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Sample records for agu presentation schedule

  1. Congressional geohazards showcase presented by NSF and AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-10-01

    On Wednesday, 7 September 2011, two weeks after the magnitude 5.8 earthquake in Mineral, Va., and a week after Hurricane Irene struck the U.S. East Coast, AGU cosponsored a showcase of National Science Foundation (NSF)—funded hazards research in recognition of National Preparedness Month. This annual event highlights NSF—funded hazards research from all over the United States, with more than 30 exhibitors demonstrating the latest research and technology on hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and oil spills, as well as emergency and social responses to these events. The event took place at the Hart Senate Office Building, where many members of Congress and their staff could attend and discuss the importance of hazards research with the researchers and NSF staff. Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) kicked off with a panel of speakers, which included remarks by Mary Voytek, a member of the AGU Board of Directors, and Subra Suresh, director of NSF. Expert presentations were also given on hazard prediction, human safety, and social response. Following the event, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) hosted a small event to meet directly with a few of the exhibitors to discuss the importance of investment in scientific research and development.

  2. AGU scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In recognition of the AGU's long-standing support and substantial contribution to the Minority Participation Program of the American Geological Institute (AGI), 13 of the 1984-1985 AGU scholarship recipients, all of whom are enrolled in programs of study related to the broad areas of interest of the Union, were named “AGU Scholars.”

  3. AGU Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Administrative Committees are responsible for those functions required for the overall performance or well-being of AGU as an organization. These committees are Audit and Legal Affairs, Budget and Finance*, Development, Nominations*, Planning, Statutes and Bylaws*, Tellers.Operating Committees are responsible for the policy direction and operational oversight of AGU's primary programs. The Operating Committees are Education and Human Resources, Fellows*, Information Technology, International Participation*, Meetings, Public Affairs, Public Information, Publications*.

  4. AGU Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In recognition of the strong support of the American Geophysical Union and its substantial contribution to the American Geological Institute's Minority Participation Program, 13 of the 1981-82 scholarship recipients were designated ‘AGU Scholars.’ Because of a matching grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to increase the number of minority students studying in fields related to the development of marine and coastal resources, four of this number were designated ‘AGU Sea Grant Scholars.’

  5. AGU Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In recognition of the strong support of the American Geophysical Union and its substantial contribution to the American Geological Institute's Minority Scholarship Program, 11 of the 1980-1981 scholarship recipients were designated ‘AGU Scholars.’ Of this group, three were designated AGU ‘Sea Grants Scholars’ because they were funded through a matching grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program, which is aimed at increasing the numbers of minority students studying in fields related to developing marine and coastal research.

  6. AGU Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In recognition of the strong support and substantial contribution given by the American Geophysical Union to the American Geological Institute's Minority Participation Program, 16 of the 1982-83 scholarship recipients were designated ‘AGU Scholars.’ Because of a matching grant from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration to increase the number of minority students studying in fields related to the development of marine and coastal resources, five of this group were designated ‘AGU Sea Grant Scholars.’ The AGU Scholars, all of whom are following courses of study related to AGU's broad areas of interest, are Torin J. Edwards, a student of geophysics at the University of New Orleans; Gwendolyn Hofler, geophysics, Virginia State University; Jolecia Mitchell, environmental sciences, Howard University; Louis F. Montiel, geohydrology, Northern Arizona University; Alex M. Richards, geophysics, Northern Arizona University; Roxanne C. Rogers, geophysics, Colorado School of Mines; John F. Vargas, geophysics, University of Kansas; Toni M. VanDam, geophysics, University of Colorado; Edith G. Williams, geophysics, Stanford University; Saundra F. Willis, geosciences, California State University, Northridge; and Lacy B. Ward, geophysics, Virginia State University.

  7. AGU Board and Council Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The AGU Board and Council held meetings in San Francisco the weekend before Fall Meeting. Both meetings kicked off with a "Then and Now" presentation by Mike McPhaden, outgoing president; Carol Finn, incoming president; and executive director/CEO Chris McEntee. The presentation highlighted AGU's accomplishments under its strategic plan and new governance model in the past 2.5 years. The AGU leaders' written State of the Union reports can be found at http://www.agu.org/about/strategic_plan.shtml.

  8. AGU scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In recognition of the strong support of the Americn Geophysical Union and its substantial contribution to the American Geological Institute's (AGI) Minority Participation Program, 12 of the 1983-1984 AGI scholarship participants were designated “AGU Scholars.” Because part of this support comes from a matching grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to increase the number of minority students studying in fields related to the development of marine and coastal resources, five of these students were designated “AGU Sea Scholars.”The AGU Scholars, all of whom have elected courses of study related to the broad areas of interest of the Union, are Rufus Catchings, a geophysics graduate student at Stanford University; Charles R. Elerson, a graduate geophysics student at Louisiana Technical University; Ronald L. Keas and Orlanda M. Marques, undergraduate geophysics students at the Colorado School of Mines; Andrew Lewis Mickle, a hydrology graduate student at the University of Florida; Jaime Rangel, an undergraduate geophysics student at the University of Texas at Austin; and Ronald Wynn Sheets, a graduate geochemistry student at Ohio State University.

  9. AGU sponsors Argentinean's visit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria C. Azpiazu, an Argentinean space scientist, has been selected to receive travel support to attend the 1991 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore under AGU's Latin American Visiting Geophysicist Program. In addition to presenting a paper at the meeting on [Analysis of Electron Density and Temperature Profiles in the E-Region on Geomagnetically Quiet Days,] Azpiazu plans to visit several universities and research institutions.Azpiazu is an assistant professor at the University of Buenos Aires and an assistant researcher at the Argentinean National Research Council. While in the United States she plans to visit Boston and Harvard Universities, MIT, Hanscom Air Force Base, and the University of Colorado.

  10. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. "Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards," said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. "It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge."

