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Sample records for agt power-train system

  1. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E. G.

    1982-01-01

    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  2. Availability Simulation of AGT Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-02-01

    The report discusses the analytical and simulation procedures that were used to evaluate the effects of failure in a complex dual mode transportation system based on a worst case study-state condition. The computed results are an availability figure ...

  3. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT): Power-train system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.; Smith, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine is described. The general effort was concentrated on building an engine for test starting in July. The buildup progressed with only routine problems and the engine was delivered to the test stand 9 July. In addition to the engine build effort, work continued in selected component areas. Ceramic turbine parts were built and tested. Burst tests of ceramic rotors show strengths are approaching that achieved in test bars; proof testing is required for acceptable strength ceramic vanes. Over 25 hours was accumulated on the combustor rig in three test modes: pilot nozzle only, start nozzle, and main nozzle operation. Satisfactory ignition was achieved for a wide range of starting speeds and the lean blowout limit was as low as 0.06 kg/b (0.14 lb/hr). Lean blowout was more a function of nozzle atomization than fuel/air ratio. A variety of cycle points were tested. Transition from start nozzle flow to main nozzle flow was done manually without difficulty. Regenerator parts were qualification tested without incident and the parts were assembled on schedule. Rig based performance matched first build requirements. Repeated failures in the harmonic drive gearbox during rig testing resulted in that concept being abandoned for an alternate scheme.

  6. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems - Classification and Definition of AGT Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-02-01

    The report describes the development of an AGT classification structure. Five classes are defined based on three system characteristics: service type, minimum travelling unit capacity, and maximum operating velocity. The five classes defined are: Per...

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

  8. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Quantitative Analysis of Alternative AGT Operational Control Strategies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-10-01

    The objectives of the Systems Operation Studies (SOS) for automated guideway transit (AGT) systems are to develop models for the analysis of system operations, to evaluate performance and cost, and to establish guidelines for the design and operation...

  9. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Representative Application Areas for AGT

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of the Application Area Definition task is to define the travel demands and guideway networks for a set of representative AGT system deployments. These demands and networks, when combined with detailed descriptions of the systems and thei...

  10. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

  11. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

  12. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Compressor development, turbine, combustion, regenerator system, gearbox/transmission, ceramic material and component development, foil gas bearings, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics development, and controls and accessories are discussed.

  14. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary layouts were made for the exhaust system, air induction system, and battery installation. Points of interference were identified and resolved by altering either the vehicle or engine designs. An engine general arrangement evolved to meet the vehicle engine compartment constraints while minimizing the duct pressure losses and the heat rejection. A power transfer system (between gasifier and power turbines) was developed to maintain nearly constant temperatures throughout the entire range of engine operation. An advanced four speed automatic transmission was selected to be used with the engine. Performance calculations show improvements in component efficiencies and an increase in fuel economy. A single stage centrifugal compressor design was completed and released for procurement. Gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, generator, secondary systems, materials, controls, and transmission development are reported.

  15. Extended System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Procedure for the Analysis of Representative AGT Deployments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a general procedure for using the SOS software to analyze AGT systems. Data to aid the analyst in specifying input information, required as input to the software, are summarized in the appendices. The data are...

  16. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system initial development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The powertrain consists of a single shaft regenerated gas turbine engine utilizing ceramic hot section components, coupled to a slit differential gearbox with an available variable stator torque converter and an available Ford intergral overdrive four-speed automatic transmission. Predicted fuel economy using gasoline fuel over the combined federal driving cycle (CFDC) is 15.3 km/1, which represents a 59% improvement over the spark-ignition-powered baseline vehicle. Using DF2 fuel, CFDC mileage estimates are 17.43 km/1. Zero to 96.6 km/hr acceleration time is 11.9 seconds with a four-second accleration distance of 21.0 m. The ceramic radial turbine rotor is discussed along with the control system for the powertrain.

  18. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  19. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  20. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  1. AGT/ℤ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Bruno; Turiaci, Gustavo J.

    2017-12-01

    We relate Liouville/Toda CFT correlators on Riemann surfaces with boundaries and cross-cap states to supersymmetric observables in four-dimensional N=2 gauge theories. Our construction naturally involves four-dimensional theories with fields defined on different ℤ2 quotients of the sphere (hemisphere and projective space) but nevertheless interacting with each other. The six-dimensional origin is a ℤ2 quotient of the setup giving rise to the usual AGT correspondence. To test the correspondence, we work out the ℝℙ4 partition function of four-dimensional N=2 theories by combining a 3d lens space and a 4d hemisphere partition functions. The same technique reproduces known ℝℙ2 partition functions in a form that lets us easily check two-dimensional Seiberg-like dualities on this nonorientable space. As a bonus we work out boundary and cross-cap wavefunctions in Toda CFT.

  2. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  3. Analysis of Polymorphism of Angiotensin System Genes (ACE, AGTR1, and AGT) and Gene ITGB3 in Patients with Arterial Hypertension in Combination with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zotova, T Yu; Kubanova, A P; Azova, M M; Aissa, A Ait; Gigani, O O; Frolov, V A

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the frequencies of genotypes and mutant alleles of ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and ITGB3 genes were analyzed in patients with arterial hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (N=15) and compared with population data and corresponding parameters in patients with isolated hypertension (N=15). Increased frequency of genotype ID of ACE gene (hypertension predictor) was confirmed for both groups. In case of isolated hypertension, M235M genotype (gene AGT) was more frequent, in case of hypertension combined with metabolic syndrome, the frequency of genotypes A1166C and C1166C of the gene AGTR1 was higher in comparison with population data. Comparison of mutant allele frequencies in the two groups showed that at the 90% significance level allele T of the AGT gene was more frequent in hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.26) and genotype A1166A of the AGTR1 gene was more frequent in the group with isolated hypertension.

  4. A system-level mathematical model for evaluation of power train performance of load-leveled electric-vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purohit, G. P.; Leising, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The power train performance of load leveled electric vehicles can be compared with that of nonload leveled systems by use of a simple mathematical model. This method of measurement involves a number of parameters including the degree of load leveling and regeneration, the flywheel mechanical to electrical energy fraction, and efficiencies of the motor, generator, flywheel, and transmission. Basic efficiency terms are defined and representative comparisons of a variety of systems are presented. Results of the study indicate that mechanical transfer of energy into and out of the flywheel is more advantageous than electrical transfer. An optimum degree of load leveling may be achieved in terms of the driving cycle, battery characteristics, mode of mechanization, and the efficiency of the components. For state of the art mechanically coupled flyheel systems, load leveling losses can be held to a reasonable 10%; electrically coupled systems can have losses that are up to six times larger. Propulsion system efficiencies for mechanically coupled flywheel systems are predicted to be approximately the 60% achieved on conventional nonload leveled systems.

  5. Polymorphisms of three genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are not associated with blood pressure salt sensitivity: A systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Min; Miao, Song; Xi, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that polymorphisms of three key genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) play important roles in the development of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity, but they have revealed inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible published articles. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to pool odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals based on whether there was significant heterogeneity between studies. In total, seven studies [237 salt-sensitive (SS) cases and 251 salt-resistant (SR) controls] for ACE gene I/D polymorphism, three studies (130 SS cases and 221 SR controls) for AGT gene M235T polymorphism and three studies (113 SS cases and 218 SR controls) for CYP11B2 gene C344T polymorphism were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there was no significant association between polymorphisms of these three polymorphisms in the RAAS and BP salt sensitivity under three genetic models (all p > 0.05). The meta-analysis suggested that three polymorphisms (ACE gene I/D, AGT gene M235T, CYP11B2 gene C344T) in the RAAS have no significant effect on BP salt sensitivity.

  6. M-theoretic derivations of 4d-2d dualities: from a geometric Langlands duality for surfaces, to the AGT correspondence, to integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Meng-Chwan

    2013-07-01

    In part I, we extend our analysis in [arXiv:0807.1107], and show that a mathematically conjectured geometric Langlands duality for complex surfaces in [1], and its generalizations — which relate some cohomology of the moduli space of certain ("ramified") G-instantons to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of certain affine (sub) G-algebras, where G is any compact Lie group — can be derived, purely physically, from the principle that the spacetime BPS spectra of string-dual M-theory compactifications ought to be equivalent. In part II, to the setup in part I, we introduce Omega-deformation via fluxbranes and add half-BPS boundary defects via M9-branes, and show that the celebrated AGT correspondence in [2, 3], and its generalizations — which essentially relate, among other things, some equivariant cohomology of the moduli space of certain ("ramified") G-instantons to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of certain affine -algebras — can likewise be derived from the principle that the spacetime BPS spectra of string-dual M-theory compactifications ought to be equivalent. In part III, we consider various limits of our setup in part II, and connect our story to chiral fermions and integrable systems. Among other things, we derive the NekrasovOkounkov conjecture in [4] — which relates the topological string limit of the dual Nekrasov partition function for pure G to the integrable representations of the Langlands dual of an affine G-algebra — and also demonstrate that the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the "fullyramified" Nekrasov instanton partition function for pure G is a simultaneous eigenfunction of the quantum Toda Hamiltonians associated with the Langlands dual of an affine G-algebra. Via the case with matter, we also make contact with Hitchin systems and the "ramified" geometric Langlands correspondence for curves.

  7. AGT100 turbomachinery. [for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, D. L.; Mckain, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    High-performance turbomachinery components have been designed and tested for the AGT100 automotive engine. The required wide range of operation coupled with the small component size, compact packaging, and low cost of production provide significant aerodynamic challenges. Aerodynamic design and development testing of the centrifugal compressor and two radial turbines are described. The compressor achieved design flow, pressure ratio, and surge margin on the initial build. Variable inlet guide vanes have proven effective in modulating flow capacity and in improving part-speed efficiency. With optimum use of the variable inlet guide vanes, the initial efficiency goals have been demonstrated in the critical idle-to-70% gasifier speed range. The gasifier turbine exceeded initial performance goals and demonstrated good performance over a wide range. The radial power turbine achieved 'developed' efficiency goals on the first build.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  9. Association between ACE and AGT polymorphism and cardiovascular risk in acromegalic patients.

    PubMed

    Erbas, Tomris; Cinar, Nese; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Gedik, Arzu; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Ugur; Kabakci, Giray; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    Whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a role or not in the development of cardiovascular morbidity in acromegaly patients is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between ACE (I/D) and AGT (M235T) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in the acromegaly. The study included one hundred and seventeen acromegalic patients (62 F/55 M, age: 50.2 ± 12.3 years) and 106 healthy controls (92 F/14 M, age: 41.4 ± 11.3 years). PCR method was used to evaluate the prevalence of ACE and AGT genotype. The genotypes of ACE polymorphism in acromegalic patients were distributed as follows; 41.0% (n: 48) for DD, 44.4% (n: 52) for ID and 14.5% (n: 17) for II genotype. The control group had significantly different distribution of the ACE polymorphism [48.1% (n: 51) for DD, 25.5% (n: 27) for ID and 26.4% (n: 28) for II genotype]compared to acromegalic group. Regarding AGT polymorphism, AGT-MT genotype was seen in 88.9% of the acromegalic patients while MM and TT genotype (9.4% and 1.7%, respectively) were present in the rest. The controls had similar distribution of the AGT genotype with the acromegaly group (80.2% MT genotype, 15.1% MM genotype and 4.7% TT genotype). Due to the small number of patients with TT allele (n: 2), T carriers for AGT genotype (AGT-MT+TT) were subgrouped and compared to those with AGT-MM group. ACE-DD, ID and II groups had similar anthropometric measures, blood pressure values and baseline GH and IGF-1 levels. Significantly higher baseline GH levels were found in AGT-MM group compared to T allele carriers [40 (16-60) vs. 12 (5-36) µg/L, p < 0.05]. The compared groups in both polymorphisms had similar fasting plasma glucose levels. Patients with ACE-II genotype had significantly higher HDL-C levels compared to those with ACE-DD and ACE-ID polymorphisms (p < 0.05) whereas there was no significant difference in lipid profile between AGT-MM group and AGT-T allele carriers

  10. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  11. Comparison of different vehicle power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizsey, Peter; Newson, Esmond

    Four different alternatives of mobile power train developments (hybrid diesel, fuel cell operating with hydrogen produced on a petrochemical basis, methanol reformer-fuel cell system, gasoline reformer-fuel cell system), are compared with the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE), for well-to-wheel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions, and investment costs. Although the ICE requires the lowest investment cost, it is not competitive in well-to-wheel efficiencies and less favourable than the above alternatives for CO 2 emissions. The hybrid diesel power train has the highest well-to-wheel efficiency (30%), but its well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission is similar to that of the fuel cell power train operated with compressed hydrogen produced on a centralised petrochemical basis. This latter case, however, has the advantage over the hybrid diesel power train that the carbon dioxide emission is concentrated and easier to control than the several point-like sources of emissions. Among the five cases studied only the on-board reforming of methanol offers the possibility of using a renewable energy source (biomass).

  12. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  13. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  14. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Engine testing, ceramic component fabrication and evaluation, component performance rig testing, and producibility experiments at Pontiac comprised AGT 100 activities of this period, January to December 1984. Two experimental engines were available and allowed the evaluation of eight experimental assemblies. Operating time accumulated was 115 hr of burning and 156 hr total. Total cumulative engine operating time is now 225 hr. Build number 11 and 12 of engine S/N 1 totaled 28 burning hours and constituted a single assembly of the engine core--the compressor, both turbines, and the gearbox. Build number 11 of engine S/N 1 included a 1:07 hr continuous test at 100% gasifier speed (86,000 rpm). Build number 8 of engine S/N 2 was the first engine test with a ceramic turbine rotor. A mechanical loss test of an engine assembly revealed the actual losses to be near the original design allowance. Component development activity included rig testing of the compressor, combustor, and regenerator. Compressor testing was initiated on a rig modified to control the transfer of heat between flow path, lubricating oil, and structure. Results show successful thermal decoupling of the rig and lubricating/cooling oil. Rig evaluation of a reduced-friction compressor was initiated. Combustor testing covered qualification of ceramic parts for engine use, mapping of operating range limits, and evaluation of a relocated igniter plug. Several seal refinements were tested on the hot regenerator rig. An alternate regenerator disk, extruded MAS, was examined and found to be currently inadequate for the AGT 100 application. Also, a new technique for measuring leakage was explored on the regenerator rig. Ceramic component activity has focused on the development of state-of-the-art material strength characteristics in full-scale hardware. Injection-molded sintered alpha-SiC rotors were produced at Carborundum in an extensive process and tool optimization study.

  15. Genetic variants of ACE (Insertion/Deletion) and AGT (M268T) genes in patients with diabetes and nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rozeena; Shahid, Syed M; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad; Azhar, Abid

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been a growing epidemic worldwide and poses a major socio-economic challenge. The leading cause of DM death is nephropathy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aims to identify the possible association of I/D variants of the ACE gene and M268T (rs699) of the AGT gene of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Study subjects include 115 patients with DM, 110 with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and 110 controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and PCR amplification of specific regions of the ACE and AGT genes using primers. The distribution of ACE (I/D) II 28.8%, ID 35.6% and DD 35.6% while in DN II 24.5%, ID 41% and DD 34.5%. The AGT (M268T) genotypes were distributed in DM as TT 30.4%, MT 66.9% and MM 2.6% while in DN subjects TT 56.4%, MT 42.7% and MM 0.9%. Significant differences were observed in the DD genotype and D allele of the ACE gene and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT genes between diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. The study may conclude that the D allele polymorphism in the ACE gene and the T allele polymorphism in AGT gene may be considered as genetic risk factors for the development of nephropathy in diabetes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engine testing, ceramic component fabrication and evaluation, component performance rig testing, and analytical studies comprised AGT 100 activities during the 1985 year. Ten experimental assemblies (builds) were evaluated using two engines. Accrued operating time was 120 hr of burning and 170 hr total, bringing cumulative total operating time to 395 hr, all devoid of major failures. Tests identified the generator seals as the primary working fluid leakage sources. Power transfer clutch operation was demonstrated. An alpha SiC gasifier rotor engine test resulted in blade tip failures. Recurring case vibration and shaft whip have limited gasifier shaft speeds to 84%. Ceramic components successfully engine tested now include the SiC scroll assembly, Si3N3 turbine rotor, combustor assembly, regenerator disk bulkhead, turbine vanes, piston rings, and couplings. A compressor shroud design change to reduce heat recirculation back to the inlet was executed. Ceramic components activity continues to focus on the development of state-of-the-art material strength characteristics in full-scale engine hardware. Fiber reinforced glass-ceramic composite turbine (inner) backplates were fabricated by Corning Glass Works. The BMAS/III material performed well in engine testing. Backplates of MAS material have not been engine tested.

  18. Component qualification and initial build of the AGT 100 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    In advance of initial dynamometer testing of the AGT 100 engine, all prime components and subsystems were bench/rig tested. Included were compressor, combustor, turbines, regenerator, ceramic components, and electronic control system. Results are briefly reviewed. Initial engine buildup was completed and rolled-out for test cell installation in July 1982. Shakedown testing included motoring and sequential firing of the combustor's three fuel nozzles.

  19. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Kaufeld, J.; Kordes, R.

    1981-01-01

    A 74.5 kW(100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine engine is described. A design iteration to improve the weight and production cost associated with the original concept is discussed. Major rig tests included 15 hours of compressor testing to 80% design speed and the results are presented. Approximately 150 hours of cold flow testing showed duct loss to be less than the design goal. Combustor test results are presented for initial checkout tests. Turbine design and rig fabrication is discussed. From a materials study of six methods to fabricate rotors, two have been selected for further effort. A discussion of all six methods is given.

  20. [Power training for patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Weisser, B; Richter, H; Siewers, M

    2006-11-23

    Nowadays, not only endurance training but also power training is recommended for patients with hypertension. In appropriately doses programs (no forced respiration), a number of studies have documented a blood pressure lowering effect. In the elderly hypertensive in particular, positive effects of power training that go beyond the simple lowering of elevated blood pressure may be expected.

  1. Power Trains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This power trains manual is one of a series of power mechanics for training in the servicing of transmissions, etc., on farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The ten chapters focus on (1) Power Trains: How They Work; (2)…

  2. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  3. The Thr505 and Ser557 residues of the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporter are critical for maltotriose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Smit, A; Moses, S G; Pretorius, I S; Cordero Otero, R R

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify amino acid residues in the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporter (Agt1p) that are critical for efficient transport of maltotriose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequences of two AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters with different efficiencies of maltotriose transport in two Saccharomyces strains (WH310 and WH314) were compared. The sequence variations and discrepancies between these two proteins (Agt1p(WH310) and Agt1p(WH314)) were investigated for potential effects on the functionality and maltotriose transport efficiency of these two AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters. A 23-amino-acid C-terminal truncation proved not to be critical for maltotriose affinity. The identification of three amino acid differences, which potentially could have been instrumental in the transportation of maltotriose, were further investigated. Single mutations were created to restore the point mutations I505T, V549A and T557S one by one. The single site mutant V549A showed a decrease in maltotriose transport ability, and the I505T and T557S mutants showed complete reduction in maltotriose transport. The amino acids Thr(505) and Ser(557), which are respectively located in the transmembrane (TM) segment TM(11) and on the intracellular segment after TM(12) of the AGT1-encoded alpha-glucoside transporters, are critical for efficient transport of maltotriose in S. cerevisiae. Improved fermentation of starch and its dextrin products, such as maltotriose and maltose, would benefit the brewing and whisky industries. This study could facilitate the development of engineered maltotriose transporters adapted to starch-efficient fermentation systems, and offers prospects for the development of yeast strains with improved maltose and maltotriose uptake capabilities that, in turn, could increase the overall fermentation efficiencies in the beer and whisky industries.

  4. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill atmore » the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.« less

  5. Urinary angiotensinogen as a potential biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity in Chinese chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Xu, B; Xu, C

    2015-06-01

    Urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) mainly derives from the AGT produced in proximal tubular cells. Evidence exists that supports the correlation between urinary AGT and circulating AGT. To investigate the role of urinary AGT as a potential biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity in Chinese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. ELISA-based method used to quantify urinary AGT. Analyzed the relationship between urinary AGT and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in 128 CKD patients. ELISA was applied to measure the urinary and plasma renin activity, AGT, Ang II and aldosterone. Furthermore expression levels of intrarenal renin, AGT, Ang II and Ang II receptor were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (IHCS) in 72 CKD patients undergoing renal biopsy. The logarithmic transformation Log(urinary AGT/UCre) levels showed a normal distribution. Therefore, Log(urinary AGT/UCre) levels were used for the analyses. Average urinary AGT was 2.02 ± 0.55 ng/(mg Cr). Hypertension, urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary type IV collagen (Col IV) positively correlated with urinary AGT. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary sodium and serum AGT negatively correlated with urinary AGT. Multiple regression analysis indicated that low serum AGT, high urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary Col IV correlated significantly with high urinary AGT. We observed positive correlation between urinary AGT and positive IHCS area of AGT, Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor in renal tissue. These data suggest that urinary AGT might be a potential biomarker of intrarenal Ang II activity in CKD patients.

  6. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project annual report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Carborundum Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. The Project is administered by Mr. Thomas N. Strom, Project Manager, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1984 through June 30, 1985.

  8. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  10. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  11. AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.

  12. The relationship between ACE/AGT gene polymorphisms and the risk of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Wang, Min; Pan, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Tian, Fang; Chen, Yin-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. We consecutively included 1491 patients for the assessment of ACE I/D and AGT M/T gene polymorphisms in 345 DR cases and 1146 patients without retinopathy (DNR). Albuminuria was defined by urine albumin creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate. Compared with the NDR patients, the DR cases displayed a higher proportion of diabetic nephropathy (32.68% vs. 6.52%, χ 2 = 150.713, p < 0.001). The DR cases and DNR individuals did not differ in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of ACE I/D and AGT M/T (all p > 0.05). Intriguingly, DR patients with obesity showed higher frequency of DD (χ 2 = 4.181, p = 0.041), but no significant difference exists in the other stratified BMI and hypertension analyses (all p > 0.05). Binary logistic regression displays that the association of the ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in DR patients is not significant after adjusting for confounding covariates in all the comparisons. The ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms are not associated with the progress of diabetes developing into retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, more investigations are needed to further prove the association.

  13. Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train features and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, R.; Benitez, P.; Zamora, P.; Miñano, J. C.; Mendes, J.; Cvetkovic, A.; Vilaplana, J.; Hernandez, M.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.

    2013-09-01

    Most CPV systems are based on Fresnel lenses. Among these, LPI-patented Fresnel-Köhler (FK) concentrator outstands owing to performance and practical reasons. The Ventana{trade mark, serif} power train is the first off-the-shelf commercial product based on the FK and comprises both the primary (POE) lenses (a 36-units 1×1 m2 acrylic panel) and glass (or silica glass) secondary optics (SOE). This high concentration optical train (Cg=1,024×, ˜250mm optical depth) fits with 5×5 mm2 (at least) solar cells. The optical train is the fruit of a 1-year development that has included design, modeling, prototyping and characterization, and through the process we had the opportunity to find out how well the actual performance correlates with models, but also learned practical aspects of a CPV system of this kind, some of which have very positive impact on system performance and reliability.

  14. [Aliskiren inhibits proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive mice in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Fan, Su-Jing; Li, Shu-Min; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Na

    2016-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of aliskiren on the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive (dTH) mice. The cultured CFs from AGT-REN dTH mice were divided into AGT-REN group (dTH) and aliskiren group (ALIS). Cultured CFs from C57B6 mice were served as control (WT). The effect of different concentration of aliskiren (1 × 10 -6 , 1 × 10 -7 , 1 × 10 -8 , 1 × 10 -9 mol/L) on CFs proliferation was determined by MTT assay. After treatment with 1 × 10 -7 mol/L aliskiren for 24 h, α-SMA, collagen I, III and NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice were detected by Western blot. The collagen synthesis in CFs was assessed by hydroxyproline kit. The expression of ROS was determined by DHE. Results showed that the blood pressure and plasma Ang II levels were significantly increased and CFs proliferation was significantly increased as well in AGT-REN dTH mice compared with WT group. However, aliskiren intervention decreased CFs proliferation, myofibroblast transformation, as well as the collagen I and III synthesis in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice. Meanwhile, aliskiren inhibited ROS content and NOX2/NOX4 protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice. These results suggest that aliskiren decreases the cell proliferation, myofibroblast transformation and collagen production in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice, which might be through inhibition of oxidative stress response.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  16. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Rotor dynamic instability investigations were conducted. Forward ball bearing hydraulic mount configurations were tested with little effect. Trial assembly of S/N 002 ceramic engine was initiated. Impeller design activities were completed on the straight line element (SLE) blade definition to address near-net-shape powder metal die forging. Performance characteristics of the Baseline Test 2A impeller were closely preserved. The modified blading design has been released for tooling procurement. Developmental testing of the diffusion flame combustor (DFC) for initial use in the S/N 002 2100 F ceramic structures engine was completed. A natural gas slave preheater was designed and fabricated. Preliminary regenerator static seal rig testing showed a significant reduction in leakage and sensitivity to stack height. Ceramic screening tests were completed and two complete sets of ceramic static structures were qualified for engine testing. Efforts on rotor dynamics development to resolve subsynchronous motion were continued.

  18. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  19. The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; ...

    2006-01-01

    Background . The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. Methods and results . A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt ( Agt -KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt/Agt -KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt ) was studied. Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt -KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. aP2- Agt mice exhibited increased adiposity andmore » plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also elevated in kidney of aP2- Agt mice. Conclusion . These findings demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  20. Experimental study of a fuel cell power train for road transport application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F. E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles requires the on-board integration of fuel cell systems and electric energy storage devices, with an appropriate energy management system. The optimization of performance and efficiency needs an experimental analysis of the power train, which has to be effected in both stationary and transient conditions (including standard driving cycles). In this paper experimental results concerning the performance of a fuel cell power train are reported and discussed. In particular characterization results for a small sized fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 2.5 kW PEM stack, alone and coupled to an electric propulsion chain of 3.7 kW are presented and discussed. The control unit of the FCS allowed the main stack operative parameters (stoichiometric ratio, hydrogen and air pressure, temperature) to be varied and regulated in order to obtain optimized polarization and efficiency curves. Experimental runs effected on the power train during standard driving cycles have allowed the performance and efficiency of the individual components (fuel cell stack and auxiliaries, dc-dc converter, traction batteries, electric engine) to be evaluated, evidencing the role of output current and voltage of the dc-dc converter in directing the energy flows within the propulsion system.

  1. A novel base change leading to Hb Vanderbilt [β89(F5)Ser→Arg, AGT>AGA].

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Matthew J; Elhassadi, Ezzat I; Percy, Melanie J; McMullin, Mary F

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb) variant (Hb Vanderbilt) as a result of a heterozygous novel base change from T to A at codon 89 (AGT>AGA) leading to an amino acid change from serine to arginine.

