power training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The training programmes in water included a dominant aerobic work in front crawl. In this research the experimental group tended to present slightly greater improvements in sprint performance. However, the stroke frequency insignificantly decreased (−4.30%, p>0.05) in the experimental group and increased (6.28%, p>0.05) in the control group. The distance per stroke insignificantly increased in the experimental group (5.98%, p>0.05) and insignificantly decreased in the control group (−5.36%, p>0.05). A significant improvement of tethered swimming force for the experimental group (9.64%, p<0.02) was found, whereas the increase was not statistically significant in the control group (2.86%, p>0.05). The main data cannot clearly state that power training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve swimming performance in tethered swimming was noticed. PMID:23486353

  13. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  14. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  15. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  16. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  17. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  18. Resistance training status and effectiveness of low frequency resistance training on upper-body strength and power in highly trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Maxime; Rumpf, Michael Clemens; Hader, Karim

    2017-08-26

    Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport with many player-to-player duels. Winning these duels, shielding the ball or fending off an opponent requires upper-body strength and power. Therefore this study aimed, a) to examine the time-related effect of an upper-body RT on maximal strength and power changes in highly trained soccer players, b) to investigate if the resistance-training (RT) status influences these changes throughout a competitive season. Twenty-eight soccer players participated in this study and were divided into an untrained (UG) and a trained (TG) group, according to their RT status. Both groups performed the same upper-body RT once a week, over 30 weeks. Maximal strength (1RM) and maximal power (MP) were assessed before, during and after the competitive season. Both groups significantly improved 1RM and MP over the entire competitive season, with a moderate (TG, 13%) to very large (UG, 21%) magnitude in 1RM and with a small (TG, 8%) to moderate (UG, 13%) magnitude in MP. After the initial 10 weeks of RT, UG presented significant and slightly (1RM) to moderately (MP) greater improvements than TG. For all other time intervals, the between-groups changes in 1RM were rated as similar. For the last 20 weeks of the RT, the change in MP was significantly lower for UG compared to TG. One upper-body RT-session per week will provide sufficient stimulus to enable an almost certain improvement in strength and power throughout a competitive season for all players disregarding their initial RT status.

  19. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight..., applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on... all workers of Chrysler LLC, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 & 2, Power Train Division, Detroit, Michigan...

  20. Apros-based Kola 1 nuclear power plant compact training simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Porkholm, K.; Kontio, H.; Nurmilaukas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima Oy`s subsidiary IVO International Ltd (IVO IN) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in co-operation with Kola staff supplies the Kola Nuclear Power Plant in the Murmansk region of Russia with a Compact Training Simulator. The simulator will be used for the training of the plant personnel in managing the plant disturbance and accident situations. By means of the simulator is is also possible to test how the planned plant modifications will affect the plant operation. The simulator delivery is financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Themore » delivery is part of the aid program directed to Russia for the improvement of the nuclear power plant safety.« less

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120 Section 1915.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  7. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  8. 49 CFR 236.516 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power supply. 236.516 Section 236.516..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.516 Power supply. Automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device hereafter installed shall operate from a separate or isolated power supply...

  9. 49 CFR 236.516 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 236.516 Section 236.516..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.516 Power supply. Automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device hereafter installed shall operate from a separate or isolated power supply...

  10. Initial guidelines and estimates for a power system with inertial (flywheel) energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The starting point for the assessment of a spacecraft power system utilizing inertial (flywheel) energy storage. Both general and specific guidelines are defined for the assessment of a modular flywheel system, operationally similar to but with significantly greater capability than the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) power system. Goals for the flywheel system are defined in terms of efficiently train estimates and mass estimates for the system components. The inertial storage power system uses a 5 kw-hr flywheel storage component at 50 percent depth of discharge (DOD). It is capable of supporting an average load of 3 kw, including a peak load of 7.5 kw for 10 percent of the duty cycle, in low earth orbit operation. The specific power goal for the system is 10 w/kg, consisting of a 56w/kg (end of life) solar array, a 21.7 w-hr/kg (at 50 percent DOD) flywheel, and 43 w/kg power processing (conditioning, control and distribution).

  11. Thermal power systems small power systems applications project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MW in size was considered. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. The potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, was studied. Criteria and methodologies were developed for the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plant concepts of 1 MW rating were studied to define a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design construction, testing and evaluation. Site selection criteria and ground rules were developed.

  12. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  13. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifiermore » train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.« less

  18. Predicting automated guideway transit system station security requirements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This study addresses the issues of personal security on Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems, as they might be deployed in typical urban residential and non-residential settings. Based upon a literature review, it outlines basic characteristics o...

  19. Differential responses of EGFR-/AGT-expressing cells to the "combi-triazene" SMA41.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Stephanie L; McNamee, James P; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated enhanced potency associated with the binary [DNA/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)] targeting properties of SMA41 (a chimeric 3-(alkyl)-1,2,3-triazene linked to a 4-anilinoquinazoline backbone) in the A431 (epidermal carcinoma of the vulva) cell line. We now report on the dependence of its antiproliferative effects (e.g. DNA damage, cell survival) on the EGFR and the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) contents of 12 solid tumor cell lines, two of which, NIH3T3 and NIH3T3 HER14 (engineered to overexpress EGFR), were isogenic. Receptor type specificity was determined using ELISA for competitive binding, as well as growth factor-stimulation assays. DNA damage was studied using single-cell microelectrophoresis (comet) assays, and levels of EGFR were determined by Western blotting. The effects of SMA41 on the cell cycle of NIH3T3 cells were investigated using univariate flow cytometry. Studies of receptor type specificity showed that SMA41: (a) preferentially inhibited the kinase activity of EGFR over those of Src, insulin receptor and protein kinase C (PKC, a serine/threonine kinase), (b) induced stronger inhibition of growth stimulated with EGF than of growth stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Despite the EGFR specificity of SMA41, there was an absence of a linear correlation between the EGFR status of our solid tumor cell lines and levels of DNA damage induced by the alkylating component. Similarly, EGFR levels did not correlate with IC(50) values. The antiproliferative activities of SMA41 correlated more with the AGT status of these cells and paralleled those of the clinical triazene temozolomide (TEM). However, throughout the panel, tumor cell sensitivity to SMA41 was consistently stronger than to its closest analogue TEM. Experiments performed with the isogenic cells showed that SMA41 was capable of inducing twofold higher levels of DNA damage in the

  20. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas L; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male ( n = 33) and female ( n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO 2peak ): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001) and peak lactate ( P = 0.001) during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L -1 ) was changed ( P > 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  2. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001) and peak lactate (P = 0.001) during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1) was changed (P > 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  3. Virtual Reality Training System for Anytime/Anywhere Acquisition of Surgical Skills: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, Mohsen; Booton, Ryan; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a hardware/software simulation environment suitable for anytime/anywhere surgical skills training. It blends the advantages of physical hardware and task analogs with the flexibility of virtual environments. This is further enhanced by a web-based implementation of training feedback accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive means to attain proficiency in basic tasks that could potentially be applied across a spectrum of trainees from first responder field medical personnel to physicians. This results in a powerful training tool for surgical skills acquisition relevant to helping injured warfighters.

  4. The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=-2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=-1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=-1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=-1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers.

  5. Neuromuscular performance of lower limbs during voluntary and reflex activity in power- and endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Kyröläinen, H; Komi, P V

    1994-01-01

    Neural, mechanical and muscle factors influence muscle force production. This study was therefore, designed to compare possible differences in the function of the neuromuscular system among differently adapted subjects. A group of 11 power-trained athletes and 10 endurance-trained athletes volunteered as subjects for this study. Maximal voluntary isometric force and the rate of force production of the knee extensor and the plantar flexor muscles were measured. In addition, basic reflex function was measured in the two experimental conditions. The power athletes produced higher voluntary forces (P < 0.01-0.001) with higher rates for force production (P < 0.001) by both muscle groups measured. Unexpectedly, however, no differences were noticed in the electromyogram time curves between the groups. During reflex activity, the endurance group demonstrated higher sensitivity to the mechanical stimuli, i.e. the higher reflex amplitude caused a higher rate of reflex force development, and the reflex amplitude correlated with the averaged angular velocity. The differences in the isometric conditions could be explained by obviously different muscle fibre distribution, by different amounts of muscle mass, by possible differences in the force transmission from individual myofibrils to the skeletal muscle and by specificity of training. In addition, differences in nervous system structure and muscle spindle properties could explain the observed differences in reflex activity between the two groups.

  6. General Training System; GENTRAS. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Federal Systems Div.

    GENTRAS (General Training System) is a computer-based training model for the Marine Corps which makes use of a systems approach. The model defines the skill levels applicable for career growth and classifies and defines the training needed for this growth. It also provides a training cost subsystem which will provide a more efficient means of…

  7. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    PubMed

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  8. [Up-regulation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system contributes to renal damage in high-salt induced hypertension rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-yan; Liang, Yao-xian; Bai, Qiong; Zhuang, Zhen; A, La-ta; Zheng, Dan-xia; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-18

    To test the hypothesis that in a high-salt induced hypertension in normal rats, whether the changes of intrarenal renin-agiotensin system (RAS) play a critical role in renal damage and could be reflected by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT). In the study, 27 normotensive male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into control group [0.3% (mass faction) NaCl in chow, n=9, NS], high-salt diet group [8% (mass faction) NaCl in chow, n=9, HS] and high-salt diet with Losartan group [8% (mass faction) NaCl in chow and 20 mg/(kg×d) Losartan in gavages, n=9, HS+L)], and were fed for six weeks. The blood pressure was monitored and urine samples were collected every 2 weeks. AGTs in plasma, kidney and urine were measured by ELISA kits. The renal cortex expression of mRNA and protein of AGT were measured by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The renin activity and ANG II were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. Compared with NS, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) [(156 ± 2) mmHg vs. (133 ± 3) mmHg, P<0.05] increased significantly at the end of the 2nd week, and the urinary protein [(14.07 ± 2.84) mg/24 h vs. (7.62 ± 3.02) mg/24 h, P<0.05] increased significantly at the end of the 6th week in HS. Compared with HS, there was no significant difference in SBP (P>0.05) but the proteinuria [(9.69 ± 2.73) mg/24 h vs. (14.07 ± 2.84) mg/24 h, P<0.01] decreased significantly in HS+L. Compared with NS, there was no significant difference in the plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen and ANG II level in HS (P>0.05), but the renal cortex renin content [(8.72 ± 1.98) ng/(mL × h) vs. (4.37 ± 1.26) ng/(mL × h), P<0.05], AGT formation [(4.02 ± 0.60) ng/mg vs. (2.59 ± 0.42) ng/mg, P<0.01], ANG II level [(313.8 ± 48.76) pmol/L vs. (188.9 ± 46.95) pmol/L, P<0.05] were increased significantly in HS, and the urinary AGT and ANG II excretion rates increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with HS, the plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen and ANG II level were significantly

  9. Power Day: Addressing the Use and Abuse of Power in Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Angoff, Nancy R; Duncan, Laura; Roxas, Nichole; Hansen, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Medical student mistreatment, as well as patient and staff mistreatment by all levels of medical trainees and faculty, is still prevalent in U.S. clinical training. Largely missing in interventions to reduce mistreatment is acknowledgement of the abuse of power produced by the hierarchical structure in which medicine is practiced. Beginning in 2001, Yale School of Medicine has held annual "Power Day" workshops for third year medical students and advanced practice nursing students, to define and analyse power dynamics within the medical hierarchy and hidden curriculum using literature, guest speakers, and small groups. During rotations, medical students write narratives about the use of power witnessed in the wards. In response to student and small group leader feedback, workshop organizers have developed additional activities related to examining and changing the use of power in clinical teams. Emerging narrative themes included the potential impact of small acts and students feeling "mute" and "complicit" in morally distressing situations. Small groups provided safe spaces for advice, support, and professional identity formation. By 2005, students recognized residents that used power positively with Power Day awards and alumni served as keynote speakers on the use of power in medicine. By 2010, departments including OB/GYN, surgery, psychiatry, and paediatrics, had added weekly team Power Hour discussions. The authors highlight barriers, benefits, and lessons learned. Barriers include the notion of clinical irrelevance and resistance to the word "power" due to perceived accusation of abuse. Benefits include promoting open dialogue about power, fostering inter-professional collaboration, rewarding positive role modelling by residents and faculty, and creating a network of trainee empowerment and leadership. Furthermore, faculty have started to ask that issues of power be addressed in a more transparent way at their level of the hierarchy as well.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. (a) To be qualified to perform maintenance, repairs, examinations and tests on diesel-powered...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1915 - Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on diesel-powered equipment. 75.1915 Section 75.1915 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1915 Training and qualification of persons working on diesel-powered equipment. (a) To be qualified to perform maintenance, repairs, examinations and tests on diesel-powered...

  12. Effects of Stable and Unstable Resistance Training in an Altered-G Environment on Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Oddsson, L

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of combined resistance-balance training and resistance training alone in a 90° tilted environment on muscle power. Two groups of healthy young subjects performed leg extensions while in a supine position, either on a firm surface along a linear track or on an unstable surface requiring mediolateral balancing movements. Power and force during squats were measured at isokinetic velocities of 10 and 35 deg/s. Results showed significantly greater gains in peak force (44.1%; F(1,21)=8.876, p=0.026), mean force (58.6%; F(1,21)=16.136, p=0.013), peak power (58.7%; F(1,21)=18.754, p=0.009), and mean power (59.2%; F(1,21)=23.114, p=0.007) at the velocity of 35 deg/s after stable than unstable resistance training. However, there were no significant between-groups differences in pre-post training gains in peak force (10.4%; F(1,21)=1.965, p=0.74), mean force (10.3%; F(1,21)=1.889, p=0.80), peak power (12.9%; F(1,21)=2.980, p=0.49), and mean power (19.1%; F(1,21)=3.454, p=0.36) during squats at the velocity of 10 deg/s. Resistance exercises under stable conditions performed in a 90° tilted environment are more effective in the improvement of high velocity muscle power than their use in combination with balance exercises. Such training may be applicable in pre- and in-flight exercise regimens for astronauts and in functional rehabilitation of bed-ridden patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The US Navy’s Helicopter Integrated Diagnostics System (HIDS) Program: Power Drive Train Crack Detection Diagnostics and Prognostics Life Usage Monitoring and Damage Tolerance; Techniques, Methodologies, and Experiences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    HIDS] Program: Power Drive Train Crack Detection Diagnostics and Prognostics ife Usage Monitoring and Damage Tolerance; Techniques, Methodologies, and...and Prognostics , Life Usage Monitoring , and Damage Tolerance; Techniques, Methodologies, and Experiences Andrew Hess Harrison Chin William Hardman...continuing program and deployed engine monitoring systems in fixed to evaluate helicopter diagnostic, prognostic , and wing aircraft, notably on the A

  14. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  15. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  16. Different loading schemes in power training during the preseason promote similar performance improvements in Brazilian elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Pivetti, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 2 different power training loading schemes in Brazilian elite soccer players. Thirty-two players participated in the study. Maximum dynamic strength (1RM) was evaluated before (B), at midpoint (i.e., after 3 weeks; T1), and after 6 weeks (T2) of a preseason strength/power training. Muscle power, jumping, and sprinting performance were evaluated at B and T2. Players were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 training groups: velocity-based (VEL: n = 16; age, 19.18 ± 0.72 years; height, 173 ± 6 cm; body mass, 72.7 ± 5.8 kg) or intensity-based (INT: n = 16; age, 19.11 ± 0.7 years; height, 172 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 71.8 ± 4.6 kg). After the individual determination of the optimal power load, both groups completed a 3-week traditional strength training period. Afterward, the VEL group performed 3 weeks of power-oriented training with increasing velocity and decreasing intensity (from 60 to 30% 1RM) throughout the training period, whereas the INT group increased the training intensity (from 30 to 60% 1RM) and thus decreased movement velocity throughout the power-oriented training period. Both groups used loads within ±15% (ranging from 30 to 60% 1RM) of the measured optimal power load (i.e., 45.2 ± 3.0% 1RM). Similar 1RM gains were observed in both groups at T1 (VEL: 9.2%; INT: 11.0%) and T2 (VEL: 19.8%; INT: 22.1%). The 2 groups also presented significant improvements (within-group comparisons) in all of the variables. However, no between-group differences were detected. Mean power in the back squat (VEL: 18.5%; INT: 20.4%) and mean propulsive power in the jump squat (VEL: 29.1%; INT: 31.0%) were similarly improved at T2. The 10-m sprint (VEL: -4.3%; INT: -1.6%), jump squat (VEL: 7.1%; INT: 4.5%), and countermovement jump (VEL: 6.7%; INT: 6.9%) were also improved in both groups at T2. Curiously, the 30-m sprint time (VEL: -0.8%; INT: -0.1%) did not significantly improve for both groups. In summary, our data suggest that male

  17. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  18. Guidelines for the design and evaluation of human factors aspects of automated guideway transit systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    This report is a summary of human factors considerations for the planning, : deSign, construction, and implementation of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems : including Downtown People Mover (DPM) systems. Design concepts such as passenger : saf...