  11. AGU Hydrology Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Executive Committee of the AGU Hydrology Section met in regular session at 4:00 P.M. on Thursday, December 8, 1983, in Room 378 of the Cathedral Hill Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. Seven board members were present with section president, Peter Eagleson, presiding.A total of 18 sessions were presented in San Francisco, and all were well attended, as was reported by program chairman Dennis Lettenmaier. Added to the regular sessions of General Hydrology, General Ground-water Hydrology, and Sediment Transport were the following special sessions: Glacier Ocean Interaction, presider Edward Josberger; Orinoco and the Amazon, presider Edward Andrews; Transport and Geochemical Interactions in Stream Water, presider F. E. Bencola; Instream Flow Requirements for Fish, presider Brian W. Mar; Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series, presiders Jose D. Salas and David R. Dawdy; Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems, presider Steve Gorelick; Treatment of Evapotranspiration Soil Moisture Evolution and Aquifer Recharge in Watershed Models, presiders Arlen D. Feldman and Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux; Statistical Procedures for Estimating of Flood Risk at Gauged Sites, presider J. R. Stedinger; and Searching for More Physically Based Extreme Value Distributions in Hydrology, presider Juan B. Valdes. The session on Glacier Ocean Interaction received the most publicity, with numerous accounts of some of the presentations appearing in the newspaper. One of the pleasant surprises of the meetings was the high attendance at the special sessions on Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems and Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series. Both sessions were highly interdisciplinary, attracting numerous scientists from other sections of AGU.

  12. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. The Fellows Committee on 15 January 2005 elected 43 members to join the ranks of AGU Fellows. Candidates for Fellow are nominated by colleagues and then vetted by the relevant Sections, who forward the top nominees to the Fellows Committee. The Fellows Committee, which consists of 11 Fellows, receives about twice the number of nominations as can be elected: no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership can be elected each year. The committee meets to review the forwarded nominations and decides who will be elected for the year.

  13. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. The Fellows Committee on 14 January 2006 elected 45 members to join the ranks of AGU Fellows. Candidates for Fellow are nominated by colleagues and then vetted by the relevant Sections, who forward the top nominees to the Fellows Committee. The Fellows Committee, which consists of 11 Fellows, receives about twice the number of nominations as can be elected: no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership can be elected each year. The committee meets to review the forwarded nominations and decides who will be elected for the year.

  14. AGU Pilots Virtual Student Poster Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti M.; Furukawa, Harry; Adamec, Bethany

    2014-02-01

    AGU recognizes that the inability to travel to Fall Meeting can be a barrier to sharing one's research, particularly for students. In 2013, several students from ­2-year colleges overcame this barrier and presented their research findings virtually.

  15. AGU GIFT Appeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    As the ocean sciences have grown in size and scope and matured intellectually and institutionally, scientific communications in many forms have become increasingly important. Fortunately, the AGU offers a broad program of scientific communications. In recent years the AGU has responded to the newly articulated communications needs of the burgeoning ocean sciences community. For example, it has initiated the monthly Oceanography Report in Eos; instituted a separate, alternating oceanography issue of the Green JGR; expanded greatly the time and space allocations of the oceanography sessions at national AGU meetings; supported the Chapman Conference on Ocean Fronts, the International Symposium on Coastal Upwelling, and the first Ocean Sciences Meeting (jointly with ASLO); fostered development of the oceanography luncheons, where timely topics for the community are aired; promoted development of the oceanography careers booklet (in advance preparation); and inaugurated the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences Monograph Series. I consider that not bad for starters!

  16. AGU Fellows Elected for 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The Union Fellows Selection Committee met in Washington on 29 March 2011 to review candidates nominated in 2010 for the Class of 2011. The first class of AGU Fellows was elected in 1962 with the sole criteria defined as Eminence in Geophysics. AGU bylaws require that the size of the Fellows class be limited to no more than 0.1% of the total AGU membership. The following new Fellows will be recognized during the AGU Fall Meeting in December.

  17. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. On 13 December 2008, the Fellows Committee elected 55 members for the class of 2009. Candidates are nominated by colleagues and then vetted by relevant sections and focus groups, who forward the top nominees to the Fellows Committee.

  18. Influencing the future of AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Finn, Carol; McEntee, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Steve Jobs, visionary cofounder of Apple, Inc., once said, “Everyone here has the sense that right now is one of those moments when we are influencing the future.” This statement aptly describes AGU at this time as the Board of Directors and the Council continue to influence the future in exciting ways by advancing our strategic plan (http://www.agu.org/about/mission.shtml). Both governing bodies held meetings in San Francisco immediately preceding the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. The agendas for both meetings, along with the key outcomes, are posted on AGU's Web site (http://www.agu.org/about/governance/).

  19. Building a bridge between AGU and SEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Louise; Bradford, John H.

    2012-05-01

    AGU and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) complement each other in many ways. SEG is known for strength in applied geophysics and method development, while AGU is known for application of geophysics to broader scientific questions in Earth and atmospheric sciences. These boundaries are of course gray, and there is substantial and complementary overlap of interests, particularly among some disciplines; these include the study of passive and active source seismology, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and electrical and electromagnetic methodologies, as well as interest in the application of these methods to crustal structure, near- surface geophysics, geothermal exploration, and basin analysis. Facilitating communication between members of SEG and those of AGU has a significant impact on the geophysical sciences. The AGU-SEG Collaboration Committee (ASCC) was established as part of the AGUSEG Alliance Agreement, signed in 2010. In the agreement, ASCC was "charged with considering and making recommendations to the respective organizations regarding other areas of cooperation, such as joint workshops or programs and continuing- education courses." The first committee-wide meeting was held on 11 February 2011. Subsequent meetings are scheduled every 4-6 weeks.

  20. Computerized Schedule Effectiveness Technique /SET/ determines present and future schedule position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, D.; Birdsong, J.; Calva, R.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized scheduling system calculates an index of overall schedule-effectiveness. The schedule-effectiveness index is a measurement of actual overall performance against the existing schedule, and a series of schedule-effectiveness values indicates the trend of actual performance. This computer program is written in Fortran 4.

  1. Why publish with AGU?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    The most visible activity of the American Geophysical Union is its publication of scientific journals. There are eight of these: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics (JGR I), Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth (JGR II), Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans and Atmospheres (JGR III), Radio Science (RS), Water Resources Research (WRR), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics (RGSP), and the newest, Tectonics.AGU's journals have established solid reputations for scientific excellence over the years. Reputation is not sufficient to sustain a high quality journal, however, since other factors enter into an author's decision on where to publish his or her work. In this article the characteristics of AGU's journals are compared with those of its competitors, with the aim of furnishing guidance to prospective authors and a better understanding of the value of the products to purchasers.