  2. AGT M235T and ACE ID polymorphisms and exercise blood pressure in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, T; Gagnon, J; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Rice, T; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and exercise training responses of resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). BP at rest and during submaximal (50 watts) and maximal exercise tests was measured before and after 20 wk of endurance training in 476 sedentary normotensive Caucasian subjects from 99 families. AGT M235T and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms were typed with PCR-based methods. Men carrying the AGT MM and MT genotypes showed 3. 7 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg reductions, respectively, in diastolic BP at 50 watts (DBP(50)), whereas, in the TT homozygotes, the decrease was 0.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.016 for trend, adjusted for age, body mass index, and baseline DBP(50)). Men with the ACE DD genotype showed a slightly greater decrease in DBP(50) (4.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg) than the II and ID genotypes (2.8 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.050). Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.022) interaction effect between the AGT and ACE genes was noted for DBP(50); the AGT TT homozygotes carrying the ACE D allele showed no response to training. Men with the AGT TT genotype had greater (P = 0.007) diastolic BP (DBP) response to acute maximal exercise at baseline. However, the difference disappeared after the training period. No associations were found in women. These data suggest that, in men, the genetic variation in the AGT locus modifies the responsiveness of submaximal exercise DBP to endurance training, and interactions between the AGT and ACE loci can alter this response.

  3. AGT Activity Towards Intrastrand Crosslinked DNA is Modulated by the Alkylene Linker.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Derek K; Wilds, Christopher J

    2017-12-05

    DNA oligomers containing dimethylene and trimethylene intrastrand crosslinks (IaCLs) between the O4 and O6 atoms of neighboring thymidine (T) and 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) residues were prepared by solid-phase synthesis. UV thermal denaturation (T m ) experiments revealed that these IaCLs had a destabilizing effect on the DNA duplex relative to the control. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested these IaCLs induced minimal structural distortions. Susceptibility to dealkylation by reaction with various O 6 -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferases (AGTs) from human and Escherichia coli was evaluated. It was revealed that only human AGT displayed activity towards the IaCL DNA, with reduced efficiency as the IaCL shortened (from four to two methylene linkages). Changing the site of attachment of the ethylene linkage at the 5'-end of the IaCL to the N3 atom of T had minimal influence on duplex stability and structure, and was refractory to AGT activity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Peroxisomal Alanine: Glyoxylate Aminotransferase AGT1 Is Indispensable for Appressorium Function of the Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2012-01-01

    The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)+pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD+ in peroxisomes

  5. Improved fermentation performance of a lager yeast after repair of its AGT1 maltose and maltotriose transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Huuskonen, Anne; Virtanen, Hannele; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2009-04-01

    The use of more concentrated, so-called high-gravity and very-high-gravity (VHG) brewer's worts for the manufacture of beer has economic and environmental advantages. However, many current strains of brewer's yeasts ferment VHG worts slowly and incompletely, leaving undesirably large amounts of maltose and especially maltotriose in the final beers. alpha-Glucosides are transported into Saccharomyces yeasts by several transporters, including Agt1, which is a good carrier of both maltose and maltotriose. The AGT1 genes of brewer's ale yeast strains encode functional transporters, but the AGT1 genes of the lager strains studied contain a premature stop codon and do not encode functional transporters. In the present work, one or more copies of the AGT1 gene of a lager strain were repaired with DNA sequence from an ale strain and put under the control of a constitutive promoter. Compared to the untransformed strain, the transformants with repaired AGT1 had higher maltose transport activity, especially after growth on glucose (which represses endogenous alpha-glucoside transporter genes) and higher ratios of maltotriose transport activity to maltose transport activity. They fermented VHG (24 degrees Plato) wort faster and more completely, producing beers containing more ethanol and less residual maltose and maltotriose. The growth and sedimentation behaviors of the transformants were similar to those of the untransformed strain, as were the profiles of yeast-derived volatile aroma compounds in the beers.

  6. AGT 1500 Powerpack Improvement Project (M1 TMEPS). Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    culminated in a one week evalUation of the ATR. This was due to funding and schedule constraints. Testing was concentrated on vehicle mobility performance...June 1990 with a one week vehicle demonstration at Milford Proving Grounds. The vehicle performed well but the mobility characteristics, most...all of the nonrecurring, recurring, engineering, data, system test and evaluation, and initial spares costs aplicable to each alternative. TMEPS as a

  7. Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems (Supplement IV)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-12-01

    By the end of 1982, automated guideway transit (AGT) systems will have carried over 500 million passengers since their first commercial operation of the Tampa International Airport in 1971. To keep abreast of the domestic use of AGT systems in the U....

  8. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  9. Molecular analysis of maltotriose active transport and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a determinant role for the AGT1 permease.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sergio L; Herberts, Ricardo A; Hollatz, Claudia; Trichez, Debora; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-03-01

    Incomplete and/or sluggish maltotriose fermentation causes both quality and economic problems in the ale-brewing industry. Although it has been proposed previously that the sugar uptake must be responsible for these undesirable phenotypes, there have been conflicting reports on whether all the known alpha-glucoside transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MALx1, AGT1, and MPH2 and MPH3 transporters) allow efficient maltotriose utilization by yeast cells. We characterized the kinetics of yeast cell growth, sugar consumption, and ethanol production during maltose or maltotriose utilization by several S. cerevisiae yeast strains (both MAL constitutive and MAL inducible) and by their isogenic counterparts with specific deletions of the AGT1 gene. Our results clearly showed that yeast strains carrying functional permeases encoded by the MAL21, MAL31, and/or MAL41 gene in their plasma membranes were unable to utilize maltotriose. While both high- and low-affinity transport activities were responsible for maltose uptake from the medium, in the case of maltotriose, the only low-affinity (K(m), 36 +/- 2 mM) transport activity was mediated by the AGT1 permease. In conclusion, the AGT1 transporter is required for efficient maltotriose fermentation by S. cerevisiae yeasts, highlighting the importance of this permease for breeding and/or selection programs aimed at improving sluggish maltotriose fermentations.

  10. Role of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to diabetes mellitus type 2 in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Wollinger, L M; Dal Bosco, S M; Rempe, C; Almeida, S E M; Berlese, D B; Castoldi, R P; Arndt, M E; Contini, V; Genro, J P

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the InDel polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the rs699 polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in a sample population from Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 228 patients with DM2 and 183 controls without DM2. The ACE InDel polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, followed by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. The AGT rs699 polymorphism was genotyped using a real-time PCR assay. No significant association between the ACE InDel polymorphism and DM2 was detected (P = 0.97). However, regarding the AGT rs699 polymorphism, DM2 patients had a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype and lower frequency of the GG genotype when compared to the controls (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that there is an association between the AGT rs699 polymorphism and DM2 in a Brazilian sample.

  11. Extended System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-02-01

    The objectives of the System Operations Studies (SOS) of the Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) program was to develop models for the analysis of system operations, to evaluate AGT system performance and cost, and to establish guidelines fo...

  12. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  13. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight..., applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant 1, including on... all workers of Chrysler LLC, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 & 2, Power Train Division, Detroit, Michigan...

  14. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-01-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training. Key points Aerobic dance provides sufficient training stimuli for the improvement of explosive power. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism is associated with individual variation in the change of power-related phenotypes in response to aerobic dance training. The C allele carriers of the AGT gene M235T polymorphism show greater improvements of jump

  15. Automated Guideway Transit System Passenger Security Guidebook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This uidebook provides AGT system planners, designers and operators with information on available crime countermeasures and their relative effectiveness against transit crime. : Crime countermeasures on current transit systems have been reviewed and ...

  16. Novel regulation of Skp1 by the Dictyostelium AgtA α-galactosyltransferase involves the Skp1-binding activity of its WD40 repeat domain.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Christopher M; Sheikh, M Osman; Zhang, Dongmei; West, Christopher M

    2014-03-28

    The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-α type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in α-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function.

  17. Novel Regulation of Skp1 by the Dictyostelium AgtA α-Galactosyltransferase Involves the Skp1-binding Activity of Its WD40 Repeat Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Christopher M.; Sheikh, M. Osman; Zhang, Dongmei; West, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-α type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in α-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function. PMID:24550398

  18. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key points Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks. In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance. The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant

  19. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    PubMed

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase

  20. Differential responses of EGFR-/AGT-expressing cells to the "combi-triazene" SMA41.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Stephanie L; McNamee, James P; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated enhanced potency associated with the binary [DNA/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)] targeting properties of SMA41 (a chimeric 3-(alkyl)-1,2,3-triazene linked to a 4-anilinoquinazoline backbone) in the A431 (epidermal carcinoma of the vulva) cell line. We now report on the dependence of its antiproliferative effects (e.g. DNA damage, cell survival) on the EGFR and the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) contents of 12 solid tumor cell lines, two of which, NIH3T3 and NIH3T3 HER14 (engineered to overexpress EGFR), were isogenic. Receptor type specificity was determined using ELISA for competitive binding, as well as growth factor-stimulation assays. DNA damage was studied using single-cell microelectrophoresis (comet) assays, and levels of EGFR were determined by Western blotting. The effects of SMA41 on the cell cycle of NIH3T3 cells were investigated using univariate flow cytometry. Studies of receptor type specificity showed that SMA41: (a) preferentially inhibited the kinase activity of EGFR over those of Src, insulin receptor and protein kinase C (PKC, a serine/threonine kinase), (b) induced stronger inhibition of growth stimulated with EGF than of growth stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Despite the EGFR specificity of SMA41, there was an absence of a linear correlation between the EGFR status of our solid tumor cell lines and levels of DNA damage induced by the alkylating component. Similarly, EGFR levels did not correlate with IC(50) values. The antiproliferative activities of SMA41 correlated more with the AGT status of these cells and paralleled those of the clinical triazene temozolomide (TEM). However, throughout the panel, tumor cell sensitivity to SMA41 was consistently stronger than to its closest analogue TEM. Experiments performed with the isogenic cells showed that SMA41 was capable of inducing twofold higher levels of DNA damage in the

  1. Use of blade pitch control to provide power train damping for the Mod-2, 2.5-mW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blissell, W. A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Control System for the Mod-2 wind turbine system is required to provide not only for startup, RPM regulation, maximizing or regulating power, and stopping the rotor, but also for load limiting, especially in the power train. Early operations with above-rated winds revealed an instability which was caused primarily by coupling between the quill shaft and the rotor air loads. This instability caused the first of several major Mod-2 Control System changes which are reviewed in the paper.

  2. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-12-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training.

  3. CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene-gene interactions in community-acquired pneumonia pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Smelaya, Tamara V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Rubanovich, Alexander V; Moroz, Viktor V

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to establish the possible contribution of functional gene polymorphisms in detoxification/oxidative stress and vascular remodeling pathways to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) susceptibility in the case-control study (350 CAP patients, 432 control subjects) and to predisposition to the development of CAP complications in the prospective study. All subjects were genotyped for 16 polymorphic variants in the 14 genes of xenobiotics detoxification CYP1A1, AhR, GSTM1, GSTT1, ABCB1, redox-status SOD2, CAT, GCLC, and vascular homeostasis ACE, AGT, AGTR1, NOS3, MTHFR, VEGFα. Risk of pulmonary complications (PC) in the single locus analysis was associated with CYP1A1, GCLC and AGTR1 genes. Extra PC (toxic shock syndrome and myocarditis) were not associated with these genes. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and cumulative gene risk score approaches. The final model which included >5 risk alleles in the CYP1A1 (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943), GCLC, AGT, and AGTR1 genes was associated with pleuritis, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, all PC and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We considered CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene set using Set Distiller mode implemented in GeneDecks for discovering gene-set relations via the degree of sharing descriptors within a given gene set. N-acetylcysteine and oxygen were defined by Set Distiller as the best descriptors for the gene set associated in the present study with PC and ARF. Results of the study are in line with literature data and suggest that genetically determined oxidative stress exacerbation may contribute to the progression of lung inflammation.

  4. Optimizing Soft Magnetic Composites for Power Frequency Applications and Power-Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Guthrie, Roderick; Isac, Mihaiela

    2012-03-01

    A new approach, together with a new family of soft magnetic composites (SMCs), has been developed and optimized for power alternating-current applications. The different technological and economic restrictions needed to maximize a composite's performance-to-cost ratio are presented. The experimental procedures to produce sintered lamellar SMCs are reported, together with magnetic results and the effects of different processing parameters on their performance. The present results are compared with corresponding data available for soft magnetic materials available on the market (laminations and composites). Data on the mechanical strength of these new SMC structures are also given. The new process results in magnetic and mechanical properties of different alloy systems that are better than those of any of the SMCs available. The present materials' energetic losses can be under 2 W/kg at 60 Hz, at 1 T, whilst their permeability exceeds 2000, while maintaining maximum induction above 1.7 T. These properties are very close to the best results for standard laminations on the market. The present process has the potential to be very inexpensive, owing to its simplicity. Even though not fully isotropic, recent three-dimensional machine designs and process advantages conferred by powder metallurgy techniques can be applied to this new family of lamellar particle composites. Through theoretical calculations and modeling exercises, it is briefly shown that this new kind of material can result in an improvement to the transportation sector where weight and efficiency of newly emerging electrical and hybrid power-trains are of prime importance.

  5. Development/Deployment Investigation of Cabintaxi/Cabinlift Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the Cabintaxi/Cabinlift automated guideway transit (AGT) systems under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. These systems have not been conceived and designed for a particular transpo...

  6. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16). We measured gait kinematics (stride characteristic and joint kinematics) and isokinetic power of the ankle plantarflexor (20°·s, 40°·s, and 60°·s) and knee extensor and flexor (60°·s, 120°·s, and 180°·s) muscles at weeks 0, 10, and 20. Power training improved isokinetic muscle power by ~30% (P ≤ 0.001) and fast (5.9%, P < 0.05) but not habitual gait velocity. Ankle plantarflexor velocity measured during gait at fast pace decreased by 7.9% (P < 0.05). The changes isokinetic muscle power and joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity. The mechanisms that increased fast gait velocity involved higher cadence (r = 0.86, P ≤ 0.001) rather than longer strides (r = 0.49, P = 0.066). Detraining did not reverse the training-induced increases in muscle power and fast gait velocity. Because increases in muscle power and modifications in joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity, kinematic mechanisms seem to play a minor role in improving healthy old adults' fast gait velocity after power training.

  7. Modeling the effect of 3 missense AGXT mutations on dimerization of the AGT enzyme in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

    PubMed

    Robbiano, Angela; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Jan; Zadro, Cristina; Ulivi, Sheila; Bevilacqua, Elena; Mandrile, Giorgia; De Marchi, Mario; Miertus, Stanislav; Amoroso, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the AGXT gene encoding the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase liver enzyme (AGT) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). Here we report a molecular modeling study of selected missense AGXT mutations: the common Gly170Arg and the recently described Gly47Arg and Ser81Leu variants, predicted to be pathogenic using standard criteria. Taking advantage of the refined 3D structure of AGT, we computed the dimerization energy of the wild-type and mutated proteins. Molecular modeling predicted that Gly47Arg affects dimerization with a similar effect to that shown previously for Gly170Arg through classical biochemical approaches. In contrast, no effect on dimerization was predicted for Ser81Leu. Therefore, this probably demonstrates pathogenic properties via a different mechanism, similar to that described for the adjacent Gly82Glu mutation that affects pyridoxine binding. This study shows that the molecular modeling approach can contribute to evaluating the pathogenicity of some missense variants that affect dimerization. However, in silico studies--aimed to assess the relationship between structural change and biological effects--require the integrated use of more than 1 tool.

  8. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  9. Predicting automated guideway transit system station security requirements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This study addresses the issues of personal security on Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems, as they might be deployed in typical urban residential and non-residential settings. Based upon a literature review, it outlines basic characteristics o...

  10. Interim Assessment of the VAL Automated Guideway Transit System.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-11-01

    This report describes an interim assessment of the VAL (Vehicules Automatiques Legers or Light Automated Vehicle) AGT system which is currently under construction in Lille, France, and which is to become fully operational in December 1983. This repor...

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation Models for the Electric Power Requirements in a Guideway Transit System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-04-01

    This report describes a computer simulation model developed at the Transportation Systems Center to study the electrical power distribution characteristics of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems. The objective of this simulation effort is to pro...

  13. Guidelines for the design and evaluation of human factors aspects of automated guideway transit systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    This document has been compiled to provide guidance in the planning, design, fabrication, and evaluation of human factors aspects of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems, including Downtown People Mover (DPM) systems. It is based on the present s...

  14. Guidelines for the design and evaluation of human factors aspects of automated guideway transit systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-03-01

    This report is a summary of human factors considerations for the planning, : deSign, construction, and implementation of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Systems : including Downtown People Mover (DPM) systems. Design concepts such as passenger : saf...

  15. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  16. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,023] Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 And 2, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan... 6, 2011, applicable to workers of Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine...

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans AGXT-1 is a mitochondrial and temperature-adapted ortholog of peroxisomal human AGT1: New insights into between-species divergence in glyoxylate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Torres, Noel; Calvo, Ana C; Oppici, Elisa; Titelbaum, Nicholas; Montioli, Riccardo; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Cellini, Barbara; Salido, Eduardo; Pey, Angel L

    2016-09-01

    In humans, glyoxylate is an intermediary product of metabolism, whose concentration is finely balanced. Mutations in peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (hAGT1) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), which results in glyoxylate accumulation that is converted to toxic oxalate. In contrast, glyoxylate is used by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans through a glyoxylate cycle to by-pass the decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thus contributing to energy production and gluconeogenesis from stored lipids. To investigate the differences in glyoxylate metabolism between humans and C. elegans and to determine whether the nematode might be a suitable model for PH1, we have characterized here the predicted nematode ortholog of hAGT1 (AGXT-1) and compared its molecular properties with those of the human enzyme. Both enzymes form active PLP-dependent dimers with high specificity towards alanine and glyoxylate, and display similar three-dimensional structures. Interestingly, AGXT-1 shows 5-fold higher activity towards the alanine/glyoxylate pair than hAGT1. Thermal and chemical stability of AGXT-1 is lower than that of hAGT1, suggesting temperature-adaptation of the nematode enzyme linked to the lower optimal growth temperature of C. elegans. Remarkably, in vivo experiments demonstrate the mitochondrial localization of AGXT-1 in contrast to the peroxisomal compartmentalization of hAGT1. Our results support the view that the different glyoxylate metabolism in the nematode is associated with the divergent molecular properties and subcellular localization of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-11-01

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  19. Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems. (Supplement V) Costs and Trends for the Period 1976-1982.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-04-01

    This report summarizes the cost experiences and trends of sixteen domestic AGT systems. Capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, system characteristics, operational statistics, and unit cost measures are presented to provide useful information...

  20. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hu, N. Q.; Qin, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  1. Feasibility of eyes open alpha power training for mental enhancement in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Marian K J; van den Berg, Berber R; Denissen, Ad J M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on a novel, easy to use and instruction-less method for mental training in athletes. Previous findings suggest that particular mental capacities are needed for achieving peak performance; including attentional control, focus, relaxation and positive affect. Electroencephalography (EEG) alpha brain activity has been associated with neural inhibition during processes of selective attention, for improving efficiency in information processing. Here we hypothesised that eyes open alpha power training by music teaches athletes to (1) learn to self-regulate their brain activity, and (2) learn to increase their baseline alpha power, herewith improving mental capacities such as focusing the allocation of attention. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. Twelve elite gymnasts were either given eyes open alpha power training or random beta power training (controls). Results indicate small improvements in sleep quality, mental and physical shape. In our first attempt at getting a grip on mental capacities in athletes, we think this novel training method can be promising. Because gymnastics is one of the most mentally demanding sports, we value even small benefits for the athlete and consider them indicative for future research.

  2. The adipose renin-angiotensin system modulates sysemic markers of insulin sensitivity activates the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie

    2006-07-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of data provides increasing evidence that the adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass. Beyond its paracrine actions within adipose tissue, adipocyte-derived angiotensin II (Ang II) may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a genetic approach to manipulate adipose RAS activity in mice and then study the consequences on metabolic parameters and on feedback regulation of the RAS. The models included deletion of the angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Agt-KO), its expression solely in adipose tissue under the control of an adipocyte-specific promoter (aP2-Agt/ Agt-KO),more » and overexpression in adipose tissue of wild type mice (aP2-Agt). Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt-KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. Overexpression of Agt in adipose tissue resulted in increased adiposity and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also markedly elevated in kidney of aP2-Agt mice, suggesting that hypertension in these animals may be in part due to stimulation of the intrarenal RAS. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results from this study demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly alter both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  3. Gender-related association of AGT gene variants (M235T and T174M) with essential hypertension--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mohana, Vamsi U; Swapna, N; Surender, Reddy S; Vishnupriya, S; Padma, Tirunilai

    2012-01-01

    The human angiotensinogen (AGT) is a promising candidate gene for evaluating susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to assess the association of the variants of AGT gene and the extent of risk involved in developing EH. A case-control study was designed to compare 279 hypertensive patients with 200 normotensive subjects. The frequency distribution of M235T and T174M polymorphisms of AGT gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. A haplotype analysis was done to determine the risk conferred by the combination of alleles of the two polymorphisms for EH. The genotype distribution of the T174M variant differed significantly between hypertensives and normotensives, whereas genotypes of M235T variant did not show such difference. For M235T, MM genotype conferred an increase in risk for hypertension in women (odds ratios (OR) = 2.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-6.49). For the variant T174M, the TM genotype frequency was elevated in hypertensive females (36.5%) as compared to controls (18.8 %; P = .034). The 174M allele was more prevalent among female hypertensives than among female controls (0.20 vs. 0.12; P = .059). The haplotype analysis showed a significant association for the haplotypes of paired markers (M235 and 174M) with a χ(2) value of 8.037 (P = .045). Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variants of AGT gene-M235T and T174M-show association with hypertension.

  4. Associations of ACE I/D, AGT M235T gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension in Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Nie, Shaofa; Yan, Weirong

    2012-09-01

    There have been many studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among Chinese populations. However, the results were inconsistent, prompting the necessity of meta-analysis. Studies published in English and Chinese were mainly searched in EMbase, PubMed and CBM up to January 2012. Twenty-three studies with 3,551 subjects for ACE I/D and seven studies with 1,296 subjects for AGT M235T were included. Significant associations were found between ACE I/D and PIH under dominant, recessive and allelic models. A separate analysis confined to preeclampsia suggested that ACE I/D was associated with preeclampsia under recessive model and allelic model, but not dominant model. Stratified analyses were conducted as meta-regression analysis indicated that the sample size of case group was a significant source of heterogeneity, which suggested no significant association between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Associations were found between AGT M235T and PIH under dominant genetic model (OR = 1.59; 95 %CI: 1.04-2.42), recessive genetic model (OR = 1.60; 95 %CI: 1.07-2.40), and allelic model (OR = 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.17-1.68). No publication bias was found in either meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis suggested significant associations between ACE I/D, AGT M235T and PIH in Chinese populations. However, no significant association was found between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to investigate the associations between gene polymorphisms and PIH in Chinese populations.

  5. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Patten, Carolynn; Condliffe, Elizabeth G; Dairaghi, Christine A; Lum, Peter S

    2013-01-21

    Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were retained 6-months post-intervention (p's < .05). EMG position

  6. Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive task practice is argued to drive neural plasticity following stroke. However, current evidence reveals that hemiparetic weakness impairs the capacity to perform, and practice, movements appropriately. Here we investigated how power training (i.e., high-intensity, dynamic resistance training) affects recovery of upper-extremity motor function post-stroke. We hypothesized that power training, as a component of upper-extremity rehabilitation, would promote greater functional gains than functional task practice without deleterious consequences. Method Nineteen chronic hemiparetic individuals were studied using a crossover design. All participants received both functional task practice (FTP) and HYBRID (combined FTP and power training) in random order. Blinded evaluations performed at baseline, following each intervention block and 6-months post-intervention included: Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-FAS, Primary Outcome), upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Ashworth Scale, and Functional Independence Measure. Neuromechanical function was evaluated using isometric and dynamic joint torques and concurrent agonist EMG. Biceps stretch reflex responses were evaluated using passive elbow stretches ranging from 60 to 180º/s and determining: EMG onset position threshold, burst duration, burst intensity and passive torque at each speed. Results Primary outcome: Improvements in WMFT-FAS were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .049), regardless of treatment order. These functional improvements were retained 6-months post-intervention (p = .03). Secondary outcomes: A greater proportion of participants achieved minimally important differences (MID) following HYBRID vs. FTP (p = .03). MIDs were retained 6-months post-intervention. Ashworth scores were unchanged (p > .05). Increased maximal isometric joint torque, agonist EMG and peak power were significantly greater following HYBRID vs. FTP (p < .05) and effects were

  7. A preliminary study of solar powdered aircraft and associated power trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Fortenbach, C. D.; Dimiceli, E. V.; Parks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of regeneratively powered solar high altitude powered platform (HAPP) remotely piloted vehicles was assessed. Those technologies which must be pursued to make long duration solar HAPPs feasible are recommended. A methodology which involved characterization and parametric analysis of roughly two dozen variables to determine vehicles capable of fulfilling the primary mission are defined. One of these vehicles was then conceptually designed. Variations of each major design parameter were investigated along with state-of-the-art changes in power train component capabilities. The midlatitude mission studied would be attainable by a solar HAPP if fuel cell, electrolyzer and photovoltaic technologies are pursued. Vehicles will be very large and have very lightweight structures in order to attain the combinations of altitude and duration required by the primary mission.

  8. Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satomi; Takehata, Chisato; Sasahara, Ikuko; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao; Taguchi, Motoko

    2017-08-21

    An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L -1 ) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L -1 ; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L -1 ; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL -1 ) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL -1 ) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL -1 ) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL -1 ). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study's findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp.

  9. Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Satomi; Takehata, Chisato; Sasahara, Ikuko; Lee, Eunjae; Akama, Takao; Taguchi, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L−1) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL−1) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL−1) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL−1) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL−1). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study’s findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. PMID:28825668

  10. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  11. Characterizing the in vivo role of trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the AGT1 transporter

    DOE PAGES

    Gibney, Patrick A.; Schieler, Ariel; Chen, Jonathan C.; ...

    2015-04-27

    Trehalose is a highly stable, nonreducing disaccharide of glucose. A large body of research exists implicating trehalose in a variety of cellular phenomena, notably response to stresses of various kinds. However, in very few cases has the role of trehalose been examined directly in vivo. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows us to manipulate intracellular trehalose concentrations independently of the biosynthetic enzymes and independently of any applied stress. We found that many physiological roles heretofore ascribed to intracellular trehalose, including heat resistance, are not due to the presence of trehalose permore » se. We also found that many of the metabolic and growth defects associated with mutations in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway are not abolished by providing abundant intracellular trehalose. Instead, we made the observation that intracellular accumulation of trehalose or maltose (another disaccharide of glucose) is growth-inhibitory in a carbon source-specific manner. We conclude that the physiological role of the trehalose pathway is fundamentally metabolic: i.e., more complex than simply the consequence of increased concentrations of the sugar and its attendant physical properties (with the exception of the companion paper where demonstrate a direct role for trehalose in protecting cells against desiccation).« less

  12. Characterizing the in vivo role of trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the AGT1 transporter

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, Patrick A.; Schieler, Ariel; Chen, Jonathan C.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Botstein, David

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose is a highly stable, nonreducing disaccharide of glucose. A large body of research exists implicating trehalose in a variety of cellular phenomena, notably response to stresses of various kinds. However, in very few cases has the role of trehalose been examined directly in vivo. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows us to manipulate intracellular trehalose concentrations independently of the biosynthetic enzymes and independently of any applied stress. We found that many physiological roles heretofore ascribed to intracellular trehalose, including heat resistance, are not due to the presence of trehalose per se. We also found that many of the metabolic and growth defects associated with mutations in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway are not abolished by providing abundant intracellular trehalose. Instead, we made the observation that intracellular accumulation of trehalose or maltose (another disaccharide of glucose) is growth-inhibitory in a carbon source-specific manner. We conclude that the physiological role of the trehalose pathway is fundamentally metabolic: i.e., more complex than simply the consequence of increased concentrations of the sugar and its attendant physical properties (with the exception of the companion paper where Tapia et al. [Tapia H, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1506415112] demonstrate a direct role for trehalose in protecting cells against desiccation). PMID:25918382

  13. Blood pressure and interactions between the angiotensin polymorphism AGT M235T and sodium intake: a cross-sectional population study.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Bowman, Richard; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Intervention studies have indicated an interaction between the blood pressure response to a low-sodium or a low-fat and high-fruit and -vegetable diet and the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) polymorphisms G-6A and M235T. We investigated whether this interaction is also present in a large free-living population. Urinary sodium, potassium as biomarkers of intake, and blood pressure were measured in 11 384 men and women aged 45-79 y participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation of Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC). The M235T polymorphism was assessed by pyrosequencing. Highly significant associations between sodium and blood pressure were shown for all genotypes (P < 0.001), but the regression coefficient for systolic blood pressure associated with each unit of sodium for each of the MT and TT genotypes was approximately double that for the MM homozygotes (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity between genotypes). Differences were evident at high exposures to sodium but not at low exposures. There were no significant associations between blood pressure and dietary or urinary potassium. This large cross-sectional study supports public health recommendations to reduce salt consumption in the population as a whole, and it confirms intervention trial data showing the greatest response to intervention in persons with the AA and TT genotype in the AGT G-6A and M235T polymorphisms. Genotype effects in populations at low exposure to sodium are not likely to be seen.