  19. Effects of High-Speed Power Training on Muscle Performance and Braking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT) improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs) were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n = 25; 3 sets of 12–14 repetitions), slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n = 25; 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions), or control (CON: n = 22; stretching) 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40–90% 1RM; P < 0.05) and improved braking speed (P < 0.05). Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P < 0.05). Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST. PMID:22500229

  20. Power Day: Addressing the Use and Abuse of Power in Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Laura; Roxas, Nichole; Hansen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Problem Medical student mistreatment, as well as patient and staff mistreatment by all levels of medical trainees and faculty, is still prevalent in U.S. clinical training. Largely missing in interventions to reduce mistreatment is acknowledgement of the abuse of power produced by the hierarchical structure in which medicine is practiced. Approach Beginning in 2001, Yale School of Medicine has held annual “Power Day” workshops for third year medical students and advanced practice nursing students, to define and analyse power dynamics within the medical hierarchy and hidden curriculum using literature, guest speakers, and small groups. During rotations, medical students write narratives about the use of power witnessed in the wards. In response to student and small group leader feedback, workshop organizers have developed additional activities related to examining and changing the use of power in clinical teams. Outcome Emerging narrative themes included the potential impact of small acts and students feeling “mute” and “complicit” in morally distressing situations. Small groups provided safe spaces for advice, support, and professional identity formation. By 2005, students recognized residents that used power positively with Power Day awards and alumni served as keynote speakers on the use of power in medicine. By 2010, departments including OB/GYN, surgery, psychiatry, and paediatrics, had added weekly team Power Hour discussions. Next Steps The authors highlight barriers, benefits, and lessons learned. Barriers include the notion of clinical irrelevance and resistance to the word “power” due to perceived accusation of abuse. Benefits include promoting open dialogue about power, fostering inter-professional collaboration, rewarding positive role modelling by residents and faculty, and creating a network of trainee empowerment and leadership. Furthermore, faculty have started to ask that issues of power be addressed in a more transparent way at

  1. Interim Assessment of the VAL Automated Guideway Transit System.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-11-01

    This report describes an interim assessment of the VAL (Vehicules Automatiques Legers or Light Automated Vehicle) AGT system which is currently under construction in Lille, France, and which is to become fully operational in December 1983. This repor...

  2. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  3. 36 CFR § 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Automated guideway transit...

  4. Radial Basis Function Neural Network Application to Power System Restoration Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghkhani, Iman; Ketabi, Abbas; Feuillet, Rene

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues in power system restoration is overvoltages caused by transformer switching. These overvoltages might damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. This paper presents a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) to study transformer switching overvoltages. To achieve good generalization capability for developed RBFNN, equivalent parameters of the network are added to RBFNN inputs. The developed RBFNN is trained with the worst-case scenario of switching angle and remanent flux and tested for typical cases. The simulated results for a partial of 39-bus New England test system show that the proposed technique can estimate the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy. PMID:22792093

  5. Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems. (Supplement V) Costs and Trends for the Period 1976-1982.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-04-01

    This report summarizes the cost experiences and trends of sixteen domestic AGT systems. Capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, system characteristics, operational statistics, and unit cost measures are presented to provide useful information...

  6. Intelligent tutoring systems research in the training systems division: Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regian, J. Wesley

    1988-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) is a mature technology used to teach students in a wide variety of domains. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology of the field of CAI has prompted research and development efforts in an area known as Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction (ICAI). In some cases, ICAI has been touted as a revolutionary alternative to traditional CAI. With the advent of powerful, inexpensive school computers, ICAI is emerging as a potential rival to CAI. In contrast to this, one may conceive of Computer-Based Training (CBT) systems as lying along a continuum which runs from CAI to ICAI. Although the key difference between the two is intelligence, there is not commonly accepted definition of what constitutes an intelligent instructional system.

  7. The effects of gait training using powered lower limb exoskeleton robot on individuals with complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hua; Mao, Hui-Fen; Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Wang, Ting-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Jeng; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2018-03-05

    Powered exoskeleton can improve the mobility for people with movement deficits by providing mechanical support and facilitate the gait training. This pilot study evaluated the effect of gait training using a newly developed powered lower limb exoskeleton robot for individuals with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Two participants with a complete SCI were recruited for this clinical study. The powered exoskeleton gait training was 8 weeks, 1 h per session, and 2 sessions per week. The evaluation was performed before and after the training for (1) the time taken by the user to don and doff the powered exoskeleton independently, (2) the level of exertion perceived by participants while using the powered exoskeleton, and (3) the mobility performance included the timed up-and-go test, 10-m walk test, and 6-min walk test with the powered exoskeleton. The safety of the powered exoskeleton was evaluated on the basis of injury reports and the incidence of falls or imbalance while using the device. The results indicated that the participants were donning and doffing the powered lower limb exoskeleton robot independently with a lower level of exertion and walked faster and farther without any injury or fall incidence when using the powered exoskeleton than when using a knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Bone mineral densities was also increased after the gait training. No adverse effects, such as skin abrasions, or discomfort were reported while using the powered exoskeleton. The findings demonstrated that individuals with complete SCI used the powered lower limb exoskeleton robot independently without any assistance after 8 weeks of powered exoskeleton gait training. Trial registration: National Taiwan University Hospital. 201210051RIB . Name of registry: Hui-Fen Mao. URL of registry: Not available. Date of registration: December 12th, 2012. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: January 3rd, 2013.

  8. Training for a Place in the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillippini, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    To train sheet metal workers in energy conservation technology, the National Training Fund (NTF) of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Industry collaborated with universities in developing their apprenticeship curricula on solar-powered environmental systems, a solar air system training film, and NTF instructor training courses and workshops.…

  9. Effect of loading on peak power of the bar, body, and system during power cleans, squats, and jump squats.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Haines, Tracie L; Kirby, Tyler J

    2011-08-01

    Nine males (age 24.7 ± 2.1 years, height 175.3 ± 5.5 cm, body mass 80.8 ± 7.2 kg, power clean 1-RM 97.1 ± 6.36 kg, squat 1-RM = 138.3 ± 20.9 kg) participated in this study. On day 1, the participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) in the power clean and the squat. On days 2, 3, and 4, participants performed the power clean, squat or jump squat. Loading for the power clean ranged from 30% to 90% of the participant's power clean 1-RM and loading for the squat and jump squat ranged from 0% to 90% of the participant's squat 1-RM, all at 10% increments. Peak force, velocity, and power were calculated for the bar, body, and system (bar + body) for all power clean, squat, and jump squat trials. Results indicate that peak power for the bar, body, and system is differentially affected by load and movement pattern. When using the power clean, squat or jump squat for training, the optimal load in each exercise may vary. Throwing athletes or weightlifters may be most concerned with bar power, but jumpers or sprinters may be more concerned with body or system power. Thus, the exercise type and load vary according to the desired stimulus.

  10. Upper and Lower Body Muscle Power Increases After 3-Month Resistance Training in Overweight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zemková, Erika; Kyselovičová, Oľga; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Štefániková, Gabriela; Vilman, Tomáš; Baláž, Miroslav; Kurdiová, Timea; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcová, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of 3 months resistance and aerobic training on muscle strength and power in 17 male overweight and obese men. Subjects underwent either a resistance or aerobic training for a period of 3 months (three sessions per week). Peak isometric force, rate of force development, peak power and height of countermovement and squat jumps, reactive strength index, and mean power in the concentric phase of bench presses were all assessed prior to and after completing the training program. Results identified a significant increase of mean power during both countermovement bench presses at 30 kg (18.6%, p = .021), 40 kg (14.6%, p = .033), and 50 kg (13.1%, p = .042) and concentric-only bench presses at 30 kg (19.6%, p = .017) and 40 kg (13.9%, p = .037) after the resistance training. There was also a significant increase in the height of the jump (12.8%, p = .013), peak power (10.1%, p = .026), and peak velocity (9.7%, p = .037) during the countermovement jump and height of the jump (11.8%, p = .019), peak power (9.6%, p = .032), and peak velocity (9.5%, p = .040) during the squat jump. There were no significant changes in the reactive strength index, peak force, and the rate of force development after the resistance training. The aerobic group failed to show any significant improvements in these parameters. It may be concluded that 3 months of resistance training without caloric restriction enhances upper and lower body muscle power in overweight and obese men. PMID:27530821

  11. Radioisotope powered AMTEC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenok, Joseph F., III; Sievers, Robert K.

    1994-11-01

    Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) systems are being developed for high performance spacecraft power systems, including small, general purpose heat source (GPHS) powered systems. Several design concepts have been evaluated for the power range from 75 W to 1 kW. The specific power for these concepts has been found to be as high as 18-20 W/kg and 22 kW/m(exp 3). The projected area, including radiators, has been as low as 0.4 m(exp 2)/kW. AMTEC power systems are extremely attractive, relative to other current and projected power systems, because AMTEC offers high power density, low projected area, and low volume. Two AMTEC cell design types have been identified. A single-tube cell is already under development and a multitube cell design, to provide additional power system gains, has undergone proof-of-principle testing. Solar powered AMTEC (SAMTEC) systems are also being developed, and numerous terrestrial applications have been identified for which the same basic AMTEC cells being developed for radioisotope systems are also suitable.

  12. Radioisotope powered AMTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.

    1994-11-01

    Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) systems are being developed for high performance spacecraft power systems, including small, general purpose heat source (GPHS) powered systems. Several design concepts have been evaluated for the power range from 75 W to 1 kW. The specific power for these concepts has been found to be as high as 18-20 W/kg and 22 kW/m(exp 3). The projected area, including radiators, has been as low as 0.4 m(exp 2)/kW. AMTEC power systems are extremely attractive, relative to other current and projected power systems, because AMTEC offers high power density, low projected area, and lowmore » volume. Two AMTEC cell design types have been identified. A single-tube cell is already under development and a multitube cell design, to provide additional power system gains, has undergone proof-of-principle testing. Solar powered AMTEC (SAMTEC) systems are also being developed, and numerous terrestrial applications have been identified for which the same basic AMTEC cells being developed for radioisotope systems are also suitable. 35 refs.« less

  13. Hardwood Lumber Edger and Trimmer Training System

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...

  14. CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System): Automating animal observation and training.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jinook; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    In animal behavioral biology, an automated observing/training system may be useful for several reasons: (a) continuous observation of animals for documentation of specific, irregular events, (b) long-term intensive training of animals in preparation for behavioral experiments, (c) elimination of potential cues and biases induced by humans during training and testing. Here, we describe an open-source-based system named CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System) developed for such situations. There are several notable features in this system. CATOS is flexible and low cost because it is based on free open-source software libraries, common hardware parts, and open-system electronics based on Arduino. Automated video condensation is applied, leading to significantly reduced video data storage compared to the total active hours of the system. A data-viewing utility program helps a user browse recorded data quickly and more efficiently. With these features, CATOS has the potential to be applied to many different animal species in various environments such as laboratories, zoos, or even private homes. Also, an animal's free access to the device without constraint, and a gamified learning process, enhance the animal's welfare and enriches their environment. As a proof of concept, the system was built and tested with two different species. Initially, the system was tested for approximately 10 months with a domesticated cat. The cat was successfully and fully automatically trained to discriminate three different spoken words. Then, in order to test the system's adaptability to other species and hardware components, we used it to train a laboratory rat for 3 weeks.

  15. A general architecture for intelligent training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems was developed. The architecture integrates expert system technology with teaching/training methodologies to permit the production of systems suitable for use by NASA, other government agencies, industry, and academia in the training of personnel for the performance of complex, mission-critical tasks. The proposed architecture consists of five elements: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The design of this architecture was guided and its efficacy tested through the development of a system for use by Mission Control Center Flight Dynamics Officers in training to perform Payload-Assist Module Deploys from the orbiter.

  16. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  18. Guidelines for the design and evaluation of human factors aspects of automated guideway transit systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    This document has been compiled to provide guidance in the planning, design, fabrication, and evaluation of human factors aspects of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems, including Downtown People Mover (DPM) systems. It is based on the present s...

  19. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  20. Tongue motor training support system.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Onishi, Kohei; Nakayama, Atsushi; Kamata, Katsuhiro; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new tongue-training system that can be used for improvement of the tongue's range of motion and muscle strength after dysphagia. The training process is organized in game-like manner. Initially, we analyzed surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the suprahyoid muscles of five subjects during tongue-training motions. This test revealed that four types tongue training motions and a swallowing motion could be classified with 93.5% accuracy. Recognized EMG signals during tongue motions were designed to allow control of a mouse cursor via intentional tongue motions. Results demonstrated that simple PC games could be played by tongue motions, achieving in this way efficient, enjoyable and pleasant tongue training. Using the proposed method, dysphagia patients can choose games that suit their preferences and/or state of mind. It is expected that the proposed system will be an efficient tool for long-term tongue motor training and maintaining patients' motivation.

  1. High glucose augments angiotensinogen in human renal proximal tubular cells through hepatocyte nuclear factor-5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Shibayama, Yuki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Liu, Ya; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Wang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    High glucose has been demonstrated to induce angiotensinogen (AGT) synthesis in the renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) of rats, which may further activate the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and contribute to diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high glucose on AGT in the RPTCs of human origin and identify the glucose-responsive transcriptional factor(s) that bind(s) to the DNA sequences of AGT promoter in human RPTCs. Human kidney (HK)-2 cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mM) and high glucose (15.0 mM), respectively. Levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Consecutive 5’-end deletion mutant constructs and different site-directed mutagenesis products of human AGT promoter sequences were respectively transfected into HK-2 cells, followed by AGT promoter activity measurement through dual luciferase assay. High glucose significantly augmented the levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells, compared with normal glucose treatment. High glucose also significantly augmented AGT promoter activity in HK-2 cells transfected with the constructs of human AGT promoter sequences, compared with normal glucose treatment. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-5 was found to be one of the glucose-responsive transcriptional factors of AGT in human RPTCs, since the mutation of its binding sites within AGT promoter sequences abolished the above effects of high glucose on AGT promoter activity as well as levels of AGT mRNA and its secretion. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time, that high glucose augments AGT in human RPTCs through HNF-5, which provides a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:29053707

  2. An intelligent position-specific training system for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) payload ground controller training program provides very good generic training; however, ground controller position-specific training can be improved by including position-specific training systems in the training program. This report explains why MSFC needs to improve payload ground controller position-specific training. The report describes a generic syllabus for position-specific training systems, a range of system designs for position-specific training systems, and a generic development process for developing position-specific training systems. The report also describes a position-specific training system prototype that was developed for the crew interface coordinator payload operations control center ground controller position. The report concludes that MSFC can improve the payload ground controller training program by incorporating position-specific training systems for each ground controller position; however, MSFC should not develop position-specific training systems unless payload ground controller position experts will be available to participate in the development process.

  3. A new O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor associated with a nitrosourea (cystemustine) validates a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy in murine B16 and human-resistant M4Beu melanoma xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Maryse; Maurizis, Jean C; Papon, Janine; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Di; Croisy, Alain; Guerquin-Kern, Jean L; Madelmont, Jean C; Mounetou, Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Chemoresistance to O(6)-alkylating agents is a major barrier to successful treatment of melanoma. It is mainly due to a DNA repair suicide protein, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Although AGT inactivation is a powerful clinical strategy for restoring tumor chemosensitivity, it was limited by increased toxicity to nontumoral cells resulting from a lack of tumor selectivity. Achieving enhanced chemosensitization via AGT inhibition preferably in the tumor should protect normal tissue. To this end, we have developed a strategy to target AGT inhibitors. In this study, we tested a new potential melanoma-directed AGT inhibitor [2-amino-6-(4-iodobenzyloxy)-9-[4-(diethylamino) ethylcarbamoylbenzyl] purine; IBgBZ] designed as a conjugate of O(6)-(4-iododbenzyl)guanine (IBg) as the AGT inactivator and a N,N-diethylaminoethylenebenzamido (BZ) moiety as the carrier to the malignant melanocytes. IBgBZ demonstrated AGT inactivation ability and potentiation of O(6)-alkylating agents (cystemustine, a chloroethylnitrosourea) in M4Beu highly chemoresistant human melanoma cells both in vitro and in tumor models. The biodisposition study on mice bearing B16 melanoma, the standard model for the evaluation of melanoma-directed agents, and the secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the concentration of IBgBZ in the tumor and in particular in the intracytoplasmic melanosomes. These results validate the potential of IBgBZ as a new, more tumor-selective, AGT inhibitor in a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy.