  2. New AGU Climate Communication Prize: Call for nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2011-08-01

    AGU is pleased to announce the newly launched AGU Climate Communication Prize. This new Union prize, generously funded by Nature's Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry in Boulder, Colo., will honor an AGU member-scientist for the communication of climate science. The prize highlights the importance of promoting scientific literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respect and understanding of science-based values as they relate to the implications of climate change. The prize will be awarded annually and will be presented at AGU's Fall Meeting. It will carry a cash award of $25,000.

  3. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    With a new total membership high of just over 48,000, it was possible to elect 48 new Fellows for the 2007 class. Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in Earth and space sciences. They are nominated by colleagues, vetted by the relevant sections or in some cases focus groups, and then elected by the Union Fellows Committee, which comprises 11 Fellows. Only 0.1% of the membership can be elected each year.

  4. An Update on AGU Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilst, Rob; Hanson, Brooks

    2013-07-01

    In the past year, AGU publishing has undergone substantial change, and we realize that this has caused some anxiety and concern among you, our members. As the start of a regular Eos series on issues in scientific publishing in general and AGU's content in particular, we provide here an overview and update of recent developments, with an emphasis on the partnership between AGU and Wiley. Topical entries, for instance on open access, will be published later.

  5. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. On 8 December 2007, the Fellows Committee elected 51 members for the class of 2008. Candidates are nominated by colleagues and then vetted by relevant sections and focus groups, who forward the top nominees to the Fellows Committee, which comprises 11 Fellows. Members of the 2006-2008 Fellows Committee are Tuija Pulkkinen, chair, and Shaw Liu, Andrea Rinaldo, Roberta Rudnick, Barbara Romanowicz, Lawrence Mysak, Steve Running, Thomas Herring, Lisa Tauxe, Julian McCreary, and Maria Zuber.

  6. Keeping Pseudoscience Out of AGU Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, Robert A.

    2005-06-01

    I found the editorial, ``Speaking Up For Science'' (Eos, 86,(24), 14 June 2005, p. 225) disturbing, but not for the reasons you intended. The Smithsonian made a mistake, but nowhere do you discuss its efforts to correct that. More troublesome to me as a member of AGU is the blatant hypocrisy contained in the editorial. How many posters or presentations have been made at AGU meetings in the last 10-20 years that support creationism, intelligent design, or other forms of pseudo-science, such as the so-called ``face'' on Mars?

  7. A new building for AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    1992-03-01

    On March 4 at AGU headquarters, the Real Estate Committee reviewed plans for the construction of a new headquarters building, which is to be completed in early 1994 on the current 2000 Florida Avenue site. The committee discussed in detail the project's budget, scheduling, and design. This meeting marks the completion of the design and development phase. The project's architect, Shalom Baranes, will now begin construction drawings.Several years ago, projections of the Union's growth showed that by about 1995, the current building would be insufficient to house the staff required to serve the Union. A study was undertaken by a special committee with the help of consultants. This “Real Estate Committee,” chaired by Ned A. Ostenso, explored the advantages and disadvantages of six expansion options: to sell the current building and lease; to sell the current building and buy another; to “do nothing” to the existing building and expand by leasing; to keep the existing building and build a new, independent addition; to renovate the existing building and add a new addition; or to construct a new building at the current site.

  8. AGU Fellows Elected for 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    AGU Fellows are members who have made exceptional contributions to Earth and space sciences as valued by their peer groups and vetted by a committee of Fellows. This year, 58 members have achieved this distinction (see http://www.agu.org/about/honors/fellows/ for more information and nomination details).

  9. The Reinforcing Effects of Houselight Illumination during Chained Schedules of Food Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ron; Kupfer, Jeff; Malagodi, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons' keypecking was maintained under two- and three-component chained schedules of food presentation. The component schedules were all fixed-interval schedules of either 1- or 2-min duration. Across conditions the presence of houselight illumination within each component schedule was manipulated. For each pigeon, first-component response rates…

  10. First AGU Board of Directors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-08-01

    On 1 July 2010, the first AGU Board of Directors took office. The board is composed of the president, president-elect, immediate past president, general secretary, international secretary, development board chair, six members elected by the Union membership, vice chair of the AGU Council, and the executive director. Two additional members may be nominated by the AGU president and approved by the board. The creation of the board is a result of the new governance structure approved by the AGU membership in November 2009. The board is responsible for the business aspects of the Union, while an expanded AGU Council will focus on science issues. Council members will be introduced in a future issue of Eos.

  11. AGU Blogosphere: A New Community of Earth and Space Science Blogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2010-11-01

    Less than a year ago, AGU had yet to explore the world of science blogging. Now AGU not only has three blogs of its own but also has launched the AGU Blogosphere, a network of independent Earth and space science blogs hosted under the Union's umbrella. The new network of blogs, composed of seven external blogs written by scientists and covering topics including planetary exploration, landslides, Washington, D. C.-area geology, volcanoes, climate change, and more, can now be found together with the in-house blogs at http://blogs.agu.org. It's been a fast, exciting immersion into the blogosphere for AGU. Efforts began with the 2009 Fall Meeting blog, run by AGU staff with the invaluable help of science writing students at University of California, Santa Cruz and New York's Columbia University. This successful experience inspired AGU outreach staff to make a permanent meetings blog, which regularly covers the science presented at AGU meetings.

  12. 2012 AGU section and focus group awardees and named lecturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Danica

    2012-11-01

    Each year, more than 20 awards are presented by AGU sections and focus groups to recipients at various stages in their careers. In addition, nearly 25 individuals are selected annually to present lectures under the Bowie Lecture Series and the Section and Focus Group Named Lecture Series. The Bowie Lecture Series was inaugurated in 1989 to commemorate the fiftieth presentation of the William Bowie Medal, which is AGU's highest honor and is named for AGU's first president. Named lectures are designated by sections and focus groups to honor and memorialize distinguished scientists in their respective fields of science.

  13. Town Hall on AGU Publishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlini, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Representatives from AGU's leadership and Wiley fielded questions at a town hall during Fall Meeting that ranged from the pricing of AGU's digital library to the fate of AGU books to the role of the governance structure in approving the AGU-Wiley publications partnership.