  14. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : System Availability Model User's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The System Availability Model (SAM) is a system-level model which provides measures of vehicle and passenger availability. The SAM operates in conjunction with the AGT discrete Event Simulation Model (DESM). The DESM output is the normal source of th...

  15. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  16. Effects of High-Speed Power Training on Muscle Performance and Braking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT) improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs) were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n = 25; 3 sets of 12–14 repetitions), slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n = 25; 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions), or control (CON: n = 22; stretching) 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40–90% 1RM; P < 0.05) and improved braking speed (P < 0.05). Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P < 0.05). Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST. PMID:22500229

  17. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  19. Advanced GPS Technologies (AGT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Distribution A GPS Ill Developmental Optical Clock Deployable Antenna Concept 3 \\.J Science and Technology for GPS •:• Spacecraft • AFRL has funded a...Digital Waveform Generators New antenna concepts Supporting electronics Algorithms and new signal combining methods Satellite bus technologies...GPS Military High Gain Antenna Developing Options for Ground Testing 1) Deployable phased array • Low profile element • High efficiency phase

  20. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Availability Model Functional Specification

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The System Availability Model (SAM) is a system-level model which provides measures of vehicle and passenger availability. The SAM will be used to evaluate the system-level influence of availability concepts employed in AGT systems. This functional s...

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  2. A Repeated Power Training Enhances Fatigue Resistance While Reducing Intraset Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Moras, Gerard; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2018-04-04

    Oliver, GS, Julio, TF, Moras, G, José Luis, AS, and Alberto, MV. A repeated power training enhances fatigue resistance while reducing intraset fluctuations. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The present study analyzed the effects of adding an upper-body repeated power ability (RPA) training to habitual strength training sessions. Twenty young elite male basketball players were randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10) or repeated power group (RPG, n = 10) and evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1RM), incremental load, and RPA tests in the bench press exercise before and after a 7-week period and a 4-week cessation period. Repeated power group performed 1-3 blocks of 5 sets of 5 repetitions using the load that maximized power output with 30 seconds and 3 minute of passive recovery between sets and blocks, respectively. Between-group analysis showed substantial greater improvements in RPG compared with CON in: best set (APB), last set (APL), mean power over 5 sets (APM), percentage of decrement, fluctuation decrease during APL and RPA index (APLpost/APBpre) during the RPA test (effect size [ES] = 0.64-1.86), and 1RM (ES = 0.48) and average power at 80% of 1RM (ES = 1.11) in the incremental load test. The improvements of APB and APM were almost perfectly correlated. In conclusion, RPA training represents an effective method to mainly improve fatigue resistance together with the novel finding of a better consistency in performance (measured as reduced intraset power fluctuations) at the end of a dynamic repeated effort.

  3. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  4. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems: Feeder Systems Model Functional Specification

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    This document specifies the functional requirements for the AGT-SOS Feeder Systems Model (FSM), the type of hardware required, and the modeling techniques employed by the FSM. The objective of the FSM is to map the zone-to-zone transit patronage dema...

  5. Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Yasuda, Hideo

    2017-05-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a critical role in the pathophysiology of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury, independent of circulating RAS. Although it is clear that the circulating RAS has a circadian rhythm, reports of a circadian rhythm in tissue-specific RAS are limited. Clinical studies evaluating intrarenal RAS activity by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) levels have indicated that urinary AGT levels were equally low during both the daytime and nighttime in individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that urinary AGT levels were higher during the daytime than at nighttime in patients with CKD. Moreover, urinary AGT levels of the night-to-day (N/D) ratio of urinary AGT were positively correlated with the levels of N/D of urinary protein, albumin excretion and BP. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that the expression of intrarenal RAS components, such as AGT, angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type 1 receptor proteins, increased and peaked at the same time as BP and urinary protein excretion during the resting phase, and the amplitude of the oscillations of these proteins was augmented in a chronic progressive nephritis animal compared with a control. Thus, the circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation may lead to renal damage and hypertension, which both are associated with diurnal variations in BP. It is possible that augmented glomerular permeability increases AGT excretion levels into the tubular lumen and that circadian fluctuation of glomerular permeability influences the circadian rhythm of the intrarenal RAS.

  6. Role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has many well-documented pathophysiologic functions in both blood pressure regulation and renal disease development. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major bioactive product of the RAS. It induces inflammation, renal cell growth, mitogenesis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. In addition, Ang II regulates the gene expression of bioactive substances and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that are involved in renal damage. Activation of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor pathway results in the production of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which in turn facilities renal injury. Involvement of angiotensinogen (AGT) in intrarenal RAS activation and development of renal disease has previously been reported. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that the urinary excretion rates of AGT provide a specific index of the intrarenal RAS status. Enhanced intrarenal AGT levels have been observed in experimental models of renal disease, supporting the concept that AGT plays an important role in the development and progression of renal disease. In this review, we focus on the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathophysiology of renal disease. Additionally, we explored the potential of urinary AGT as a novel biomarker of intrarenal RAS status in renal disease.

  7. Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Takeshi; Okada, Sadanori; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nishijima, Yoko; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Olmesartan and azilsartan decrease blood pressure more effectively than other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs additionally decrease the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), a urinary albumin marker, and urinary angiotensinogen (u-AGT), an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity marker. We examined the effects of these ARBs on blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods Patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with conventional ARBs, excluding olmesartan and azilsartan, for over 8 weeks were enrolled. We randomly switched patients from their prior ARBs to either olmesartan or azilsartan, and followed them for 24 weeks. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. UACR and u-AGT also decreased at 24 weeks in both groups. There were no significant differences in SBP, DBP, cSBP, UACR, or u-AGT between the groups. Therefore, we combined both groups for further analyses. After combining, SBP (160.5 ± 16.4 to 139.6 ± 15.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), DBP (88.4 ± 13.7 to 80.7 ± 13.2 mm Hg, P = 0.008), cSBP (167.4 ± 20.8 to 146.6 ± 24.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), UACR (13.8 to 9.0 mg/g Cre, P = 0.0096), and u-AGT (4.13 to 2.32 μg/g Cre, P = 0.0074) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. Patients with microalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g Cre) had significantly greater ΔUACR (−39.4 vs 0.27, P = 0.0024) and Δu-AGT (−11.9 vs −0.61, P = 0.0235) than patients without microalbuminuria. The changes in u-AGT were significantly associated with changes in UACR (r = 0.411, P = 0.046); however, there was no significant relationship between the changes in u-AGT and those in SBP or DBP. Conclusion Olmesartan and azilsartan decreased blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT more than the other ARBs, and exerted depressor and renoprotective effects. PMID:29683146

  8. Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Takami, Takeshi; Okada, Sadanori; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nishijima, Yoko; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Olmesartan and azilsartan decrease blood pressure more effectively than other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs additionally decrease the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), a urinary albumin marker, and urinary angiotensinogen (u-AGT), an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity marker. We examined the effects of these ARBs on blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with conventional ARBs, excluding olmesartan and azilsartan, for over 8 weeks were enrolled. We randomly switched patients from their prior ARBs to either olmesartan or azilsartan, and followed them for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. UACR and u-AGT also decreased at 24 weeks in both groups. There were no significant differences in SBP, DBP, cSBP, UACR, or u-AGT between the groups. Therefore, we combined both groups for further analyses. After combining, SBP (160.5 ± 16.4 to 139.6 ± 15.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), DBP (88.4 ± 13.7 to 80.7 ± 13.2 mm Hg, P = 0.008), cSBP (167.4 ± 20.8 to 146.6 ± 24.6 mm Hg, P < 0.0001), UACR (13.8 to 9.0 mg/g Cre, P = 0.0096), and u-AGT (4.13 to 2.32 μg/g Cre, P = 0.0074) significantly decreased at 24 weeks. Patients with microalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g Cre) had significantly greater ΔUACR (-39.4 vs 0.27, P = 0.0024) and Δu-AGT (-11.9 vs -0.61, P = 0.0235) than patients without microalbuminuria. The changes in u-AGT were significantly associated with changes in UACR (r = 0.411, P = 0.046); however, there was no significant relationship between the changes in u-AGT and those in SBP or DBP. Olmesartan and azilsartan decreased blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT more than the other ARBs, and exerted depressor and renoprotective effects.

  9. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  10. Health benefits of seated speed, resistance, and power training for an individual with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gannotti, Mary E; Fuchs, Robyn Kimberly; Roberts, Dawn E; Hobbs, Nedda; Cannon, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy are at risk for low bone mass for chronological age, which compounds risk in adulthood for progressive deformity and chronic pain. Physical activity and exercise can be a key component to optimizing bone health. In this case report we present a young adult male with non-ambulatory, spastic quadriplegia CP whom began a seated speed, resistance, and power training exercise program at age 14.5 years. Exercise program continued into adulthood as part of an active lifestyle. The individual had a history of failure to thrive, bowel and bladder incontinence, reduced bone mineral density (BMD) for age, and spinal deformity at the time exercise was initiated. Participation in the exercise program began once a week for 1.5-2 hours/session, and progressed to 3-5 times per week after two years. This exercise program is now a component of his habitual lifestyle. Over the 6 years he was followed, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores did not worsen, which may be viewed as a positive outcome given his level of gross motor impairment. Additionally, the individual reported less back pain, improved bowel and bladder control, increased energy level, and never sustained an exercise related injury. Findings from this case report suggest a regular program of seated speed, resistance, power training may promote overall well-being, are safe, and should be considered as a mechanism for optimizing bone health.

  11. The M235T Polymorphism in the AGT Gene and CHD Risk: Evidence of a Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Violation and Publication Bias in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2008-01-01

    Background The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene has been related to an increased risk of hypertension. This finding may also suggest an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methodology/Principal Findings A case-cohort study was conducted in 1,732 unrelated middle-age women (210 CHD cases and 1,522 controls) from a prospective cohort of 15,236 initially healthy Dutch women. We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to study the association of the polymorphism with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 71) and CHD. In the case-cohort study, no increased risk for CHD was found under the additive genetic model (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.68; P = 0.28). This result was not changed by adjustment (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.64; P = 0.38) nor by using dominant, recessive and pairwise genetic models. Analyses for AMI risk under the additive genetic model also did not show any statistically significant association (crude HR = 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.39; P = 0.20). To evaluate the association, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken of all studies published up to February 2007 (searched through PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE). The meta-analysis (38 studies with 13284 cases and 18722 controls) showed a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.15; P = 0.02). Moderate to large levels of heterogeneity were identified between studies. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) violation and the mean age of cases were statistically significant sources of the observed variation. In a stratum of non-HWE violation studies, there was no effect. An asymmetric funnel plot, the Egger's test (P = 0.066), and the Begg-Mazumdar test (P = 0.074) were all suggestive of the presence of publication bias. Conclusions/Significance The pooled OR of the present meta-analysis, including our own data, presented evidence that there is an increase in the risk of CHD

  12. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  14. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  15. 36 CFR § 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Automated guideway transit...

  16. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  18. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems, sometimes called “people movers”, operated in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automated guideway transit...

  20. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  1. 49 CFR 38.173 - Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and...

  2. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of México

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodríguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using χ2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups. PMID:20592457

  3. High-speed power training: a novel approach to resistance training in older men and women. A brief review and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Stephen P

    2007-05-01

    Over the past century, increases in both longevity and the number of older adults in the U.S.A. have given rise to greater numbers of functionally limited and disabled older adults. This has resulted in a decline in the quality of life of our elderly population, as well as an increased burden on our health care system. Resistance training (RT) with a strengthening component has traditionally been recommended to improve health and physical functioning in older adults. Muscle power (force x velocity), or the ability to produce force rapidly, has recently emerged as an important predictor of functioning in older men and women and has been the current focus of many RT studies. In this review, the physiological changes that contribute to the declines in muscle strength and power with aging will first be examined, followed by a discussion of the prevailing theories behind the use of traditional RT in older men and women. The rationale for high-velocity RT will then be explored, and the recent literature on novel training interventions designed to improve muscle power in older adults will be discussed. Finally, some preliminary evidence demonstrating the benefits of high-velocity power training in older men and women will be presented.

  4. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  5. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Young, James D; Whitten, Joseph H D; Reid, Jonathan C; Quigley, Patrick J; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D; Hodgson, Daniel D; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  6. Different loading schemes in power training during the preseason promote similar performance improvements in Brazilian elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Pivetti, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 2 different power training loading schemes in Brazilian elite soccer players. Thirty-two players participated in the study. Maximum dynamic strength (1RM) was evaluated before (B), at midpoint (i.e., after 3 weeks; T1), and after 6 weeks (T2) of a preseason strength/power training. Muscle power, jumping, and sprinting performance were evaluated at B and T2. Players were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 training groups: velocity-based (VEL: n = 16; age, 19.18 ± 0.72 years; height, 173 ± 6 cm; body mass, 72.7 ± 5.8 kg) or intensity-based (INT: n = 16; age, 19.11 ± 0.7 years; height, 172 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 71.8 ± 4.6 kg). After the individual determination of the optimal power load, both groups completed a 3-week traditional strength training period. Afterward, the VEL group performed 3 weeks of power-oriented training with increasing velocity and decreasing intensity (from 60 to 30% 1RM) throughout the training period, whereas the INT group increased the training intensity (from 30 to 60% 1RM) and thus decreased movement velocity throughout the power-oriented training period. Both groups used loads within ±15% (ranging from 30 to 60% 1RM) of the measured optimal power load (i.e., 45.2 ± 3.0% 1RM). Similar 1RM gains were observed in both groups at T1 (VEL: 9.2%; INT: 11.0%) and T2 (VEL: 19.8%; INT: 22.1%). The 2 groups also presented significant improvements (within-group comparisons) in all of the variables. However, no between-group differences were detected. Mean power in the back squat (VEL: 18.5%; INT: 20.4%) and mean propulsive power in the jump squat (VEL: 29.1%; INT: 31.0%) were similarly improved at T2. The 10-m sprint (VEL: -4.3%; INT: -1.6%), jump squat (VEL: 7.1%; INT: 4.5%), and countermovement jump (VEL: 6.7%; INT: 6.9%) were also improved in both groups at T2. Curiously, the 30-m sprint time (VEL: -0.8%; INT: -0.1%) did not significantly improve for both groups. In summary, our data suggest that male

  7. Proceedings of Workshop on Methodology for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Transit Crime Reduction Measures in Automated Guideway Transit Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-07-01

    The workshop focused on current methods of assessing the effectiveness of crime and vandalism reduction methods that are used in conventional urban mass transit systems, and on how they might be applied to new AGT systems. Conventional as well as nov...

  8. The effects of low-repetition and light-load power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Kanako; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-02

    Age-related reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) is generally accelerated in women after menopause, and could be even more pronounced in individuals with sarcopenia. Light-load power training with a low number of repetitions would increase BMD, significantly reducing bone loss in individuals at risk of osteoporosis. This study investigated the effects of low-repetition, light-load power training on BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. The training group (n = 7) followed a progressive power training protocol that increased the load with a weighted vest, for two sessions per week, over the course of 6 weeks. The training exercise comprised five kinds of exercises (squats, front lunges, side lunges, calf raises, and toe raises), and each exercise contained eight sets of three repetitions with a 15-s rest between each set. The control group (n = 8) did not undergo any training intervention. We measured BMD, muscle strength, and anthropometric data. Within-group changes in pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength were significantly greater in the training group than the control group (p = 0.029 and 0.030 for pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength, respectively). After low-repetition, light-load power training, we noted improvements in pelvis BMD (1.6%) and knee extensor strength (15.5%). No significant within- or between-group differences were observed for anthropometric data or forearm BMD. Six weeks of low-repetition, light-load power training improved pelvis BMD and knee extensor strength in postmenopausal women with sarcopenia. Since this training program does not require high-load exercise and is therefore easily implementable as daily exercise, it could be an effective form of exercise for sedentary adults at risk for osteoporosis who are fearful of heavy loads and/or training that could cause fatigue. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network on 31 October 2016 ( UMIN000024651 ).

  9. Synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on essential hypertension in Kazakhs in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shudong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Keyong; Zhu, Pengcheng; Li, Jingping; Sun, Yujing; He, Ning; Zhang, Mingtao; Gao, Zhiying; Li, Xueyan; Simayi, Amuti; Ge, Jie; Cong, Mingyu; Zhou, Wenna; Qiu, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    To assess the synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on essential hypertension (EH) in Kazakhs in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional case-control association study was conducted in 52 1 hypertensive and 623 normotensive subjects of Kazakh ethnicity on eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interspersed over five genes of the RAAS. SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Interactions among the SNPs were analyzed by the multifactor dimensionality reduction method (MDR). In single-locus analysis, subjects with AGT -6G, ACE D, and CYP11B2 -344C had increased susceptibility to EH (OR: 1.249; 1.425; 1.201). When subgrouped by sex, males with the t allele of REN Taq I had decreased risk for EH (OR: 0.529), and those with AGT -6G and CYP11B2 -344 C had increased risk for EH (OR: 1.498; 1.449). In females, carrying ACE D increased the risk for EH. (OR: 1.327). In six AGT haplotypes, H1 was protective, while H3 increased susceptibility to EH (OR: 0.683; 2.025). Interaction analysis by MDR showed that there was a strong synergistic effect between ACE I/D and CY11B2 (T-344C) and a moderate interaction between both ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and AGT A-6G. There was a strong synergistic effect between ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and a moderate effect between both ACE I/D and CY11B2 T-344C and AGT A-6G. AGT -6G, ACE D, and CY11B2 -344C increased susceptibility to EH. REN Taq I, AGT -6G, CY11B2 -344 C and ACE D were associated with male and female EH, respectively. H1 and H3 of AGT were protective and risk haplotypes, respectively.

  10. Effects of Resisted Sprint Training and Traditional Power Training on Sprint, Jump, and Balance Performance in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prieske, Olaf; Krüger, Tom; Aehle, Markus; Bauer, Erik; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST (n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT (n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group (n = 16, 23 ± 2 years). RST and TPT exercised for 6 weeks with three training sessions/week each lasting 45–60 min. RST comprised frontal and lateral sprint exercises using an expander system with increasing levels of resistance that was attached to a treadmill (h/p/cosmos). TPT included ballistic strength training at 40% of the one-repetition-maximum for the lower limbs (e.g., leg press, knee extensions). Before and after training, sprint (20-m sprint), change-of-direction speed (T-agility test), jump (drop, countermovement jump), and balance performances (Y balance test) were assessed. ANCOVA statistics revealed large main effects of group for 20-m sprint velocity and ground contact time (0.81 ≤ d ≤ 1.00). Post-hoc tests showed higher sprint velocity following RST and TPT (0.69 ≤ d ≤ 0.82) when compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to 4.5% for RST [90%CI: (−1.1%;10.1%), d = 1.23] and 2.6% for TPT [90%CI: (0.4%;4.8%), d = 1.59]. Additionally, ground contact times during sprinting were shorter following RST and TPT (0.68 ≤ d ≤ 1.09) compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to −6.3% for RST [90%CI: (−11.4%;−1.1%), d = 1.45) and −2.7% for TPT [90%CI: (−4.2%;−1.2%), d = 2.36]. Finally, effects

  11. Effects of Resisted Sprint Training and Traditional Power Training on Sprint, Jump, and Balance Performance in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Prieske, Olaf; Krüger, Tom; Aehle, Markus; Bauer, Erik; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years). RST and TPT exercised for 6 weeks with three training sessions/week each lasting 45-60 min. RST comprised frontal and lateral sprint exercises using an expander system with increasing levels of resistance that was attached to a treadmill (h/p/cosmos). TPT included ballistic strength training at 40% of the one-repetition-maximum for the lower limbs (e.g., leg press, knee extensions). Before and after training, sprint (20-m sprint), change-of-direction speed (T-agility test), jump (drop, countermovement jump), and balance performances (Y balance test) were assessed. ANCOVA statistics revealed large main effects of group for 20-m sprint velocity and ground contact time (0.81 ≤ d ≤ 1.00). Post-hoc tests showed higher sprint velocity following RST and TPT (0.69 ≤ d ≤ 0.82) when compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to 4.5% for RST [90%CI: (-1.1%;10.1%), d = 1.23] and 2.6% for TPT [90%CI: (0.4%;4.8%), d = 1.59]. Additionally, ground contact times during sprinting were shorter following RST and TPT (0.68 ≤ d ≤ 1.09) compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to -6.3% for RST [90%CI: (-11.4%;-1.1%), d = 1.45) and -2.7% for TPT [90%CI: (-4.2%;-1.2%), d = 2.36]. Finally, effects for change

  12. Supplement II : Summary of Capital and Operations & Maintenance Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Costs and Trends for the period 1976-1979

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes O&M cost experience and trends for the following AGT systems for the period 1976-1979: AIRTRANS, Sea-Tac, Tampa, Disneyworld (WEDway), and Morgantown (O&M data on the Morgantown system is reported through 1978). Capital cost da...

  13. Development/Deployment Investigation of H-Bahn System (H-Bahn Untersuchung von Technologie, Entwicklung und Betrieb)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes and provides the results of an assessment of the H-Bahn Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) system under development in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a joint U.S./German technical assessment study that was completed under ...

  14. The Response to and Recovery From Maximum-Strength and -Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes.

    PubMed

    Howatson, Glyn; Brandon, Raphael; Hunter, Angus M

    2016-04-01

    There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse. To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter. Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged. A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.

  15. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  16. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  17. Renin-Angiotensin System Gene Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Influence of Angiotensinogen

    PubMed Central

    Joyce-Tan, Siew Mei; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P = 0.05) but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15–3.20, permuted P = 0.012); however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk. PMID:26682227

  18. Effects of intensive strength-power training on sense of coherence among 60-85-year-old people with hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Inka; Read, Sanna; Sipilä, Sarianna; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Heinonen, Ari; Alen, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-06-01

    Older people with disabilities are at increased risk of psychological health decline. There are no earlier studies on the effects of resistance training on sense of coherence (SOC) among older people with a history of hip fracture. The aim of this study is to test the effects of intensive 12-week strength-power training on SOC among older adults after hip fracture. A clinical sample of 60-85-year-old community-dwelling men and women was studied, 0.5. to 7.0 years after hip fracture. Forty-six had no contraindications for participation and were randomized into training (n=24) and control groups (n=22). The training group participated in a 12-week, individually tailored, strength-power training program, twice a week in a senior gym and supervised by an experienced physiotherapist. SOC was assessed with Antonovsky's short 13-item scale. Data were collected at baseline and after intervention. Intensive 12-week strength-power training had no effect on participants' SOC level. Results indicated no change in SOC after 12-week physical exercise training among participants after hip fracture. Further studies on SOC among older people with disabilities and potential ways of increasing it are needed.

  19. The effects of training with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions vs. traditional power training

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Ramón, M.; Hernández-Davó, J. L.; Fernandez-Fernandez, J.; Sabido, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that strength training effects (i.e. neural or structural) vary, depending on the total repetitions performed and velocity loss in each training set. Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two training programmes (i.e. one with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions, and the other following traditional power training). Methods Twenty-five males were divided into three groups (optimum power [OP = 10], traditional training [TT = 9] and control group [CG = 6]). The training load used for OP was individualised using loads that maximised power output (41.7% ± 5.8 of one repetition maximum [1RM]) and repetitions at maximum power (4 to 9 repetitions, or ‘reps’). Volume (sets x repetitions) was the same for both experimental groups, while intensity for TT was that needed to perform only 50% of the maximum number of possible repetitions (i.e. 61.1%–66.6% of 1RM). The training programme ran over 11 weeks (2 sessions per week; 4–5 sets per session; 3-minute rests between sets), with pre-, intermediate and post-tests which included: anthropometry, 1RM, peak power output (PPO) with 30%, 40% and 50% of 1RM in the bench press throw, and salivary testosterone (ST) and cortisol (SC) concentrations. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were recorded in all sessions. Results Following the intermediate test, PPO was increased in the OP group for each load (10.9%–13.2%). Following the post-test, both experimental groups had increased 1RM (11.8%–13.8%) and PPO for each load (14.1%–19.6%). Significant decreases in PPO were found for the TT group during all sets (4.9%–15.4%), along with significantly higher RPE (37%). Conclusion OP appears to be a more efficient method of training, with less neuromuscular fatigue and lower RPE. PMID:29053725

  20. [Up-regulation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system contributes to renal damage in high-salt induced hypertension rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-yan; Liang, Yao-xian; Bai, Qiong; Zhuang, Zhen; A, La-ta; Zheng, Dan-xia; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-18

    To test the hypothesis that in a high-salt induced hypertension in normal rats, whether the changes of intrarenal renin-agiotensin system (RAS) play a critical role in renal damage and could be reflected by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT). In the study, 27 normotensive male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into control group [0.3% (mass faction) NaCl in chow, n=9, NS], high-salt diet group [8% (mass faction) NaCl in chow, n=9, HS] and high-salt diet with Losartan group [8% (mass faction) NaCl in chow and 20 mg/(kg×d) Losartan in gavages, n=9, HS+L)], and were fed for six weeks. The blood pressure was monitored and urine samples were collected every 2 weeks. AGTs in plasma, kidney and urine were measured by ELISA kits. The renal cortex expression of mRNA and protein of AGT were measured by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The renin activity and ANG II were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. Compared with NS, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) [(156 ± 2) mmHg vs. (133 ± 3) mmHg, P<0.05] increased significantly at the end of the 2nd week, and the urinary protein [(14.07 ± 2.84) mg/24 h vs. (7.62 ± 3.02) mg/24 h, P<0.05] increased significantly at the end of the 6th week in HS. Compared with HS, there was no significant difference in SBP (P>0.05) but the proteinuria [(9.69 ± 2.73) mg/24 h vs. (14.07 ± 2.84) mg/24 h, P<0.01] decreased significantly in HS+L. Compared with NS, there was no significant difference in the plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen and ANG II level in HS (P>0.05), but the renal cortex renin content [(8.72 ± 1.98) ng/(mL × h) vs. (4.37 ± 1.26) ng/(mL × h), P<0.05], AGT formation [(4.02 ± 0.60) ng/mg vs. (2.59 ± 0.42) ng/mg, P<0.01], ANG II level [(313.8 ± 48.76) pmol/L vs. (188.9 ± 46.95) pmol/L, P<0.05] were increased significantly in HS, and the urinary AGT and ANG II excretion rates increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with HS, the plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen and ANG II level were significantly

  1. The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5 ± 8.2 years, body mass: 67.0 ± 10.0 kg and height: 1.57 ± 0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the “get-up and go” (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4–12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P > 0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P = 0.311 and P = 0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P < 0.05) at baseline. However, in response to high-speed power training, a significant interaction on walking speed (P = 0.048) was observed between the “power” (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus “non-power” muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Conclusions Thus, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. PMID:24313907

  2. The influence of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Leitão, José C; Monteiro, António M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Bastos, Estela; Marques, Mário C

    2013-12-06

    We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5 ± 8.2 years, body mass: 67.0 ± 10.0 kg and height: 1.57 ± 0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the "get-up and go" (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4-12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P > 0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P = 0.311 and P = 0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P < 0.05) at baseline. However, in response to high-speed power training, a significant interaction on walking speed (P = 0.048) was observed between the "power" (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus "non-power" muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Thus, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits.