  4. Blood Pressure Lowering and Safety Improvements With Liver Angiotensinogen Inhibition in Models of Hypertension and Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Mullick, Adam E; Yeh, Steve T; Graham, Mark J; Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Prakash, Thazha P; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2017-09-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade. AGT ASOs which target multiple systemic sites of AGT versus an N-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated AGT ASO that targets the liver were compared with captopril and losartan. Spontaneously hypertensive rats fed an 8% NaCl diet, a model of malignant hypertension resistant to standard RAAS inhibitors, demonstrated robust and durable blood pressure reductions with AGT ASO treatments, which was not observed with standard RAAS blockade. Studies in rat models of acute kidney injury produced by salt deprivation revealed kidney injury with ASO treatment that reduced kidney-expressed AGT, but not in animals treated with the N-acetylgalactosamine AGT ASO despite comparable plasma AGT reductions. Administration of either captopril or losartan also produced acute kidney injury during salt deprivation. Thus, intrarenal RAAS derived from kidney AGT, and inhibited by the standard of care, contributes to the maintenance of renal function during severe RAAS challenge. Such improvements in efficacy and tolerability by a liver-selective AGT inhibitor could be desirable in individuals not at their blood pressure goal with existing RAAS blockade. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. DSN test and training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Key characteristics of the Deep Space Network Test and Training System were presented. Completion of the Mark III-75 system implementation is reported. Plans are summarized for upgrading the system to a Mark III-77 configuration to support Deep Space Network preparations for the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 and Pioneer Venus 1978 missions. A general description of the Deep Space Station, Ground Communications Facility, and Network Operations Control Center functions that comprise the Deep Space Network Test and Training System is also presented.

  6. Power System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  7. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 12: PEP data item descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Contractor information requirements necessary to support the power extension package project of the space shuttle program are specified for the following categories of data: project management; configuration management; systems engineering and test; manufacturing; reliability, quality assurance and safety; logistics; training; and operations.

  8. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  9. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  10. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  11. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  12. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  13. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  14. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  15. STS-96 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The training for the crew members of the STS-96 Discovery Shuttle is presented. Crew members are Kent Rominger, Commander; Rick Husband, Pilot; Mission Specialists, Tamara Jernigan, Ellen Ochoa, and Daniel Barry; Julie Payette, Mission Specialist (CSA); and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, Mission Specialist (RSA). Scenes show the crew sitting and talking about the Electrical Power System; actively taking part in virtual training in the EVA Training VR (Virtual Reality) Lab; using the Orbit Space Vision Training System; being dropped in water as a part of the Bail-Out Training Program; and taking part in the crew photo session.

  16. Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

  17. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,023] Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 And 2, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan... 6, 2011, applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine...

  18. Changes in power and force generation during coupled eccentric-concentric versus concentric muscle contraction with training and aging.

    PubMed

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-05-01

    Age-related decline in maximal concentric muscle power is associated with frailty and functional impairments in the elderly. Compared to concentric contraction, mechanical muscle output is generally enhanced when muscles are rapidly pre-stretched (eccentric contraction), albeit less pronounced with increasing age. Exercise has been recommended to prevent loss of muscle power and function and recent guidelines indicate training program for increasing muscle power highly relevant for elderly subjects. This study examined the differences in muscle power, force and movement pattern during concentric-alone and coupled eccentric-concentric contraction and selected functional motor performances before and after 36-week multicomponent training including aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility and coordination components in elderly males. Vertical force, excursion, velocity, power and acceleration of the body center of mass were measured in two standardised vertical jumps (squatting jump, SQJ; countermovement jump, CMJ). Pre-stretch enhancement during CMJ did not improve performance [i.e., no enhanced maximal muscle power (Ppeak) and jump height (JH)] compared to concentric-alone muscle contraction (SQJ). Nevertheless, pre-stretch enhancement occurred as for similar SQJ and CMJ maximal performance, elderly people employed lower mechanical work, higher mean muscle power (Pmean), shorter concentric phase duration and shorter body center of mass displacement during CMJ. Post training, CMJ Ppeak, Pmean and JH increased in training group (P<0.05) while Ppeak and JH decreased in control group during the CMJ and SQJ (P<0.05). In conclusion, long-term training counteracted the age-related decline in muscle power and functional performance observed in the control subjects, while substantial gains in muscular performance were observed in the trained elderly.

  19. Method of managing interference during delay recovery on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2005-12-27

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  20. The Implementation and Validation of a Virtual Environment for Training Powered Wheelchair Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    John, Nigel W; Pop, Serban R; Day, Thomas W; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; Headleand, Christopher J

    2018-05-01

    Navigating a powered wheelchair and avoiding collisions is often a daunting task for new wheelchair users. It takes time and practice to gain the coordination needed to become a competent driver and this can be even more of a challenge for someone with a disability. We present a cost-effective virtual reality (VR) application that takes advantage of consumer level VR hardware. The system can be easily deployed in an assessment centre or for home use, and does not depend on a specialized high-end virtual environment such as a Powerwall or CAVE. This paper reviews previous work that has used virtual environments technology for training tasks, particularly wheelchair simulation. We then describe the implementation of our own system and the first validation study carried out using thirty three able bodied volunteers. The study results indicate that at a significance level of 5 percent then there is an improvement in driving skills from the use of our VR system. We thus have the potential to develop the competency of a wheelchair user whilst avoiding the risks inherent to training in the real world. However, the occurrence of cybersickness is a particular problem in this application that will need to be addressed.

  1. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem

  2. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    PubMed Central

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  3. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Kenn, Joseph G; Dermody, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heavy/slow movements and variable resistance training on peak power and strength development. Forty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes (age: 21.4 +/- 2.1 years, all men) were recruited for this 12-week training intervention study. Maximum strength and jumping power were assessed before and after the training program. Athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: heavy resistance/slow movement (Slow), lighter resistance and fast movement (Fast), or fast movements with accommodated resistance (FACC). All training groups performed similar training programs comprising free weight resistance training with lower-body compound exercises. The only difference among the training interventions was the speed at which subjects performed the squat exercise and the use of bands (Slow group: 0.2-0.4 meters/second; Fast group: 0.6-0.8 meters/second; FACC group trained 0.6-0.8 meters/second with the addition of accommodated resistance in the form of large elastic bands). Post-test data revealed a significant difference between power improvements between the Slow and FACC groups (p = 0.02). Percent increases and effect sizes (ES) demonstrated a much greater treatment effect in the FACC group (17.8%, ES = 1.06) with the Fast group (11.0%, ES = 0.80) adapting more than the Slow group (4.8%, ES = 0.28). The FACC and Slow groups improved strength comparatively (FACC: 9.44%, ES = 1.10; Slow: 9.59%, ES = 1.08). The Fast group improved strength considerably less, 3.20% with an effect size of only 0.38. Variable resistance training with elastic bands appears to provide greater performance benefits with regard to peak force and peak power than heavy, slow resistance exercise. Sports conditioning professionals can utilize bands, and high-speed contractions, to increase power development.

  4. Training System Device Certification and Qualification Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Engineering IPT Integrated Product Team ISD Instructional Systems Development ISEO In-Service Engineering Office KSAs Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes...Plan TES Tactical Engagement Simulation TPM Training Pipeline Managers T&R Training and Readiness TRR Test Readiness Review TS Training System...NAWCTSD) is the Navy’s source for a full range of innovative products and services that provide complete training solutions. This includes

  5. 76 FR 52918 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...-0028, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad... that requires certain passenger and freight railroads to install positive train control (PTC) systems...: Thomas McFarlin, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control...

  6. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...-0028, Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad...-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system implementation on track segments... and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control Division, Federal Railroad Administration, Mail...

  7. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  8. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  9. Phasor Simulator for Operator Training Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Jim

    2016-09-14

    Synchrophasor systems are being deployed in power systems throughout the North American Power Grid and there are plans to integrate this technology and its associated tools into Independent System Operator (ISO)/utility control room operations. A pre-requisite to using synchrophasor technologies in control rooms is for operators to obtain training and understand how to use this technology in real-time situations. The Phasor Simulator for Operator Training (PSOT) project objective was to develop, deploy and demonstrate a pre-commercial training simulator for operators on the use of this technology and to promote acceptance of the technology in utility and ISO/Regional Transmission Owner (RTO)more » control centers.« less

  10. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Patten, Carolynn; Condliffe, Elizabeth G; Dairaghi, Christine A; Lum, Peter S

    2013-01-21

    Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were retained 6-months post-intervention (p's < .05). EMG position

  11. Lather-Interior Systems Mechanic Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the lather-interior systems mechanic program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  12. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  13. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  14. The criteria of optimization of training specialists for the nuclear power industry and its implementation in the educational process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrinenko, S. V.; Polikarpov, P. I.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear industry is one of the most important and high-tech spheres of human activity in Russia. The main cause of accidents in the nuclear industry is the human factor. In this connection, the need to constantly analyze the system of training of specialists and its optimization in order to improve safety at nuclear industry enterprises. To do this, you must analyze the international experience in the field of training in the field of nuclear energy leading countries. Based on the analysis criteria have been formulated to optimize the educational process of training specialists for the nuclear power industry and test their effectiveness. The most effective and promising is the introduction of modern information technologies of training of students, such as real-time simulators, electronic educational resources, etc.

  15. Tests of the Amtrak SDP-40F Train Consist Conducted on Chessie System Track

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-05-01

    This report describes tests of an SDP-40F train consist conducted on Chessie System track during June 1977. The tests consisted of the operation of two typical AMTRAK passenger consists, one powered by two SDP-40F's and the other by two E-8's, over a...

  16. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  17. 49 CFR 236.825 - System, automatic train control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train control. 236.825 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.825 System, automatic train control. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  18. 49 CFR 236.825 - System, automatic train control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System, automatic train control. 236.825 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.825 System, automatic train control. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  19. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  20. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  1. Staff Training Aspects of Circulation System Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergens, Bonnie

    1979-01-01

    Presents program guidelines for training library staff in the operation and use of automated library circulation systems. Advice is given on the qualificatons of the training coordinator, levels of training, training and training aids, vendor responsibilities and time frame. (RAA)

  2. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  3. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  4. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  5. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  6. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  7. Training-induced annual changes in red blood cell profile in highly-trained endurance and speed-power athletes.

    PubMed

    Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek

    2017-10-24

    An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance

  8. Implementing CDIO project-based learning in training of Heat and Power engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, E. A.; Shishmarev, P. V.; Karabarin, D. I.; Yanov, S. R.; Pikalova, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the experience and current results of CDIO standards implementation in training of bachelors in Heat and Power Engineering at Thermal Power Stations academic department in Siberian Federal University. It provides information on methodology of modernization of educational programs, curricula and programs of disciplines in transition to CDIO project-based learning technology. Preliminary assessment and analysis of lessons learned and scaling perspectives are given.

  9. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  10. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Cindy; Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Automated power-distribution system monitors and controls electrical power to modules in network. Handles both 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase alternating current and 120- to 150-V direct current. Power distributed to load modules from power-distribution control units (PDCU's) via subsystem distributors. Ring busses carry power to PDCU's from power source. Needs minimal attention. Detects faults and also protects against them. Potential applications include autonomous land vehicles and automated industrial process systems.

  11. A systems approach to computer-based training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drape, Gaylen W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software systems approach used in the Automated Recertification Training System (ARTS), a Phase 2 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project for NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The goal of this project is to optimize recertification training of technicians who process the Space Shuttle before launch by providing computer-based training courseware. The objectives of ARTS are to implement more effective CBT applications identified through a need assessment process and to provide an ehanced courseware production system. The system's capabilities are demonstrated by using five different pilot applications to convert existing classroom courses into interactive courseware. When the system is fully implemented at NASA/KSC, trainee job performance will improve and the cost of courseware development will be lower. Commercialization of the technology developed as part of this SBIR project is planned for Phase 3. Anticipated spin-off products include custom courseware for technical skills training and courseware production software for use by corporate training organizations of aerospace and other industrial companies.

  12. An intelligent training system for payload-assist module deploys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Rua, Monica

    1987-01-01

    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The Payload-Assist Module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system has, so far, proven to be a potentially valuable addition to the training tools available for training Flight Dynamics Officers in shuttle ground control. The authors are convinced that the basic structure of PD/ICAT can be extended to form a general architecture for intelligent training systems for training flight controllers and crew members in the performance of complex, mission-critical tasks.

  13. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to amore » significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)« less

  14. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  15. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  16. Satellite power system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, F. L.; Gordon, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A projection of the electrical energy demands over the next 30 to 50 years, coupled with reasonable assessments of known or developable energy sources, indicates that a shortage of electrical energy will occur about the turn of the century. Recognizing the criticality of such a shortage, the Department of Energy is currently evaluating alternative power generation concepts. One of these candidate concepts is the Satellite Power System. The power levels considered during the evaluation of the various satellite systems have ranged from 5 to 10 GW. It is apparent that, with this power level, both the satellite and the rectenna must be very large and encompass a large number of complex operational system activities. Major elements of the Satellite Power System (SPS) consist of a power satellite placed in a geosynchronous equatorial orbit, and a dedicated ground receiving station (GRS) located at a selected site within the continental United States. The nominal power output of the SPS is established at 5 gigawatts (5 million kilowatts) although, because of various system constraints or losses, it may actually produce between 4 and 5 gigawatts.

  17. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  18. Beauty Therapy, Vet Teaching and Bio-Power: A Tale of Two Training Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Mary; Harreveld, Roberta; Blayney, William

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the teaching of beauty therapy in the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. It uses the theoretical concept of bio-power to examine how the body is compliant with intimate treatments in the name of beauty. Bio-power makes visible the anatomical and biological transformation and re-formation of the human…

  19. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women.

    PubMed

    Makaruk, Hubert; Winchester, Jason B; Sadowski, Jerzy; Czaplicki, Adam; Sacewicz, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    Makaruk, H, Winchester, JB, Sadowski, J, Czaplicki, A, and Sacewicz, T. Effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on power and jumping ability in women. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3311-3318, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercise on peak power and jumping performance during different stages of a 12-week training and detraining in women. Forty-nine untrained but physically active female college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: unilateral plyometric group (n = 16), bilateral plyometric group (BLE; n = 18), and a control group (n = 15). Peak power and jumping ability were assessed by means of the alternate leg tests (10-second Wingate test and 5 alternate leg bounds), bilateral leg test (countermovement jump [CMJ]) and unilateral leg test (unilateral CMJ). Performance indicators were measured pretraining, midtraining, posttraining, and detraining. Differences between dependent variables were assessed with a 3 × 4 (group × time) repeated analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test applied where appropriate. Effect size was calculated to determine the magnitude of significant differences between the researched parameters. Only the unilateral plyometric training produced significant (p < 0.05) improvement in all tests from pretraining to midtraining, but there was no significant (p < 0.05) increase in performance indicators from midtraining to posttraining. The BLE group significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all tests from pretraining to posttraining and did not significantly (p > 0.05) decrease power and jumping ability in all tests during detraining. These results suggest that unilateral plyometric exercises produce power and jumping performance during a shorter period when compared to bilateral plyometric exercises but achieved performance gains last longer after bilateral plyometric training. Practitioners should consider the inclusion of both unilateral and

  20. LVC interaction within a mixed-reality training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Brice; Winer, Eliot; Gilbert, Stephen; de la Cruz, Julio

    2012-03-01

    The United States military is increasingly pursuing advanced live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training systems for reduced cost, greater training flexibility, and decreased training times. Combining the advantages of realistic training environments and virtual worlds, mixed reality LVC training systems can enable live and virtual trainee interaction as if co-located. However, LVC interaction in these systems often requires constructing immersive environments, developing hardware for live-virtual interaction, tracking in occluded environments, and an architecture that supports real-time transfer of entity information across many systems. This paper discusses a system that overcomes these challenges to empower LVC interaction in a reconfigurable, mixed reality environment. This system was developed and tested in an immersive, reconfigurable, and mixed reality LVC training system for the dismounted warfighter at ISU, known as the Veldt, to overcome LVC interaction challenges and as a test bed for cuttingedge technology to meet future U.S. Army battlefield requirements. Trainees interact physically in the Veldt and virtually through commercial and developed game engines. Evaluation involving military trained personnel found this system to be effective, immersive, and useful for developing the critical decision-making skills necessary for the battlefield. Procedural terrain modeling, model-matching database techniques, and a central communication server process all live and virtual entity data from system components to create a cohesive virtual world across all distributed simulators and game engines in real-time. This system achieves rare LVC interaction within multiple physical and virtual immersive environments for training in real-time across many distributed systems.

  1. Temporal Aspects of the V[o.sub.2] Response at the Power Output Associated with V[o.sub.2]peak in Well Trained Cyclists-Implications for Interval Training Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Paul B.; Shing, Cecilia M.; Jenkins, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The power output achieved at peak oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]peak) and the time this power can be maintained (i.e., Tmax) have been used in prescribing high-intensity interval training. In this context, the present study examined temporal aspects of the V[O.sub.2] response to exercise at the cycling power that output well trained cyclists…

  2. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  3. Proceedings of Workshop on Methodology for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Transit Crime Reduction Measures in Automated Guideway Transit Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-07-01

    The workshop focused on current methods of assessing the effectiveness of crime and vandalism reduction methods that are used in conventional urban mass transit systems, and on how they might be applied to new AGT systems. Conventional as well as nov...