  14. Is AGU in your will?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Charles A.

    We are approaching the time of year when the IRS requires that we review our ‘financial position.’ The new tax laws, we are told, have benefits for everyone. These ‘goodies’ may be hard to find. However, those laws that apply to estates have been changed significantly, and our lawyer urges that my wife and I update our wills.We hope you read the AGU-GIFT editorial on deferred giving in the September 15, 1981, Eos. John Reed mentioned different options. The Steering Committee for AGU-GIFT believes that the designation of a bequest to AGU in an updated will may be appealing to some of AGU's senior members who are well established, whose career-long commitments are largely fulfilled, and who may be better shielded from inflation than some other members.

  15. Two Students Win AGU Scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Claire

    2014-10-01

    AGU is pleased to announce the winners of two student scholarships. Caterina Brighi is the recipient of the 2014 David S. Miller Young Scientist Scholarship, which recognizes a student of the Earth sciences whose academic work exhibits interest and promise.

  16. AGU elects 1986 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eighteen distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of AGU. The total number of Fellows elected each year may not exceed 0.1% of the total membership at the time of election.The newly elected Fellows are John D. Bossier, Office of Charting and Geodetic Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md.Ian S. Carmichael, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley.Paul J. Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany.Dieter H. Ehhalt, Institute of Atmospheric Chemistry, Jülich, and Department of Geophysics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany.Thomas C. Hanks, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.C. G. A. Harrison, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.Stanley R. Hart, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.Charles W. Howe, Department of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder.Charlotte E. Keen, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.T. J. Kukkamäki, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Helsinki.Ronald T. Merrill, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle.Pearn P. Niiler, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.Mervyn S. Paterson, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.Joseph Pedlosky, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.W. R. Peltier, Department of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.Raymond G. Roble, Solar Variability Section, High-Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.David J. Stevenson, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.David A. Woolhiser, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Ariz.

  17. AGU Council adopts position statement on scientific expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Elizabeth; Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-09-01

    On 17 August the AGU Council voted to adopt an American Meteorological Society (AMS) statement on free and open communication of scientific findings as an official position of AGU. The statement appears below. Recent attacks on scientists who present facts that are controversial or politically charged, such as in cases involving climate science, have sparked action by AGU and other scientific societies, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Open communication and collaboration are essential to the scientific process and must not be deterred by politics, media, or faith. In a recent letter to the New York Times, AGU president Michael McPhaden stated that “misguided attempts to suppress scientific research, particularly through political pressure, will not make climate change or the role human activity plays in it magically disappear. It will, however, make the objective knowledge needed to inform good policy decisions disappear.”

  18. Georneys joins AGU's blog network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2011-07-01

    A blog on geological musings, wanderings, and adventures, called Georneys, has joined AGU's network of Earth and space science blogs. With the addition of Georneys, on 11 July, the AGU Blogosphere (http://blogs.agu.org), as the network is known, has grown to showcase eight independent blogs since its launch last fall. “One reason I write this blog is to maintain my sanity as I finish up my Ph.D. In the midst of much stress, long days in lab, and long nights writing thesis chapters, I write to remind myself of why I love geology,” says Georneys blogger Evelyn Mervine. “I also write to document some of my geological adventures and to share my love of geology with others.”

  19. Preference for less frequent shock under fixed-interval schedules of electric-shock presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R C; Malagodi, E F

    1991-01-01

    Lever pressing by 2 squirrel monkeys was maintained under fixed-interval 6-min and fixed-interval 2-min schedules of electric-shock presentation. Preference for these schedules was assessed during three experimental phases. In all phases, responses on one lever produced shock according to one or the other fixed-interval schedule, and responses on a second, changeover, lever switched between schedules. The opportunity to change over was presented during separate choice periods (during which the fixed-interval schedules did not operate) that followed the first through fourth shocks in each schedule. If no changeover occurred during those choice periods, a changeover automatically occurred following the fifth shock. In Phase I, durations of the choice periods were fixed. In Phase II, the choice periods equaled a proportion of their respective fixed interval. During Phase III (completed with 1 monkey) a response on the changeover lever during a given choice period reinstated the most recent fixed interval, and a failure to respond resulted in a changeover. During each of these phases, distinct preferences developed for the 6-min schedule. These results suggest that the maintenance of lever pressing by fixed-interval presentation of electric shock may not be an example of positive reinforcement, and that the response-maintaining characteristics of shock presentation may derive from other properties of the schedule. PMID:1940761

  20. 10 CFR 2.1208 - Process and schedule for a hearing consisting of written presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Process and schedule for a hearing consisting of written... Process and schedule for a hearing consisting of written presentations. (a) Unless otherwise limited by this subpart or by the presiding officer, participants in a hearing consisting of written...

  1. Is AGU in your will?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consider whether or not you may wish to make a bequest to AGU in order that it may meet more adequately its growing responsibilities and opportunities. A bequest may be as simple or as complex as a donor's situation may require. And, regardless of whether a bequest is a small percentage of one's estate, a fixed amount of money, specified securities or other property, or the proceeds of a life insurance policy, it is likely to have tax advantages and will not deny you the continued use of your resources during your lifetime.On matters of this kind, you should consult your attorney. You should also feel free to bring your questions to Fred Spilhaus at AGU headquarters.

  2. Two Students Win AGU Scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Claire

    2013-11-01

    AGU is pleased to announce the winners of two scholarships. Marc Neveu is the recipient of the 2013 David S. Miller Young Scientist Scholarship, which recognizes a student of the Earth sciences whose academic work exhibits interest and promise. Hima Hassenruck-Gudipati is the 2013 recipient of the David E. Lumley Scholarship, which recognizes a high-achieving student who is working on problems of global importance in the energy and environmental sectors of industry and academia.

  3. Extend your commitment to AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voluntary contributions are essential for AGU to maintain and enhance its many innovative programs. In addition to unrestricted contributions to AGU, up to half of your Supporting Member contribution may be designated to one or more of the special funds. One such group of funds are the Section Funds. The Section Funds were established by the Council to support special Section activities. The Hydrology Section has used some of its funds to tape Langbein Lectures given by Wilfried Brutsaert, Shlomo Neuman,and Mark Meier, and to produce videotape interviews with John Philip, Terrence O'Donnell, James C. I. Dooge, David Dawdy Mark Meier, Gilbert White, Stanley Davis, and Peter Eagleson. Other Sections have used their funds to subsidize tickets for the Best Student Paper awardees to attend the Section luncheon at the Fall and Spring Meetings, give partial travel support to other Bowie lecturers, and give partial travel support to luncheon speakers. More information is available online at http://www.agu.org/inside/supportmember_top.html.