  3. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players

    PubMed Central

    Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players. PMID:28090144

  4. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  5. Improved parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy: a double-baseline controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2018-03-07

    In children with cerebral palsy (CP), strength training programs to improve walking capacity and participation in activities of daily living are commonly used in clinical practice, despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. It has been suggested that strength training with high movement velocity could be more effective than traditional resistance training to improve functional abilities such as walking. In a recently published study, we have demonstrated the positive effects of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training on muscle strength and walking capacity in young children with CP. Whether this type of training is also effective in achieving individual predefined goals in daily activities and self-reported mobility limitations, has not yet been described however. To evaluate the effect of functional power-training on parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level in young children with CP. A double-baseline design was used to compare a 14-week period usual care with a 14-week period of functional power-training (3 times a week) and a follow-up period of 14-weeks. Twenty-two children with spastic CP (13 bilateral, GMFCS level I (N=10) and level II (N=12), mean age 7.5 years (SD 1.8, range 4-10 y)) and their parents participated. Outcome measures were goal attainment scaling (GAS) of individual daily activity related treatment goals, mobility performance as measured using the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS-5m, 50m and 500m), and the parent-reported Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues). After power-training, 86% of children achieved or exceeded their goal, compared with 14% in the usual care period (p<.001). The probability of improvement by one point or more on the FMS- 500 meter after functional power-training was 10 times higher, compared with the usual care period (Relative Risk=10.0 with 95%CI 1.4 - 71.3). No changes were found in the FMS-5m and FMS-50m categories. Improvement on the MobQues was

  6. Effects of 12-week on-field combined strength and power training on physical performance among U-14 young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chamari, Karim; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effects of on-field combined strength and power training (CSPT) on physical performance among U-14 young soccer players. Players were assigned to experimental (EG, n = 28) and control groups (CG, n = 23). Both groups underwent preseason soccer training for 12 weeks. EG performed CSPT twice a week, which consisted of strength and power exercises that trained the major muscles of the core, upper, and lower body. CSPT significantly (p < 0.05) improved vertical jump height, ball-shooting speed, 10 m and 30 m sprint times, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance run (YYIER), and reduced submaximal running cost (RC). CSPT had moderate effect on vertical jump, ball-shooting, 30 m sprint, and YYIER, small effect on 10 m sprint, RC, and maximal oxygen uptake. YYIER had significant (p < 0.05) correlations with 10 m (r = -0.47) and 30 m (r = -0.43) sprint times, ball-shooting speed (r = 0.51), and vertical jump (r = 0.34). The CSPT can be performed together with soccer training with no concomitant interference on aerobic capacity and with improved explosive performances. In addition, it is suggested that CSPT be performed during the preseason period rather than in-season to avoid insufficient recovery/rest or overtraining.

  7. The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=-2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=-1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=-1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=-1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers.

  8. Deficiency of angiotensinogen in hepatocytes markedly decreases blood pressure in lean and obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Larian, Nika; Thompson, Joel; English, Victoria L; Charnigo, Richard; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Cassis, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    We recently demonstrated that adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen (AGT) ablated high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations and obesity-hypertension in male mice. Hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT. Therefore, in this study, we defined the contribution of hepatocyte-derived AGT to obesity-induced elevations in plasma AGT concentrations and hypertension. Male Agt(fl/fl) mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase were bred to female Agt(fl/fl) mice to generate Agt(fl/fl) or hepatocyte AGT-deficient male mice (Agt(Alb)). Mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency had no significant effect on body weight. Plasma AGT concentrations were increased in obese Agt(fl/fl) mice. Hepatocyte AGT deficiency markedly reduced plasma AGT and Ang II concentrations in lean and obese mice. Moreover, hepatocyte AGT deficiency reduced the content and release of AGT from adipose explants. Systolic blood pressure was markedly decreased in lean (by 18 mm Hg) and obese Agt(Alb) mice (by 54 mm Hg) compared with Agt(fl/fl) controls. To define mechanisms, we quantified effects of Ang II on mRNA abundance of megalin, an AGT uptake transporter, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ang II stimulated adipocyte megalin mRNA abundance and decreased media AGT concentrations. These results demonstrate that hepatocytes are the predominant source of systemic AGT in both lean and obese mice. Moreover, reductions in plasma angiotensin concentrations in obese hepatocyte AGT-deficient mice may have limited megalin-dependent uptake of AGT into adipocytes for the production of Ang II in the development of obesity-hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Vitamin D receptor deficit induces activation of renin angiotensin system via SIRT1 modulation in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Nirupama; Ayasolla, Kamesh; Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Haque, Shabirul; Saleem, Moin A; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficient status has been shown to be associated with the activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS). We hypothesized that lack of VDR would enhance p53 expression in podocytes through down regulation of SIRT1; the former would enhance the transcription of angiotensinogen (Agt) and angiotensinogen II type 1 receptor (AT1R) leading to the activation of RAS. Renal tissues of VDR mutant (M) mice displayed increased expression of p53, Agt, renin, and AT1R. In vitro studies, VDR knockout podocytes not only displayed up regulation p53 but also displayed enhanced expression of Agt, renin and AT1R. VDR deficient podocytes also displayed an increase in mRNA expression for p53, Agt, renin, and AT1R. Interestingly, renal tissues of VDR-M as well as VDR heterozygous (h) mice displayed attenuated expression of deacetylase SIRT1. Renal tissues of VDR-M mice showed acetylation of p53 at lysine (K) 382 residues inferring that enhanced p53 expression in renal tissues could be the result of ongoing acetylation, a consequence of SIRT1 deficient state. Notably, podocytes lacking SIRT1 not only showed acetylation of p53 at lysine (K) 382 residues but also displayed enhanced p53 expression. Either silencing of SIRT1/VDR or treatment with high glucose enhanced podocyte PPAR-y expression, whereas, immunoprecipitation (IP) of their lysates with anti-retinoid X receptor (RXR) antibody revealed presence of PPAR-y. It appears that either the deficit of SIRT1 has de-repressed expression of PPAR-y or enhanced podocyte expression of PPAR-y (in the absence of VDR) has contributed to the down regulation of SIRT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  12. ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms as potential factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women in response to a muscle power training stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Bastos, Estela; Marques, Mário C

    2013-10-01

    Genetic variation of the human ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, muscle power performance (counter-movement jump), and functional capacity (sit-to-stand test) was examined in older Caucasian women [n = 139; mean age 65.5 (8.2) years; 67.0 (10.0) kg and 1.57 (0.06) m]. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction, and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Muscular strength, power, and functional testing were conducted at baseline (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2) of high-speed power training. At baseline, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms were not associated with muscle function or muscularity phenotypes in older Caucasian women. After the 12-week high-speed training program, subjects significantly increased their muscular and functional capacity performance (p < 0.05). For both polymorphisms, significant genotype-training interaction (p < 0.05) was found in all muscular performance indices, except for 1RM leg extension in the ACE I/D (p = 0.187). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed significant differences in all parameters (p < 0.05) in response to high-speed power training between the power (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus "non-power" muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Our data suggest that the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (single or combined) exert a significant influence in the muscle phenotypes of older Caucasian women in response to high-speed power training. Thus, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms are likely factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women, particularly in response to a resistance training stimuli.

  13. Ceramic components for the AGT 100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Heitman, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, automotive gas turbines have not been able to meet requirements of the marketplace with respect to cost, performance, and reliability. However, the development of appropriate ceramic materials has overcome problems related to a need for expensive superalloy components and to limitations regarding the operating temperature. An automotive gas turbine utilizing ceramic components has been developed by a U.S. automobile manufacturer. A 100-horsepower, two-shaft, regenerative engine geometry was selected because it is compatible with manual, automatic, and continuously variable transmissions. Attention is given to the ceramic components, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor development, the ceramic gasifier scroll, ceramic component testing, and the use of advanced nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of the engine components.

  14. AGT-1500 Combustor and Fuel Effects Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    test data of Moses and Naegeli (1978) were also con- sidered. These comprised blowoff equivalence ratios obtained using Detroit Diesel Allison T-63...Ofoses and Naegeli , 1978) Power Tin P ma 0 T =lp K % K atm kg/sec DRI JP- 5 Gas 100 547 4.77 1.10 .054 .053 .049 2314 2300 2307 55 494 3.69 .93 .069... Naegeli (1978). Their ignition tests were conducted on the T-63 helicopter engine (can-type comb~ustor with the igniter located in the dome) with 13

  15. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): differential gene regulation by salinity.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Cousin, Xavier; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the complete cDNA sequence encoding angiotensinogen (agt) in the euryhaline flatfish Senegalese sole was obtained. Additionally, putative coding sequences belonging to other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes including renin (ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), as well as angiotensin II receptor type I (agtr1) and type II (agtr2), were also identified. In juvenile tissues, agt transcripts were mainly detected in liver, ren in kidney, ace and ace2 in intestine, agtr1 in kidney and brain, and agtr2 in liver and kidney. Expression analysis of the six RAS genes after a salinity shift revealed a clear increase of agt mRNA abundance in liver just after transferring soles to high salinity water (60 ppt) with a peak at 48 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis in gills showed transcriptional regulation of ace and agtr1 at 48 h and agtr2 at 96 h after transferring soles to 60 ppt. Incubation of larvae before mouth opening (until 3 days post hatch; dph) at low salinity (10 ppt) resulted in a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of RAS genes. Nevertheless, no differences in mRNA abundance between salinities were observed when larvae were cultivated to low salinity after mouth opening. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) signal for agt and ace in 3 dph larvae incubated at 10 ppt and 35 ppt confirmed that the former gene was mainly expressed in liver whereas the later gene was mainly located in pharynx and posterior gut, without pronounced differences in intensity between salinities. Possible physiological significance of all these results is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion relates to intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation and renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Naoko; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kato, Akihiko; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation leads to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation. The activation of intrarenal RAS following reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation, sympathetic hyperactivity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition leads to the development of renal damage. Melatonin is a hormone regulating the circadian rhythm, and has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant and anti-adrenergic effects and enhancement of NO bioavailability. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations are lower in CKD patients. However, it is not known if impaired endogenous melatonin secretion is related to BP, intrarenal RAS, or renal damage in CKD patients. We recruited 53 CKD patients and conducted 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. urine was collected during the daytime and nighttime. We investigated the relationship among the melatonin metabolite urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (U-aMT6s), BP, renal function, urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), and urinary albumin (U-Alb). Patients' U-aMT6s levels were significantly and negatively correlated with clinical parameters such as renal function, systolic BP, U-AGT, and U-Alb, during both day and night. Multiple regression analyses for U-aMT6s levels were performed using age, gender, renal function, and each parameter (BPs, U-AGT or U-Alb), at daytime and nighttime. U-aMT6s levels were significantly associated with U-AGT (β = -0.31, p = 0.044) and U-Alb (β = -0.25, p = 0.025) only at night. Impaired nighttime melatonin secretion may be associated with nighttime intrarenal RAS activation and renal damage in CKD patients.

  17. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruitedmore » from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD.

  18. Familial Analysis of Epistatic and Sex-Dependent Association of Genes of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scurrah, Katrina J; Lamantia, Angela; Ellis, Justine A; Harrap, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes have been inconsistently associated with blood pressure, possibly because of unrecognized influences of sex-dependent genetic effects or gene-gene interactions (epistasis). We tested association of systolic blood pressure with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at renin ( REN ), angiotensinogen ( AGT ), angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ), angiotensin II type 1 receptor ( AGTR1 ), and aldosterone synthase ( CYP11B2 ), including sex-SNP or SNP-SNP interactions. Eighty-eight tagSNPs were tested in 2872 white individuals in 809 pedigrees from the Victorian Family Heart Study using variance components models. Three SNPs (rs8075924 and rs4277404 at ACE and rs12721297 at AGTR1 ) were individually associated with lower systolic blood pressure with significant ( P <0.00076) effect sizes ≈1.7 to 2.5 mm Hg. Sex-specific associations were seen for 3 SNPs in men (rs2468523 and rs2478544 at AGT and rs11658531 at ACE ) and 1 SNP in women (rs12451328 at ACE ). SNP-SNP interaction was suggested ( P <0.005) for 14 SNP pairs, none of which had shown individual association with systolic blood pressure. Four SNP pairs were at the same gene (2 for REN , 1 for AGT , and 1 for AGTR1 ). The SNP rs3097 at CYP11B2 was represented in 5 separate pairs. SNPs at key renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes associate with systolic blood pressure individually in both sexes, individually in one sex only and only when combined with another SNP. Analyses that incorporate sex-dependent and epistatic effects could reconcile past inconsistencies and account for some of the missing heritability of blood pressure and are generally relevant to SNP association studies for any phenotype. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Living high training low induces physiological cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by down-regulation and redistribution of the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Meszaros, J Gary; Zeng, Shao-ju; Sun, Ying-yu; Zuo, Ming-xue

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Living high training low” (LHTL) is an exercise-training protocol that refers living in hypoxia stress and training at normal level of O2. In this study, we investigated whether LHTL caused physiological heart hypertrophy accompanied by changes of biomarkers in renin-angiotensin system in rats. Methods: Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, and trained on living low-sedentary (LLS, control), living low-training low (LLTL), living high-sedentary (LHS) and living high-training low (LHTL) protocols, respectively, for 4 weeks. Hematological parameters, hemodynamic measurement, heart hypertrophy and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) level of the rats were measured. The gene and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II receptor I (AT1) in heart tissue was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly improved cardiac function, increased hemoglobin concentration and RBC. At the molecular level, LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly decreased the expression of ACE, AGT and AT1 genes, but increased the expression of ACE and AT1 proteins in heart tissue. Moreover, ACE and AT1 protein expression was significantly increased in the endocardium, but unchanged in the epicardium. Conclusion: LHTL training protocol suppresses ACE, AGT and AT1 gene expression in heart tissue, but increases ACE and AT1 protein expression specifically in the endocardium, suggesting that the physiological heart hypertrophy induced by LHTL is regulated by region-specific expression of renin-angiotensin system components. PMID:23377552

  20. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Summary Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-02-01

    In order to examine specific Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) developments and concepts and to build a better knowledge base for future decision-making, UMTA has undertaken a new program of studies and technology investigations called the Urban Mass ...

  1. Plyometrics: A Legitimate Form of Power Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)

  2. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : System Availability Model Programmer's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  3. High glucose augments angiotensinogen in human renal proximal tubular cells through hepatocyte nuclear factor-5

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Shibayama, Yuki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Liu, Ya; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Wang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    High glucose has been demonstrated to induce angiotensinogen (AGT) synthesis in the renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) of rats, which may further activate the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and contribute to diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high glucose on AGT in the RPTCs of human origin and identify the glucose-responsive transcriptional factor(s) that bind(s) to the DNA sequences of AGT promoter in human RPTCs. Human kidney (HK)-2 cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mM) and high glucose (15.0 mM), respectively. Levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Consecutive 5’-end deletion mutant constructs and different site-directed mutagenesis products of human AGT promoter sequences were respectively transfected into HK-2 cells, followed by AGT promoter activity measurement through dual luciferase assay. High glucose significantly augmented the levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells, compared with normal glucose treatment. High glucose also significantly augmented AGT promoter activity in HK-2 cells transfected with the constructs of human AGT promoter sequences, compared with normal glucose treatment. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-5 was found to be one of the glucose-responsive transcriptional factors of AGT in human RPTCs, since the mutation of its binding sites within AGT promoter sequences abolished the above effects of high glucose on AGT promoter activity as well as levels of AGT mRNA and its secretion. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time, that high glucose augments AGT in human RPTCs through HNF-5, which provides a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:29053707

  4. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model User's Manual.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-06-01

    In order to examine specific Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) developments and concepts, and to build a better knowledge base for future decision-making, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) undertook a new program of studies and techn...

  5. System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model Programmer's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  6. Systems Operation Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Detailed Station Model Functional Specifications

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    The Detailed Station Model (DSM) is a discrete event model representing the interrelated queueing processes associated with vehicle and passenger activities in an AGT station. The DSM will provide operational and performance measures of alternative s...

  7. System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Detailed Station Model User's Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    The Detailed Station Model (DSM) is a discrete event model representing the interrelated queueing processes associated with vehicle and passenger activities in an AGT station. The DSM will provide operational and performance measures of alternative s...

  8. Association between polymorphisms in renin-angiotensin system genes and primary ovarian insufficiency in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Wook; Jeon, Young Joo; Park, Hye Mi; Lee, Bo Eun; Rah, Hyungchul; Lee, Woo Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki; Kim, Nam Keun

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; insertion/deletion), angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R 1166A>C) and the prevalence of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in Korean women. A total of 133 women with POI and 238 controls were genotyped for polymorphic sites in each gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. ACE ID and ID + II variants occurred more frequently in women with POI than in controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.830; 95% CI, 1.040-3.221; P = 0.040; and OR, 1.797; 95% CI, 1.055-3.060; P = 0.031, respectively). The AT1R 1166AC genotype occurred more frequently in participants with POI than in controls (OR, 3.171; 95% CI, 1.562-6.436; P = 0.002). Comparing the combined genotype frequencies of ACE/AT1R revealed that the frequencies of ID/AA, ID/AC, and II/AC were higher in participants than in controls (OR, 1.916; 95% CI, 1.053-3.485; P = 0.043; OR, 3.544; 95% CI, 1.207-10.407; P = 0.036; and OR, 7.875; 95% CI, 2.224-27.881; P = 0.001, respectively). The TT/AC genotype for combined genotyping of AGT/AT1R was more frequently observed in the POI group than in the control group (OR, 3.472; 95% CI, 1.450-8.313; P = 0.006). In multifactor dimensionality reduction-based haplotype analysis, the I-T-C genotype of ACE/AGT/AT1R was a possible predisposing factor for POI (OR, 4.678; 95% CI, 1.721-12.717; P = 0.002). This study demonstrates that polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system are related to the prevalence of POI. Thus, these renin-angiotensin system genes may serve as a novel marker for predicting the development of POI.

  9. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  10. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  12. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799752) modifies the renoprotective effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Junya; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Shoji, Tatsuya; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Okada, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Imai, Enyu; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about genetic predictors that modify the renoprotective effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The present multicenter retrospective observational study examined effect modification between RAS blockade and three RAS-related gene polymorphisms in 237 IgAN patients, including ACE I/D (rs1799752), AT1R A1166C (rs5186) and AGT T704C (rs699). During 9.9 ± 4.2 years of observation, 63 patients progressed to a 50% increase in serum creatinine level. Only ACE I/D predicted the outcome (ACE DD vs ID/II, hazard ratio 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 3.33)) and modified the renoprotective effect of RAS blockade (p for interaction between ACE DD and RAS blockade = 0.087). RAS blockade suppressed progression in ACE DD patients but not in ID/II patients (ACE ID/II with RAS blockade as a reference; ID/II without RAS blockade 1.45 (0.72, 2.92); DD without RAS blockade 3.06 (1.39, 6.73); DD with RAS blockade 1.51 (0.54, 4.19)), which was ascertained in a model with the outcome of slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.045 for interaction). ACE I/D predicted the IgAN progression and the renoprotective effect of RAS blockade in IgAN patients whereas neither AT1R A1166C nor AGT T704C did. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Polymorphisms in genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal cell cancer risk: interplay with hypertension and intakes of sodium, potassium and fluid.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Ivette A; van den Brandt, Piet A; van Engeland, Manon; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Godschalk, Roger W; Keszei, András P; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-03-01

    Hypertension is an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure and is closely linked to hypertension. RAAS additionally influences homeostasis of electrolytes (e.g. sodium and potassium) and fluid. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAAS and their interactions with hypertension and intakes of sodium, potassium and fluid regarding RCC risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), which was initiated in 1986 and included 120,852 participants aged 55 to 69 years. Diet and lifestyle were assessed by questionnaires and toenail clippings were collected. Genotyping of toenail DNA was performed using the SEQUENOM® MassARRAY® platform for a literature-based selection of 13 candidate SNPs in seven key RAAS genes. After 20.3 years of follow-up, Cox regression analyses were conducted using a case-cohort approach including 3,583 subcohort members and 503 RCC cases. Two SNPs in AGTR1 were associated with RCC risk. AGTR1_rs1492078 (AA vs. GG) decreased RCC risk [hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.70(0.49-1.00)], whereas AGTR1_rs5186 (CC vs. AA) increased RCC risk [HR(95%CI): 1.49(1.08-2.05)]. Associations were stronger in participants with hypertension. The RCC risk for AGT_rs3889728 (AG + AA vs. GG) was modified by hypertension (p interaction = 0.039). SNP-diet interactions were not significant, although HRs suggested interaction between SNPs in ACE and sodium intake. SNPs in AGTR1 and AGT influenced RCC susceptibility, and their effects were modified by hypertension. Sodium intake was differentially associated with RCC risk across genotypes of several SNPs, yet some analyses had probably inadequate power to show significant interaction. Results suggest that RAAS may be a candidate pathway in RCC etiology. © 2014 UICC.

  14. Common genetic variations of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and response to acute angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Kontula, Kimmo K; Paukku, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Jukka Y; Virtamo, Jarmo; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Hiltunen, Timo P

    2010-04-01

    In order to get insight into possible genetic determinants of antihypertensive drug action, we analysed the relations between polymorphisms of the genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and acute effects of ACE inhibition on blood pressure as well as circulating renin and aldosterone levels in hypertensive patients. A total of 315 hypertensive patients referred for problems in drug treatment were given a single 50 mg dose of captopril. Plasma renin and aldosterone were measured before and 60 min after the drug administration. Four DNA variants, including angiotensin type I receptor (AGTR1) 1166 A/C, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and AGT -217 G/A, were genotyped in the patients and normotensive men (n = 175). A replication study on the relation between AGTR1 1166 A/C and plasma renin and aldosterone levels was carried out in the 244 hypertensive men of the pharmacogenetic GENRES Study. Referred hypertensive patients with the AGTR1 CC genotype had higher aldosterone at baseline (P = 0.02) and after 60 min of captopril administration (P = 0.01) compared with the AA genotype. Replicate analysis in the GENRES patients showed a similar trend. When the two studies were combined (315 and 244 patients, respectively), plasma aldosterone level (P = 0.007) as well as aldosterone/renin ratio (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in the CC genotype (n = 13) than in the AA genotype (n = 370). Transfection studies in cultured HEK293 cells indicated that the 1166C allele was associated with higher mRNA levels than the 1166A allele. The AGTR1 1166C allele when present in homozygous form may be associated with a form of essential hypertension characterized by high plasma aldosterone and low plasma renin levels, possibly due to increased AGTR1 mRNA levels and augmented angiotensin II action.

  15. Longer duration of obesity is associated with a reduction in urinary angiotensinogen in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Morato, Manuela; Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Schaefer, Franz; Areias, José Carlos; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) play a role in the putative association. Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) was determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and H 2 O 2 by a microplate fluorometric assay. U-AGT and P-AGT levels were similar across body mass index (BMI) groups and between sexes. However, boys who were overweight/obese since the age of 4 years presented lower levels of U-AGT compared with those of normal weight at the same age. In children who were overweight/obese since the age of 4, urinary H 2 O 2 decreased with P-AGT. A higher duration of obesity was associated with decreased U-AGT in boys, thus reflecting decreased intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Also, children with a longer duration of obesity showed an inverse association between urinary H 2 O 2 and P-AGT. Future studies should address whether these results reflect an early compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-triggered renal dysfunction.

  16. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Jones

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  17. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation: Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement requires not only adequate frequency response but must also address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. The implications of these problems are assessed.

  18. Wind Energy System Time-domain (WEST) analyzers using hybrid simulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two stand-alone analyzers constructed for real time simulation of the complex dynamic characteristics of horizontal-axis wind energy systems are described. Mathematical models for an aeroelastic rotor, including nonlinear aerodynamic and elastic loads, are implemented with high speed digital and analog circuitry. Models for elastic supports, a power train, a control system, and a rotor gimbal system are also included. Limited correlation efforts show good comparisons between results produced by the analyzers and results produced by a large digital simulation. The digital simulation results correlate well with test data.

  19. Blood Pressure Lowering and Safety Improvements With Liver Angiotensinogen Inhibition in Models of Hypertension and Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Mullick, Adam E; Yeh, Steve T; Graham, Mark J; Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Prakash, Thazha P; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2017-09-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade. AGT ASOs which target multiple systemic sites of AGT versus an N-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated AGT ASO that targets the liver were compared with captopril and losartan. Spontaneously hypertensive rats fed an 8% NaCl diet, a model of malignant hypertension resistant to standard RAAS inhibitors, demonstrated robust and durable blood pressure reductions with AGT ASO treatments, which was not observed with standard RAAS blockade. Studies in rat models of acute kidney injury produced by salt deprivation revealed kidney injury with ASO treatment that reduced kidney-expressed AGT, but not in animals treated with the N-acetylgalactosamine AGT ASO despite comparable plasma AGT reductions. Administration of either captopril or losartan also produced acute kidney injury during salt deprivation. Thus, intrarenal RAAS derived from kidney AGT, and inhibited by the standard of care, contributes to the maintenance of renal function during severe RAAS challenge. Such improvements in efficacy and tolerability by a liver-selective AGT inhibitor could be desirable in individuals not at their blood pressure goal with existing RAAS blockade. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Virtual Reality Training System for Anytime/Anywhere Acquisition of Surgical Skills: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, Mohsen; Booton, Ryan; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a hardware/software simulation environment suitable for anytime/anywhere surgical skills training. It blends the advantages of physical hardware and task analogs with the flexibility of virtual environments. This is further enhanced by a web-based implementation of training feedback accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive means to attain proficiency in basic tasks that could potentially be applied across a spectrum of trainees from first responder field medical personnel to physicians. This results in a powerful training tool for surgical skills acquisition relevant to helping injured warfighters.