  4. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  5. Design of a Fatigue Detection System for High-Speed Trains Based on Driver Vigilance Using a Wireless Wearable EEG.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Li, Jiali; Liu, Yugang; Zhang, Zutao; Wang, Zhuojun; Luo, Dianyuan; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Miankuan; Salman, Waleed; Hu, Guangdi; Wang, Chunbai

    2017-03-01

    The vigilance of the driver is important for railway safety, despite not being included in the safety management system (SMS) for high-speed train safety. In this paper, a novel fatigue detection system for high-speed train safety based on monitoring train driver vigilance using a wireless wearable electroencephalograph (EEG) is presented. This system is designed to detect whether the driver is drowsiness. The proposed system consists of three main parts: (1) a wireless wearable EEG collection; (2) train driver vigilance detection; and (3) early warning device for train driver. In the first part, an 8-channel wireless wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) device acquires the locomotive driver's brain EEG signal comfortably under high-speed train-driving conditions. The recorded data are transmitted to a personal computer (PC) via Bluetooth. In the second step, a support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm is implemented to determine the vigilance level using the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In addition, an early warning device begins to work if fatigue is detected. The simulation and test results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed fatigue detection system for high-speed train safety.

  6. Design of a Fatigue Detection System for High-Speed Trains Based on Driver Vigilance Using a Wireless Wearable EEG

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Li, Jiali; Liu, Yugang; Zhang, Zutao; Wang, Zhuojun; Luo, Dianyuan; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Miankuan; Salman, Waleed; Hu, Guangdi; Wang, Chunbai

    2017-01-01

    The vigilance of the driver is important for railway safety, despite not being included in the safety management system (SMS) for high-speed train safety. In this paper, a novel fatigue detection system for high-speed train safety based on monitoring train driver vigilance using a wireless wearable electroencephalograph (EEG) is presented. This system is designed to detect whether the driver is drowsiness. The proposed system consists of three main parts: (1) a wireless wearable EEG collection; (2) train driver vigilance detection; and (3) early warning device for train driver. In the first part, an 8-channel wireless wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) device acquires the locomotive driver’s brain EEG signal comfortably under high-speed train-driving conditions. The recorded data are transmitted to a personal computer (PC) via Bluetooth. In the second step, a support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm is implemented to determine the vigilance level using the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In addition, an early warning device begins to work if fatigue is detected. The simulation and test results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed fatigue detection system for high-speed train safety. PMID:28257073

  7. Gear Design Effects on the Performance of High Speed Helical Gear Trains as Used in Aerospace Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R.; Kilmain, D.; Ehinger, R.; Sinusas, E.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of high-speed helical gear trains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160 to 250 F) and lubricating jet pressure (60 to 80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears. The empirical data resulting from this study will be useful to the design of future helical gear train systems anticipated for next generation rotorcraft drive systems.

  8. Gear Design Effects on the Performance of High Speed Helical Gear Trains as Used in Aerospace Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R.; Kilmain, C.; Ehinger, R.; Sinusas, E.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of high-speed helical gear trains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction / torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160 to 250 degF) and lubricating jet pressure (60 to 80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears. The empirical data resulting from this study will be useful to the design of future helical gear train systems anticipated for next generation rotorcraft drive systems.

  9. Virtual Laparoscopic Training System Based on VCH Model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiangzhou; Xu, Lang; He, Longjun; Guan, Songluan; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopy has been widely used to perform abdominal surgeries, as it is advantageous in that the patients experience lower post-surgical trauma, shorter convalescence, and less pain as compared to traditional surgery. Laparoscopic surgeries require precision; therefore, it is imperative to train surgeons to reduce the risk of operation. Laparoscopic simulators offer a highly realistic surgical environment by using virtual reality technology, and it can improve the training efficiency of laparoscopic surgery. This paper presents a virtual Laparoscopic surgery system. The proposed system utilizes the Visible Chinese Human (VCH) to construct the virtual models and simulates real-time deformation with both improved special mass-spring model and morph target animation. Meanwhile, an external device that integrates two five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) manipulators was designed and made to interact with the virtual system. In addition, the proposed system provides a modular tool based on Unity3D to define the functions and features of instruments and organs, which could help users to build surgical training scenarios quickly. The proposed virtual laparoscopic training system offers two kinds of training mode, skills training and surgery training. In the skills training mode, the surgeons are mainly trained for basic operations, such as laparoscopic camera, needle, grasp, electric coagulation, and suturing. In the surgery-training mode, the surgeons can practice cholecystectomy and removal of hepatic cysts by guided or non-guided teaching.

  10. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  11. Survey on multisensory feedback virtual reality dental training systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Hou, J

    2016-11-01

    Compared with traditional dental training methods, virtual reality training systems integrated with multisensory feedback possess potentials advantages. However, there exist many technical challenges in developing a satisfactory simulator. In this manuscript, we systematically survey several current dental training systems to identify the gaps between the capabilities of these systems and the clinical training requirements. After briefly summarising the components, functions and unique features of each system, we discuss the technical challenges behind these systems including the software, hardware and user evaluation methods. Finally, the clinical requirements of an ideal dental training system are proposed. Future research/development areas are identified based on an analysis of the gaps between current systems and clinical training requirements. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Hua, Grace

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (DeplEx for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The DeplEx also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of DeplEx in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

  13. An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffles, Paul; Hua, Grace

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (Dep1Ex for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The Dep1Ex also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of Dep1Ex in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

  14. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Farahmand, Hossein; Holttinen, Hannele

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as wellmore » as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.« less

  15. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  16. Advanced manned space flight simulation and training: An investigation of simulation host computer system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, Bruce C.; Bishop, Alfred M.; Redfield, Joe B.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of a preliminary investigation by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in simulation host computer concepts is presented. It is designed to aid NASA in evaluating simulation technologies for use in spaceflight training. The focus of the investigation is on the next generation of space simulation systems that will be utilized in training personnel for Space Station Freedom operations. SwRI concludes that NASA should pursue a distributed simulation host computer system architecture for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) rather than a centralized mainframe based arrangement. A distributed system offers many advantages and is seen by SwRI as the only architecture that will allow NASA to achieve established functional goals and operational objectives over the life of the Space Station Freedom program. Several distributed, parallel computing systems are available today that offer real-time capabilities for time critical, man-in-the-loop simulation. These systems are flexible in terms of connectivity and configurability, and are easily scaled to meet increasing demands for more computing power.

  17. Power System Information Delivering System Based on Distributed Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuji; Tsuchiya, Takehiko; Tamura, Setsuo; Seki, Tomomichi; Kubota, Kenji

    In recent years, improvement in computer performance and development of computer network technology or the distributed information processing technology has a remarkable thing. Moreover, the deregulation is starting and will be spreading in the electric power industry in Japan. Consequently, power suppliers are required to supply low cost power with high quality services to customers. Corresponding to these movements the authors have been proposed SCOPE (System Configuration Of PowEr control system) architecture for distributed EMS/SCADA (Energy Management Systems / Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system based on distributed object technology, which offers the flexibility and expandability adapting those movements. In this paper, the authors introduce a prototype of the power system information delivering system, which was developed based on SCOPE architecture. This paper describes the architecture and the evaluation results of this prototype system. The power system information delivering system supplies useful power systems information such as electric power failures to the customers using Internet and distributed object technology. This system is new type of SCADA system which monitors failure of power transmission system and power distribution system with geographic information integrated way.

  18. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were

  19. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in themore » Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems.« less

  20. An explosively driven high-power microwave pulsed power system.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, M A; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Walter, J W; Kristiansen, M; Altgilbers, L L

    2012-02-01

    The increased popularity of high power microwave systems and the various sources to drive them is the motivation behind the work to be presented. A stand-alone, self-contained explosively driven high power microwave pulsed power system has been designed, built, and tested at Texas Tech University's Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics. The system integrates four different sub-units that are composed of a battery driven prime power source utilizing capacitive energy storage, a dual stage helical flux compression generator as the main energy amplification device, an integrated power conditioning system with inductive energy storage including a fast opening electro-explosive switch, and a triode reflex geometry virtual cathode oscillator as the microwave radiating source. This system has displayed a measured electrical source power level of over 5 GW and peak radiated microwaves of about 200 MW. It is contained within a 15 cm diameter housing and measures 2 m in length, giving a housing volume of slightly less than 39 l. The system and its sub-components have been extensively studied, both as integrated and individual units, to further expand on components behavior and operation physics. This report will serve as a detailed design overview of each of the four subcomponents and provide detailed analysis of the overall system performance and benchmarks.

  1. An explosively driven high-power microwave pulsed power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Walter, J. W.; Kristiansen, M.; Altgilbers, L. L.

    2012-02-01

    The increased popularity of high power microwave systems and the various sources to drive them is the motivation behind the work to be presented. A stand-alone, self-contained explosively driven high power microwave pulsed power system has been designed, built, and tested at Texas Tech University's Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics. The system integrates four different sub-units that are composed of a battery driven prime power source utilizing capacitive energy storage, a dual stage helical flux compression generator as the main energy amplification device, an integrated power conditioning system with inductive energy storage including a fast opening electro-explosive switch, and a triode reflex geometry virtual cathode oscillator as the microwave radiating source. This system has displayed a measured electrical source power level of over 5 GW and peak radiated microwaves of about 200 MW. It is contained within a 15 cm diameter housing and measures 2 m in length, giving a housing volume of slightly less than 39 l. The system and its sub-components have been extensively studied, both as integrated and individual units, to further expand on components behavior and operation physics. This report will serve as a detailed design overview of each of the four subcomponents and provide detailed analysis of the overall system performance and benchmarks.

  2. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  3. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply voltage; requirement. 236.551 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.551 Power supply voltage; requirement. The voltage of power supply shall be maintained within 10 percent of rated...

  4. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power supply voltage; requirement. 236.551 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.551 Power supply voltage; requirement. The voltage of power supply shall be maintained within 10 percent of rated...

  5. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  6. Electronic Equipment Maintenance Training (EEMT) System: System Definition Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, S. M.; And Others

    The second in a series of four reports on the Electronic Equipment Maintenance Training (EEMT) project, this document summarizes the system definition phase of the EEMT program. The purpose of this phase of the project was to define a comprehensive set of functions and training requirements that the EEMT must satisfy within the training mission of…

  7. Electromyography-controlled exoskeletal upper-limb-powered orthosis for exercise training after stroke.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joel; Narendran, Kailas; McBean, John; Krebs, Kathryn; Hughes, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Robot-assisted exercise shows promise as a means of providing exercise therapy for weakness that results from stroke or other neurological conditions. Exoskeletal or "wearable" robots can, in principle, provide therapeutic exercise and/or function as powered orthoses to help compensate for chronic weakness. We describe a novel electromyography (EMG)-controlled exoskeletal robotic brace for the elbow (the active joint brace) and the results of a pilot study conducted using this brace for exercise training in individuals with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Eight stroke survivors with severe chronic hemiparesis were enrolled in this pilot study. One subject withdrew from the study because of scheduling conflicts. A second subject was unable to participate in the training protocol because of insufficient surface EMG activity to control the active joint brace. The six remaining subjects each underwent 18 hrs of exercise training using the device for a period of 6 wks. Outcome measures included the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale and the modified Ashworth scale of muscle hypertonicity. Analysis revealed that the mean upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale increased from 15.5 (SD 3.88) to 19 (SD 3.95) (P = 0.04) at the conclusion of training for the six subjects who completed training. Combined (summated) modified Ashworth scale for the elbow flexors and extensors improved from 4.67 (+/-1.2 SD) to 2.33 (+/-0.653 SD) (P = 0.009) and improved for the entire upper limb as well. All subjects tolerated the device, and no complications occurred. EMG-controlled powered elbow orthoses can be successfully controlled by severely impaired hemiparetic stroke survivors. This technique shows promise as a new modality for assisted exercise training after stroke.

  8. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  9. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  10. Ancient peat and apple extracts supplementation may improve strength and power adaptations in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Vogel, Roxanne M; Moon, Jordan R; Falcone, Paul H; Mosman, Matt M; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes, Tania; Kim, Michael P

    2016-07-18

    Increased cellular ATP levels have the potential to enhance athletic performance. A proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been supposed to increase ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on athletic performance when used during 12 weeks of supervised, periodized resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract (TRT) or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) daily. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2 week overreach and a 2 week taper phase. Strength was determined using 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) testing in the barbell back squat, bench press (BP), and deadlift exercises. Peak power and peak velocity were determined during BP at 30 % 1RM and vertical jump tests as well as a 30s Wingate test, which also provided relative power (watt:mass) A group x time interaction was present for squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, and vertical jump peak power and peak velocity. Squat and deadlift 1RM increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to post. Vertical jump peak velocity increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to week 10 as did vertical jump peak power, which also increased from pre to post. Wingate peak power and watt:mass tended to favor TRT. Supplementing with ancient peat and apple extract while participating in periodized resistance training may enhance performance adaptations. ClinicalTrials.gov registration ID: NCT02819219 , retrospectively registered on 6/29/2016.

  11. Uninterruptible power systems and other power protection equipment for electronic health care systems.

    PubMed

    Massey, J K

    1979-01-01

    The increasing usage of electronic instruments in health care systems invariably leads to some level of dependence on them. In order to maximize the utility of these tools a high degree of reliability is essential. Many of the failures being experienced in systems where electronic instruments are being utilized may be attributed not to a failure of the instrument itself but rather to the poor quality of the commercial power to which they are attached. In order to reduce the effects of power fluctuations and outages, some type of power protection equipment must be installed between the commercial power system and the instrument. This article discusses the types of "electronic noise" present on commercial power lines and the various types of equipment used to reduce its effect on electronic instrumentation. In general, the Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) is shown to be the most effective power buffering element for a health care environment. General terminology associated with specifications of a UPS is defined in the article and attached appendix.

  12. Skylab technology electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  13. [Effects of Reactive Jump Training in Handball Players Regarding Jump Height and Power Development in the Triceps Surae Muscle].

    PubMed

    Rensing, N; Westermann, A; Möller, D; von Piekartz, H

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown changes in the technical and physical demands in modern handball. The game has increased considerably in speed, power and dynamics. Jump training has, therefore, become ever more important in the training of the athletes. These developments contribute to the fact that handball is now one of the most injury-prone types of sport, with the lower extremities being most frequently affected. Reactive jump training is not only used in training by now, but also increasingly in injury prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reactive jump training with handball players. 21 regional league handball players were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 9). The intervention group completed a six-week reactive jump training programme while the control group went through a non-specific training programme. Jump height (squat and counter movement jump), isokinetic and isometric maximum power as well as muscle activity served as measuring parameters. A comparison of the intervention and control groups revealed that the reactive jump training led to significant improvements in jump height. The isometric and isokinetic maximum power measurements and the electromyographic activities of the triceps surae muscle demonstrated an improvement in the values within the intervention group. However, this improvement was not significant compared with the control group. Likewise both jumps correlated with the muscle activity of the soleus muscle as shown by electromyography. A moderate correlation was noticed between the isokinetic maximum power measurement and the electromyographic activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. Furthermore, the correlations of the isometric and isokinetic maximum power meas-urements resulted in a strong correlation coefficient. This study revealed a significant increase in jump height after reactive jump training. There was no significant difference in

  14. Curriculum Development System for Navy Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucius

    Documentation for the U.S. Navy's curriculum development system is brought together in this paper, beginning with a description of the Naval Technical Training System. This description includes the Navy Training Plan (NTP) process, which is the current mechanism for introducing new courses; the organization and administration of the system; the…

  15. 77 FR 28285 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...-0028, Notice No. 3] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems (RRR) AGENCY: Federal Railroad... railroads to install positive train control (PTC) systems. This final rule removes regulatory provisions... Safety Assurance and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control Division, Federal Railroad...

  16. Training Management System (TRAMS) Concept Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informatics, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    The objective of the Marine Corps Training Management System (TRAMS) is to assist Headquarters Marine Corps staff agencies in the planning and management functions related to the Marine Corps 'training line'. (Author)

  17. Longer duration of obesity is associated with a reduction in urinary angiotensinogen in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Morato, Manuela; Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Schaefer, Franz; Areias, José Carlos; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) play a role in the putative association. Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) was determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and H 2 O 2 by a microplate fluorometric assay. U-AGT and P-AGT levels were similar across body mass index (BMI) groups and between sexes. However, boys who were overweight/obese since the age of 4 years presented lower levels of U-AGT compared with those of normal weight at the same age. In children who were overweight/obese since the age of 4, urinary H 2 O 2 decreased with P-AGT. A higher duration of obesity was associated with decreased U-AGT in boys, thus reflecting decreased intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Also, children with a longer duration of obesity showed an inverse association between urinary H 2 O 2 and P-AGT. Future studies should address whether these results reflect an early compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-triggered renal dysfunction.