  4. State of the Union: AGU's evolving National Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    “Boston State-House is the hub of the solar system.”—Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1858 While the AGU Fall Meeting continues to grow, the Spring Meeting is undergoing several changes in venue, procedures, and focus.The principal purpose of a scientific society is to foster the exchange of scientific information, and AGU's meetings program achieves that aim admirably. Through the two annual national meetings and an everchanging menu of topical Chapman Conferences, AGU members are afforded opportunities to present and hear late-breaking research findings from every corner of the geophysical sciences. The national meetings, in particular, have become essential gatherings for the international Earth and space science community as well as for students presenting their first public papers.

  5. Wishart AGU 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Wishart, J. R.; Neumann, K.; Edenborn, H. M.; Hakala, J. A.; Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Shales are a component of the terrestrial subsurface biosphere and may be colonized by microorganisms when temperature and fluid flow are permitting. Assessing microbial community activity will be aided by the use of in situ sampling devices such as the osmosampler, an osmotically driven sampling device. Community analysis of shale samples remains a challenge and requires further methods development. The objectives of the work reported are: 1. to review geochemical and microbiological evidence for the possible microbial inhabitation of shale 2. to compare conditions among U.S. shale formations 3. to develop analytical techniques to evaluate microbial communities present in hydraulic fracturing fluid.

  6. Final slate for AGU elections this fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-07-01

    Your vote is important! This fall, AGU members will elect leaders for the next term (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014). This issue of Eos provides details about the upcoming election and information on candidates for open AGU Board and Council positions as well as section and focus group secretary positions. All regular and student members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 are eligible to vote in this year's election of AGU leaders. The election will be held electronically, and all members must have a valid e-mail address on file at AGU to receive login credentials from the company conducting the election.

  7. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  8. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  9. Shop the AGU books clearance sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscovitch, Mirelle

    2012-11-01

    For more than 85 years, AGU books have provided access to the work of scientists worldwide and covered exceptional research in the Earth and space sciences. Now more than 80 of our most popular titles are available at discounted prices. AGU members can save up to 75% off titles from the Geophysical Monograph Series, Water Resources Monograph Series, Special Publications, and more.

  10. AGU leadership reflects back, looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie; Buhrman, Joan

    2011-09-01

    AGU president Mike McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and executive director Chris McEntee have served in their current capacities for approximately a year. In this interview, held 18 August after the AGU Council meeting, they reflect back on the year and discuss prospects for the future.

  11. Who Benefits From Your AGU Donation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Claire

    2014-09-01

    When you give to AGU, you are giving to programs and initiatives that affect you, your fellow scientists, and the entire world. From section and focus group newsletters to student scholarships to struggling communities, there is an opportunity for you to engage and make a difference. Visit http://giving.agu.org to make your impact.

  12. Growing and Supporting the Student and Early Career Pipeline in Earth and Space Sciences - A Spotlight on New AGU Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Williams, B. M.; Asher, P. M.; Furukawa, H.; Holm Adamec, B.; Lee, M.; Cooper, P.

    2015-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is home to more than 60,000 scientists from 139 countries. Included in this membership are approximately 20,000 (34%) student and early career members. Many well-established programs within AGU provide a dynamic forum for Earth and Space scientists to advance research, collaborate across disciplines, and communicate the importance and impact of science to society regardless of career stage—programs such as AGU publications, scientific meetings and conferences, honors and recognition, and other educational and scientific forums. Additionally, many AGU program initiatives focusing specifically on supporting student and early career scientists and the global talent pool pipeline ones are actively underway. These include both new and long-standing programs. This presentation will describe (1) the overall demographics and needs in Earth and Space sciences, and (2) AGU's coordinated series of programs designed to help attract, retain and support student and early career scientists—with an emphasis on new programmatic activities and initiatives targeting improved diversity. Included in this presentation are a description of the AGU BrightSTaRS Program, the AGU Berkner Program for international students, a newly established AGU Student & Early Career Conference, the AGU Virtual Poster Showcase initiative, the AGU Meeting Mentor program, and GeoLEAD—an umbrella program being jointly built by a coalition of societies to help address Earth and space sciences talent pool needs.

  13. Better slides needed at AGU Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Randall S.

    Recent AGU meetings show a dangerous trend in the quality of presentations. A fair percentage of slides used during oral presentations consisted of a black background and colored lines and/or words for data. Such slides are illegible and serve to undercut the speaker's points by not demonstrating the data clearly.A typical example consisted of dark red, dark blue, and green data on a black background. Even the author had difficulty in pointing out the data using his light arrow. Line drawings, in particular, should not use colors, but instead use high-contrast white-on-black for the following reasons: dark colors on black backgrounds provide little contrast, making it difficult to discern patterns; people who are colorblind are at a disadvantage; and the same information can be obtained using a variety of line weights (dotdash, solid, dotted, etc.) with single color slides.

  14. AGU take your child to work day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette; Asher, Pranoti

    2011-05-01

    Sixteen children participated in the first annual AGU Take Your Child to Work Day, held on 21 April 2011 at AGU headquarters in Washington, D. C. AGU chief executive officer and executive director Chris McEntee kicked off the event by talking to the children—who are children, grandchildren, and nieces and nephews of AGU staff—about the importance of science. Then AGU member Lindsay Knippenberg, currently an Einstein Fellow in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Education, engaged the children in a discussion about earthquakes, plate tectonics, and the recent Japanese earthquake and tsunami. The children enthusiastically participated in her tsunami demonstration, which made use of Fruit Roll-Ups, graham crackers, and cake icing.

  15. G. N. Rassam Joins AGU Staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassan N. Rassam joined the AGU staff today, assuming the dual roles of Division Director for Public Information and Marketing and of Special Assistant for Nonprint Publications. He comes to AGU from the American Geological Institute, where he has been chief editor and assistant director of the GeoRef Information System.As Director of Public Information and Marketing, Rassam will head one of AGU's five divisions. He will have under his purview the Public Information Department and the Promotion and Sales Department. The Public Information Department produces Eos and also has the responsibility for press relations, including the preparation of news releases and the operation of press rooms at meetings. These activities are critical to the implementation of AGU's public education and public affairs initiatives, as well as to the central role of AGU in promoting the unity of geophysics.