  1. Changes of urinary angiotensinogen concentration and its association with urinary proteins in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen; Bai, Qiong; A, Lata; Liang, Yaoxian; Zheng, Danxia; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It had been reported that angiotensinogen might be a marker for activation of renin-angiotensin system, which was associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional roles of AGT in DN in vitro. Methods: Diabetic rat models were built by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups, two of the three groups were treated with different doses of losartan, the other diabetic group was as control and normal rats acted as healthy control. In a 12-week investigation, we detected the changes of AGT in all rats’ blood and urine and the association between AGT concentration and RAS activation and urinary proteins were analyzed in this study. Results: The serum AGT of rats had no significant differences (P>0.05 for all). The urinary AGT of the diabetic rats was significantly different from the control group, moreover, the urinary AGT of the diabetic rats under different treatments was also obviously different (P<0.05 for all). Besides, the results of immunohistochemical assay indicated that AGT expression level was correlated with renal tissues damage. The level of AGT was positively associated with urinary protein (r=0.493, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with CCr (r=-0.474, P=0.007) and the dose of ARB (r=-0.575, P=0.001). Moreover, the dose of ARB was independently associated with urinary AGT (B=-2.963, P=0.024) in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Urinary AGT may be a marker for the activation of local RAS in kidney and independently associated with ARB. PMID:26722381

  2. Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malachesky, P. A.; Bellows, R. J.; Einstein, H. E.; Grimes, P. G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.

    1983-01-01

    The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirement of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-bromine EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge.

  3. Design of aircraft turbine fan drive gear transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, E.; Hirsch, R. A.; Peterson, V. W.

    1970-01-01

    The following basic types of gear reduction concepts were studied as being feasible power train systems for a low-bypass-ratio, single-spool, geared turbofan engine for general aircraft use: (1) single-stage external-internal reduction, (2) gears (offset shafting), (3) multiple compound idler gear system (concentric shafting), and (4) star gear planetary system with internal ring gear final output member (concentric shafting-counterrotation). In addition, studies were made of taking the accessories drive power off both the high-speed and low-speed shafting, using either face gears or spiral bevel gears. Both antifriction and sleeve-type bearings were considered for the external-internal and star-planet reduction concepts.

  4. AGT M235T Genotype/Anxiety Interaction and Gender in the HyperGEN Study

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Sarah S.; Guo, Xinxin; Zhang, Yuqing; Weidner, G.; Williams, Scott; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background Both anxiety and elevated heart rate (HR) have been implicated in the development of hypertension. The HyperGen cohort, consisting of siblings with severe and mild hypertension, an age-matched random sample of persons from the same base populations, and unmedicated adult offspring of the hypertensive siblings (N = 1,002 men and 987 women), was analyzed for an association of the angiotenisinogen AGTM235T genotype (TT, MT, MM) with an endophenotype, heart rate (HR) in high and low anxious groups. Methodology The interaction of AGTM genotype with anxiety, which has been independently associated with hypertension, was investigated adjusting for age, hypertension status, smoking, alcohol consumption, beta blocker medication, body mass index, physical activity and hours of television viewing (sedentary life style). Principal Findings Although there was no main effect of genotype on HR in men or women, high anxious men with the TT genotype had high HR, whereas high anxious men with the MM genotype had low HR. In women, HR was inversely associated with anxiety but there was no interaction with genotype. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that high anxiety in men with the TT genotype may increase risk for hypertension whereas the MM genotype may be protective in high anxious men. This type of gene x environment interaction may be one reason why genome wide association studies sometimes fail to replicate. The locus may be important only in combination with certain environmental factors. PMID:20967221

  5. AGT M235T genotype/anxiety interaction and gender in the HyperGEN study.

    PubMed

    Knox, Sarah S; Guo, Xinxin; Zhang, Yuqing; Weidner, G; Williams, Scott; Ellison, R Curtis

    2010-10-13

    Both anxiety and elevated heart rate (HR) have been implicated in the development of hypertension. The HyperGen cohort, consisting of siblings with severe and mild hypertension, an age-matched random sample of persons from the same base populations, and unmedicated adult offspring of the hypertensive siblings (N = 1,002 men and 987 women), was analyzed for an association of the angiotenisinogen AGTM235T genotype (TT, MT, MM) with an endophenotype, heart rate (HR) in high and low anxious groups. The interaction of AGTM genotype with anxiety, which has been independently associated with hypertension, was investigated adjusting for age, hypertension status, smoking, alcohol consumption, beta blocker medication, body mass index, physical activity and hours of television viewing (sedentary life style). Although there was no main effect of genotype on HR in men or women, high anxious men with the TT genotype had high HR, whereas high anxious men with the MM genotype had low HR. In women, HR was inversely associated with anxiety but there was no interaction with genotype. The results suggest that high anxiety in men with the TT genotype may increase risk for hypertension whereas the MM genotype may be protective in high anxious men. This type of gene x environment interaction may be one reason why genome wide association studies sometimes fail to replicate. The locus may be important only in combination with certain environmental factors.

  6. Design and development of a ceramic radial turbine for the AGT101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, D. G.; Gupta, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    An acceptable and feasible ceramic turbine wheel design has been achieved, and the relevant temperature, stress, and success probability analyses are discussed. The design is described, the materials selection presented, and the engine cycle conditions analysis parameters shown. Measured MOR four-point strengths are indicated for room and elevated temperatures, and engine conditions are analyzed for various cycle states, materials, power states, turbine inlet temperatures, and speeds. An advanced gas turbine ceramic turbine rotor thermal and stress model is developed, and cumulative probability of survival is shown for first and third-year properties of SiC and Si3N4 rotors under different operating conditions, computed for both blade and hub regions. Temperature and stress distributions for steady-state and worst-case shutdown transients are depicted.

  7. AGT, N-Burge partitions and {{W}}_N minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavin, Vladimir; Foda, Omar; Santachiara, Raoul

    2015-10-01

    Let {B}_{N,n}^{p,p', H} be a conformal block, with n consecutive channels χ ι , ι = 1, ⋯ n, in the conformal field theory {M}_N^{p,p'× {M}^{H} , where {M}_N^{p,p' } is a {W}_N minimal model, generated by chiral spin-2, ⋯ spin- N currents, and labeled by two co-prime integers p and p', 1 < p < p', while {M}^{H} is a free boson conformal field theory. {B}_{N,n}^{p,p', H} is the expectation value of vertex operators between an initial and a final state. Each vertex operator is labelled by a charge vector that lives in the weight lattice of the Lie algebra A N - 1, spanned by weight vectors {overrightarrow{ω}}_1,\\cdots, {overrightarrow{ω}}_{N-1} . We restrict our attention to conformal blocks with vertex operators whose charge vectors point along {overrightarrow{ω}}_1 . The charge vectors that label the initial and final states can point in any direction.

  8. Frequency of the AGT Pro11Leu polymorphism in humans: Does diet matter?

    PubMed

    Ségurel, Laure; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Vitalis, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    The Pro11Leu substitution in the AGXT gene, which causes primary hyperoxaluria type 1, is found with high frequency in some human populations (e.g., 5-20% in Caucasians). It has been suggested that this detrimental mutation could have been positively selected in populations with a meat-rich diet. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the occurrence of Pro11Leu in both herder and agriculturalist populations from Central Asia. We found a lower frequency of this detrimental mutation in herders, whose diet is more meat-rich, as compared to agriculturalists, which therefore challenges the universality of the previous claim. Furthermore, when combining our original data with previously published results, we could show that the worldwide genetic differentiation measured at the Pro11Leu polymorphism does not depart from neutrality. Hence, the distribution of the variation observed in the AGXT gene could be due to demographic history, rather than local adaptation to diet.

  9. system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  10. The N-linking glycosylation system from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is required for adhesion and has potential use in glycoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Li, Yanwen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Vohra, Prerna; Tucker, Alexander W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Aebi, Markus; Langford, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a mucosal respiratory pathogen causing contagious porcine pleuropneumonia. Pathogenesis studies have demonstrated a major role for the capsule, exotoxins and outer membrane proteins. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can also glycosylate proteins, using a cytoplasmic N-linked glycosylating enzyme designated NGT, but its transcriptional arrangement and role in virulence remains unknown. We investigated the NGT locus and demonstrated that the putative transcriptional unit consists of rimO, ngt and a glycosyltransferase termed agt. From this information we used the A. pleuropneumoniae glycosylation locus to decorate an acceptor protein, within Escherichia coli, with a hexose polymer that reacted with an anti-dextran antibody. Mass spectrometry analysis of a truncated protein revealed that this operon could add up to 29 repeat units to the appropriate sequon. We demonstrated the importance of NGT in virulence, by creating deletion mutants and testing them in a novel respiratory cell line adhesion model. This study demonstrates the importance of the NGT glycosylation system for pathogenesis and its potential biotechnological application for glycoengineering. PMID:28077594

  11. Towards a system level understanding of non-model organisms sampled from the environment: a network biology approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Turan, Nil; Diab, Amer M; Wu, Huifeng; Mackenzie, Carolynn; Bartie, Katie L; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Lyons, Brett P; Stentiford, Grant D; Herbert, John M; Abraham, Joseph K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; George, Stephen G; Viant, Mark R; Chipman, Kevin J; Falciani, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations.

  12. Towards a System Level Understanding of Non-Model Organisms Sampled from the Environment: A Network Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tim D.; Turan, Nil; Diab, Amer M.; Wu, Huifeng; Mackenzie, Carolynn; Bartie, Katie L.; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Lyons, Brett P.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Herbert, John M.; Abraham, Joseph K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leaver, Michael J.; Taggart, John B.; George, Stephen G.; Viant, Mark R.; Chipman, Kevin J.; Falciani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations. PMID:21901081

  13. The N-linking glycosylation system from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is required for adhesion and has potential use in glycoengineering.

    PubMed

    Cuccui, Jon; Terra, Vanessa S; Bossé, Janine T; Naegeli, Andreas; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Li, Yanwen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Vohra, Prerna; Tucker, Alexander W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Maskell, Duncan J; Aebi, Markus; Langford, Paul R; Wren, Brendan W

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a mucosal respiratory pathogen causing contagious porcine pleuropneumonia. Pathogenesis studies have demonstrated a major role for the capsule, exotoxins and outer membrane proteins. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can also glycosylate proteins, using a cytoplasmic N-linked glycosylating enzyme designated NGT, but its transcriptional arrangement and role in virulence remains unknown. We investigated the NGT locus and demonstrated that the putative transcriptional unit consists of rimO, ngt and a glycosyltransferase termed agt. From this information we used the A. pleuropneumoniae glycosylation locus to decorate an acceptor protein, within Escherichia coli, with a hexose polymer that reacted with an anti-dextran antibody. Mass spectrometry analysis of a truncated protein revealed that this operon could add up to 29 repeat units to the appropriate sequon. We demonstrated the importance of NGT in virulence, by creating deletion mutants and testing them in a novel respiratory cell line adhesion model. This study demonstrates the importance of the NGT glycosylation system for pathogenesis and its potential biotechnological application for glycoengineering. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism associates with exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    McCole, Steve D; Brown, Michael D; Moore, Geoffrey E; Ferrell, Robert E; Wilund, Kenneth R; Huberty, Andrea; Douglass, Larry W; Hagberg, James M

    2002-08-14

    We sought to determine whether the M235T angiotensinogen (AGT) polymorphism, either interacting with habitual physical activity (PA) levels or independently, was associated with cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics during maximal and submaximal exercise. Sixty-one healthy postmenopausal women (16 sedentary, 21 physically active, and 24 endurance athletes) had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), cardiac output, stroke volume (SV), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2) assessed during 40, 60, 80, and approximately 100% of VO2 max treadmill exercise. VO2 max did not differ among AGT genotype groups; however, maximal HR was 14 beats/min higher in AGT TT than MM genotype women (P < 0.05). AGT TT genotype women also had 19 beats/min higher HR during approximately 100% VO2 max exercise than AGT MM genotype women (P = 0.008). AGT genotype also interacted with habitual PA levels to associate with systolic BP and a-vDO2 during approximately 100% VO2 max exercise (both P < 0.01). AGT TT genotype women had 11 beats/min higher HR during submaximal exercise than MM genotype women (P < 0.05). AGT genotype interacted with habitual PA levels to associate with systolic BP during submaximal exercise (P = 0.009). AGT genotype, independently or interacting with habitual PA levels, did not associate significantly with diastolic BP, cardiac output, SV, or TPR during maximal or submaximal exercise. Thus this common genetic variant in the renin-angiotensin system appears to associate, both interactively with habitual PA levels and independently, with HR, systolic BP, and a-vDO2 responses to maximal and submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women.

  15. Summary of Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Activities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes the test activities and presents the results of a two-year winter operation test program for three technologically-different Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems. The basic objective of the program was to dete...

  16. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : UMI

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes the test activities and presents the results of a two-year winter operation test program for three technologically-different Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems. The basic objective of the program was to dete...

  17. Automated Guideway Transit Service Availability Workshop

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-02-01

    The workshop consisted of four panel sessions: Service Availability Definitions; Operator Experience in Operational Systems; Theoretical Aspects of AGT Service Availability; and User-Manufacturer Relationships. The workshop presented a wide spectrum ...

  18. Development of Measures of Service Availability : Volume 1. Summary Report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-06-01

    The objective of the project was to develop passenger-oriented measures of service availability which could be used to control the failure characteristics of Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) systems throughout their life cycle. A corollary and equall...

  19. Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Diversity in the Genes of the Renin–Angiotensin System: Findings From the Family Blood Pressure Program

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Denise; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy; Ikeda, Morna A.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Weder, Alan; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2003-01-01

    Association studies of candidate genes with complex traits have generally used one or a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), although variation in the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within genes markedly influences the sensitivity and precision of association studies. The extent of LD and the underlying haplotype structure for most candidate genes are still unavailable. We sampled 193 blacks (African-Americans) and 160 whites (European-Americans) and estimated the intragenic LD and the haplotype structure in four genes of the renin–angiotensin system. We genotyped 25 SNPs, with all but one of the pairs spaced between 1 and 20 kb, thus providing resolution at small scale. The pattern of LD within a gene was very heterogeneous. Using a robust method to define haplotype blocks, blocks of limited haplotype diversity were identified at each locus; between these blocks, LD was lost owing to the history of recombination events. As anticipated, there was less LD among blacks, the number of haplotypes was substantially larger, and shorter haplotype segments were found, compared with whites. These findings have implications for candidate-gene association studies and indicate that variation between populations of European and African origin in haplotype diversity is characteristic of most genes. [The sequence data described in this paper are available in GenBank under the following accession nos: AGT, MIM 106150; Renin, MIM 179820; ACE, MIM 106180; Angiotensin receptor I, MIM 106165. Supplementary material is available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:12566395

  20. Involvement of skeletal renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein-kinin system in bone deteriorations of type 1 diabetic mice with estrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Luan; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    This study was aimed to investigate the involvement of skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in bone deteriorations of mice in response to the combination treatment of estrogen deficiency and hyperglycemia. The female C57BL/6J mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized with vehicle or streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. Two weeks later, the biochemistries in serum and urine were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA. The H&E and TRAP staining were performed at the tibial proximal metaphysis. The polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied for molecular analysis on mRNA and protein expression. The mice after treating with ovariectomy and STZ showed the decreased level of serum Ca and the increased level of serum PTH and urine Ca. The H&E staining showed trabecular bone abnormalities as demonstrated by the loss, disconnection and separation of trabecular bone network as well as the loss of chondrocytes and appearance of chondrocyte cluster at growth plate of tibia. The significant increase of matured osteoclast number was shown in group with double treatments. The combination treatment significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of AGT, ACE, renin receptor, MMP-9 and CAII, and protein expression of renin, and decreased the ratio of OPG/RANKL and the expression of bradykinin receptors in bone tissue. Ovariectomy combined with STZ induction produced more detrimental actions on bone through the activation of local bone RAS and the down-regulation of bradykinin receptors, as compared to the respective single treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) supplement. Magnet system special investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of magnet system special investigations listed below are summarized: 4 Tesla Magnet Alternate Design Study; 6 Tesla Magnet Manufacturability Study. The conceptual design for a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet system for use with an alternate (supersonic) ETF power train is described, and estimated schedule and cost are identified. The magnet design is scaled from the ETF 6 T Tesla design. Results of a manufacturability study and a revised schedule and cost estimate for the ETF 6 T magnet are reported. Both investigations are extensions of the conceptual design of a 6 T magnet system performed earlier as a part of the overall MED-ETF conceptual design described in Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) Vol. V, System Design Description (SDD) 503 dated September, 1981, DOE/NASA/0224-1; NASA CR-165/52.

  2. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F Suppresses Angiotensinogen Gene Expression and Attenuates Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao Ling; Chan, John S.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) overexpression on angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury in high-glucose milieu both in vivo and in vitro. Diabetic Akita transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs were created, and the effects on systemic hypertension, Agt gene expression, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were studied. We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs stably transfected with control plasmid or plasmid containing hnRNP F cDNA in vitro. The results showed that hnRNP F overexpression attenuated systemic hypertension, suppressed Agt and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene expression, and reduced urinary Agt and angiotensin II levels, renal hypertrophy, and glomerulotubular fibrosis in Akita hnRNP F-Tg mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression prevented the high-glucose stimulation of Agt and TGF-β1 mRNA expression and cellular hypertrophy in RPTCs. These data suggest that hnRNP F plays a modulatory role and can ameliorate hypertension, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis in diabetes. The underlying mechanism is mediated, at least in part, via the suppression of intrarenal Agt gene expression in vivo. hnRNP F may be a potential target in the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury in diabetes. PMID:22664958

  3. Evolving concepts on regulation and function of renin in distal nephron

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Minolfa C.; Gonzalez, Alexis A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained stimulation of the intrarenal/intratubular renin–angiotensin system in a setting of elevated arterial pressure elicits renal vasoconstriction, increased sodium reabsorption, proliferation, fibrosis, and eventual renal injury. Activation of luminal AT1 receptors in proximal and distal nephron segments by local Ang II formation stimulates various transport systems. Augmented angiotensinogen (AGT) production by proximal tubule cells increases AGT secretion contributing to increased proximal Ang II levels and leading to spillover of AGT into the distal nephron segments, as reflected by increased urinary AGT excretion. The increased distal delivery of AGT provides substrate for renin, which is expressed in principal cells of the collecting tubule and collecting ducts, and is also stimulated by AT1 receptor activation. Renin and prorenin are secreted into the tubular lumen and act on the AGT delivered from the proximal tubule to form more Ang I. The catalytic actions of renin and or prorenin may be enhanced by binding to prorenin receptors on the intercalated cells or soluble prorenin receptor secreted into the tubular fluid. There is also increased luminal angiotensin converting enzyme in collecting ducts facilitating Ang II formation leading to stimulation of sodium reabsorption via sodium channel and sodium/chloride co-transporter. Thus, increased collecting duct renin contributes to Ang II-dependent hypertension by augmenting distal nephron intra-tubular Ang II formation leading to sustained stimulation of sodium reabsorption and progression of hypertension. PMID:22990760

  4. Local bone marrow renin-angiotensin system in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroglu, I C; Malkan, U Y

    2016-10-01

    The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages. Local BM RAS is important in hematopoietic stem cell biology and microenvironment. Angiotensin II regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells. Activation of Mas receptor or ACE2 promotes proliferation of CD34+ cells. BM contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development. Angiotensin II attenuates the migration and proliferation of CD34+ Cells and promotes the adhesion of both MNCs and CD34+ cells. Renin cells in hematopoietic organs are precursor B cells. The renin cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Mutant renin-expressing hematopoietic precursors can cause leukemia. Deletion of RBP-J in the renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme. Mutant cells undergo a neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. Many biological conditions during the development and function of blood cells are mediated by RAS, such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation, intracellular signaling, mobilization, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. The aim of this paper is to review recent developments regarding the actions of local BM RAS in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies molecules.

  5. Correlation between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the Chinese Yi ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Ling; Mo, Yan-Ping; He, Yong-Shu; Yang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jiao; Reng, Hao-Ming; Long, Li

    2015-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been considered to play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between RAS gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH) in the Chinese Yi ethnic group. A total of 244 EH subjects and 185 normotensive individuals from the Chinese Yi ethnic group were genotyped for AGT M235T (rs699), AT1R A1166C (rs5186), ACE I/D (rs4340) and ACE G2350A (rs4343) polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency of ACE G2350A were observed between the EH cases and controls (p=0.001, 0.002). After being grouped by gender, significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency of ACE G2350A and AT1R A1166C were observed between females of the EH cases and controls (ACE G2350A: p=0.000, 0.002; AT1R A1166C: p=0.008, 0.011). After excluding the influence of multifactorial interactions, the ACE G2350A polymorphism is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of EH in the Chinese Yi ethnic group (odds ratio (OR)=1.656, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.807-2.524, p=0.019). The RAS-related ACE G2350A polymorphism is associated with the pathogenesis of EH in the Chinese Yi ethnic group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  7. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  8. Eight Weeks of Strength and Power Training Improves Club Head Speed in Collegiate Golfers.

    PubMed

    Oranchuk, Dustin J; Mannerberg, Jason M; Robinson, Tracey L; Nelson, Megan C

    2018-02-14

    Club head speed (CHS) is a major determinant of drive distance, a key component of golf performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the indirect effects of an eight-week strength and power program on CHS. Twelve (6 male, 6 female) NCAA Division II golfers (20.3±1.5 years) randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, underwent either a periodized strength and power program consisting of high-load barbell movements or a bodyweight and rotational movement focused resistance training program. Outcomes were CHS, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and 1RM back squat (BS), power clean (PC), and deadlift (DL). Dependent t-tests were utilized to assess differences in outcome variables pre-to-post for each group, independent t-tests were utilized to assess differences between groups, and Pearson correlations were utilized to assess associations between CHS and outcome variables. On average, the intervention group experienced improvements in all outcome variables except peak CHS (p=0.60); the control group displayed no changes in any outcome variable except a decrease in average CHS (p=0.028). Compared to the control group, the intervention group experienced greater improvements in average CHS, BS, PC, and average and peak CMJ height (p<0.05). Additionally, CHS had large associations with PC (r=0.70, p=0.012), BS (r=0.64, p=0.025), DL (r=0.54, p=0.068) and CMJ (r=0.73, p=0.007). These results suggest improving muscular strength and power by increasing PC, BS, and CMJ is associated with increased CHS in collegiate golfers. Integrating a high-load, barbell-focused strength and power program may be beneficial for improving CHS and indirectly, golf performance.

  9. [Health-related strength and power training in seniors: Purpose and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Bopp, Micha; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of older people in western societies rapidly increases. Aging-induced disease conditions accompanied with declines in cardiocirculatory and neuromuscular performance constitute a major individual and economic health burden. Besides decreasing vascular and cardiac function during the process of aging, a loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle structure and function seem to mainly account for decreasing maximal strength, strength development and strength endurance. These findings adversely interfer with static and dynamic postural control and may lead to an increased risk of falling with impairments of autonomy and quality of life. Traditional strength training recommendations basing on health-related exercise prescriptions for elderly people have been proven to counteract or at least attenuate aging-induced declines of neuromuscular muscular function. Multimodal and combined strength and balance training deliver additional improvements of neuromuscular capacity. Recent evidence additionally underpin the need of trunk muscle training and claimed for regimes considering explosive and high-velocity strength training in seniors. High quality RCTs revealed notable strength training effects on mobility, autonomy, quality of life and the reduction of the risk of falling (up to 50%). Available evidence also indicates that various strength training regimes elicit preventive and therapeutic effects on osteoporosis, diabetes type 2 and other chronic diseases, with effect sizes comparable to medication intake. Thus, health care providers, health insurances, Employers' Liability Insurance Associations and politicians should promote infrastructural developments that enable feasible and cost-effective access to health-related fitness centers or other sport facilities (e. g. sport clubs). These environmental requirements should be embedded in multi-centric education programs and campaigns that might enable regularly conducted strength and endurance training perceived as beneficial and valuable from an individual health care perspective.

  10. Comprehensive quality assurance phantom for cardiovascular imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P.

    1998-07-01

    With the advent of high heat loading capacity x-ray tubes, high frequency inverter type generators, and the use of spectral shaping filters, the automatic brightness/exposure control (ABC) circuit logic employed in the new generation of angiographic imaging equipment has been significantly reprogrammed. These new angiographic imaging systems are designed to take advantage of the power train capabilities to yield higher contrast images while maintaining, or lower, the patient exposure. Since the emphasis of the imaging system design has been significantly altered, the system performance parameters one is interested and the phantoms employed for the quality assurance must also change in order to properly evaluate the imaging capability of the cardiovascular imaging systems. A quality assurance (QA) phantom has been under development in this institution and was submitted to various interested organizations such as American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions (SCA&I), and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for their review and input. At the same time, in an effort to establish a unified standard phantom design for the cardiac catheterization laboratories (CCL), SCA&I and NEMA have formed a joint work group in early 1997 to develop a suitable phantom. The initial QA phantom design has since been accepted to serve as the base phantom by the SCA&I- NEMA Joint Work Group (JWG) from which a comprehensive QA Phantom is being developed.

  11. Nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference of angiotensinogen decreases blood pressure and improves myocardial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li-Fen; Sheng, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yu-Qiang; Jin, Tuo; Du, Qin

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensinogen (AGT) has been shown to have a role in cardiac hypertrophy, while depletion of the AGT gene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has not been investigated. The present study investigated the effect of AGT knockdown on cardiac hypertrophy in SHR. For this, small hairpin (sh)RNAs were intravenously injected into SHRs, using a nanoparticle‑mediated transfection system. The experimental rats were divided into the following groups: a) Blank control with water treatment only, b) negative control with biscarbamate‑crosslinked Gal‑polyethylene glycol polyethylenimine nanoparticles (GPE)/negative shRNA, c) AGT‑RNA interference (RNAi) group with GPE/AGT‑shRNA, and 4) normotensive control using Wistar‑Kyoto rats (WKY) with water treatment. Three and five days following the first injection, the levels of hepatic AGT mRNA and AGT protein as well as plasma levels of AGT were markedly decreased in the AGT‑RNAi group (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP), left ventricular weight to body weight ratio and heart weight to body weight ratio were observed in the AGT‑RNAi group compared with those in the control groups. The depletion of AGT in SHR led to a reduction in SBP by 30±4 mmHg, which was retained for >10 days. Cardiac hypertrophy was also significantly improved in AGT‑knockdown rats. In conclusion, the present study showed that AGT‑silencing had a significant inhibitory effect on hypertension and hypertensive‑induced cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs.