  18. Automated power distribution system hardware. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.; Thomason, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    An automated power distribution system testbed for the space station common modules has been developed. It incorporates automated control and monitoring of a utility-type power system. Automated power system switchgear, control and sensor hardware requirements, hardware design, test results, and potential applications are discussed. The system is designed so that the automated control and monitoring of the power system is compatible with both a 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase AC system and a high-voltage (120 to 150 V) DC system.

  19. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  20. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  1. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  2. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  3. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  4. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  5. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  6. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  7. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-06-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  8. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  9. Development/Deployment Investigation of H-Bahn System (H-Bahn Untersuchung von Technologie, Entwicklung und Betrieb)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes and provides the results of an assessment of the H-Bahn Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) system under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a joint U.S./German technical assessment study that was completed under ...

  10. Brayton Cycle Power System in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-21

    Set up of a Brayton Cycle Power System test in the Space Power Facility’s massive vacuum chamber at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It can produce a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear-power sources for spacecraft, but it was never used for that purpose. The Space Power Facility was first used to test a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the tests. Lewis researchers studied the Brayton power system extensively in the 1960s and 1970s. The Brayton engine converted solar thermal energy into electrical power. The system operated on a closed-loop Brayton thermodynamic cycle with a helium-xenon gas mixture as its working fluid. A space radiator was designed to serve as the system’s waste heat rejecter. The radiator was later installed in the vacuum chamber and tested in a simulated space environment to determine its effect on the power conversion system. The Brayton system was subjected to simulated orbits with 62 minutes of sun and 34 minutes of shade.

  11. Online colour training system for dental students: a comprehensive assessment of different training protocols.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Chen, L; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Zheng, M; Tan, J

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the training effect and to determine the optimal training protocol for a recently developed online colour training system. Seventy students participated in the evaluation. They first completed a baseline test with shade guides (SGT) and the training system (TST), and then trained with one of the three system training methods (Basic colour training for group E1, Vitapan Classical for E2, and Vitapan 3D-Master for E3) or shade guides (group C1) for 4 days. The control group (C2) received no training. The same test was performed after training and they finally completed a questionnaire. The correct matches after training increased in three experimental groups and group C1. Among experimental groups, the greatest improvement of correct matching number was achieved by group E3 (4·00 ± 1·88 in SGT, 4·29 ± 2·73 in TST), followed by E2 (2·29 ± 2·73 in SGT, 3·50 ± 3·03 in TST) and E1 (2·00 ± 2·60 in SGT, 1·93 ± 2·96 in TST). The difference between E3 and E1 was statistically significant (P = 0·036 in SGT, 0·026 in TST). The total average training time was shorter in group E2 (15·39 ± 4·22 min) and E3 (17·63 ± 5·22 min), with no significant difference between them. Subjective evaluations revealed that self-confidence in colour matching were improved greater in group C1 and E3. In conclusion, all tested sections of the system effectively improved students' colour-matching ability. Among system training methods, Vitapan 3D-Master showed the best performance; it enabled greater shade-matching improvement, it saved time and was superior in subjective evaluations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Power oscillation suppression by robust SMES in power system with large wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Cuk Supriyadi, A. N.; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    The large penetration of wind farm into interconnected power systems may cause the severe problem of tie-line power oscillations. To suppress power oscillations, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which is able to control active and reactive powers simultaneously, can be applied. On the other hand, several generating and loading conditions, variation of system parameters, etc., cause uncertainties in the system. The SMES controller designed without considering system uncertainties may fail to suppress power oscillations. To enhance the robustness of SMES controller against system uncertainties, this paper proposes a robust control design of SMES by taking system uncertainties into account. The inverse additive perturbation is applied to represent the unstructured system uncertainties and included in power system modeling. The configuration of active and reactive power controllers is the first-order lead-lag compensator with single input feedback. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on the enhancement of robust stability margin. The particle swarm optimization is used to solve the problem and achieve the controller parameters. Simulation studies in the six-area interconnected power system with wind farms confirm the robustness of the proposed SMES under various operating conditions.

  13. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  14. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom dc-power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the dc Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  15. Determining Training Device Requirements in Army Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poumade, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A decision making methodology which applies the systems approach to the training problem is discussed. Training is viewed as a total system instead of a collection of individual devices and unrelated techniques. The core of the methodology is the use of optimization techniques such as the transportation algorithm and multiobjective goal programming with training task and training device specific data. The role of computers, especially automated data bases and computer simulation models, in the development of training programs is also discussed. The approach can provide significant training enhancement and cost savings over the more traditional, intuitive form of training development and device requirements process. While given from an aviation perspective, the methodology is equally applicable to other training development efforts.

  16. Role of nuclear power in the Philippine power development program

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as: the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development (STAND); the Large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power systems compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclearmore » power program. The electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power.« less

  17. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  18. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  19. Developing a Webfires Training System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    simulations, and innovative feedback for customers (2017b). They coordinate with Commander, Carrier Strike Group Fifteen (CSG-15) for underway training . The...Distribution is unlimited. DEVELOPING A WEBFIRES TRAINING SYSTEM by Matthew Alvarez, Benjamin Arnett, Daniel DeCicco, Michael Hook, Austin...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports

  20. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    PubMed

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  1. Developments in Australia's Vocational Education and Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Chris

    Australia's national vocational education and training (VET) system and nationally funded technical and further education colleges were established in the 1970s. In the 1980s, traineeships complementing traditional apprenticeships and competency-based training were instituted. An industry-led training system was established in the 1990s. Total VET…

  2. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  3. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B.; McNair, Robert C.; White, Kenneth; Maugeri, Terry

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  4. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration ofmore » a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.« less

  5. Effects of Resisted Sprint Training and Traditional Power Training on Sprint, Jump, and Balance Performance in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Prieske, Olaf; Krüger, Tom; Aehle, Markus; Bauer, Erik; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years). RST and TPT exercised for 6 weeks with three training sessions/week each lasting 45-60 min. RST comprised frontal and lateral sprint exercises using an expander system with increasing levels of resistance that was attached to a treadmill (h/p/cosmos). TPT included ballistic strength training at 40% of the one-repetition-maximum for the lower limbs (e.g., leg press, knee extensions). Before and after training, sprint (20-m sprint), change-of-direction speed (T-agility test), jump (drop, countermovement jump), and balance performances (Y balance test) were assessed. ANCOVA statistics revealed large main effects of group for 20-m sprint velocity and ground contact time (0.81 ≤ d ≤ 1.00). Post-hoc tests showed higher sprint velocity following RST and TPT (0.69 ≤ d ≤ 0.82) when compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to 4.5% for RST [90%CI: (-1.1%;10.1%), d = 1.23] and 2.6% for TPT [90%CI: (0.4%;4.8%), d = 1.59]. Additionally, ground contact times during sprinting were shorter following RST and TPT (0.68 ≤ d ≤ 1.09) compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to -6.3% for RST [90%CI: (-11.4%;-1.1%), d = 1.45) and -2.7% for TPT [90%CI: (-4.2%;-1.2%), d = 2.36]. Finally, effects for change

  6. Effects of Resisted Sprint Training and Traditional Power Training on Sprint, Jump, and Balance Performance in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prieske, Olaf; Krüger, Tom; Aehle, Markus; Bauer, Erik; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST (n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT (n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group (n = 16, 23 ± 2 years). RST and TPT exercised for 6 weeks with three training sessions/week each lasting 45–60 min. RST comprised frontal and lateral sprint exercises using an expander system with increasing levels of resistance that was attached to a treadmill (h/p/cosmos). TPT included ballistic strength training at 40% of the one-repetition-maximum for the lower limbs (e.g., leg press, knee extensions). Before and after training, sprint (20-m sprint), change-of-direction speed (T-agility test), jump (drop, countermovement jump), and balance performances (Y balance test) were assessed. ANCOVA statistics revealed large main effects of group for 20-m sprint velocity and ground contact time (0.81 ≤ d ≤ 1.00). Post-hoc tests showed higher sprint velocity following RST and TPT (0.69 ≤ d ≤ 0.82) when compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to 4.5% for RST [90%CI: (−1.1%;10.1%), d = 1.23] and 2.6% for TPT [90%CI: (0.4%;4.8%), d = 1.59]. Additionally, ground contact times during sprinting were shorter following RST and TPT (0.68 ≤ d ≤ 1.09) compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to −6.3% for RST [90%CI: (−11.4%;−1.1%), d = 1.45) and −2.7% for TPT [90%CI: (−4.2%;−1.2%), d = 2.36]. Finally, effects

  7. Digital Gunnery: How Combat Vehicle Gunnery Training Creates a Model for Training the Mission Command System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    DIGITAL GUNNERY: HOW COMBAT VEHICLE GUNNERY TRAINING CREATES A MODEL FOR TRAINING THE MISSION COMMAND SYSTEM A thesis presented...Training Creates a Model for Training the Mission Command System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...digital systems that give commanders an unprecedented ability to understand and lead in the battlefields where they operate. Unfortunately, units

  8. Optimization of the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to determine what, if any, improvements could be made on the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which could be reflected in higher thermal efficiency and a reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. A systematic analysis of air separation process varitions which showed that the specific energy consumption could be minimized when the product stream oxygen concentration is about 70 mole percent was conducted. The use of advanced air compressors, having variable speed and guide vane position control, results in additional power savings. The study also led to the conceptual design of a new air separation process, sized for a 500 MW sub e MHD plant, referred to a internal compression is discussed. In addition to its lower overall energy consumption, potential capital cost savings were identified for air separation plants using this process when constructed in a single large air separation train rather than multiple parallel trains, typical of conventional practice.

  9. Supplement II : Summary of Capital and Operations & Maintenance Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Costs and Trends for the period 1976-1979

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes O&M cost experience and trends for the following AGT systems for the period 1976-1979: AIRTRANS, Sea-Tac, Tampa, Disneyworld (WEDway), and Morgantown (O&M data on the Morgantown system is reported through 1978). Capital cost da...

  10. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  11. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    DOLEZAL, SAMANTHA M.; FRESE, DEREK L.; LLEWELLYN, TAMRA L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior. PMID:27990226

  12. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Samantha M; Frese, Derek L; Llewellyn, Tamra L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior.

  13. Power control and management of the grid containing largescale wind power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Fadhil Toufick

    The ever increasing demand for electricity has driven many countries toward the installation of new generation facilities. However, concerns such as environmental pollution and global warming issues, clean energy sources, high costs associated with installation of new conventional power plants, and fossil fuels depletion have created many interests in finding alternatives to conventional fossil fuels for generating electricity. Wind energy is one of the most rapidly growing renewable power sources and wind power generations have been increasingly demanded as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed. Therefore, large-scale integration of wind energy conversion systems is a threat to the stability and reliability of utility grids containing these systems. They disturb the balance between power generation and consumption, affect the quality of the electricity, and complicate load sharing and load distribution managing and planning. Overall, wind power systems do not help in providing any services such as operating and regulating reserves to the power grid. In order to resolve these issues, research has been conducted in utilizing weather forecasting data to improve the performance of the wind power system, reduce the influence of the fluctuations, and plan power management of the grid containing large-scale wind power systems which consist of doubly-fed induction generator based energy conversion system. The aims of this research, my dissertation, are to provide new methods for: smoothing the output power of the wind power systems and reducing the influence of their fluctuations, power managing and planning of a grid containing these systems and other conventional power plants, and providing a new structure of implementing of latest microprocessor technology for controlling and managing the operation of the wind power system. In this research, in order to reduce and smooth the fluctuations, two

  14. Multi-time scale dynamics in power electronics-dominated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoming; Hu, Jiabing; Cheng, Shijie

    2017-09-01

    Electric power infrastructure has recently undergone a comprehensive transformation from electromagnetics to semiconductors. Such a development is attributed to the rapid growth of power electronic converter applications in the load side to realize energy conservation and on the supply side for renewable generations and power transmissions using high voltage direct current transmission. This transformation has altered the fundamental mechanism of power system dynamics, which demands the establishment of a new theory for power system control and protection. This paper presents thoughts on a theoretical framework for the coming semiconducting power systems.

  15. Training for vigilance: using predictive power to evaluate feedback effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Szalma, James L; Hancock, Peter A; Warm, Joel S; Dember, William N; Parsons, Kelley S

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of knowledge of results (KR) on vigilance accuracy and report the first use of positive and negative predictive power (PPP and NPP) to assess vigilance training effectiveness. Training individuals to detect infrequent signals among a plethora of nonsignals is critical to success in many failure-intolerant monitoring technologies. KR has been widely used for vigilance training, but the effect of the schedule of KR presentation on accuracy has been neglected. Previous research on training for vigilance has used signal detection metrics or hits and false alarms. In this study diagnosticity measures were applied to augment traditional analytic methods. We examined the effects of continuous KR and a partial-KR regimen versus a no-KR control on decision diagnosticity. Signal detection theory (SDT) analysis indicated that KR induced conservatism in responding but did not enhance sensitivity. However, KR in both forms equally enhanced PPP while selectively impairing NPP. There is a trade-off in the effectiveness of KR in reducing false alarms and misses. Together, SDT and PPP/NPP measures provide a more complete portrait of performance effects. PPP and NPP together provide another assessment technique for vigilance performance, and as additional diagnostic tools, these measures are potentially useful to the human factors community.

  16. A comprehensive approach to reactive power scheduling in restructured power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Meera

    Financial constraints, regulatory pressure, and need for more economical power transfers have increased the loading of interconnected transmission systems. As a consequence, power systems have been operated close to their maximum power transfer capability limits, making the system more vulnerable to voltage instability events. The problem of voltage collapse characterized by a severe local voltage depression is generally believed to be associated with inadequate VAr support at key buses. The goal of reactive power planning is to maintain a high level of voltage security, through installation of properly sized and located reactive sources and their optimal scheduling. In case of vertically-operated power systems, the reactive requirement of the system is normally satisfied by using all of its reactive sources. But in case of different scenarios of restructured power systems, one may consider a fixed amount of exchange of reactive power through tie lines. Reviewed literature suggests a need for optimal scheduling of reactive power generation for fixed inter area reactive power exchange. The present work proposed a novel approach for reactive power source placement and a novel approach for its scheduling. The VAr source placement technique was based on the property of system connectivity. This is followed by development of optimal reactive power dispatch formulation which facilitated fixed inter area tie line reactive power exchange. This formulation used a Line Flow-Based (LFB) model of power flow analysis. The formulation determined the generation schedule for fixed inter area tie line reactive power exchange. Different operating scenarios were studied to analyze the impact of VAr management approach for vertically operated and restructured power systems. The system loadability, losses, generation and the cost of generation were the performance measures to study the impact of VAr management strategy. The novel approach was demonstrated on IEEE 30 bus system.

  17. Power system interface and umbilical system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

  18. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  19. The Response to and Recovery From Maximum-Strength and -Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes.

    PubMed

    Howatson, Glyn; Brandon, Raphael; Hunter, Angus M

    2016-04-01

    There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse. To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter. Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged. A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.

  20. Analysis of large power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dommel, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-oriented power systems analysis procedures in the electric utilities are surveyed. The growth of electric power systems is discussed along with the solution of sparse network equations, power flow, and stability studies.

  1. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  2. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis [Burnt Hills, NY; Anderson, Todd Alan [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-02-19

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  3. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2006-11-07

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  4. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  5. Advanced Power System Analysis Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As a continuing effort to assist in the design and characterization of space power systems, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power and Propulsion Office developed a powerful computerized analysis tool called System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE). This year, SPACE was used extensively in analyzing detailed operational timelines for the International Space Station (ISS) program. SPACE was developed to analyze the performance of space-based photovoltaic power systems such as that being developed for the ISS. It is a highly integrated tool that combines numerous factors in a single analysis, providing a comprehensive assessment of the power system's capability. Factors particularly critical to the ISS include the orientation of the solar arrays toward the Sun and the shadowing of the arrays by other portions of the station.

  6. TROPIX Power System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-01-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  7. Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

  8. Concept for a power system controller for large space electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of technology for a fail-operatonal power system controller (PSC) utilizing microprocessor technology for managing the distribution and power processor subsystems of a large multi-kW space electrical power system is discussed. The specific functions which must be performed by the PSC, the best microprocessor available to do the job, and the feasibility, cost savings, and applications of a PSC were determined. A limited function breadboard version of a PSC was developed to demonstrate the concept and potential cost savings.

  9. A preliminary study of solar powdered aircraft and associated power trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Fortenbach, C. D.; Dimiceli, E. V.; Parks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of regeneratively powered solar high altitude powered platform (HAPP) remotely piloted vehicles was assessed. Those technologies which must be pursued to make long duration solar HAPPs feasible are recommended. A methodology which involved characterization and parametric analysis of roughly two dozen variables to determine vehicles capable of fulfilling the primary mission are defined. One of these vehicles was then conceptually designed. Variations of each major design parameter were investigated along with state-of-the-art changes in power train component capabilities. The midlatitude mission studied would be attainable by a solar HAPP if fuel cell, electrolyzer and photovoltaic technologies are pursued. Vehicles will be very large and have very lightweight structures in order to attain the combinations of altitude and duration required by the primary mission.