  16. a Comparison of δ13C & pMC Values for Ten Cretaceous-Jurassic Dinosaur Bones from Texas to Alaska USA, China and Europe with that of Coal and Diamonds Presented in the 2003 Agu Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. R.; Dennett, R.; de Pontcharra, J.; Giertych, M.; Kline, O.; van Oosterwych, M. C.; Owen, H.; Taylor, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is convincing evidence that soft tissue and other biomolecules can survive long periods of fossilization by their interaction with blood iron and/or carbonate absorption. Here are presented the results of investigations showing that ancient biomolecules and their decay products contain significantly more pMC's (% modern 14C) than diamond and coal presented during a poster session held at the AGU 2003 SF convention. The title was: The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in organic samples older than 100,000 K. The given range for five diamonds from Botswana and South Africa ranged from 0.096 to 0.146 pMC. Ten coal specimens from the United States from the Eocene to Pennsylvanian geologic interval yielded 0.1 to 0.46 pMC's. In our extensive field and lab study ten dinosaurs from Texas to Alaska, and China yielded much higher pMC's of 0.76 to 5.59 after pretreatment to remove modern contaminants. When 2g of a Belgium Mosasaur from Europe was pretreated to remove contaminants the pMC was 4.68 or 24,600 RC years on Lund Un AMS in Sweden (Lindgren et al. 2011, PloS ONE, page 9). The endogenous sources of dinosaur pMC's were further enhanced by the δ13C range of -20.1 to -23.8 for collagen, 16.6-28.4 for bulk organic and -3.1 to -9.1 for CO3 fractions. The δ13C values compare favorably to δ13C values of -23 to -27 in a similar study of dinosaur δ13C values from the Judith River formation in Alberta, Canada that (Ostrom et al. 1993, Geology, v. 21). . Diamonds from South America (Taylor-Southon, Nuclear Instruments 2007 ) yielded ages of 66,000 to 80,000 years leaving little doubt that at least the dinosaur ages of 22,020 ± 50 to 39,230 ± 140 were not machine error or a result of contamination anymore than the coal samples. This data explains more clearly why such biomolecules have persisted and therefore should not be ignored as the implications are of utmost importance to science and humanity. Thus the experimental results presented here demonstrate the need for

  17. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - The Establishment and Evolution of an Ethics Program at a Large Scientific Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2016-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  18. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  19. 10 CFR 2.1207 - Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an oral hearing. 2.1207 Section 2.1207 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR....1207 Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an oral hearing. (a) Unless otherwise limited by this subpart or by the presiding officer, participants in an oral hearing may submit...

  20. 10 CFR 2.1207 - Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an oral hearing. 2.1207 Section 2.1207 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR....1207 Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an oral hearing. (a) Unless otherwise limited by this subpart or by the presiding officer, participants in an oral hearing may submit...

  1. AGU Publications: Improvements for Authors and Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Brooks

    2013-12-01

    AGU has introduced several new features aimed at simplifying and improving the submission of papers to AGU journals. Enhanced PDF and HTML formats and new journal home pages developed with our publishing partner, Wiley, will also provide improvements for readers. In previous issues of Eos, we provided broader overviews of AGU publications, including the transition to Wiley and open access (Eos, 94(30), 264-266, doi:10.1002/2013EO300009; Eos, 94(39), 345, doi:10.1002/2013EO390006).

  2. AGU acquires Springer-Verlag Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU has acquired Springer-Verlag's (New York) Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series. This acquisition adds thirty-nine volumes to AGU's own Coastal and Estuarine Sciences book series.Coastal and estuarine science is a rapidly growing area of research driven in part by an increasing awareness of man's impact on the coastal zone, and the importance in understanding its delicate ecosystems. This area of study enhances AGU's initiatives in interdisciplinary research. Particular emphasis is being placed on understanding the complex interactions between the physical, geological, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science.

  3. AguR, a Transmembrane Transcription Activator of the Putrescine Biosynthesis Operon in Lactococcus lactis, Acts in Response to the Agmatine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M. Cruz; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Fernandez, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dairy industry fermentative processes mostly use Lactococcus lactis as a starter. However, some dairy L. lactis strains produce putrescine, a biogenic amine that raises food safety and spoilage concerns, via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The enzymatic activities responsible for putrescine biosynthesis in this bacterium are encoded by the AGDI gene cluster. The role of the catabolic genes aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC has been studied, but knowledge regarding the role of aguR (the first gene in the cluster) remains limited. In the present work, aguR was found to be a very low level constitutively expressed gene that is essential for putrescine biosynthesis and is transcribed independently of the polycistronic mRNA encoding the catabolic genes (aguBDAC). In response to agmatine, AguR acts as a transcriptional activator of the aguB promoter (PaguB), which drives the transcription of the aguBDAC operon. Inverted sequences required for PaguB activity were identified by deletion analysis. Further work indicated that AguR is a transmembrane protein which might function as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and, accordingly, regulates the transcription of the aguBDAC operon through a C-terminal cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain typically found in LuxR-like proteins. PMID:26116671

  4. AguR, a Transmembrane Transcription Activator of the Putrescine Biosynthesis Operon in Lactococcus lactis, Acts in Response to the Agmatine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Dairy industry fermentative processes mostly use Lactococcus lactis as a starter. However, some dairy L. lactis strains produce putrescine, a biogenic amine that raises food safety and spoilage concerns, via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The enzymatic activities responsible for putrescine biosynthesis in this bacterium are encoded by the AGDI gene cluster. The role of the catabolic genes aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC has been studied, but knowledge regarding the role of aguR (the first gene in the cluster) remains limited. In the present work, aguR was found to be a very low level constitutively expressed gene that is essential for putrescine biosynthesis and is transcribed independently of the polycistronic mRNA encoding the catabolic genes (aguBDAC). In response to agmatine, AguR acts as a transcriptional activator of the aguB promoter (PaguB), which drives the transcription of the aguBDAC operon. Inverted sequences required for PaguB activity were identified by deletion analysis. Further work indicated that AguR is a transmembrane protein which might function as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and, accordingly, regulates the transcription of the aguBDAC operon through a C-terminal cytoplasmic DNA-binding domain typically found in LuxR-like proteins.

  5. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant. PMID:27423967

  6. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant.