  12. Interferon-γ biphasically regulates angiotensinogen expression via a JAK-STAT pathway and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in renal proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Miyata, Kayoko; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Navar, L. Gabriel; Kobori, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Renal inflammation modulates angiotensinogen (AGT) production in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) via inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Among these, the effects of IFN-γ on AGT regulation in RPTCs are incompletely delineated. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms by which IFN-γ regulates AGT expression in RPTCs. RPTCs were incubated with or without IFN-γ up to 48 h. AGT expression, STAT1 and STAT3 activities, and SOCS1 expression were evaluated. RNA interference studies against STAT1, SOCS1, and STAT3 were performed to elucidate a signaling cascade. IFN-γ decreased AGT expression at 6 h (0.61±0.05, ratio to control) and 12 h (0.47±0.03). In contrast, longer exposure for 24 and 48 h increased AGT expression (1.76±0.18, EC50=3.4 ng/ml, and 1.45±0.08, respectively). IFN-γ treatment for 6 h strongly induced STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 augmentation, and decreased STAT3 activity. However, STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 augmentation waned at 24 h, while STAT3 activity increased. RNA interference studies revealed that activation of STAT1-SOCS1 axis decreased STAT3 activity. Thus, IFN-γ biphasically regulates AGT expression in RPTCs via STAT3 activity modulated by STAT1-SOCS1 axis, suggesting the STAT1-SOCS1 axis is important in IFN-γ-induced activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.—Satou, R., Miyata, K., Gonzalez-Villalobos, R. A., Ingelfinger, J. R., Navar, L. G., Kobori, H. Interferon-γ biphasically regulates angiotensinogen expression via a JAK-STAT pathway and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in renal proximal tubular cells. PMID:22302831

  13. The role of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system genes in the progression of chronic kidney disease: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Tanika N.; Raj, Dominic; Rahman, Mahboob; Kretzler, Matthias; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Tao, Kaixiang; Xie, Dawei; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; He, Jiang; Appel, J.; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted single-marker, gene- and pathway-based analyses to examine the association between renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) variants and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study participants. Methods A total of 1523 white and 1490 black subjects were genotyped for 490 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 RAAS genes as part of the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array. CKD progression phenotypes included decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time and the occurrence of a renal disease event, defined as incident end-stage renal disease or halving of eGFR from baseline. Mixed-effects models were used to examine SNP associations with eGFR decline, while Cox proportional hazards models tested SNP associations with renal events. Gene- and pathway-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. All analyses were stratified by race, and a Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple testing. Results Among white and black participants, eGFR declined an average of 1.2 and 2.3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year, respectively, while renal events occurred in a respective 11.5 and 24.9% of participants. We identified strong gene- and pathway-based associations with CKD progression. The AGT and RENBP genes were consistently associated with risk of renal events in separate analyses of white and black participants (both P < 1.00 × 10−6). Driven by the significant gene-based findings, the entire RAAS pathway was also associated with renal events in both groups (both P < 1.00 × 10−6). No single-marker associations with CKD progression were observed. Conclusions The current study provides strong evidence for a role of the RAAS in CKD progression. PMID:25906781

  14. The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes in the progression of chronic kidney disease: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tanika N; Raj, Dominic; Rahman, Mahboob; Kretzler, Matthias; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Ricardo, Ana C; Rosas, Sylvia E; Tao, Kaixiang; Xie, Dawei; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; He, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    We conducted single-marker, gene- and pathway-based analyses to examine the association between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) variants and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study participants. A total of 1523 white and 1490 black subjects were genotyped for 490 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 RAAS genes as part of the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array. CKD progression phenotypes included decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time and the occurrence of a renal disease event, defined as incident end-stage renal disease or halving of eGFR from baseline. Mixed-effects models were used to examine SNP associations with eGFR decline, while Cox proportional hazards models tested SNP associations with renal events. Gene- and pathway-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. All analyses were stratified by race, and a Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple testing. Among white and black participants, eGFR declined an average of 1.2 and 2.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year, respectively, while renal events occurred in a respective 11.5 and 24.9% of participants. We identified strong gene- and pathway-based associations with CKD progression. The AGT and RENBP genes were consistently associated with risk of renal events in separate analyses of white and black participants (both P < 1.00 × 10(-6)). Driven by the significant gene-based findings, the entire RAAS pathway was also associated with renal events in both groups (both P < 1.00 × 10(-6)). No single-marker associations with CKD progression were observed. The current study provides strong evidence for a role of the RAAS in CKD progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. [The effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on the liver steatosis in rats on long-term high-fat diet].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hua; Yuan, Li; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Cui-Juan

    2008-03-01

    To observe the relationship between liver steatosis in rats with long-term high-caloric and high-fat diet and the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). Then angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) drugs were given to investigate whether rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade can mitigate the liver steatosis and to probe its mechanisms. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 10), high-calorie and high-fat fed group (HF group, n = 10), ARB treated group (AR group, n = 10) and ACEI treated group (AE group, n = 10). Rats were fed with high-calorie and high-fat diet and given RAS inhibitor drugs (valsartan 40 mg/kg to the AR group and perindopril 4 mg/kg to the AE group) for eight weeks. Serum TG, free fatty acids (FFAs) lever and the fat content in liver were then measured with biochemical tests; insulin resistance was evaluated with euglycemic hyperinsulinemia clamp technique, the expression of UCP-2 and TGFbeta1 in liver tissue were examined with immunohistochemical staining and AGT mRNA, UCP-2 mRNA and TGFbeta1 mRNA were tested with RT-PCR. With the administration of RAS inhibitor drugs, following changes were observed. The levels of TG and FFAs and the fat content in liver decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was improved (P < 0.05), liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis were mitigated. The levels of UCP-2 decreased by 36.5% (P < 0.05) in AE group and 42.5% (P < 0.05) in AR group and TGFbeta1 decreased by 37% (P < 0.05) in AE group and 41.6% (P < 0.05) in AR group as compared with the HF group with immunohistochemical staining. The expression of AGTmRNA decreased by 14.9% (P < 0.05) in AE group and 21% (P < 0 .05) in AR group, UCP-2 mRNA decreased by 9% (P < 0.05) in AE group and 11% (P < 0.05) in AR group and TGFbeta1 mRNA decreased by 17% (P < 0.05) in AE

  16. Laboratory-Model Integrated-System FARAD Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K.A.; Best, S.; Miller, R.; Rose, M.F.; Owens, T.

    2008-01-01

    . Neutral gas is injected over the face of the acceleration coil through a fast-acting valve that feeds a central distribution manifold. The thruster is designed to preionize the gas using an RF-frequency ringing signal produced by a discharging Vector Inversion Generator (VIG). The acceleration stage consists of a multiple-turn, multiple-strand spiral induction coil (see Fig. 1, left panel) and is designed for operation at discharge energies on the order of 100 J/pulse. Several different pulsed power train modules can be used to drive current through the acceleration coil. One such power train is based upon the Bernardes and Merryman circuit topology, which restricts voltage reversal on the capacitor banks and can be clamped to eliminate current reversal in the coil. A second option is a pulse-compression-ring power train (see Fig. 1, right panel), which takesa temporally broad, low current pulse and transforms it into a short, high current pulse.

  17. Testing of Lightweight Fuel Cell Vehicles System at Low Speeds with Energy Efficiency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, Muhammad Rizuwan B.; Mohamed, Wan Ahmad Najmi B. Wan

    2013-12-01

    A fuel cell vehicle power train mini test bench was developed which consists of a 1 kW open cathode hydrogen fuel cell, electric motor, wheel, gearing system, DC/DC converter and vehicle control system (VCS). Energy efficiency identification and energy flow evaluation is a useful tool in identifying a detail performance of each component and sub-systems in a fuel cell vehicle system configuration. Three artificial traction loads was simulated at 30 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg force on a single wheel drive configuration. The wheel speed range reported here covers from idle to 16 km/h (low speed range) as a preliminary input in the research work frame. The test result shows that the system efficiency is 84.5 percent when the energy flow is considered from the fuel cell to the wheel and 279 watts of electrical power was produced by the fuel cell during that time. Dynamic system responses was also identified as the load increases beyond the motor traction capabilities where the losses at the converter and motor controller increased significantly as it tries to meet the motor traction power demands. This work is currently being further expanded within the work frame of developing a road-worthy fuel cell vehicle.

  18. Angiotensinogen and interleukin-18 as markers of chronic kidney damage in children with a history of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, K; Adamczyk, P; Świętochowska, E; Ziora, K; Szczepańska, M

    2017-05-04

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is clinically important to investigate the markers of a poor prognosis. The levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in serum and urine were evaluated. Study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS. Serum and urine AGT concentration was significantly higher in children after HUS as compared to the control group. No differences depending on the type of HUS and gender were noted. The serum concentration of IL-18 in children after HUS was significantly lower, whereas in urine did not differ significantly between the sick and healthy children. A negative correlation between the concentration of AGT in serum and albuminuria in patients after HUS was detected. The results indicate that the concentration of AGT in serum and urine in children after HUS increases, which may indicate the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The statement, that AGT may be a good biomarker of CKD after acute kidney injury due to HUS requires prospective studies with follow-up from the acute phase of the disease on a larger group of patients. Reduced IL-18 serum concentration in children after HUS with no difference in its urine concentration may indicate a loss of the protective effects of this cytokine on renal function due to previously occurred HUS.

  19. Urinary Angiotensinogen Excretion Level Is Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure in the Normotensive General Population.

    PubMed

    Sato, Emiko; Wang, An Yi; Satoh, Michihiro; Nishikiori, Yoko; Oba-Yabana, Ikuko; Yoshida, Mai; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Hida, Wataru; Mori, Takefumi

    2018-05-07

    Inflammation, intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, oxidative stress, and carbonyl stress have been postulated to play a fundamental role in controlling blood pressure. However, little is known about the association among renal RAS activation, carbonyl stress, and blood pressure elevation. We evaluated the relationship between blood pressure elevation and either renal RAS activity or carbonyl stress in the general population (N = 355) in Japan. To minimize the effect of antihypertensive drug therapy, we divided participants into 3 groups (normotensive, hypertensive-with-non-medication, and hypertensive-with-medication). Intrarenal RAS activity and carbonyl stress were indicated by the urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and carbonyl compound excretion levels, respectively. The urinary AGT and carbonyl compound excretion levels were significantly associated with blood pressure. Using a stepwise multiple regression analysis, we found that the urinary AGT excretion levels were strongly associated with blood pressure elevation, compared with inflammation, oxidative stress, and carbonyl stress markers, in all groups. Urinary carbonyl compound excretion was significantly associated with blood pressure in only the hypertensive-without-medication group. Furthermore, blood pressure was significantly increased in these participants, and both the urinary AGT and carbonyl compound levels were high. The urinary AGT excretion levels were strongly associated with elevated blood pressure in normotensive people, and inappropriate renal RAS activity and carbonyl stress independently contributed to the development of hypertension. These findings suggest that RAS activation, particularly renal RAS activation exert a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the general population.

  20. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2018-04-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P < 0.01), and levels increased as pregnancy progressed (P < 0.001). In non-Indigenous pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P < 0.01). In Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P < 0.03, P < 0.007, respectively). The uAGT/creatinine ratios of Indigenous women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies were the same. A decrease in uAGT/creatinine with advancing gestational age was associated with increased urinary albumin/creatinine, as is seen in preeclampsia, but it was not specific for this disorder. The reduced uAGT/creatinine in Indigenous pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal

  1. Heterogeneous Ag-TiO2-SiO2 composite materials as novel catalytic systems for selective epoxidation of cyclohexene by H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Xue, Jianyue; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    TiO2-SiO2 composites were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the structure directing template. Self-assembly hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide TiO2-SiO2/(CTAB) were soaked into silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution. The Ag-TiO2-SiO2(Ag-TS) composite were prepared via a precipitation of AgBr in soaking process and its decomposition at calcination stage. Structural characterization of the materials was carried out by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Characterization results revealed that Ag particles were incorporated into hierarchical TiO2-SiO2 without significantly affecting the structures of the supports. Further heating-treatment at 723 K was more favorable for enhancing the stability of the Ag-TS composite. The cyclohexene oxide was the major product in the epoxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant over the Ag-TS catalysts. Besides, the optimum catalytic activity and stability of Ag-TS catalysts were obtained under operational conditions of calcined at 723 K for 2 h, reaction time of 120 min, reaction temperature of 353 K, catalyst amount of 80 mg, aqueous H2O2 (30 wt.%) as oxidant and chloroform as solvent. High catalytic activity with conversion rate up to 99.2% of cyclohexene oxide could be obtainable in water-bathing. The catalyst was found to be stable and could be reused three times without significant loss of catalytic activity under the optimized reaction conditions. PMID:28493879

  2. Parameter Optimization and Operating Strategy of a TEG System for Railway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heghmanns, A.; Wilbrecht, S.; Beitelschmidt, M.; Geradts, K.

    2016-03-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) system demonstrator for diesel electric locomotives with the objective of reducing the mechanical load on the thermoelectric modules (TEM) is developed and constructed to validate a one-dimensional thermo-fluid flow simulation model. The model is in good agreement with the measurements and basis for the optimization of the TEG's geometry by a genetic multi objective algorithm. The best solution has a maximum power output of approx. 2.7 kW and does not exceed the maximum back pressure of the diesel engine nor the maximum TEM hot side temperature. To maximize the reduction of the fuel consumption, an operating strategy regarding the system power output for the TEG system is developed. Finally, the potential consumption reduction in passenger and freight traffic operating modes is estimated under realistic driving conditions by means of a power train and lateral dynamics model. The fuel savings are between 0.5% and 0.7%, depending on the driving style.

  3. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  4. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding ofmore » how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.« less

  5. Quantum spectral curve for ( q, t)-matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, Yegor

    2018-02-01

    We derive quantum spectral curve equation for ( q, t)-matrix model, which turns out to be a certain difference equation. We show that in Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit this equation reproduces the Baxter TQ equation for the quantum XXZ spin chain. This chain is spectral dual to the Seiberg-Witten integrable system associated with the AGT dual gauge theory.

  6. Cost Experience of Automated Transit. Supplement III

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes operations and maintenance (O&M) cost experience for the following AGT systems for the period 1976-1980: Airtrans, Sea-Tac, Tampa, Disneyworld (WEDway), Pearl Ridge, Minnesota Zoo, and Morgantown. O&M data on the Morgantown sys...

  7. Discussion Meeting on Thermodynamics of Alloys Held in Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain on 23-26 May 1990. Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-26

    OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. AIR FORCE MINISTERIO DE EDUCACION Y CIENCIA I I Wednesday, May 23 8.30 Registration 9.00... especially regarding the structural but less the thermodynamic proper- ties). The third binary system Ag-Te has been investigated in detail by our group. No

  8. RADIK: An Interactive Graphics and Text Editor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIK is an interactive graphics and text editing system designed for use with an ADAGE AGT/10 graphics computer, either in a stand-alone mode, or in...designing RADIK . A brief summary of results and applications is presented and implementation of RADIK is proposed. Assembly language computer programs developed during the work are appended for reference. (Author)

  9. 75 FR 11914 - Chrysler, LLC, Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 & 2, Power Train Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Facilities Management LLC; Detroit, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... shows that workers leased from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC were employed on-site at the... workers leased from Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC working on-site at the Detroit, Michigan...

  10. Differential effects of power training versus functional task practice on compensation and restoration of arm function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Corti, Manuela; McGuirk, Theresa E; Wu, Samuel S; Patten, Carolynn

    2012-09-01

    Improved upper-extremity (UE) movement with stroke rehabilitation may involve restoration of more normal or development of compensatory movement patterns. The authors investigated the differential effects of functional task practice (FTP) and dynamic resistance training (POWER) on clinical function and reaching kinematics in an effort to distinguish between mechanisms of gains. A total of 14 hemiparetic individuals were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either FTP or POWER and then crossed over to 10 weeks of the alternate treatment. Treatment order A was FTP followed by POWER, whereas treatment order B was POWER followed by FTP. Evaluation before and after each treatment block included a battery of clinical evaluations and kinematics of paretic UE functional reach to grasp. Both FTP and POWER improved movement accuracy, as revealed by a shift toward normal, including fewer submovements and reduced reach-path ratio. However, active range of motion revealed differential treatment effects. Shoulder flexion and elbow extension decreased with FTP and were associated with increased trunk displacement. In contrast, shoulder flexion and elbow extension excursion increased with POWER and were associated with significantly reduced trunk displacement. Treatment order B (POWER followed by FTP) revealed greater overall improvements. FTP increases compensatory movement patterns to improve UE function. POWER leads to more normal movement patterns. POWER prior to FTP may enhance the benefits of repetitive task practice.

  11. Environmental Assessment for Facilities Expansion at Naval Nuclear Power Training Unit -Charleston (NPTU Charleston), Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    pier and are exposed to salt water, wind , and adverse weather conditions. Utilities include electricity, potable water, and communication. Other...the NPTU Charleston piers (NOAA 2010). Daylight-only ship traffic extends upstream as far as the Nucor Steel Plant, accessing a slip for ocean-going...produced by the reactor plant is transmitted through the ship’s main engine turbine to a water break which simulates the action of a propeller without

  12. The effects of strength and power training on single-step balance recovery in older adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Haakonssen, Eric C; Zaccaria, Joseph A; Madigan, Michael L; Miller, Michael E; Marsh, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Improving muscle strength and power may mitigate the effects of sarcopenia, but it is unknown if this improves an older adult's ability to recover from a large postural perturbation. Forward tripping is prevalent in older adults and lateral falls are important due to risk of hip fracture. We used a forward and a lateral single-step balance recovery task to examine the effects of strength training (ST) or power (PT) training on single-step balance recovery in older adults. Twenty older adults (70.8±4.4 years, eleven male) were randomly assigned to either a 6-week (three times/week) lower extremity ST or PT intervention. Maximum forward (FLean(max)) and lateral (LLean(max)) lean angle and strength and power in knee extension and leg press were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Fifteen participants completed the study (ST =7, PT =8). Least squares means (95% CI) for ΔFLean(max) (ST: +4.1° [0.7, 7.5]; PT: +0.6° [-2.5, 3.8]) and ΔLLean(max) (ST: +2.2° [0.4, 4.1]; PT: +2.6° [0.9, 4.4]) indicated no differences between groups following training. In exploratory post hoc analyses collapsed by group, ΔFLean(max) was +2.4° (0.1, 4.7) and ΔLLean(max) was +2.4° (1.2, 3.6). These improvements on the balance recovery tasks ranged from ~15%-30%. The results of this preliminary study suggest that resistance training may improve balance recovery performance, and that, in this small sample, PT did not lead to larger improvements in single-step balance recovery compared to ST.

  13. Increased insulin-stimulated expression of arterial angiotensinogen and angiotensin type 1 receptor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atheroma.

    PubMed

    Hodroj, Wassim; Legedz, Liliana; Foudi, Nabil; Cerutti, Catherine; Bourdillon, Marie-Claude; Feugier, Patrick; Beylot, Michel; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero

    2007-03-01

    Because inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduces the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prevents atherosclerosis, we investigated the expression of RAS in the arterial wall of T2D and nondiabetic (CTR) patients. mRNA and protein levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and AT1 receptor (AT1R) were determined in carotid atheroma plaque, nearby macroscopically intact tissue (MIT), and in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) before and after insulin stimulation from 21 T2D and 22 CTR patients. AGT and ACE mRNA and their protein levels were 2- to 3-fold higher in atheroma and in MIT of T2D patients. VSMCs from T2D patients had respectively 2.5- and 5-fold higher AGT and AT1R mRNA and protein contents. Insulin induced an increase in AGT and AT1R mRNA with similar ED50. These responses were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP-kinase in the two groups whereas wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, partially prevented the response in CTR patients. Phosphorylated ERK1-2 was 4-fold higher in MIT from T2D than from CTR patients. The arterial RAS is upregulated in T2D patients, which can be partly explained by an hyperactivation of the ERK1-2 pathway by insulin.

  14. [Association between homozygous c.318A>GT mutation in exon 2 of the EIF2B5 gene and the infantile form of vanishing white matter leukoencephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Esmer, Carmen; Blanco Hernández, Gabriela; Saavedra Alanís, Víctor; Reyes Vaca, Jorge Guillermo; Bravo Oro, Antonio

    Vanishing white matter disease is one of the most frequent leukodystrophies in childhood with an autosomal recessive inheritance. A mutation in one of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2B5) is present in 90% of the cases. The diagnosis can be accomplished by the clinical and neuroradiological findings and molecular tests. We describe a thirteen-month-old male with previous normal neurodevelopment, who was hospitalized for vomiting, hyperthermia and irritability. On examination, cephalic perimeter and cranial pairs were normal. Hypotonia, increased muscle stretching reflexes, generalized white matter hypodensity on cranial tomography were found. Fifteen days after discharge, he suffered minor head trauma presenting drowsiness and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance showed generalized hypointensity of white matter. Vanishing white matter disease was suspected, and confirmed by sequencing of the EIF2B5 gene, revealing a homozygous c.318A> T mutation in exon 2. Subsequently, visual acuity was lost and cognitive and motor deterioration was evident. The patient died at six years of age due to severe pneumonia. This case contributes to the knowledge of the mutational spectrum present in Mexican patients and allows to extend the phenotype associated to this mutation. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  15. The Aysen Glacier Trail (AGT): Fostering leadership and personal growth towards understanding our place in the environment through experiential learning and scientific inquiry in northern Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, R.; Chambers, F. B.; Leidich, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Colonia Glacier, a low elevation mid-latitude glacier, drains the lee side of the central division of the Northern Patagonian Ice Field (NPI). As such, it serves as a microcosm of conditions on the NPI as a whole. Glaciers of this type have experienced extreme variability in Holocene thickness and extent, making them excellent indicators of local and regional climate conditions. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) originating in the remote Cachet Basin, dammed by the Colonia Glacier, have increased in frequency from once every 10 years to 3 times annually since 2008. These flood events are important in that they 1.) directly impact the livelihoods of downstream residents, 2.) may be linked to the overall health of the Colonia Glacier and, to a larger extent, the NPI, 3.) provide a natural laboratory for studying the dynamics of large flood events, and 4.) have downcut the sediments sequestered in the upper basin, revealing a rich Holocene sedimentologic and climate record. With improved access to this remote region through local partners in recent years, outstanding opportunities for scientific discovery, education, and outreach exist in one of the most beautiful and least-studied glacial regions on Earth. We propose establishing an NSF REU site here to further develop the abundant educational and research opportunities in this spectacular locale. We envision students participating under the REU will receive a broad-based background in glaciology and sedimentology prior to the field experience, and then participate in basic field research led by the PIs into understanding recent and Holocene linkages between climate change and the glacio-fluvio geomorphology of the NPI. A pilot program of 13 U.S. and Chilean students with wide-ranging backgrounds and degree levels was conducted in the winter of 2015-16. A two week backcountry trek across rocky terrain, mountain streams, active glaciers, and proglacial lakes in this seldom-visited region immersed the students in the glacial geomorphology of the region. All students identified the course as a life-changing experience, both in their increase in knowledge of the subject matters of glacial geomorphology, climate, and sedimentology/stratigraphy, as well as leadership skills, wilderness travel, and local culture.

  16. Distinct pathways for repairing mutagenic lesions induced by methylating and ethylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Tomoe

    2013-01-01

    DNA alkylation damage can be repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER) or by direct removal of alkyl groups from modified bases by O 6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT; E.C. 2.1.1.63). DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is also likely involved in this repair. We have investigated alkylation-induced mutagenesis in a series of NER- or AGT-deficient Escherichia coli strains, alone or in combination with defects in the MutS, MutL or MutH components of MMR. All strains used contained the Fʹprolac from strain CC102 (FʹCC102) episome capable of detecting specifically lac GC to AT reverse mutations resulting from O 6-alkylguanine. The results showed the repair of O 6-methylguanine to be performed by AGT ≫ MMR > NER in order of importance, whereas the repair of O 6-ethylguanine followed the order NER > AGT > MMR. Studies with double mutants showed that in the absence of AGT or NER repair pathways, the lack of MutS protein generally increased mutant frequencies for both methylating and ethylating agents, suggesting a repair or mutation avoidance role for this protein. However, lack of MutL or MutH protein did not increase alkylation-induced mutagenesis under these conditions and, in fact, reduced mutagenesis by the N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas MNU and ENU. The combined results suggest that little or no alkylation damage is actually corrected by the mutHLS MMR system; instead, an as yet unspecified interaction of MutS protein with alkylated DNA may promote the involvement of a repair system other than MMR to avoid a mutagenic outcome. Furthermore, both mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of MMR were detected, revealing a dual function of the MMR system in alkylation-exposed cells. PMID:23446177

  17. Angiotensinogen gene M235T and angiotensin II-type 1 receptor gene A/C1166 polymorphisms in chronic obtructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayada, Ceylan; Toru, Ümran; Genç, Osman; Şahin, Server; Turgut, Sebahat; Turgut, Günfer

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs irreversibly and is characterized by progressive airflow obstruction. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) has many different key enzymes and receptors that have a role for different systemic processes. We aimed to determine genotype and allele frequencies of angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and angiotensin II-type 1 receptor (AT1-R) A/C1166 polymorphisms in patients with COPD. This study was performed on 56 unrelated COPD patients and 29 healthy subjects. DNA samples for each individual were isolated from peripheral blood by phenol/chloroform method, analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion methodologies. The distribution for each of AGT genotypes were 23.2% for MM (13), 75.0% for MT (42) and 1.8% for TT (1) in the COPD group; 37.9% for MM (11), 34.5% for MT (10) and 27.6% for TT (8) in the control group. The distribution of AGT genotypes was found significantly different between groups (X2 = 18.604; df = 2; P = 0.000). The frequencies for each of the AT1-R genotypes were found as 53.6% for AA (30), 42.9% for AC (24), 3.6% for CC (2) in the COPD group; 55.2% for AA (16), 41.4% for AC (12) and 3.4% for CC (1) in the control group. The distribution of AT1-R genotypes did not change significantly between groups. Allele frequencies of interested genes were not significantly different between groups. We suggest that AGT polymorphism may play a role for the development of COPD. We believe these data can be served for large scale population genetics research, considering the frequency of AGT and AT1-R genes and alleles in COPD patients in the Turkish population. PMID:26064378

  18. Systems autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  19. Sex-dependent effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on insulin sensitivity in adult sheep: role of the adipose tissue renin angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Massmann, G. Angela; Zhang, Jie; Seong, Won Joon; Kim, Minhyoung

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to glucocorticoids in utero is associated with changes in organ function and structure in the adult. The aims of this study were to characterize the effects of antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids on glucose handling and the role of adipose tissue. Pregnant sheep received betamethasone (Beta, 0.17 mg/kg) or vehicle 24 h apart at 80 days of gestation and allowed to deliver at term. At 9 mo, male and female offspring were fed at either 100% of nutritional allowance (lean) or ad libitum for 3 mo (obese). At 1 yr, they were chronically instrumented under general anesthesia. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using a bolus of glucose (0.25 g/kg). Adipose tissue was harvested after death to determine mRNA expression levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1, ACE2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Data are expressed as means ± SE and analyzed by ANOVA. Sex, obesity, and Beta exposure had significant effects on glucose tolerance and mRNA expression. Beta impaired glucose tolerance in lean females but not males. Superimposed obesity worsened the impairment in females and unmasked the defect in males. Beta increased ACE1 mRNA in females and males and AGT in females only (P < 0.05 by three-way ANOVA). Obesity increased AGT in females but had no effect on ACE1 in either males or females. PPAR-γ mRNA exhibited a significant sex (F = 42.8; P < 0.01) and obesity (F = 6.9; P < 0.05) effect and was significantly higher in males (P < 0.01 by three-way ANOVA). We conclude that adipose tissue may play an important role in the sexually dimorphic response to antenatal glucocorticoids. PMID:28356296

  20. Sex-dependent effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on insulin sensitivity in adult sheep: role of the adipose tissue renin angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Massmann, G Angela; Zhang, Jie; Seong, Won Joon; Kim, Minhyoung; Figueroa, Jorge P

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to glucocorticoids in utero is associated with changes in organ function and structure in the adult. The aims of this study were to characterize the effects of antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids on glucose handling and the role of adipose tissue. Pregnant sheep received betamethasone (Beta, 0.17 mg/kg) or vehicle 24 h apart at 80 days of gestation and allowed to deliver at term. At 9 mo, male and female offspring were fed at either 100% of nutritional allowance (lean) or ad libitum for 3 mo (obese). At 1 yr, they were chronically instrumented under general anesthesia. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using a bolus of glucose (0.25 g/kg). Adipose tissue was harvested after death to determine mRNA expression levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1, ACE2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Data are expressed as means ± SE and analyzed by ANOVA. Sex, obesity, and Beta exposure had significant effects on glucose tolerance and mRNA expression. Beta impaired glucose tolerance in lean females but not males. Superimposed obesity worsened the impairment in females and unmasked the defect in males. Beta increased ACE1 mRNA in females and males and AGT in females only ( P < 0.05 by three-way ANOVA). Obesity increased AGT in females but had no effect on ACE1 in either males or females. PPAR-γ mRNA exhibited a significant sex ( F = 42.8; P < 0.01) and obesity ( F = 6.9; P < 0.05) effect and was significantly higher in males ( P < 0.01 by three-way ANOVA). We conclude that adipose tissue may play an important role in the sexually dimorphic response to antenatal glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  2. Experimental investigation into the fault response of superconducting hybrid electric propulsion electrical power system to a DC rail to rail fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, S.; Jones, C. E.; Munro, R.; Norman, P.; Galloway, S.; Venturumilli, S.; Sheng, J.; Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid electric propulsion aircraft are proposed to improve overall aircraft efficiency, enabling future rising demands for air travel to be met. The development of appropriate electrical power systems to provide thrust for the aircraft is a significant challenge due to the much higher required power generation capacity levels and complexity of the aero-electrical power systems (AEPS). The efficiency and weight of the AEPS is critical to ensure that the benefits of hybrid propulsion are not mitigated by the electrical power train. Hence it is proposed that for larger aircraft (~200 passengers) superconducting power systems are used to meet target power densities. Central to the design of the hybrid propulsion AEPS is a robust and reliable electrical protection and fault management system. It is known from previous studies that the choice of protection system may have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the AEPS. Hence an informed design process which considers the key trades between choice of cable and protection requirements is needed. To date the fault response of a voltage source converter interfaced DC link rail to rail fault in a superconducting power system has only been investigated using simulation models validated by theoretical values from the literature. This paper will present the experimentally obtained fault response for a variety of different types of superconducting tape for a rail to rail DC fault. The paper will then use these as a platform to identify key trades between protection requirements and cable design, providing guidelines to enable future informed decisions to optimise hybrid propulsion electrical power system and protection design.