  10. Desktop-based computer-assisted orthopedic training system for spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Rambani, Rohit; Ward, James; Viant, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Simulation and surgical training has moved on since its inception during the end of the last century. The trainees are getting more exposed to computers and laboratory training in different subspecialties. More needs to be done in orthopedic simulation in spinal surgery. To develop a training system for pedicle screw fixation and validate its effectiveness in a cohort of junior orthopedic trainees. Fully simulated computer-navigated training system is used to train junior orthopedic trainees perform pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine. Real patient computed tomography scans are used to produce the real-time fluoroscopic images of the lumbar spine. The training system was developed to simulate pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine. A total of 12 orthopedic senior house officers performed pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine before and after the training on training system. The results were assessed based on the scoring system, which included the amount of time taken, accuracy of pedicle screw insertion, and the number of exposures requested to complete the procedure. The result shows a significant improvement in amount of time taken, accuracy of fixation, and the number of exposures after the training on simulator system. This was statistically significant using paired Student t test (p < 0.05). Fully simulated computer-navigated training system is an efficient training tool for young orthopedic trainees. This system can be used to augment training in the operating room, and trainees acquire their skills in the comfort of their study room or in the training room in the hospital. The system has the potential to be used in various other orthopedic procedures for learning of technical skills in a manner aimed at ensuring a smooth escalation in task complexity leading to the better performance of procedures in the operating theater. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Half-squat or jump squat training under optimum power load conditions to counteract power and speed decrements in Brazilian elite soccer players during the preseason.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Zanetti, Vinicius; Gil, Saulo; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test which specific type of exercise (i.e., jump squat (JS) or half-squat (HS)) is more effective at maintaining speed and power abilities throughout a preseason in soccer players. Twenty-three male soccer players were randomly allocated into two groups: JS and HS. The mean propulsive power, vertical jumping ability, and sprinting performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of a preseason period. The optimum power loads for the JS and HS exercises were assessed and were used as load-references. The soccer players performed 10 power oriented training sessions in total. Both JS and HS maintained power in JS and speed abilities (P > 0.05, for main effects and interaction effect) as indicated by ANCOVA. Both groups demonstrated reduced power during HS (ES = -0.76 vs. -0.78, for JS and HS, respectively); both groups improved acceleration (ACC) from 5 to 10 m (ES = 0.52). JS was more effective at reducing the ACC decrements over 0-5 m (ES = -0.38 vs. -0.58, for JS and HS, respectively). The HS group increased squat jump height (ES = 0.76 vs. 0.11, for HS and JS, respectively). In summary, JS is more effective in reducing the ACC capacity over very short sprints while HS is more effective in improving squat jump performance. Both strategies improve ACC over longer distances. New training strategies should be implemented/developed to avoid concurrent training effects between power and endurance adaptations during professional soccer preseasons.

  12. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  13. Study of Thermal Control Systems for orbiting power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal control system designs were evaluated for the 25 kW power system. Factors considered include long operating life, high reliability, and meteoroid hazards to the space radiator. Based on a cost advantage, the bumpered pumped fluid radiator is recommended for the initial 25 kW power system and intermediate versions up to 50 kW. For advanced power systems with heat rejection rates above 50 kW the lower weight of the advanced heat pipe radiator offsets the higher cost and this design is recommended. The power system payloads heat rejection allocations studies show that a centralized heat rejection system is the most weight and cost effective approach. The thermal interface between the power system and the payloads was addressed and a concept for a contact heat exchanger that eliminates fluid transfer between the power system and the payloads was developed. Finally, a preliminary design of the thermal control system, with emphasis on the radiator and radiator deployment mechanism, is presented.

  14. Expert systems for MSFC power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Future space vehicles and platforms including Space Station will possess complex power systems. These systems will require a high level of autonomous operation to allow the crew to concentrate on mission activities and to limit the number of ground support personnel to a reasonable number. The Electrical Power Branch at NASA-Marshall is developing advanced automation approaches which will enable the necessary levels of autonomy. These approaches include the utilization of knowledge based or expert systems.

  15. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  16. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  17. Fuzzy wavelet plus a quantum neural network as a design base for power system stability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ganjefar, Soheil; Tofighi, Morteza; Karami, Hamidreza

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we introduce an indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural controller (IAFWNC) as a power system stabilizer to damp inter-area modes of oscillations in a multi-machine power system. Quantum computing is an efficient method for improving the computational efficiency of neural networks, so we developed an identifier based on a quantum neural network (QNN) to train the IAFWNC in the proposed scheme. All of the controller parameters are tuned online based on the Lyapunov stability theory to guarantee the closed-loop stability. A two-machine, two-area power system equipped with a static synchronous series compensator as a series flexible ac transmission system was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed IAFWNC scheme can achieve favorable control performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  19. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  20. Short-term high intensity plyometric training program improves strength, power and agility in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.

  1. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  2. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  3. Optoelectronics applications in multimedia shooting training systems: SPARTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.

  4. Changes of urinary angiotensinogen concentration and its association with urinary proteins in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen; Bai, Qiong; A, Lata; Liang, Yaoxian; Zheng, Danxia; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It had been reported that angiotensinogen might be a marker for activation of renin-angiotensin system, which was associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional roles of AGT in DN in vitro. Methods: Diabetic rat models were built by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups, two of the three groups were treated with different doses of losartan, the other diabetic group was as control and normal rats acted as healthy control. In a 12-week investigation, we detected the changes of AGT in all rats’ blood and urine and the association between AGT concentration and RAS activation and urinary proteins were analyzed in this study. Results: The serum AGT of rats had no significant differences (P>0.05 for all). The urinary AGT of the diabetic rats was significantly different from the control group, moreover, the urinary AGT of the diabetic rats under different treatments was also obviously different (P<0.05 for all). Besides, the results of immunohistochemical assay indicated that AGT expression level was correlated with renal tissues damage. The level of AGT was positively associated with urinary protein (r=0.493, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with CCr (r=-0.474, P=0.007) and the dose of ARB (r=-0.575, P=0.001). Moreover, the dose of ARB was independently associated with urinary AGT (B=-2.963, P=0.024) in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Urinary AGT may be a marker for the activation of local RAS in kidney and independently associated with ARB. PMID:26722381

  5. Polyspectral signal analysis techniques for condition based maintenance of helicopter drive-train system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Mohammed, Mohammed Ahmed

    For an efficient maintenance of a diverse fleet of air- and rotorcraft, effective condition based maintenance (CBM) must be established based on rotating components monitored vibration signals. In this dissertation, we present theory and applications of polyspectral signal processing techniques for condition monitoring of critical components in the AH-64D helicopter tail rotor drive train system. Currently available vibration-monitoring tools are mostly built around auto- and cross-power spectral analysis which have limited performance in detecting frequency correlations higher than second order. Studying higher order correlations and their Fourier transforms, higher order spectra, provides more information about the vibration signals which helps in building more accurate diagnostic models of the mechanical system. Based on higher order spectral analysis, different signal processing techniques are developed to assess health conditions of different critical rotating-components in the AH-64D helicopter drive-train. Based on cross-bispectrum, quadratic nonlinear transfer function is presented to model second order nonlinearity in a drive-shaft running between the two hanger bearings. Then, quadratic-nonlinearity coupling coefficient between frequency harmonics of the rotating shaft is used as condition metric to study different seeded shaft faults compared to baseline case, namely: shaft misalignment, shaft imbalance, and combination of shaft misalignment and imbalance. The proposed quadratic-nonlinearity metric shows better capabilities in distinguishing the four studied shaft settings than the conventional linear coupling based on cross-power spectrum. We also develop a new concept of Quadratic-Nonlinearity Power-Index spectrum, QNLPI(f), that can be used in signal detection and classification, based on bicoherence spectrum. The proposed QNLPI(f) is derived as a projection of the three-dimensional bicoherence spectrum into two-dimensional spectrum that

  6. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. An extremely statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system unreliability for an 8-hour mission. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system start-onlymore » unreliability.« less

  7. Automated Power Systems Management (APSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1981-01-01

    A breadboard power system incorporating autonomous functions of monitoring, fault detection and recovery, command and control was developed, tested and evaluated to demonstrate technology feasibility. Autonomous functions including switching of redundant power processing elements, individual load fault removal, and battery charge/discharge control were implemented by means of a distributed microcomputer system within the power subsystem. Three local microcomputers provide the monitoring, control and command function interfaces between the central power subsystem microcomputer and the power sources, power processing and power distribution elements. The central microcomputer is the interface between the local microcomputers and the spacecraft central computer or ground test equipment.

  8. Automated distribution system management for multichannel space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, G. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    A NASA sponsored study of space power distribution system technology is in progress to develop an autonomously managed power system (AMPS) for large space power platforms. The multichannel, multikilowatt, utility-type power subsystem proposed presents new survivability requirements and increased subsystem complexity. The computer controls under development for the power management system must optimize the power subsystem performance and minimize the life cycle cost of the platform. A distribution system management philosophy has been formulated which incorporates these constraints. Its implementation using a TI9900 microprocessor and FORTH as the programming language is presented. The approach offers a novel solution to the perplexing problem of determining the optimal combination of loads which should be connected to each power channel for a versatile electrical distribution concept.

  9. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  10. Solar micro-power system for self-powered wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongtai; Li, Yangqiu; Liu, Lihui; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-01

    In self-powered wireless sensor nodes, the efficiency for environmental energy harvesting, storage and management determines the lifetime and environmental adaptability of the sensor nodes. However, the method of improving output efficiency for traditional photovoltaic power generation is not suitable for a solar micro-power system due to the special requirements for its application. This paper presents a solar micro-power system designed for a solar self-powered wireless sensor node. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of solar cells and energy storage are realized by the hybrid energy storage structure and "window" control. Meanwhile, the mathematical model of energy harvesting, storing and management is formulated. In the novel system, the output conversion efficiency of solar cells is 12%.

  11. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  12. Mobility Outcomes Following Five Training Sessions with a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Dalley, Skyler; Clausen, Mike; Wilson, Edgar; Morrison, Scott; Etheridge, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of legged mobility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with multiple physiological and psychological impacts. Powered exoskeletons offer the possibility of regained mobility and reversal or prevention of the secondary effects associated with immobility. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate mobility outcomes for individuals with SCI after 5 gait-training sessions with a powered exoskeleton, with a primary goal of characterizing the ease of learning and usability of the system. Methods: Sixteen subjects with SCI were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial at Shepherd Center, Atlanta, Georgia, with injury levels ranging from C5 complete to L1 incomplete. An investigational Indego exoskeleton research kit was evaluated for ease of use and efficacy in providing legged mobility. Outcome measures of the study included the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as well as measures of independence including donning and doffing times and the ability to walk on various surfaces. Results: At the end of 5 sessions (1.5 hours per session), average walking speed was 0.22 m/s for persons with C5-6 motor complete tetraplegia, 0.26 m/s for T1-8 motor complete paraplegia, and 0.45 m/s for T9-L1 paraplegia. Distances covered in 6 minutes averaged 64 meters for those with C5-6, 74 meters for T1-8, and 121 meters for T9-L1. Additionally, all participants were able to walk on both indoor and outdoor surfaces. Conclusions: Results after only 5 sessions suggest that persons with tetraplegia and paraplegia learn to use the Indego exoskeleton quickly and can manage a variety of surfaces. Walking speeds and distances achieved also indicate that some individuals with paraplegia can quickly become limited community ambulators using this system. PMID:26364278

  13. Information Systems and Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, B.; Smith, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A case study of a South Wales manufacturer illustrates the need for companies to adopt an integrated strategy for computerization and information systems. Lack of management training blending computing and business skills can have a crippling effect on system development and organizational health. (SK)

  14. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    PubMed

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems.

  15. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  16. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : System Availability Model Programmer's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  17. High-power VCSEL systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Deppe, Carsten; Derra, Guenther; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Heusler, Gero; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Easy system design, compactness and a uniform power distribution define the basic advantages of high power VCSEL systems. Full addressability in space and time add new dimensions for optimization and enable "digital photonic production". Many thermal processes benefit from the improved control i.e. heat is applied exactly where and when it is needed. The compact VCSEL systems can be integrated into most manufacturing equipment, replacing batch processes using large furnaces and reducing energy consumption. This paper will present how recent technological development of high power VCSEL systems will extend efficiency and flexibility of thermal processes and replace not only laser systems, lamps and furnaces but enable new ways of production. High power VCSEL systems are made from many VCSEL chips, each comprising thousands of low power VCSELs. Systems scalable in power from watts to multiple ten kilowatts and with various form factors utilize a common modular building block concept. Designs for reliable high power VCSEL arrays and systems can be developed and tested on each building block level and benefit from the low power density and excellent reliability of the VCSELs. Furthermore advanced assembly concepts aim to reduce the number of individual processes and components and make the whole system even more simple and reliable.

  18. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hu, N. Q.; Qin, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  19. Utilization of the Philippine Research Reactor as a training facility for nuclear power plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Philippines has a 1-MW swimming-pool reactor facility operated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The reactor is light-water moderated and cooled, graphite reflected, and fueled with 90% enriched uranium. Since it became critical in 1963 it has been utilized for research, radioisotope production, and training. It was used initially in the training of PAEC personnel and other research institutions and universities. During the last few years, however, it has played a key role in training personnel for the Philippine Nuclear Power Project (PNPP).

  20. Phantom-based interactive simulation system for dental treatment training.

    PubMed

    Sae-Kee, Bundit; Riener, Robert; Frey, Martin; Pröll, Thomas; Burgkart, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. The system comprises a virtual reality environment and a force-torque measuring device to enhance the capabilities of a passive phantom of tooth anatomy in dental treatment training processes. The measuring device is connected to the phantom, and provides essential input data for generating the graphic animations of physical behaviors such as drilling and bleeding. The animation methods of those physical behaviors are also presented. This system is not only able to enhance interactivity and accessibility of the training system compared to conventional methods but it also provides possibilities of recording, evaluating, and verifying the training results.

  1. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle Training Facility visual system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) Training Facility (OTF) is to provide effective training for OMV pilots. A critical part of the training environment is the Visual System, which will simulate the video scenes produced by the OMV Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) system. The simulation will include camera models, dynamic target models, moving appendages, and scene degradation due to the compression/decompression of video signal. Video system malfunctions will also be provided to ensure that the pilot is ready to meet all challenges the real-world might provide. One possible visual system configuration for the training facility that will meet existing requirements is described.

  2. Power Management and Distribution System Developed for Thermionic Power Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft solar, bimodal system combines propulsion and power generation into a single integrated system. An Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) provides orbital transfer capabilities, power generation for payloads, and onboard propulsion to the spacecraft. A key benefit of a bimodal system is a greater payload-to-spacecraft mass ratio resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. NASA has joined efforts with the Air Force Phillips Laboratory to develop enabling technologies for such a system. The NASA/Air Force bimodal concept uses solar concentrators to focus energy into an integrated power plant. This power plant consists of a graphite core that stores thermal energy within a cavity. An array of thermionic converters encircles the graphite cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions. During the power generation phase of the bimodal system, the thermionic converters are exposed to the heated cavity and convert the thermal energy to electricity. Near-term efforts of the ISUS bimodal program are focused on a ground demonstration of key technologies in order to proceed to a full space flight test. Thermionic power generation is one key technology of the bimodal concept. Thermionic power converters impose unique operating requirements upon a power management and distribution (PMAD) system design. Single thermionic converters supply large currents at very low voltages. Operating voltages can vary over a range of up to 3 to 1 as a function of operating temperature. Most spacecraft loads require regulated 28-volts direct-current (Vdc) power. A combination of series-connected converters and powerprocessing boosters is required to deliver power to the spacecraft's payloads at this level.

  3. Hybrid power management system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  4. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  5. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-12-04

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use.

  6. Power System Transient Stability Improvement by the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    This paper presents a study on the power system transient stability improvement by means of interline power flow controller (IPFC). The power injection model of IPFC in transient analysis is proposed and can be easily incorporated into existing power systems. Based on the energy function analysis, the operation of IPFC should guarantee that the time derivative of the global energy of the system is not greater than zero in order to damp the electromechanical oscillations. Accordingly, control laws of IPFC are proposed for its application to the single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) system and the multimachine systems, respectively. Numerical simulations on the corresponding model power systems are presented to demonstrate their effectiveness in improving power system transient stability.

  7. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  8. History of Power Transmission Technologies and Future Prospects of Power System of Chubu Electric Power Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Tomonari; Zashibo, Toshihito

    Since its foundation, the power system of Chubu Electric Power Company (hereinafter CEPCO) has developed through power source and transmission facility formation to meet electricity demand increases. This development has been accompanied by progress in transmission technologies including capacity scale-up, compactification and power system stabilization to operate complex power systems. Now, changes in business situation due to electricity market liberalizatin may bring new challenges to future facility formation. This paper reviews CEPCO's history of power system formation and progress in transmission technologies, and describes future challenges.