  7. Schedules of electric shock presentation in the behavioral control of imprinted ducklings1

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James E.

    1972-01-01

    The behavioral effects of various schedules of electric shock presentation were investigated during and after the imprinting of Peking ducklings to moving stimuli. The behavior of following a moving imprinted stimulus was differentially controlled by a multiple schedule of punishment and avoidance that respectively suppressed and maintained following behavior. Pole-pecking, reinforced by presentations of the imprinted stimulus, was suppressed by response-produced shock (punishment); various schedules of response-independent shock and delayed punishment had an overall minimal effect. The delivery of response-independent shock in the presence of one of two stimuli, both during and after imprinting, resulted in a marked reduction in choice of the stimulus paired with shock. The experiments provide no support for a differentiation of imprinting from learning on the basis of the behavioral effects of aversive stimuli. Instead, as is the case with other organisms, the schedule under which shock is delivered to imprinted ducklings appears to be an important determinant of the temporal patterning of subsequent behavior. PMID:4675810

  8. AGU Council Undertakes Mission:Alignment Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 2 years, AGU has undertaken two critical initiatives designed to better position the organization for continued success. The first was a full membership vote to restructure governance to better address how both the science and the business of AGU are conducted. The second was to create a new long-term strategic plan based on broad input from a cross section of science perspectives. Now the newly configured AGU Council, which represents all constituent voices, is focusing on a key question: Given our strategic plan, stakeholder expectations of AGU, and what is being asked of science and our members, how does our science need to be organized, recognized and rewarded, disseminated, and promoted?

  9. Notification of upcoming AGU Council meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Billy

    2012-10-01

    The AGU Council will meet on Sunday, 2 December 2012, at the InterContinental Hotel in San Francisco, Calif. The meeting, which is open to all AGU members, will include discussions of AGU's new Grand Challenge Project (a project that will be introduced to members at the 2012 Fall Meeting), the proposed AGU scientific ethics policy, publishing strategies, future plans for honors and recognition, and leadership transition as new members join the Council. This year the Council experimented with a new approach to conducting business. By holding virtual meetings throughout the year, Council members have been able to act in a more timely manner and provide input on important membership and science issues on the Board of Directors' agenda. The Council Leadership Team—an elected subset of the Council—also experimented with a new approach, meeting every month to keep moving projects forward. This approach has increased communication and improved effectiveness in Council decision making.

  10. Institutional support for science and scientists: A perspective from the immediate past AGU President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    There were a number of times during my term as AGU President (July 2008 - July 2010) when AGU scientists came under intense public scrutiny. During this presentation I will discuss these experiences as they relate to the topic of this session. The first event centered around the inquiry into the University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit by the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee concerning the so-called Climategate emails. The second was when U.S. scientists came under fire under the guise of a tax fraud investigation by the Virginia State Attorney General. In the first event, climate change skeptics demanded that I take punitive action on the scientists involved in the scandal. In the second, I received requests from AGU members to speak out against the Virginia attorney general’s investigation. In both situations I felt poorly prepared and unable to act in a way that would place in AGU in a strong position and have a positive influence on the public debate. These experiences left me feeling that the interface between science and society is becoming increasingly complex. AGU must engage its membership to help shape policy, and inform society about solutions for sustainability, and we must allocate resources to support those functions. We think that a good policy strategy must be lean and targeted and that AGU needs to stick to its scientific messages. AGU is now grappling with those issues and we are partnering with policy makers and seeking input from our members.

  11. Fostering Diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences: The Role of AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. T.; Johnson, R. M.; Hall, F. R.

    2002-12-01

    In May 2002, AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) approved a new Diversity Plan, developed in collaboration with the CEHR Subcommittee on Diversity. Efforts to develop a diversity plan for AGU were motivated by the recognition that the present Earth and space science community poorly represents the true diversity of our society. Failure to recruit a diverse scientific workforce in an era of rapidly shifting demographics could have severe impact on the health of our profession. The traditional base of Earth and space scientists in the US (white males) has been shrinking during the past two decades, but women, racial and ethnic minorities, and persons with disabilities are not compensating for this loss. The potential ramifications of this situation - for investigators seeking to fill classes and recruit graduate students, for institutions looking to replace faculty and researchers, and for the larger community seeking continued public support of research funding - could be crippling. AGU's new Diversity Plan proposes a long-term strategy for addressing the lack of diversity in the Earth and space sciences with the ultimate vision of reflecting diversity in all of AGU's activities and programs. Four key goals have been identified: 1) Educate and involve the AGU membership in diversity issues; 2) Enhance and foster the participation of Earth and space scientists, educators and students from underrepresented groups in AGU activities; 3) Increase the visibility of the Earth and space sciences and foster awareness of career opportunities in these fields for underrepresented populations; and 4) Promote changes in the academic culture that both remove barriers and disincentives for increasing diversity in the student and faculty populations and reward member faculty wishing to pursue these goals. A detailed implementation plan that utilizes all of AGU's resources is currently under development in CEHR. Supportive participation by AGU members and

  12. Free workshop for teachers at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Adamec, Bethany

    2012-10-01

    AGU is committed to fostering the next generation of Earth and space scientists. We work on this commitment in many ways, one of which is partnering with the National Earth Science Teacher's Association (NESTA) to hold the annual Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop at the Fall Meeting. GIFT allows K-12 science educators (both classroom and informal) to hear from scientists about their latest Earth and space science research, explore new classroom resources for engaging students, and visit exhibits and technical sessions during the Fall Meeting. Six teams of leading scientists and education/public outreach professionals will give talks and lead teachers through interactive classroom activities over the course of 2 days at GIFT 2012. Becoming a GIFT presenter is a highly competitive process, with 29 applications evaluated through a peer review system this year. Science standards, prior classroom testing of materials, expertise of presenters, teacher interests, and AGU's science priorities are all taken into account during the selection process.

  13. AGU Cinema: Festival of short science films at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, Douglas A.

    2012-11-01

    New technologies have revolutionized the use of video as a means of science communication and have made it easier to create, distribute, and view. With video having become omnipresent in our culture, it sometime supplements or even replaces writing in many science and education applications. An inaugural science film festival sponsored by AGU at the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., in December will showcase short videos—30 minutes or less in length—developed to disseminate scientific results to various audiences and to enhance learning in the classroom. AGU Cinema will feature professionally produced, big budget films alongside low-budget videos aimed at niche audiences and made by amateurs. The latter category includes videos made by governmental agency scientists, educators, communications specialists within scientific organizations, and Fall Meeting oral and poster presenters.