  3. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  4. Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

  5. 49 CFR 565.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the extent that those.... (m) Model year means the year used to designate a discrete vehicle model, irrespective of the...

  6. 49 CFR 565.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the extent that those.... (m) Model year means the year used to designate a discrete vehicle model, irrespective of the...

  7. 49 CFR 565.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the extent that those.... (m) Model year means the year used to designate a discrete vehicle model, irrespective of the...

  8. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and chassis structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the... type, make, line, series and body type. (j) Model Year means the year used to designate a discrete...

  9. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and chassis structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the... type, make, line, series and body type. (j) Model Year means the year used to designate a discrete...

  10. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and chassis structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the... type, make, line, series and body type. (j) Model Year means the year used to designate a discrete...

  11. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and chassis structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the... type, make, line, series and body type. (j) Model Year means the year used to designate a discrete...

  12. 49 CFR 565.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... structure, power train, steering system, suspension system and braking system, to the extent that those.... (m) Model year means the year used to designate a discrete vehicle model, irrespective of the...

  13. The Thermodynamics of Thorium-Oxygen and Uranium-Oxygen Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-19

    mass effusion 1600-2200 AGT(6) 2.17 x 10-6 147.1 42.2 " " 1920-2220 Ivanov(l0) 4.08 147.8 42.0 " " 2200-2800 Ohse(8) 3.14 141.2 39.4 mass spect . 1890...iverage deviation of Tout 2.4 cal/mole K. The uncertainty in the entropy of tbis proce:is will be reflected in the computation of ASo f U02(g). ’,ing...Selectionees Donees 1,pectroscopique Relatives Aux Molecules Diatomique Pergamon Press, 1970. 11. T. Wentink, Jr., R. J. Spindler, Jr., 3. Quant. Spect

  14. Cardiovascular system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

  15. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified. Here's how it works. A ...

  16. Biliary system

    MedlinePlus

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  17. Discovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's Discovery Systems Project is given. The topics of discussion include: 1) NASA's Computing Information and Communications Technology Program; 2) Discovery Systems Program; and 3) Ideas for Information Integration Using the Web.

  18. Systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  19. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  20. System considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Closing remarks and a general summary of the Alternative Energy Systems Seminar are presented. It was concluded from the seminar that the DOE programs described were focused on trying to make a commercial market develop for the various systems. The question addressed is how this is going to happen. To address this question, social, economical, political and technical aspects are considered with major emphasis placed on systems engineering to provide low cost efficient systems.

  1. Cogeneration Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    43 3000 TYPICAL MID-1978 COSTS, all overhead included 2000- Type of System: Double alkali flue gas desulfurization plus baghouse particulate removal...Figures 5, 6, and 8 also provide cost estimating data for oil- and natural gas -fired steam turbine systems. Figure 5 shows the steam- generating station of...to the ownership and operation of the system. For systems burning oil or natural gas , fuel will typically constitute 65-90% of the total life cycle

  2. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  3. Urinary fibrogenic cytokines ET-1 and TGF-β1 are associated with urinary angiotensinogen levels in obese children.

    PubMed

    Correia-Costa, Liane; Morato, Manuela; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Guimarães, João Tiago; Guerra, António; Schaefer, Franz; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2016-03-01

    Fibrogenic cytokines are recognized as putative drivers of disease activity and histopathological deterioration in various kidney diseases. We compared urinary transforming growth factor β1 (U-TGF-β1) and endothelin 1 (U-ET-1) levels across body mass index classes and assessed their association with the level of urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), a biomarker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The was a cross-sectional evaluation of 302 children aged 8-9 years. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aldosterone level and renal function were evaluated. U-ET-1, U-TGF-β1 and U-AGT levels were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. Obese children presented with the lowest levels of U-ET-1 and U-TGF-β1, but the difference was only significant for U-ET-1. In obese children, the median levels of both U-ET-1 and U-TGF-β1 tended to increase across tertiles (T1-T3) of U-AGT (U-ET-1: T1, 19.9 (14.2-26.3); T2, 32.5 (23.3-141.6); T3, 24.8 (18.7-51.5) ng/g creatinine, p = 0.007; U-TGF-β1: T1, 2.2 (1.8-4.0); T2, 4.3 (2.7-11.7); T3, 4.9 (3.8-10.1) ng/g creatinine, p = 0.004]. In multivariate models, in the obese group, U-ET-1 was associated with HOMA-IR and aldosterone and U-AGT levels, and U-TGF-β1 was associated with U-AGT levels and 24 h-systolic BP. Whereas the initial hypothesis of higher levels of urinary fibrogenic cytokines in obese children was not confirmed in our study, both TGF-β1 and U-ET-1 levels were associated with U-AGT level, which likely reflects an early interplay between tissue remodeling and RAAS in obesity-related kidney injury.

  4. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes and Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Sodium Excretion in African American Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Park, Jung-Jun; Johnson, Jennifer; Vizcaino, Dave; Hand, Brian; Ferrell, Robert; Weir, Matthew; Dowling, Thomas; Obisesan, Thomas; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes could predict changes in urinary sodium excretion in response to short-term aerobic exercise training (AEX). Design Longitudinal intervention. Setting The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Baltimore, and the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center. Participants 31 (age 53 ± 2 years) sedentary, hypertensive (146 ± 2/88 ± 2 mm Hg) African Americans. Intervention Aerobic exercise training (AEX) consisted of seven or eight consecutive days, 50 minutes per day, at 65% of heart rate reserve. Participants underwent a 24-hour period of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and urine collection at baseline and 14–18 hours after the last exercise session. Main Outcome Measures Angiotensiongen (AGT) M235T and ACE I/D genotype and sodium excretion and ambulatory BP. Results Average sodium excretion for the entire group independent of genotype increased after AEX (108 ± 9 vs 143 ± 12 mEq/day, P=.003). Sodium excretion significantly increased after exercise training in the ACE II (114 ± 22 vs 169 ± 39 mEq/day, P=.04), but not in the ID (100 ± 8 vs 133 ± 17 mEq/day, P=.12) or DD (113 ± 18 vs 138 ± 11 mEq/day, P=.13) genotype groups. In the II genotype group, the increase in sodium excretion was significantly and inversely correlated with decreases in 24-hour diastolic (r=−.88, P=.02) and mean (r=−.95, P=.004) BP. The AGT TT and MT+MM genotype groups similarly increased their sodium excretion by 34 ± 16 (P=.05) and 37 ± 17 (P=.05) mEq/day respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that African American hypertensives with the ACE II genotype may be more susceptible to sodium balance and BP changes with exercise training compared with those with the ID and DD genotypes. PMID:16937603

  5. Soft Lithography for Oligonucleotide Arrays Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    adenosine; Abbreviated T, C, G, A respectively), the other synthesis reagents and solvents except oxidation agent (seen in Table 1) were purchased...dried by cold blowing before hybridization. Oligonucleotide arrays were hybridized in 200 nM 3’-TCC TCC GAT TCA GAG AGT CC- HEX (PE Biosystems... citrate buffer), 0.1% SDS in 0.1xSSC respectively. The probe array was scanned on the Scanarray Microarray Systems (Packard Biochip Technologies, USA

  6. Development of Recuperator Manufacturing Techniques. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Continue on reveree side If necessary and Identify by block number) AGT 1500 Turbine Exhaust Heat Recuperator Laser Welding Inconel 625 Comnuter.CQntrol...2 millimeter (0. 008 inch) thick nickel based alloy ( Inconel 625 ) used. Two computer/moving mirror systems were evaluated and programs for each...92 APPENDIX B. SPECIFICATON FOR NICKEL BASE ALLOY, SHEET, CORROSION, AND HEAT RESISTANT ( INCONEL 625 ) ... 94 APPENDIX C. SPECIFICATION FOR

  7. Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Faced with complaints about lengthy and costly developments , rapid obsolescence, and excessive costs of ownership, we have all heard the following...microwave integrated circuits raises similar system and sub-system issues. Microprocessor developments raise new questions regarding the trade-offs between...imply the need for and utilization of more specialists, but future avionics developments will also require systems-oriented engineess. By definition

  8. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  9. Systemic darwinism.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  10. Systemic Darwinism

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a “compositional paradigm” according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality. PMID:18697926

  11. HNF4alpha dysfunction as a molecular rational for cyclosporine induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

    2011-01-27

    Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII) remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition of nuclear

  12. Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Harambat, Jérôme; Fargue, Sonia; Bacchetta, Justine; Acquaviva, Cécile; Cochat, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxylate and oxalate. PH type 1, the most common form, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) resulting in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate. Recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis are the hallmarks of the disease. As glomerular filtration rate decreases due to progressive renal damage, oxalate accumulates leading to systemic oxalosis. Diagnosis is often delayed and is based on clinical and sonographic findings, urinary oxalate assessment, DNA analysis, and, if necessary, direct AGT activity measurement in liver biopsy tissue. Early initiation of conservative treatment, including high fluid intake, inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization, and pyridoxine in responsive cases, can help to maintain renal function in compliant subjects. In end-stage renal disease patients, the best outcomes have been achieved with combined liver-kidney transplantation which corrects the enzyme defect. PMID:21748001

  13. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  14. Immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is an update on the swine Immune System. It will be Chapter 16 in the 11th Edition (2018) of Diseases of Swine. The chapter outlines all aspects of the swine immune system in development and in responses to infection and vaccination. It illustrates the tremendous influence that the immu...

  15. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  16. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Karl F.

    2014-10-01

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  17. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion.

    PubMed

    Freed, Karl F

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  18. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic naturemore » of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.« less

  19. Consequences of missense mutations for dimerization and turnover of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: study of a spectrum of mutations.

    PubMed

    Coulter-Mackie, M B; Lian, Q

    2006-12-01

    Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a liver peroxisomal enzyme, deficiency of which results in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). More than 65 PH1-related mutations are now documented in the AGT gene (AGXT), of which about 50% are missense. We have generated a spectrum of 15 missense changes including the most common PH1 mutation, G170R, and expressed them on the appropriate background of the major or minor allele, in an Escherichia coli overexpression system and in a rabbit reticulocyte transcription/translation system. We have investigated their effects on enzyme activity, dimerization, aggregation, and turnover. The effect of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) on dimerization and stability was also investigated. Although all 15 mutant AGTs were expressed as intact proteins in E. coli, only three: G41R and G41V on the major allele, and the common mutation G170R, resulted in significant amounts of enzymatic activity. Dimerization failure was a frequent observation (13/15) except for G41V and D183N. Dimerization was poor with S187F but was substantially improved with PLP. Proteasome-mediated protein degradation was observed for all the mutations except G41R on the major allele, G41V, D183N, G170R, and S218L. Increases in the stability of the mutant enzymes in the presence of PLP were small; however, G41R on the minor allele showed a direct relationship between its half life and the concentration of PLP. The minor allele AGT product and many of the mutants were subject to a limited non-proteasomal proteolytic cleavage when ATP was depleted.

  20. Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Boeing Commercial Airplane Company's Flight Control Department engineers relied on Langley developed software package known as ORACLS to develop an advanced control synthesis package for both continuous and discrete control system. Package was used by Boeing for computerized analysis of new system designs. Resulting applications include a multiple input/output control system for the terrain-following navigation equipment of the Air Forces B-1 Bomber, and another for controlling in flight changes of wing camber on an experimental airplane. ORACLS is one of 1,300 computer programs available from COSMIC.

  1. Electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  2. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  3. Recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Medo, Matúš; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  4. Septic Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  5. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  6. Microelectromechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Kaigham J.

    1995-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is an enabling technology that merges computation and communication with sensing and actuation to change the way people and machines interact with the physical world. MEMS is a manufacturing technology that will impact widespread applications including: miniature inertial measurement measurement units for competent munitions and personal navigation; distributed unattended sensors; mass data storage devices; miniature analytical instruments; embedded pressure sensors; non-invasive biomedical sensors; fiber-optics components and networks; distributed aerodynamic control; and on-demand structural strength. The long term goal of ARPA's MEMS program is to merge information processing with sensing and actuation to realize new systems and strategies for both perceiving and controlling systems, processes, and the environment. The MEMS program has three major thrusts: advanced devices and processes, system design, and infrastructure.

  7. Certification Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WaterSense Product Certification System outlines the process and procedures for the product certification to ensure that all WaterSense labeled products meet EPA's criteria for efficiency and performance.

  8. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002247.htm Lymph system To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. [Systems epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Li, L M

    2018-05-10

    The era of medical big data, translational medicine and precision medicine brings new opportunities for the study of etiology of chronic complex diseases. How to implement evidence-based medicine, translational medicine and precision medicine are the challenges we are facing. Systems epidemiology, a new field of epidemiology, combines medical big data with system biology and examines the statistical model of disease risk, the future risk simulation and prediction using the data at molecular, cellular, population, social and ecological levels. Due to the diversity and complexity of big data sources, the development of study design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology face new challenges and opportunities. This paper summarizes the theoretical basis, concept, objectives, significances, research design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology and its application in the field of public health.

  10. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  11. Bioculture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figliozzi, Gianine; Sato, Kevin Y.; Sun. Sidney

    2013-01-01

    The document is a 2 page fact sheet that describes the Bioculture system, how it may be used by researchers for life science research, how and when it will be installed and validated aboard the international space station.

  12. Shield system

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, D.R.; Chandler, J.R.; Church, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The SHIELD system is a powerful new computational tool for calculation of isotopic inventory, radiation sources, decay heat, and shielding assessment in part of the nuclear fuel cycle. The integrated approach used in this system permitss the communication and management of large fields of numbers efficiently thus permitting the user to address the technical rather than computer aspects of a problem. Emphasis on graphical outputs permits large fields of resulting numbers to be efficiently displayed.

  13. Systemic Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    RT-119: Systemic Assurance Technical Report SERC -2015-TR-019-1 31 July 2015 Principal Investigator: Dr. William Scherlis, Carnegie...Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Task Order 0019, RT 119 Report No. SERC -2015-TR-019-RT119 July 15, 2015 Report Documentation Page Form...Technology The Systems Engineering Research Center ( SERC ) is a federally funded University Affiliated Research Center managed by Stevens Institute

  14. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. Formore » the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.« less

  16. Lightweight Propulsion Systems for Advanced Naval Ship Applications. An Executive Summary,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    propellers of both subcavitating and supercavitating types, and water jet) appear to meet the performance requirements for all of the operating regimes of...with reversing capability, and a fixed-pitch supercavita- t ing thrustor compiete the power train for each shaft. A supercavitating prpeiier was chosen...for the HSD because of the 50-knot maximum speed requilement; the use of a fixed-pitch supercavitating ptopeiet to absorh 80,000 shp appears feasibie

  17. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  18. Building Automatic Grading Tools for Basic of Programming Lab in an Academic Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harimurti, Rina; Iwan Nurhidayat, Andi; Asmunin

    2018-04-01

    The skills of computer programming is a core competency that must be mastered by students majoring in computer sciences. The best way to improve this skill is through the practice of writing many programs to solve various problems from simple to complex. It takes hard work and a long time to check and evaluate the results of student labs one by one, especially if the number of students a lot. Based on these constrain, web proposes Automatic Grading Tools (AGT), the application that can evaluate and deeply check the source code in C, C++. The application architecture consists of students, web-based applications, compilers, and operating systems. Automatic Grading Tools (AGT) is implemented MVC Architecture and using open source software, such as laravel framework version 5.4, PostgreSQL 9.6, Bootstrap 3.3.7, and jquery library. Automatic Grading Tools has also been tested for real problems by submitting source code in C/C++ language and then compiling. The test results show that the AGT application has been running well.

  19. [From gene to disease; primary hyperoxaluria type I caused by mutations in the AGXT gene].

    PubMed

    van Woerden, C S; Groothof, J W; Wanders, R J A; Waterham, H R; Wijburg, F R

    2006-07-29

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a congenital defect in glyoxylate metabolism caused by a deficiency in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme known as alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The deficiency is due to mutations in the AGXT gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3, and results in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate. The crystallisation of oxalate with calcium results in symptoms varying from a solitary kidney stone to end-stage renal disease with systemic oxalosis. The diagnosis is based on increased oxalate and glycolate excretion in the urine, reduced AGT activity in liver tissue, and confirmed mutations in the AGXT gene. Over 50 disease-causing mutations have been identified in PH1, which are associated with a wide range of effects on the AGT enzyme. Homozygous Gly170Arg or Phei52Ile mutations are associated with a reduction in urinary oxalate excretion upon pyridoxine administration and long-term preservation of renal function when treatment is initiated in a timely manner. Homozygous 33insC and Gly82Arg mutations result in a much poorer prognosis. Mutational analysis of the AGXT gene in PH1 patients can be a useful tool for establishing the diagnosis and choosing an appropriate therapeutic strategy.

  20. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  1. Turbine system

    DOEpatents

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  2. Systems Chronotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Annabelle; Innominato, Pasquale F; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A; Lévi, Francis A

    2017-04-01

    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system-resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and patient

  3. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  4. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  5. Computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  6. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  7. System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  8. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  9. Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Mod System, Dover, DE.

    This autoinstructional unit deals with the identification of units of measure in the metric system and the construction of relevant conversion tables. Students in middle school or in grade ten, taking a General Science course, can handle this learning activity. It is recommended that high, middle or low level achievers can use the program.…

  10. Mirror systems.

    PubMed

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Systems Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  12. Systems Chronotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Innominato, Pasquale F.; Dallmann, Robert; Rand, David A.; Lévi, Francis A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics aim at treating illnesses according to the endogenous biologic rhythms, which moderate xenobiotic metabolism and cellular drug response. The molecular clocks present in individual cells involve approximately fifteen clock genes interconnected in regulatory feedback loops. They are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei, a hypothalamic pacemaker, which also adjusts the circadian rhythms to environmental cycles. As a result, many mechanisms of diseases and drug effects are controlled by the circadian timing system. Thus, the tolerability of nearly 500 medications varies by up to fivefold according to circadian scheduling, both in experimental models and/or patients. Moreover, treatment itself disrupted, maintained, or improved the circadian timing system as a function of drug timing. Improved patient outcomes on circadian-based treatments (chronotherapy) have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, especially for cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, recent technological advances have highlighted large interpatient differences in circadian functions resulting in significant variability in chronotherapy response. Such findings advocate for the advancement of personalized chronotherapeutics through interdisciplinary systems approaches. Thus, the combination of mathematical, statistical, technological, experimental, and clinical expertise is now shaping the development of dedicated devices and diagnostic and delivery algorithms enabling treatment individualization. In particular, multiscale systems chronopharmacology approaches currently combine mathematical modeling based on cellular and whole-body physiology to preclinical and clinical investigations toward the design of patient-tailored chronotherapies. We review recent systems research works aiming to the individualization of disease treatment, with emphasis on both cancer management and circadian timing system–resetting strategies for improving chronic disease control and

  13. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  14. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  15. Optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is an otpical system used in a spacecraft to observe a remote surface and provide a spatial and spectral image of this surface. The optical system includes aspheric and spherical mirrors aligned to focus at a first focal plane an image of the surface, and a mirror at this first focal plane which reflects light back on to the spherical mirror. This spherical mirror collimates the light and directs it through a prism which disperses it. The dispersed light is then focused on an array of light responsive elements disposed at a second focal plane. The prism is designed such that it disperses light into components of different wavelengths, with the components of shorter wavelengths being dispersed more than the components of longer wavelengths to present at the second focal plane a distribution pattern in which preselected groupings of the components are dispersed over essentially equal spacing intervals.

  16. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  17. Profiling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A non-destructive testing system, originally developed for Langley Research Center, is sold commercially. The DyLASP Profilometer locates defects in composite and metallic materials and assemblies. It operates in real time and displays results as a contour map of the assembly with defects indicated by size and location. Applications are in non-destructive testing and evaluation, and the company will customize to user requirements.

  18. Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1100C Virtual Window is based on technology developed under NASA Small Business Innovation (SBIR) contracts to Ames Research Center. For example, under one contract Dimension Technologies, Inc. developed a large autostereoscopic display for scientific visualization applications. The Virtual Window employs an innovative illumination system to deliver the depth and color of true 3D imaging. Its applications include surgery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans, viewing for teleoperated robots, training, and in aviation cockpit displays.

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  20. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  1. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  2. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  3. Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    Manual 91 - 710 Vol. 2 ( AFSPCMAN 91 - 710 V2). 8. Astrium EADS. 2010. cs.astrium.eads.net. April. 9. Astrium EADS. 2010. : http...of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) Conference. Albuquerque, NM, February 24-27, (Phillips Lab PL-CP- 91 -3003, p. 3 ). 104. Sullivan, D. J...Chapter 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Chapter 18 - Propulsion Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Bioregenerative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design course is an eight semester credit multi-disciplinary engineering design course taught primarily to Engineering Science, Aerospace, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering seniors. This year the course project involved the design of the three interrelated loops: atmospheric, liquid nutrient and solid waste management, associated with growing higher plants to support man during long-term space missions. The project is complementary to the NASA Kennedy Space Center Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) project. The first semester the class worked on a preliminary design for a complete system. This effort included means for monitoring and control of composition, temperature, flow rate, etc., for the atmosphere and liquid nutrient solution; disease and contaminant monitoring and control; plant mechanical support, propagation and harvesting; solid and liquid waste recycling; and system maintenance and refurbishing. The project has significant biological, mechanical, electrical and Al/Robotics aspects. The second semester a small number of subsystems or components, identified as important and interesting during the first semester, were selected for detail design, fabrication, and testing. The class was supported by close cooperation with The Kennedy Space Center and by two teaching assistants. The availability of a dedicated, well equipped project room greatly enhanced the communication and team spirit of the class.

  5. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  6. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  7. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  8. Purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T. (Inventor); Gibbons, Randall E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for prolonging the life of a granulated activated charcoal (GAC) water treatment device is disclosed in which an ultraviolet light transparent material is used to constrain water to flow over carbon surfaces. It is configured to receive maximum flux from a UV radiation source for the purpose of preventing microbial proliferation on the carbon surfaces; oxidizing organic contaminants adsorbed from the water onto the carbon surfaces and from biodegradation of adsorbed microbial forms; disinfecting water; and oxidizing organic contaminants in the water.

  9. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  10. Bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  11. Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

  12. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  13. Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. W. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A measurement system is described for providing an indication of a varying physical quantity represented by or converted to a variable frequency signal. Timing pulses are obtained marking the duration of a fixed number, or set, of cycles of the sampled signal and these timing pulses are employed to control the period of counting of cycles of a higher fixed and known frequency source. The counts of cycles obtained from the fixed frequency source provide a precise measurement of the average frequency of each set of cycles sampled, and thus successive discrete values of the quantity being measured. The frequency of the known frequency source is made such that each measurement is presented as a direct digital representation of the quantity measured.

  14. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  15. Separation system

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  16. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  17. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  18. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  19. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  20. System of Systems Analytic Workbench - 2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-31

    and transitional activities with key collaborators. The tools include: System Operational Dependency Analysis/System Developmental Dependency Analysis...in the methods of the SoS-AWB involve the following: 1. System Operability Dependency Analysis (SODA)/System Development Dependency Analysis...available f. Development of standard dependencies with combinations of low-medium-high parameters Report No. SERC-2017-TR-111

  1. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  2. Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real - time operating system , real-time programming language, real-time system, soft real-time system.

  3. Mechanical systems: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of several mechanized systems is presented. The articles are contained in three sections: robotics, industrial mechanical systems, including several on linear and rotary systems and lastly mechanical control systems, such as brakes and clutches.

  4. Automated skid data system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    The Data Systems and Analysis Section of the Virginia Highway & Transportation Research Council has been involved for sometime in the development of automated information systems for various types of roadway data. One of these systems, and the system...

  5. System Software Framework for System of Systems Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Peterson, Benjamin L; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    Project Constellation implements NASA's vision for space exploration to expand human presence in our solar system. The engineering focus of this project is developing a system of systems architecture. This architecture allows for the incremental development of the overall program. Systems can be built and connected in a "Lego style" manner to generate configurations supporting various mission objectives. The development of the avionics or control systems of such a massive project will result in concurrent engineering. Also, each system will have software and the need to communicate with other (possibly heterogeneous) systems. Fortunately, this design problem has already been solved during the creation and evolution of systems such as the Internet and the Department of Defense's successful effort to standardize distributed simulation (now IEEE 1516). The solution relies on the use of a standard layered software framework and a communication protocol. A standard framework and communication protocol is suggested for the development and maintenance of Project Constellation systems. The ARINC 653 standard is a great start for such a common software framework. This paper proposes a common system software framework that uses the Real Time Publish/Subscribe protocol for framework-to-framework communication to extend ARINC 653. It is highly recommended that such a framework be established before development. This is important for the success of concurrent engineering. The framework provides an infrastructure for general system services and is designed for flexibility to support a spiral development effort.

  6. Operationalizing System Importance Measures for Assessing System of System Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrahasa, Rakshit

    In recent times, there has been a shift in focus from component level to system level analysis and an increasing effort to understand and design resilience into the system. Several efforts have been carried out in creating metrics to analyse resilience. Understanding and implementing system resilience in complex System of Systems will help us in building safer and resilient systems. System Importance Measures (SIMs) was formulated to analyse System of System resilience and help in designing a resilient SoS. Here, we operationalize these System Importance Measures for designing a resilient SoS. We first look at the existing methodology to improve the visual representation of system resilience and its usability. We demonstrate this using our first case study with a Naval warfare SoS. We incorporate probability into the SIM formulation. We expand the existing SIMs to quantify the effects of disruptions and mitigation likelihoods. We built a second case study based on Air transportation networks and demonstrated our expanded metrics in both the case studies. SIM based analysis of SoS resilience provides us with two different analysis of resilience, with and without probability. Having an outlook on how the resilience changes with a probability of disruptions can aid the designer making informed choices on design changes and help in creating a resilient SoS.