  9. Power processing systems for ion thrusters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Garth, D. R.; Finke, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed use of ion thrusters to fulfill various communication satellite propulsion functions such as east-west and north-south stationkeeping, attitude control, station relocation and orbit raising, naturally leads to the requirement for lightweight, efficient and reliable thruster power processing systems. Collectively, the propulsion requirements dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by the power processing. This paper will discuss the status of such power processing systems, present system design alternatives and project expected near future power system performance.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  11. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Compressor development, turbine, combustion, regenerator system, gearbox/transmission, ceramic material and component development, foil gas bearings, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics development, and controls and accessories are discussed.

  12. The Ames Power Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osetinsky, Leonid; Wang, David

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Power Monitoring System (APMS) is a centralized system of power meters, computer hardware, and specialpurpose software that collects and stores electrical power data by various facilities at Ames Research Center (ARC). This system is needed because of the large and varying nature of the overall ARC power demand, which has been observed to range from 20 to 200 MW. Large portions of peak demand can be attributed to only three wind tunnels (60, 180, and 100 MW, respectively). The APMS helps ARC avoid or minimize costly demand charges by enabling wind-tunnel operators, test engineers, and the power manager to monitor total demand for center in real time. These persons receive the information they need to manage and schedule energy-intensive research in advance and to adjust loads in real time to ensure that the overall maximum allowable demand is not exceeded. The APMS (see figure) includes a server computer running the Windows NT operating system and can, in principle, include an unlimited number of power meters and client computers. As configured at the time of reporting the information for this article, the APMS includes more than 40 power meters monitoring all the major research facilities, plus 15 Windows-based client personal computers that display real-time and historical data to users via graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The power meters and client computers communicate with the server using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) on Ethernet networks, variously, through dedicated fiber-optic cables or through the pre-existing ARC local-area network (ARCLAN). The APMS has enabled ARC to achieve significant savings ($1.2 million in 2001) in the cost of power and electric energy by helping personnel to maintain total demand below monthly allowable levels, to manage the overall power factor to avoid low power factor penalties, and to use historical system data to identify opportunities for additional energy savings. The APMS also

  13. Forecasting Electric Power Generation of Photovoltaic Power System for Energy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Takeuchi, Akira; Nozaki, Yousuke; Endo, Hisahito; Sumita, Jiro

    Recently, there has been an increase in concern about the global environment. Interest is growing in developing an energy network by which new energy systems such as photovoltaic and fuel cells generate power locally and electric power and heat are controlled with a communications network. We developed the power generation forecast method for photovoltaic power systems in an energy network. The method makes use of weather information and regression analysis. We carried out forecasting power output of the photovoltaic power system installed in Expo 2005, Aichi Japan. As a result of comparing measurements with a prediction values, the average prediction error per day was about 26% of the measured power.

  14. Active and Passive Haptic Training Approaches in VR Laparoscopic Surgery Training.

    PubMed

    Marutani, Takafumi; Kato, Toma; Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiromi T; Komori, Masaru; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Morikawa, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become a widely performed surgery as it is one of the most common minimally invasive surgeries. Doctors perform the surgery by manipulating thin and long surgical instruments precisely with the assistance of laparoscopic video with limited field of view. The power control of the instruments' tip is especially very important, because excessive power may damage internal organs. The training of this surgical technique is mainly supervised by an expert in hands-on coaching program. However, it is difficult for the experts to spend sufficient time for coaching. Therefore, we aim to teach the expert's hand movements in laparoscopic surgery to trainees using VR-based simulator, which is equipped with a guidance force display device. To realize the system, we propose two haptic training approaches for transferring the expert's hand movements to the trainee. One is active training, and the other is passive training. The former approach shows the expert's movements only when the trainee makes large errors while the latter shows the expert's movements continuously. In this study, we validate the applicability of these approaches through tasks in VR laparoscopic surgery training simulator, and identify the differences between these approaches.

  15. Livermore's 2004 R&D 100 Awards: Magnetically Levitated Train Takes Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    the 1960s, transportation industry planners have sought an energy-efficient design for a train that can glide through air at speeds up to 500 kilometers per hour. This type of train, called a magnetically levitated (maglev) train, is thought to be a viable solution to meet the nation's growing need for intercity and urban transportation networks. However, despite some promising developments, unresolved concerns with the operation and safety of maglev trains has prevented the transition from demonstration model to commercial development. Inductrack, a maglev system originally conceived by Livermore physicist Richard Post, is designed to address these issues. Post's work onmore » Inductrack began with funding from Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, and in 2003, the technology was licensed to General Atomics (GA) in San Diego for train and transit system applications. This year, members of the Livermore-GA team received an R&D 100 Award for Inductrack's development. Inductrack uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic fields that levitate the train and provides economic and operational advantages over other maglev systems. It can be adapted to both high-speed and urban-speed environments. In the event of a power failure, the train slows gradually until it comes to rest on its auxiliary wheels. The maintenance requirements for Inductrack are also lower than they are for other systems, plus it has a short turning radius and is designed for quiet operation. Previous designs for maglev systems did not offer the energy efficiency or safety protections that are in the Inductrack design. Electromagnetic systems (EMS) use powered electromagnets to levitate the train. However, these systems are based on magnetic attraction rather than repulsion and thus are inherently unstable. In EMS trains, the levitation gap--the separation between the magnet pole faces and the iron rail--is only about 10 millimeters and, during operation, must be

  16. Space Station power system issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite.

  17. Modeling of power electronic systems with EMTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Dravid, Narayan V.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about such systems. The modeling of the major power electronic components of the NASA Space Station Freedom Electric Power System is described along with ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and it is demonstrated that EMTP can serve as a very useful tool for teaching, design, analysis, and research in the area of power systems with power electronic components. EMTP modeling of power electronic circuits is described and simulation results are presented.

  18. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing: Guidelines for Deck Officer Training Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Information regarding the three major elements of the training system - the simu- lator design , the training program structure, and the instructor...1.1.2 Empirical Research/ Experimentation Phase ........................................ 1 1.1.3 Major Product...3 3.2 Simulator Design (Critical Characteristics) ......................................... 13 3.2.1 Visual Scee

  19. An intelligent simulation training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, John E.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Central Florida, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and General Electric (SCSD) have been funded by the State of Florida to build an Intelligent Simulation Training System. The objective was and is to make the system generic except for the domain expertise. Researchers accomplished this objective in their prototype. The system is modularized and therefore it is easy to make any corrections, expansions or adaptations. The funding by the state of Florida has exceeded $3 million over the past three years and through the 1990 fiscal year. UCF has expended in excess of 15 work years on the project. The project effort has been broken into three major tasks. General Electric provides the simulation. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University provides the domain expertise. The University of Central Florida has constructed the generic part of the system which is comprised of several modules that perform the tutoring, evaluation, communication, status, etc. The generic parts of the Intelligent Simulation Training Systems (ISTS) are described.

  20. UNISAT-3 Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  1. High-power noise-like pulse generation using a 1.56-µm all-fiber laser system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2015-07-13

    We demonstrated an all-fiber, high-power noise-like pulse laser system at the 1.56-µm wavelength. A low-power noise-like pulse train generated by a ring oscillator was amplified using a two-stage amplifier, where the performance of the second-stage amplifier determined the final output power level. The optical intensity in the second-stage amplifier was managed well to avoid not only the excessive spectral broadening induced by nonlinearities but also any damage to the device. On the other hand, the power conversion efficiency of the amplifier was optimized through proper control of its pump wavelength. The pump wavelength determines the pump absorption and therefore the power conversion efficiency of the gain fiber. Through this approach, the average power of the noise-like pulse train was amplified considerably to an output of 13.1 W, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 36.1% and a pulse energy of 0.85 µJ. To the best of our knowledge, these amplified pulses have the highest average power and pulse energy for noise-like pulses in the 1.56-µm wavelength region. As a result, the net gain in the cascaded amplifier reached 30 dB. With peak and pedestal widths of 168 fs and 61.3 ps, respectively, for the amplified pulses, the pedestal-to-peak intensity ratio of the autocorrelation trace remains at the value of 0.5 required for truly noise-like pulses.

  2. A Low-Cost Contact System to Assess Load Displacement Velocity in a Resistance Training Machine

    PubMed Central

    Buscà, Bernat; Font, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the validity of a new system for assessing the displacement and average velocity within machine-based resistance training exercise using the Chronojump System. The new design is based on a contact bar and a simple, low-cost mechanism that detects the conductivity of electrical potentials with a precision chronograph. This system allows coaches to assess velocity to control the strength training process. A validation study was performed by assessing the concentric phase parameters of a leg press exercise. Output time data from the Chronojump System in combination with the pre-established range of movement was compared with data from a position sensor connected to a Biopac System. A subset of 87 actions from 11 professional tennis players was recorded and, using the two methods, average velocity and displacement variables in the same action were compared. A t-test for dependent samples and a correlation analysis were undertaken. The r value derived from the correlation between the Biopac System and the contact Chronojump System was >0.94 for all measures of displacement and velocity on all loads (p < 0.01). The Effect Size (ES) was 0.18 in displacement and 0.14 in velocity and ranged from 0.09 to 0.31 and from 0.07 to 0.34, respectively. The magnitude of the difference between the two methods in all parameters and the correlation values provided certain evidence of validity of the Chronojump System to assess the average displacement velocity of loads in a resistance training machine. Key points The assessment of speed in resistance machines is a valuable source of information for strength training. Many commercial systems used to assess velocity, power and force are expensive thereby preventing widespread use by coaches and athletes. The system is intended to be a low-cost device for assessing and controlling the velocity exerted on each repetition in any resistance training machine. The system could be easily adapted in any vertical

  3. A low-cost contact system to assess load displacement velocity in a resistance training machine.

    PubMed

    Buscà, Bernat; Font, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the validity of a new system for assessing the displacement and average velocity within machine-based resistance training exercise using the Chronojump System. The new design is based on a contact bar and a simple, low-cost mechanism that detects the conductivity of electrical potentials with a precision chronograph. This system allows coaches to assess velocity to control the strength training process. A validation study was performed by assessing the concentric phase parameters of a leg press exercise. Output time data from the Chronojump System in combination with the pre-established range of movement was compared with data from a position sensor connected to a Biopac System. A subset of 87 actions from 11 professional tennis players was recorded and, using the two methods, average velocity and displacement variables in the same action were compared. A t-test for dependent samples and a correlation analysis were undertaken. The r value derived from the correlation between the Biopac System and the contact Chronojump System was >0.94 for all measures of displacement and velocity on all loads (p < 0.01). The Effect Size (ES) was 0.18 in displacement and 0.14 in velocity and ranged from 0.09 to 0.31 and from 0.07 to 0.34, respectively. The magnitude of the difference between the two methods in all parameters and the correlation values provided certain evidence of validity of the Chronojump System to assess the average displacement velocity of loads in a resistance training machine. Key pointsThe assessment of speed in resistance machines is a valuable source of information for strength training.Many commercial systems used to assess velocity, power and force are expensive thereby preventing widespread use by coaches and athletes.The system is intended to be a low-cost device for assessing and controlling the velocity exerted on each repetition in any resistance training machine.The system could be easily adapted in any vertical

  4. An affordable wearable video system for emergency response training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King-Smith, Deen; Mikkilineni, Aravind; Ebert, David; Collins, Timothy; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Many emergency response units are currently faced with restrictive budgets that prohibit their use of advanced technology-based training solutions. Our work focuses on creating an affordable, mobile, state-of-the-art emergency response training solution through the integration of low-cost, commercially available products. The system we have developed consists of tracking, audio, and video capability, coupled with other sensors that can all be viewed through a unified visualization system. In this paper we focus on the video sub-system which helps provide real time tracking and video feeds from the training environment through a system of wearable and stationary cameras. These two camera systems interface with a management system that handles storage and indexing of the video during and after training exercises. The wearable systems enable the command center to have live video and tracking information for each trainee in the exercise. The stationary camera systems provide a fixed point of reference for viewing action during the exercise and consist of a small Linux based portable computer and mountable camera. The video management system consists of a server and database which work in tandem with a visualization application to provide real-time and after action review capability to the training system.

  5. SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lostetter, Alexander; Franks, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The term "SiC MCPMs" (wherein "MCPM" signifies "multi-chip power module") denotes electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power devices and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking. Moreover, the higher-temperature capabilities of SiC MCPMs could enable operation in environments hotter than Si-based power systems can withstand. The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules. In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them perform additional power-handling functions as needed for specific applications: typical functions could include regulating voltages, storing energy, and driving motors. Because identical SiC MCPM building blocks could be utilized in a variety of ways, the cost

  6. Prioritizing Training To Maximize Results: The 3 Box System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Considers fundamentals of effective training and focuses on the evaluation of training. Describes the 3 Box System, which provides a framework for discussing: (1) basic training needs and priorities; (2) added value training, including ROI (return on investment); evaluation; and (3) prioritizing training budgets. (LRW)

  7. Photovoltaic Power System and Power Distribution Demonstration for the Desert RATS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Jakupca, Ian; Mintz, Toby; Herlacher, Mike; Hussey, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A stand alone, mobile photovoltaic power system along with a cable deployment system was designed and constructed to take part in the Desert Research And Technology Studies (RATS) lunar surface human interaction evaluation program at Cinder Lake, Arizona. The power system consisted of a photovoltaic array/battery system. It is capable of providing 1 kW of electrical power. The system outputs were 48 V DC, 110 V AC, and 220 V AC. A cable reel with 200 m of power cable was used to provide power from the trailer to a remote location. The cable reel was installed on a small trailer. The reel was powered to provide low to no tension deployment of the cable. The cable was connected to the 220 V AC output of the power system trailer. The power was then converted back to 110 V AC on the cable deployment trailer for use at the remote site. The Scout lunar rover demonstration vehicle was used to tow the cable trailer and deploy the power cable. This deployment was performed under a number of operational scenarios, manned operation, remote operation and tele-robotically. Once deployed, the cable was used to provide power, from the power system trailer, to run various operational tasks at the remote location.

  8. Autonomous Power System intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  9. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  10. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F Suppresses Angiotensinogen Gene Expression and Attenuates Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao Ling; Chan, John S.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) overexpression on angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury in high-glucose milieu both in vivo and in vitro. Diabetic Akita transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs were created, and the effects on systemic hypertension, Agt gene expression, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were studied. We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs stably transfected with control plasmid or plasmid containing hnRNP F cDNA in vitro. The results showed that hnRNP F overexpression attenuated systemic hypertension, suppressed Agt and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene expression, and reduced urinary Agt and angiotensin II levels, renal hypertrophy, and glomerulotubular fibrosis in Akita hnRNP F-Tg mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression prevented the high-glucose stimulation of Agt and TGF-β1 mRNA expression and cellular hypertrophy in RPTCs. These data suggest that hnRNP F plays a modulatory role and can ameliorate hypertension, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis in diabetes. The underlying mechanism is mediated, at least in part, via the suppression of intrarenal Agt gene expression in vivo. hnRNP F may be a potential target in the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22664958

  11. Improved GART neural network model for pattern classification and rule extraction with application to power systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Keem Siah; Lim, Chee Peng; Au, Mau Teng

    2011-12-01

    Generalized adaptive resonance theory (GART) is a neural network model that is capable of online learning and is effective in tackling pattern classification tasks. In this paper, we propose an improved GART model (IGART), and demonstrate its applicability to power systems. IGART enhances the dynamics of GART in several aspects, which include the use of the Laplacian likelihood function, a new vigilance function, a new match-tracking mechanism, an ordering algorithm for determining the sequence of training data, and a rule extraction capability to elicit if-then rules from the network. To assess the effectiveness of IGART and to compare its performances with those from other methods, three datasets that are related to power systems are employed. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of IGART with the rule extraction capability in undertaking classification problems in power systems engineering.

  12. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  13. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  14. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  15. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, Harold

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  16. Effects of in-competitive season power-oriented and heavy resistance lower-body training on performance of elite female water polo players.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Rafael R; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Feito, Javier; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effect of 16 weeks of lower-body resistance and power-oriented training on key performance measures of elite female water polo players. Twenty-one players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (C) who did in-water training only and a lower body strength (LBS) group, who performed resistance (full squat and split squat) and jump and power-oriented lower-body training (countermovement jump [CMJ] loaded and CMJ) sessions (twice per week) in addition to the same in-water training. In-water training was conducted 5 days per week for a total of 16 weeks. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim (MSS), lower-body strength during 1 repetition maximum (1RM) full squat (FS), in-water boost and CMJ, and Throwing speed (ThS) were measured before and after the training. Pretraining results showed no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. After 16 weeks, no statistically significant improvement was found in any of the variables measured in the C group, however, significant improvement was found in the LBS group: in-water boost (4.6 cm, 12.02%, effect size [ES] = 1.02), CMJ (2.4 cm, 8.66%, ES = 0.85), FS (12.7 kg, 20.99%, ES = 2.41), and ThS (3.4 km·h, 6.86%, ES = 3.44). Lower-body resistance and power-oriented training in female water polo players for 16 weeks produced significant improvements in performance qualities highly specific to water polo performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for female water polo players to include resistance and power-oriented training during the competitive season in this sport.