  7. Alkylation damage repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase from the hyperthermophiles Aquifex aeolicus and Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    PubMed Central

    Kanugula, Sreenivas; Pegg, Anthony E

    2003-01-01

    AGT (O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase) is an important DNA-repair protein that protects cells from killing and mutagenesis by alkylating agents. The AGT genes from two extremely thermophilic organisms, the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus were PCR-derived and cloned into an expression vector. The nucleotide sequence of the Aq. aeolicus AGT encodes a 201-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 23000 Da and Ar. fulgidus AGT codes for a 147-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 16718 Da. The Aq. aeolicus and Ar. fulgidus AGTs were expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli fused to an N-terminal polyhistidine tag that allowed single-step isolation and purification by metal-affinity chromatography. Both AGTs formed inclusion bodies and were not soluble under native purification conditions. Therefore AGT isolation was performed under protein-denaturation conditions in the presence of 8.0 M urea. Soluble AGT was obtained by refolding the AGT in the presence of calf thymus DNA. Both AGTs were active in repairing O6-methylguanine and, at a lower rate, O4-methylthymine in DNA. They exhibited thermostability and optimum activity at high temperature. The thermostable AGTs, particularly that from Aq. aeolicus, were readily inactivated by the low-molecular-mass inhibitor O6-benzylguanine, which is currently in clinical trials to enhance cancer chemotherapy. PMID:12892560

  8. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  9. Horizontal fall arrest systems: rigid systems vs. flexible line systems.

    PubMed

    Lough, David

    2004-09-01

    There are many types of flexible and rigid systems on the market, both permanent and temporary. This article does not mean to encompass all possible systems or hazards and only intends to give an outline of what at a minimum should be examined to make an educated purchasing decision. In many instances, the buyer will use the same type of horizontal system for all situations. This is a good idea in some cases because it will reduce the need for training on a number of different systems, reduce system compatibility issues, and may reduce costs for installation, supply, and maintenance. This may not be the best idea if the hazard areas differ a great deal; as we have illustrated, one system may not function for all areas and tasks. The rigid system is typically the best solution simply based on the fact the worker won't fall as far as when he is connected to a flexible system, because of the elimination of any dynamic sag and horizontal energy absorber deployment. In any case, where you stop the worker from falling farther, you decrease the chance there may be an incident where the worker is injured. From a cost standpoint, flexible fall arrest systems typically are cheapest. In the end, safety professionals must balance the cost and effectiveness of the system to prevent an injury.

  10. Obstacle detectors for automated transit vehicles: A technoeconomic and market analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockerby, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search was conducted to identify the technical and economic characteristics of both NASA and nonNASA obstacle detectors. The findings, along with market information were compiled and analyzed for consideration by DOT and NASA in decisions about any future automated transit vehicle obstacle detector research, development, or applications project. Currently available obstacle detectors and systems under development are identified by type (sonic, capacitance, infrared/optical, guided radar, and probe contact) and compared with the three NASA devices selected as possible improvements or solutions to the problems in existing obstacle detection systems. Cost analyses and market forecasts individually for the AGT and AMTV markets are included.

  11. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  12. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  13. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  14. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  15. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  16. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  17. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  18. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  19. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  20. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  1. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements tomore » water distribution system modeling tools.« less

  2. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  3. Collaborative Systems Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocatilu, Paul; Ciurea, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative systems are widely used today in various activity fields. Their complexity is high and the development involves numerous resources and costs. Testing collaborative systems has a very important role for the systems' success. In this paper we present taxonomy of collaborative systems. The collaborative systems are classified in many…

  4. Root production method system

    Treesearch

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  5. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Debois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire [Southern] sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m 3-mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper level of abstraction and detail. The LSST modeling includes the analysis and documenting the flow of command and control information and data between the suite of systems in the LSST observatory that are needed to carry out the activities of the survey. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  6. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  7. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  9. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  10. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  11. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  12. Multimode ergometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, B. G.; Gause, R. L.; Spier, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    System overcomes previous ergometer design and calibration problems including inaccurate measurements, large weight, size, and input power requirements, poor heat dissipation, high flammability, and inaccurate calibration. Device consists of lightweight, accurately controlled ergometer, restraint system, and calibration system.

  13. Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbush, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on environment control systems for electric flight systems are presented. Schematics and flow diagrams of fresh air source and air conditioning systems, and vapor cycle and air cycle parts lists are presented.

  14. Antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  15. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  16. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  17. The LSST: A System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Chuck F.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Delgado, F.; Hascall, P.; Horn, D.; Marshall, S.; Nordby, M.; Schalk, T. L.; Schumacher, G.; Sebag, J.; LSST Project Team

    2010-01-01

    The LSST is a complete observing system that acquires and archives images, processes and analyzes them, and publishes reduced images and catalogs of sources and objects. The LSST will operate over a ten year period producing a survey of 20,000 square degrees over the entire southern sky in 6 filters (ugrizy) with each field having been visited several hundred times enabling a wide spectrum of science from fast transients to exploration of dark matter and dark energy. The LSST itself is a complex system of systems consisting of the 8.4m three mirror telescope, a 3.2 billion pixel camera, and a peta-scale data management system. The LSST project uses a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to ensure an integrated approach to system design and rigorous definition of system interfaces and specifications. The MBSE methodology is applied through modeling of the LSST's systems with the System Modeling Language (SysML). The SysML modeling recursively establishes the threefold relationship between requirements, logical & physical functional decomposition and definition, and system and component behavior at successively deeper levels of abstraction and detail. The MBSE approach is applied throughout all stages of the project from design, to validation and verification, though to commissioning.

  18. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  19. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  20. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  1. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; McGaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-02-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  2. Lightside Atmospheric Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Cushman, R. J.; Hultman, M. M.; Nason, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The system was studied as a replacement to the present baseline LiOH system for extended duration shuttle missions. The system consists of three subsystems: a solid amine water desorbed regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, a water vapor electrolysis oxygen generating system, and a Sabatier reactor carbon dioxide reduction system. The system is designed for use on a solar powered shuttle vehicle. The majority of the system's power requirements are utilized on the Sun side of each orbit, when solar power is available.

  3. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  4. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  5. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  6. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  7. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  8. Expert systems for MSFC power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Future space vehicles and platforms including Space Station will possess complex power systems. These systems will require a high level of autonomous operation to allow the crew to concentrate on mission activities and to limit the number of ground support personnel to a reasonable number. The Electrical Power Branch at NASA-Marshall is developing advanced automation approaches which will enable the necessary levels of autonomy. These approaches include the utilization of knowledge based or expert systems.

  9. Observing System Evaluations Using GODAE Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution is unlimite 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20091228151 14. ABSTRACT Global ocean...forecast systems, developed under the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE), are a powerful means of assessing the impact of different...components of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Using a range of analysis tools and approaches, GODAE systems are useful for quantifying the

  10. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  11. Immune System as a Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

  12. Simultaneous Genotyping of the rs4762 and rs699 Polymorphisms in Angiotensinogen Gene and Correlation with Iranian CAD Patients with Novel Hexa-primer ARMS-PCR

    PubMed Central

    KHATAMI, Mehri; HEIDARI, Mohammad Mehdi; HADADZADEH, Mehdi; SCHEIBER-MOJDEHKAR, Barbara; BITARAF SANI, Morteza; HOUSHMAND, Massoud

    2017-01-01

    Background: A significant role of Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic variants in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and cardiovascular diseases has been proved. This study aimed to develop a new, fast and cheap method for the simultaneous detection of two missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (T207M or rs4762 and M268T orrs699) of angiotensinogen (AGT) in single-step Multiplex Hexa-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System - polymerase chain reaction (H-ARMS-PCR). Methods: In this case-control study, 148 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 135 controls were included. The patients were referred to cardiac centers in Afshar Hospital (Yazd, Iran) from 2012 to 2015. Two sets of inner primer (for each SNP) and one set outer primer pairs were designed for genotyping of rs4762 and rs699 in single tube H-ARMS-PCR. Direct sequencing of all samples was also performed to assess the accuracy of this method. DNA sequencing method validated the results of single tube H-ARMS-PCR. Results: We found full accordance for genotype adscription by sequencing method. The frequency of the AGT T521 and C702 alleles was significantly higher in CAD patients than in the control group (OR: 0.551, 95% CI: 0.359–0.846, P=0.008 and OR: 0.629, 95% CI: 0.422–0.936, P=0.028, respectively). Conclusion: This is the first work describing a rapid, low-cost, high-throughput simultaneous detection of rs4762 and rs699 polymorphisms in AGT gene, used in large clinical studies. PMID:28828324

  13. Computer Operating System Maintenance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    FACILITY The Computer Management Information Facility ( CMIF ) system was developed by Rapp Systems to fulfill the need at the CRF to record and report on...computer center resource usage and utilization. The foundation of the CMIF system is a System 2000 data base (CRFMGMT) which stores and permits access

  14. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  15. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  16. Systems 2020: Strategic Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-29

    research areas that enable agile, assured, efficient, and scalable systems engineering approaches to support the development of these systems. This...To increase development efficiency and ensure flexible solutions in the field, systems engineers need powerful, agile, interoperable, and scalable...design and development will be transformed as a result of Systems 2020, along with complementary enabling acquisition practice improvements initiated in

  17. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  18. Medical imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  19. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  20. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  1. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  2. Coaches as System Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Knight, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership--of principals and coaches--must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement. Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform. The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand.…

  3. [Systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Duarte, A L; Baruffa, G; Terra, H B; Renck, D V; de Moura, D; Petrucci, C

    1999-01-01

    A clinical case of a patient bearing systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with regional ganglionic and oral exposure and later pulmonary involvement is presented. The patient was treated with specific drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) and followed throughout a 6-year period and eventually died showing an extensive involvement of the central nervous system.

  4. Decentralized Modular Systems Versus Centralized Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossey, R. E.

    Building design, planning, and construction programing for modular decentralized mechanical building systems are outlined in terms of costs, performance, expansion and flexibility. Design strategy, approach, and guidelines for implementing such systems for buildings are suggested, with emphasis on mechanical equipment and building element…

  5. Federated Simulations for Systems of Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    coordination of the other SysHub research areas. A more comprehensive systems engineering process has been proposed in (Tolk, Litwin , and Kewley 2008...missions and means framework. Technical Report TR-756, Army Material Systems Analysis Activity. Tolk, A., T. Litwin , and R. Kewley. 2008, December. A

  6. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  8. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  9. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  10. Identification of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

  11. On generalized Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  12. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  13. Systems engineering and management.

    PubMed

    Rouse, William B; Compton, W Dale

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers a systems view of healthcare delivery and outlines a wide range of concepts, principles, models, methods and tools from systems engineering and management that can enable the transformation of the dysfunctional "as is" healthcare system to an agreed-upon "to be" system that will provide quality, affordable care for everyone. Topics discussed include systems definition, design, analysis, and control, as well as the data and information needed to support these functions. Barriers to implementation are also considered.

  14. Ergatic dynamic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, V. V. (Editor); Drozdova, T. I. (Editor); Antomonov, Y. G. (Editor); Golego, V. N. (Editor); Ivakhnenko, A. G. (Editor); Meleshev, A. M. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis and analysis of systems containing a man in their control circuits are considered. The concepts of ergonomics and ergatic systems are defined, and tasks and problems of ergonomics are outlined. The synthesis of the structure of an astronautic ergatic organism is presented, as well as the synthesis of nonstationary ergatic systems. Problems of selecting the criteria for complex systems are considered, and the results are presented from a study of ergatic control systems with any degree of human participation.

  15. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  16. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  17. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  18. Automated Pilot Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, J. L., Jr.; Haidt, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    An Automated Pilot Advisory System (APAS) was developed and operationally tested to demonstrate the concept that low cost automated systems can provide air traffic and aviation weather advisory information at high density uncontrolled airports. The system was designed to enhance the see and be seen rule of flight, and pilots who used the system preferred it over the self announcement system presently used at uncontrolled airports.

  19. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  20. Systems Security Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-22

    Commission (IEC). “Information technology — Security techniques — Code of practice for information security management ( ISO /IEC 27002 ...Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management systems —Requirements ( ISO /IEC 27002 ),”, “Information technology — Security...was a draft ISO standard on Systems and software engineering, Systems and software assurance [18]. Created by systems engineers for systems

  1. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Finite -dimensional regulators for a class of infinite dimensional systems ,” Systems and Control Letters, 3 (1983), 7-12. [11] B...semiglobal stabilizability by encoded state feedback,” to appear in Systems and Control Letters. 22 29. C. De Persis, A. Isidori, “Global stabilization of...nonequilibrium setting, for both finite and infinite dimensional control systems . Our objectives for distributed parameter systems included

  2. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  3. On evolutionary systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Lorenzana, J M; Ward, L M

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a metatheoretical framework for understanding evolutionary systems (systems that develop in ways that increase their own variety). The framework addresses shortcomings seen in other popular systems theories. It concerns both living and nonliving systems, and proposes a metahierarchy of hierarchical systems. Thus, it potentially addresses systems at all descriptive levels. We restrict our definition of system to that of a core system whose parts have a different ontological status than the system, and characterize the core system in terms of five global properties: minimal length interval, minimal time interval, system cycle, total receptive capacity, and system potential. We propose two principles through the interaction of which evolutionary systems develop. The Principle of Combinatorial Expansion describes how a core system realizes its developmental potential through a process of progressive differentiation of the single primal state up to a limit stage. The Principle of Generative Condensation describes how the components of the last stage of combinatorial expansion condense and become the environment for and components of new, enriched systems. The early evolution of the Universe after the "big bang" is discussed in light of these ideas as an example of the application of the framework.

  4. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  5. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We reviewmore » and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.« less

  6. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  7. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  8. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  9. A Novel Mutation of Human Liver Alanine:Glyoxylate Aminotransferase Causes Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1: Immunohistochemical Quantification and Subcellular Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Chikage; Minatogawa, Yohsuke; Akiyoshi, Hidetaka; Hirose, Shinichi; Suehiro, Tsunatoshi; Tone, Shigenobu

    2012-01-01

    A novel alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) mutation involved in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) was studied in Japanese patients. Two mutations in exon 7, c.751T>A and c.752G>A, lead to a W251K amino acid substitution. Proband 1 (patient 1) was homozygous for the W251K mutation allele (DDBJ Accession No. AB292648), and AGT-specific activity in the patient’s liver was very low. To reveal the cause of the low enzymatic activity, the intracellular localization of AGT (W251K) was studied using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. The latter analysis showed that patient 2 had only one-fifth of the normal AGT expression per catalase, suggesting impairment of AGT (W251K) dependent transport into peroxisomes. Peroxisomal transport of human AGT is believed to be dependent on the presence of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting sequence. The C-terminal tripeptide of AGT, KKL is necessary for peroxisomal targeting. In cultured cells, EGFP-AGT (W251K) localized both in the peroxisome and cytosol. These results were consistent with the data obtained from liver analysis of patient 2. The subcellular distribution of AGT (W251K) and the results from a random mutagenesis study suggest that KKL is necessary for peroxisomal targeting of human AGT, but additional signal other than KKL may be necessary. PMID:22685354

  10. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  11. Activation of adenosine receptors improves renal antioxidant status in diabetic Wistar but not SHR rats

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Daniela; Afonso, Joana; Sousa, Teresa; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension independently contribute to renal injury, and the major mechanisms involved are increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) bioavailability and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. We investigated the role of adenosine in controlling ROS production and RAS activation associated with renal dysfunction in hypertension and diabetes. Methods Fourteen days after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin in 12-week-old male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, animals were treated during 7 days with 2-chloroadenosine (CADO group, 5 mg/kg/d), a stable analogue of adenosine, or underwent a sham operation procedure. At the end of the study (day 21), intra-arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, and 24-h urine and plasma samples and renal tissue were collected. Results CADO treatment decreased the plasma glucose concentration and glucose and protein excretion by more than 30% in both strains. CADO treatment decreased SBP in diabetic SHR rats (143 ± 8 versus 114 ± 4 mmHg, p < 0.05), but not in diabetic Wistar rats. The hypotensive effect of CADO was associated to a ∼70% increase in plasma angiotensinogen (AGT) concentration and a ∼50% decrease in urinary AGT excretion. CADO also caused a decrease in medullary and cortical hydrogen peroxide production of about 40%, which was associated with a proportional increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in diabetic Wistar but not in diabetic SHR animals. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of adenosine receptors improves renal antioxidant capacity in diabetic Wistar but not SHR rats, although it improves glucose metabolism in both strains. Furthermore, activation of adenosine receptors does not seem to be directly influencing AGT production. PMID:24195577

  12. Promoter Polymorphism G-6A, which Modulates Angiotensinogen Gene Expression, Is Associated with Non-Familial Sick Sinus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jan-Yow; Liou, Ying-Ming; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that familial sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is caused by functional alterations of ion channels and gap junction. Limited information is available on the mechanism of age-related non-familial SSS. Although evidence shows a close link between arrhythmia and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), it remains to be determined whether the RAS is involved in the pathogenesis of non-familial SSS. Methods In this study, 113 patients with documented non-familial SSS and 125 controls were screened for angiotensinogen (AGT) and gap junction protein-connexin 40 (Cx40) promoter polymorphisms by gene sequencing, followed by an association study. A luciferase assay was used to determine the transcriptional activity of the promoter polymorphism. The interaction between nuclear factors and the promoter polymorphism was characterized by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results Association study showed the Cx40 -44/+71 polymorphisms are not associated with non-familial SSS; however, it indicated that four polymorphic sites at positions -6, -20, -152, and -217 in the AGT promoter are linked to non-familial SSS. Compared to controls, SSS patients had a lower frequency of the G-6A AA genotype (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.58–5.22, P = 0.001) and a higher frequency of the G allele at -6 position (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.54–4.57, P = 0.0003). EMSA and luciferase assays confirmed that nucleotide G at position -6 modulates the binding affinity with nuclear factors and yields a lower transcriptional activity than nucleotide A (P<0.01). Conclusion G-6A polymorphism, which modulates the transcriptional activity of the AGT promoter, may contribute to non-familial SSS susceptibility. PMID:22242192

  13. Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F stimulates renal Ace-2 gene expression and prevents TGF-β1-induced kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Yixuan; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Abdo, Shaaban; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) stimulates renal ACE-2 expression and prevents TGF-β1 signalling, TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression and induction of tubulo-fibrosis in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Adult male Akita transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing specifically hnRNP F in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were studied. Non-Akita littermates and Akita mice served as controls. Immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Hnrnpf cDNA or rat Ace-2 gene promoter were also studied. Overexpression of hnRNP F attenuated systemic hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin (Ang) II levels, renal fibrosis and profibrotic gene (Agt, Tgf-β1, TGF-β receptor II [Tgf-βrII]) expression, stimulated anti-profibrotic gene (Ace-2 and Ang 1-7 receptor [MasR]) expression, and normalised urinary Ang 1-7 level in Akita Hnrnpf-Tg mice as compared with Akita mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Ace-2 gene promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated Agt, Tgf-β1 and Tgf-βrII gene expression. Furthermore, hnRNP F overexpression prevented TGF-β1 signalling and TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that hnRNP F stimulates Ace-2 gene transcription, prevents TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene transcription and induction of kidney injury in diabetes. HnRNP F may be a potential target for treating hypertension and renal fibrosis in diabetes.

  14. Albuminuria enhances NHE3 and NCC via stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress/angiotensin II axis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Zhuang, Yibo; Hu, Caiyu; Zhang, Xintong; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Hua, Hu; Huang, Songming; He, John Ci-Jiang; Zhang, Aihua

    2016-07-26

    Imbalance of salt and water is a frequent and challenging complication of kidney disease, whose pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive. Employing an albumin overload mouse model, we discovered that albuminuria enhanced the expression of NHE3 and NCC but not other transporters in murine kidney in line with the stimulation of angiotensinogen (AGT)/angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II cascade. In primary cultures of renal tubular cells, albumin directly stimulated AGT/ACE/Ang II and upregulated NHE3 and NCC expression. Blocking Ang II production with an ACE inhibitor normalized the upregulation of NHE3 and NCC in cells. Interestingly, albumin overload significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and administration of a SOD2 mimic (MnTBAP) normalized the expression of NHE3, NCC, and the components of AGT/ACE pathway affected by albuminuria, indicating a key role of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress in modulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and renal sodium transporters. In addition, the functional data showing the reduced urinary excretion of Na and Cl and enhanced response to specific NCC inhibitor further supported the regulatory results of sodium transporters following albumin overload. More importantly, the upregulation of NHE3 and NCC and activation of ACE/Ang II signaling pathway were also observed in albuminuric patient kidneys, suggesting that our animal model accurately replicates the human condition. Taken together, these novel findings demonstrated that albuminuria is of importance in resetting renal salt handling via mitochondrial oxidative stress-initiated stimulation of ACE/Ang II cascade. This may also offer novel, effective therapeutic targets for dealing with salt and water imbalance in proteinuric renal diseases.

  15. 4G/5G Variant of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene and Severe Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: Subgroup Analyses of Variants of Angiotensinogen and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Gen; Ohta, Kaori; Yamada, Hideto; Hata, Akira; Minakami, Hisanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tamashiro, Hiko; Fujimoto, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common cause of perinatal mortality. It is believed to result from the interaction of several factors, including those related to the blood coagulation system. We performed genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3). Methods An association study of PAI-1 polymorphism, and subgroup analyses of common variants of AGT and NOS3, among 128 patients with PIH and 376 healthy pregnant controls. Results No significant differences were found between the cases and controls in the frequencies of allele 4G or the 4G/4G genotype. In subgroup analyses, after adjustment for multiple comparison, a significant association with the AGT TT genotype was found among women with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, and an association with the NOS3 GA+AA genotype was found among women with the 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are at least 2 pathways in the pathogenesis of severe PIH. However, with respect to early prediction and prevention of severe PIH, although the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype alone was not a risk factor for severe PIH, the fact that PAI-1 genotypes are associated with varying risks for severe PIH suggests that PAI-1 genotyping of pregnant women, in combination with other tests, may be useful in the development of individualized measures that may prevent severe PIH. PMID:19838007

  16. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Kinetic Systems and Langley Research Center determined that high speed CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) data acquisition systems could significantly improve Langley's ARTS (Advanced Real Time Simulation) system. The ARTS system supports flight simulation R&D, and the CAMAC equipment allowed 32 high performance simulators to be controlled by centrally located host computers. This technology broadened Kinetic Systems' capabilities and led to several commercial applications. One of them is General Atomics' fusion research program. Kinetic Systems equipment allows tokamak data to be acquired four to 15 times more rapidly. Ford Motor company uses the same technology to control and monitor transmission testing facilities.

  17. The BELLE DAQ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-10-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems.

  18. Introducing Systems Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  19. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  20. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  1. Two Tethered Balloon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Systems take meteorological measurements for variety of research projects. Report describes work done by NASA Langley Research Center in atmospheric research using tethered balloon systems composed of commercially available equipment. Two separate tethered balloon systems described in report have payloads and configurations tailored to requirements of specific projects. Each system capable of measuring atmospheric parameter or species in situ and then telemetering this data in real time to ground station. Meteorological data and concentration of ozone typically measured. Indicates instrumented tethered balloon systems have distinct advantages over other systems for gathering data on troposphere.

  2. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  3. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  4. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  5. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  6. Power system interface and umbilical system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

  7. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  8. Braking System Integration in Dual Mode Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-05-01

    An optimal braking system for Dual Mode is a complex product of vast number of multivariate, interdependent parameters that encompass on-guideway and off-guideway operation as well as normal and emergency braking. : Details of, and interralations amo...

  9. User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A.

    2010-12-01

    As NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and provide customized services that benefit users. As the number of web-based applications continues to grow, data centers and application providers have implemented their own user registration systems and provided new tools and interfaces for their registered users. This has led to the creation of independent registration systems for accessing data and interacting with online tools and services. The user profile information maintained at each of these registration systems is not consistent and the registration enforcement varies by system as well. This problem is in no way unique to EOSDIS and represents a general challenge to the distributed computing community. In a study done in 2007(http://www2007.org/papers/paper620.pd), the average user has approximately 7 passwords for about 25 accounts and enters a password 8 times a day. These numbers have only increased in the last three years. To try and address this, a number of solutions have been offered including Single Sign-On solutions using a common backend like Microsoft Active Directory or an LDAP server, trust based identity providers like OpenID, and various forms of authorization delegation like OAuth or SAML/XACML. This talk discusses the differences between authentication and authorization, the state of the more popular user registration solutions available for distributed use, and some of the technical and policy drivers that need to be considered when incorporating a user registration system into your application.

  10. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  11. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  12. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  13. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  14. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  15. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A [Livermore, CA; Renzi, Ronald F [Tracy, CA

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  16. HOV systems analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on defining HOV systems and their components, criteria, and related issues in a systems planning context (as compared with the conventional project level planning). Definitions are provided to establish the physical and socioeconom...

  17. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... functions: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified. Here's how it works: When ...

  18. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It helps ... to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  19. 2001 Federal Radionavigation Systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-01

    This edition of Federal Radio navigation Systems (FRS) updates and replaces sections in the 1999 Federal Radio navigation Plan (FRP) relating to Government roles and responsibilities, system selection considerations, civil user requirements, and syst...

  20. Traffic control systems handbook.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The Traffic Control Systems Handbook updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. : Specific chapters include introduction, summary of available and emergin...

  1. Traffic control systems handbook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 edition of "Traffic Control Systems Handbook" updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. Specific chapters include introduction, summary of avail...

  2. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  3. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  4. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  5. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Cancer.gov

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  6. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  7. Septic Systems Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  8. Validation of multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewiorek, D. P.; Segall, Z.; Kong, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments that can be used to validate fault free performance of multiprocessor systems in aerospace systems integrating flight controls and avionics are discussed. Engineering prototypes for two fault tolerant multiprocessors are tested.

  9. FAA Directives System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-08-26

    Consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's mission to foster a safe, : secure, and efficient aviation system is the need for an effective and efficient : process for communitcating policy and procedures. The FAA Directives System : provide...

  10. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  11. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  12. CVISN system design description

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-05-01

    This document focuses on the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) System Design and Architecture. It begins with a discussion on the relationships between the National ITS Architecture the CVISN Architecture, and the Internatio...

  13. DOS-32 System Manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-06-01

    This manual describes the internal workings of the Disk Operating System (DOS-32 for the Noneywell H - 632 computer. DOS - 32 is a core resident, one user, console oriented operating system written primarily in FORTRAN. A companion document DOS - 32 ...

  14. Test processing system (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulene, P.

    1986-01-01

    The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. System access control study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The report presents a summary of a study conducted for the Transportation Systems Center of promising access control techniques which are applicable to an aeronautical satellite system. Several frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time divis...

  18. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    PubMed

    Harding, M L

    1999-02-01

    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule.

  19. Global Positioning System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-01

    The article examines the international growth of Global Positioning System (GPS), the system that was originally developed more than 20 years ago and is now an $8 billion industry. Its uses include numerous civilian applications around the globe, inc...

  20. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.