  17. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  18. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  19. Infrastructure for deployment of power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary effort in characterizing the types of stationary lunar power systems which may be considered for emplacement on the lunar surface from the proposed initial 100-kW unit in 2003 to later units ranging in power from 25 to 825 kW is presented. Associated with these power systems are their related infrastructure hardware including: (1) electrical cable, wiring, switchgear, and converters; (2) deployable radiator panels; (3) deployable photovoltaic (PV) panels; (4) heat transfer fluid piping and connection joints; (5) power system instrumentation and control equipment; and (6) interface hardware between lunar surface construction/maintenance equipment and power system. This report: (1) presents estimates of the mass and volumes associated with these power systems and their related infrastructure hardware; (2) provides task breakdown description for emplacing this equipment; (3) gives estimated heat, forces, torques, and alignment tolerances for equipment assembly; and (4) provides other important equipment/machinery requirements where applicable. Packaging options for this equipment will be discussed along with necessary site preparation requirements. Design and analysis issues associated with the final emplacement of this power system hardware are also described.

  20. Development of an intelligent surgical training system for Thoracentesis.

    PubMed

    Nakawala, Hirenkumar; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Surgical training improves patient care, helps to reduce surgical risks, increases surgeon's confidence, and thus enhances overall patient safety. Current surgical training systems are more focused on developing technical skills, e.g. dexterity, of the surgeons while lacking the aspects of context-awareness and intra-operative real-time guidance. Context-aware intelligent training systems interpret the current surgical situation and help surgeons to train on surgical tasks. As a prototypical scenario, we chose Thoracentesis procedure in this work. We designed the context-aware software framework using the surgical process model encompassing ontology and production rules, based on the procedure descriptions obtained through textbooks and interviews, and ontology-based and marker-based object recognition, where the system tracked and recognised surgical instruments and materials in surgeon's hands and recognised surgical instruments on the surgical stand. The ontology was validated using annotated surgical videos, where the system identified "Anaesthesia" and "Aspiration" phase with 100% relative frequency and "Penetration" phase with 65% relative frequency. The system tracked surgical swab and 50mL syringe with approximately 88.23% and 100% accuracy in surgeon's hands and recognised surgical instruments with approximately 90% accuracy on the surgical stand. Surgical workflow training with the proposed system showed equivalent results as the traditional mentor-based training regime, thus this work is a step forward a new tool for context awareness and decision-making during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of low-repetition and light-load power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Kanako; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    Age-related reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) is generally accelerated in women after menopause, and could be even more pronounced in individuals with sarcopenia. Light-load power training with a low number of repetitions would increase BMD, significantly reducing bone loss in individuals at risk of osteoporosis. This study investigated the effects of low-repetition, light-load power training on BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. The training group (n = 7) followed a progressive power training protocol that increased the load with a weighted vest, for two sessions per week, over the course of 6 weeks. The training exercise comprised five kinds of exercises (squats, front lunges, side lunges, calf raises, and toe raises), and each exercise contained eight sets of three repetitions with a 15-s rest between each set. The control group (n = 8) did not undergo any training intervention. We measured BMD, muscle strength, and anthropometric data. Within-group changes in pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength were significantly greater in the training group than the control group (p = 0.029 and 0.030 for pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength, respectively). After low-repetition, light-load power training, we noted improvements in pelvis BMD (1.6%) and knee extensor strength (15.5%). No significant within- or between-group differences were observed for anthropometric data or forearm BMD. Six weeks of low-repetition, light-load power training improved pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. Since this training program does not require high-load exercise and is therefore easily implementable as daily exercise, it could be an effective form of exercise for sedentary adults at risk for osteoporosis who are fearful of heavy loads and/or training that could cause fatigue. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network on 31 October 2016 ( UMIN000024651 ).

  2. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design,more » yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching

  3. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  4. Nanosat Intelligent Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Beaman, Robert G.; Mica, Joseph A.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rilee, Michael L.; Simm, David E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a class of satellites called nano-satellites. The technologies developed for these satellites will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections theme and will be of great benefit to other NASA enterprises. A major challenge for these missions is meeting significant scientific- objectives with limited onboard and ground-based resources. Total spacecraft power is limited by the small satellite size. Additionally, it is highly desirable to minimize operational costs by limiting the ground support required to manage the constellation. This paper will describe how these challenges are met in the design of the nanosat power system. We will address the factors considered and tradeoffs made in deriving the nanosat power system architecture. We will discuss how incorporating onboard fault detection and correction capability yields a robust spacecraft power bus without the mass and volume penalties incurred from redundant systems and describe how power system efficiency is maximized throughout the mission duration.

  5. Digital intelligent booster for DCC miniature train networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursu, M. P.; Condruz, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Modern miniature trains are now driven by means of the DCC (Digital Command and Control) system, which allows the human operator or a personal computer to launch commands to each individual train or even to control different features of the same train. The digital command station encodes these commands and sends them to the trains by means of electrical pulses via the rails of the railway network. Due to the development of the miniature railway network, it may happen that the power requirement of the increasing number of digital locomotives, carriages and accessories exceeds the nominal output power of the digital command station. This digital intelligent booster relieves the digital command station from powering the entire railway network all by itself, and it automatically handles the multiple powered sections of the network. This electronic device is also able to detect and process short-circuits and overload conditions, without the intervention of the digital command station.

  6. A Deep Space Power System Option Based on Synergistic Power Conversion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2000-01-01

    Deep space science missions have typically used radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems. The RTG power system has proven itself to be a rugged and highly reliable power system over many missions, however the thermal-to-electric conversion technology used was approximately 5% efficient. While the relatively low efficiency has some benefits in terms of system integration, there are compelling reasons why a more efficient conversion system should be pursued. The cost savings alone that are available as a result of the reduced isotope inventory are significant. The Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) project was established to fulfill this goal. Although it was not part of the ARPS project, Stirling conversion technology is being demonstrated with a low level of funding by both NASA and DOE. A power system with Stirling convertors. although intended for use with an isotope heat source. can be combined with other advanced technologies to provide a novel power system for deep space missions. An inflatable primary concentrator would be used in combination with a refractive secondary concentrator (RSC) as the heat source to power the system. The inflatable technology as a structure has made great progress for a variety of potential applications such as communications reflectors, radiators and solar arrays. The RSC has been pursued for use in solar thermal propulsion applications, and it's unique properties allow some advantageous system trades to be made. The power system proposed would completely eliminate the isotope heat source and could potentially provide power for science missions to planets as distant as Uranus. This paper will present the background and developmental status of the technologies and will then describe the power system being proposed.

  7. Wind Systems for Pumping Water: A Training Manual. No. T-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenbach, Willis

    This document was prepared as a training manual for people interested in developing appropriate technological approaches to using wind power to pump water. The training program is divided into two basic formats, one in which a session focuses on the design process and participants are expected to do some design work in groups, and another which…

  8. 78 FR 5767 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... [Docket No. FRA-2011-0061, Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC32 Positive Train Control Systems (RRR) AGENCY... positive train control (PTC) systems. The present document clarifies FRA's responses to several elements of... control by signal indication or mandatory directive; that the movement of non-PTC equipped locomotives and...

  9. Power and Energy Systems Technology Program. Research Series No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakenson, Harvey

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a training program and materials for power plant training in North Dakota. The project utilized four separate instructional units and four separate enrollment times with eight students enrolling in each phase to a maximum of thirty-two students. The course that resulted from the project is…

  10. Short-term effects on lower-body functional power development: weightlifting vs. vertical jump training programs.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, Valmor; Lamas, Leonardo; Carnevale, Roberto; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Among sport conditioning coaches, there is considerable discussion regarding the efficiency of training methods that improve lower-body power. Heavy resistance training combined with vertical jump (VJ) training is a well-established training method; however, there is a lack of information about its combination with Olympic weightlifting (WL) exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the short-term effects of heavy resistance training combined with either the VJ or WL program. Thirty-two young men were assigned to 3 groups: WL = 12, VJ = 12, and control = 8. These 32 men participated in an 8-week training study. The WL training program consisted of 3 x 6RM high pull, 4 x 4RM power clean, and 4 x 4RM clean and jerk. The VJ training program consisted of 6 x 4 double-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 alternated single-leg hurdle hops, 4 x 4 single-leg hurdle hops, and 4 x 4 40-cm drop jumps. Additionally, both groups performed 4 x 6RM half-squat exercises. Training volume was increased after 4 weeks. Pretesting and posttesting consisted of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, 10- and 30-m sprint speeds, an agility test, a half-squat 1RM, and a clean-and-jerk 1RM (only for WL). The WL program significantly increased the 10-m sprint speed (p < 0.05). Both groups, WL and VJ, increased CMJ (p < 0.05), but groups using the WL program increased more than those using the VJ program. On the other hand, the group using the VJ program increased its 1RM half-squat strength more than the WL group (47.8 and 43.7%, respectively). Only the WL group improved in the SJ (9.5%). There were no significant changes in the control group. In conclusion, Olympic WL exercises seemed to produce broader performance improvements than VJ exercises in physically active subjects.

  11. A low power on-chip class-E power amplifier for remotely powered implantable sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ture, Kerim; Kilinc, Enver G.; Dehollain, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a low power fully integrated class-E power amplifier and its integration with remotely powered sensor system. The class-E power amplifier is suitable solution for low-power applications due to its high power efficiency. However, the required high inductance values which make the on-chip integration of the power amplifier difficult. The designed power amplifier is fully integrated in the remotely powered sensor system and fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. The power is transferred to the implantable sensor system at 13.56 MHz by using an inductively coupled remote powering link. The induced AC voltage on the implant coil is converted into a DC voltage by a passive full-wave rectifier. A voltage regulator is used to suppress the ripples and create a clean and stable 1.8 V supply voltage for the sensor and communication blocks. The data collected from the sensors is transmitted by on-off keying modulated low-power transmitter at 1.2 GHz frequency. The transmitter is composed of a LC tank oscillator and a fully on-chip class-E power amplifier. An additional output network is used for the power amplifier which makes the integration of the power amplifier fully on-chip. The integrated power amplifier with 0.2 V supply voltage has a drain efficiency of 31.5% at -10 dBm output power for 50 Ω load. The measurement results verify the functionality of the power amplifier and the remotely powered implantable sensor system. The data communication is also verified by using a commercial 50 Ω chip antenna and has 600 kbps data rate at 1 m communication distance.

  12. Angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism associates with exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    McCole, Steve D; Brown, Michael D; Moore, Geoffrey E; Ferrell, Robert E; Wilund, Kenneth R; Huberty, Andrea; Douglass, Larry W; Hagberg, James M

    2002-08-14

    We sought to determine whether the M235T angiotensinogen (AGT) polymorphism, either interacting with habitual physical activity (PA) levels or independently, was associated with cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics during maximal and submaximal exercise. Sixty-one healthy postmenopausal women (16 sedentary, 21 physically active, and 24 endurance athletes) had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cardiac output, stroke volume (SV), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2) assessed during 40, 60, 80, and approximately 100% of VO2 max treadmill exercise. VO2 max did not differ among AGT genotype groups; however, maximal HR was 14 beats/min higher in AGT TT than MM genotype women (P < 0.05). AGT TT genotype women also had 19 beats/min higher HR during approximately 100% VO2 max exercise than AGT MM genotype women (P = 0.008). AGT genotype also interacted with habitual PA levels to associate with systolic BP and a-vDO2 during approximately 100% VO2 max exercise (both P < 0.01). AGT TT genotype women had 11 beats/min higher HR during submaximal exercise than MM genotype women (P < 0.05). AGT genotype interacted with habitual PA levels to associate with systolic BP during submaximal exercise (P = 0.009). AGT genotype, independently or interacting with habitual PA levels, did not associate significantly with diastolic BP, cardiac output, SV, or TPR during maximal or submaximal exercise. Thus this common genetic variant in the renin-angiotensin system appears to associate, both interactively with habitual PA levels and independently, with HR, systolic BP, and a-vDO2 responses to maximal and submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women.

  13. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  14. Electrical power systems for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-05-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  15. Vitamin D receptor deficit induces activation of renin angiotensin system via SIRT1 modulation in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Nirupama; Ayasolla, Kamesh; Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Haque, Shabirul; Saleem, Moin A; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficient status has been shown to be associated with the activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS). We hypothesized that lack of VDR would enhance p53 expression in podocytes through down regulation of SIRT1; the former would enhance the transcription of angiotensinogen (Agt) and angiotensinogen II type 1 receptor (AT1R) leading to the activation of RAS. Renal tissues of VDR mutant (M) mice displayed increased expression of p53, Agt, renin, and AT1R. In vitro studies, VDR knockout podocytes not only displayed up regulation p53 but also displayed enhanced expression of Agt, renin and AT1R. VDR deficient podocytes also displayed an increase in mRNA expression for p53, Agt, renin, and AT1R. Interestingly, renal tissues of VDR-M as well as VDR heterozygous (h) mice displayed attenuated expression of deacetylase SIRT1. Renal tissues of VDR-M mice showed acetylation of p53 at lysine (K) 382 residues inferring that enhanced p53 expression in renal tissues could be the result of ongoing acetylation, a consequence of SIRT1 deficient state. Notably, podocytes lacking SIRT1 not only showed acetylation of p53 at lysine (K) 382 residues but also displayed enhanced p53 expression. Either silencing of SIRT1/VDR or treatment with high glucose enhanced podocyte PPAR-y expression, whereas, immunoprecipitation (IP) of their lysates with anti-retinoid X receptor (RXR) antibody revealed presence of PPAR-y. It appears that either the deficit of SIRT1 has de-repressed expression of PPAR-y or enhanced podocyte expression of PPAR-y (in the absence of VDR) has contributed to the down regulation of SIRT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The three R's of training: Recording, Retaining, and Reporting - The training management system that synergizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, Dick D.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center employs a Training and Certification Record System (TCRS) which tracks and maintains records for each of its employees, encompassing all aspects of training history: training courses, physical examinations, proficiency tests, on-the-job training, standboards, and certifications with completions and expiration dates. TCRS, which is fully automated, includes an expiration-alert notification capability to project recurring expirations, thereby functioning as a forecasting tool for training budgets.

  17. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  18. AC power system breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wappes, Loran J.; Sundberg, R.; Mildice, J.; Peterson, D.; Hushing, S.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a high-frequency (20-kHz) Power System Breadboard which would electrically approximate a pair of dual redundant power channels of an IOC Space Station. This report describes that program, including the technical background, and discusses the results, showing that the major assumptions about the characteristics of this class of hardware (size, mass, efficiency, control, etc.) were substantially correct. This testbed equipment has been completed and delivered to LeRC, where it is operating as a part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility.

  19. Change in power output across a high-repetition set of bench throws and jump squats in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2007-11-01

    Athletes experienced in maximal-power and power-endurance training performed 1 set of 2 common power training exercises in an effort to determine the effects of moderately high repetitions upon power output levels throughout the set. Twenty-four and 15 athletes, respectively, performed a set of 10 repetitions in both the bench throw (BT P60) and jump squat exercise (JS P60) with a resistance of 60 kg. For both exercises, power output was highest on either the second (JS P60) or the third repetition (BT P60) and was then maintained until the fifth repetition. Significant declines in power output occurred from the sixth repetition onwards until the 10th repetition (11.2% for BT P60 and 5% for JS P60 by the 10th repetition). These findings suggest that athletes attempting to increase maximal power limit their repetitions to 2 to 5 when using resistances of 35 to 45% 1RM in these exercises.

  20. Heatpipe space power and propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses two fission-powered concepts: the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) that provides power only, and the Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS) that provides both power and thermal propulsion. Both concepts have 10 important features. First, only existing technology and recently tested fuel forms are used. Second, fuel can be removed whenever desired, greatly facilitating system fabrication and handling. Third, full electrically heated system testing is possible, with minimal operations required to replace the heaters with fuel and ready the system for launch. Fourth, the systemsmore » are passively subcritical during launch accidents. Fifth, a modular approach is used, and most technical issues can be resolved with inexpensive module tests. Sixth, bonds between dissimilar metals are minimized. Seventh, there are no single point failures during power mode operation. Eighth, fuel burnup rate is quite low to help ensure greater than 10-year system life. Ninth, there are no pumped coolant loops, and the systems can be shut down and restarted without coolant freeze/thaw concerns. Finally, a full ground nuclear test is not needed, and development costs will be low. The baseline HPS uses SNAP-10A-style thermoelectric power converters to produce 5 kWe at a system mass of about 500 kg. The unicouple thermoelectric converters have a hot shoe temperature of 1275 K and reject waste heat at 775 K. This type of thermoelectric converter has been used extensively by the space program, demonstrating an operational lifetime of decades. At higher thermal power, the same core can produce over 10 kWe using thermoelectric converters, and over 50 kWe using advanced power conversion systems.« less