  14. Shaping AGU's contributions to policy debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. Granger; Patwardhan, Anand

    In their Forum piece in the April 9 issue of Eos, Kaula and Anderson paint an unrealistically stark choice for the roles AGU might play in policy debates that substantially involve geophysical science. On the one hand is the antiseptic model of AGU-above-the-policy-fray: the aloof provider of geophysical facts from the literature. On the other hand is the model of AGU-as-policy-advocate: blending geophysical knowledge with value judgements in order to argue for specific policy actions in the political trenches. The problem with the first model is that the form assumed by most geophysical facts in the literature is rather distant from the needs of policy makers. Thus, the facts are easily overlooked in the face of pressing short-term political agendas. The problem with the second model is that AGU is a professional society comprised of scientists who hold many different value orientations. Any particular set of values adopted in a piece of political advocacy is likely to be at odds with many AGU members.

  15. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  16. First Scholarship at AGU Established by David E. Lumley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, Joanna G.

    2009-09-01

    Shortly after AGU launched its annual voluntary contribution campaign last year—the theme was “Building Tomorrow's Talent Today”—the Union's development office received an e-mail message from David E. Lumley about establishing a scholarship for a high-school student or undergraduate. Many scientific societies and associations have quite a few named scholarships, but for AGU this was a new concept. Lumley was sure of what he wanted to do and even more excited when he learned that his scholarship would be a first for AGU. “I want to help inspire today's young minds to work on problems of global importance in both the energy and environment sectors of industry and academia,” Lumley said. Recipients of the David E. Lumley Young Scientist Scholarship for Energy and Environmental Science will be expected to present a paper and to participate in various student activities at Fall Meeting. “Meeting some of the ‘giants’ of geoscience and getting their feedback on research is a big deal for these young students. We sometimes lose sight of this,” he said.

  17. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  18. AGU: 89 Years of Dynamic Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In its 89 years, AGU has matured and expanded through the dedicated administrative direction of three able leaders-John A. Fleming, Waldo E. Smith, and A. F. Spilhaus, Jr.-each with a vision of a strong scientific organization that serves individuals as they extend the knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the planets, and their space environments.

  19. AGU Candidates for Office, 2000-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert E. Dickinson. AGU member since 1960, Regents Professor, University of Arizona. Joint appointments at the University of Arizona in Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, and Tree Ring Laboratory Major areas of interest are global change, climate modeling, remote sensing, tropical deforestation, drought, and the interaction of terrestrial and atmospheric hydrological processes. B.A., 1961, chemistry and physics, Harvard University; M.S., 1962, Ph.D., 1966, meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Professor, University of Arizona since 1990, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Member, National Academy of Science; Fellow, AGU; Fellow, American Meteorological Society. Authored 167 refereed publications, 36 in AGU journals, as well as 22 book chapters and one book. Recipient of the Rossby Award (AMS), 1996; Roger Revelle Medal, 1996; Vetlesen Medal, 1995. AGU service as President, Atmospheric Sciences Section, 1988-1992 Committee on Earth as a System, 1987-1989 William Bowie Medal Committee, 1996-1998 Roger Revelle Medal Committee, 1998-2000.

  20. Human evaluative conditioning: acquisition trials, presentation schedule, evaluative style and contingency awareness.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, F; Eelen, P; Crombez, G; Van den Bergh, O

    1992-03-01

    Two different processes may be operative in human Pavlovian conditioning: signal learning and evaluative learning. Whereas most studies on evaluative conditioning focused on a mere demonstration of the phenomenon or on a theoretical analysis of the underlying processes, some basic parameters of evaluative learning are still unexplored. Hence, using the standard neutral picture--(dis)liked picture pairing paradigm (Baeyens, Eelen & Van den Bergh, 1990), in this study the effect of two parameters of evaluative conditioning was assessed on a between-subjects base, namely the Number of Acquisition Trials (2/5/10/20) and the Presentation Schedule of the stimulus pairs (blockwise or random). Additionally, the study included an exploratory analysis of the potential effects of the Evaluative Style of subjects (Feelers vs Thinkers, operationalized in terms of speed of emitting evaluations). Finally, the relationship between contingency awareness and evaluative learning was reassessed. Neutral-liked conditioning was found to be quadratically related to the number of acquisition trials (increase in effect up to 10 trials, decrease from 10 to 20 trials), whereas neutral-disliked conditioning linearly increased with increasing numbers of trials. Randomized vs blockwise presentation schedules of the stimulus pairs did differentially affect the overall pattern of conditioning, but in a way which was both unexpected and difficult to account for theoretically. Both the Evaluative Style of subjects and contingency awareness were demonstrated to be generally orthogonal to conditioned shifts in CS valence. Based on these findings, some practical suggestions are provided for the application of evaluating conditioning based therapeutical interventions to affective-behavioral disorders which are centred around inappropriate (dis)likes.

  1. Relations between patterns of responding and the presentation of stimuli under second-order schedules.

    PubMed

    Byrd, L D; Marr, M J

    1969-09-01

    Key-pecking behavior in the pigeon was maintained under second-order schedules in which food was presented after a variable number of 2-min fixed-interval components were completed. When either the same stimulus (Exp. I) or different stimuli (Exp. II) appeared on the key during consecutive components, and a stimulus that was occasionally paired with food was presented briefly at completion of each component, (1) patterns of positively accelerated responding were maintained during the components, and, (2) mean response rates were generally as high during the initial components of a sequence as during the later components. In both experiments, when the food-paired stimulus was omitted and either no stimulus or a stimulus never paired with food was presented at completion of each component, mean rates of responding increased, but patterns of positively accelerated responding were not maintained during individual components. When a food-paired stimulus was not presented at completion of the components, mean response rates in Exp. I were low during the initial components of a sequence and gradually increased during subsequent components; in Exp. II mean response rates were variable, and pauses and abrupt changes in response rates were typical.

  2. AGU Council to Meet in December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Cheryl L.

    2010-11-01

    The AGU Council will hold a meeting on Sunday, 12 December 2010, in San Francisco in conjunction with the Fall Meeting. This is the first meeting of the reconfigured Council, chaired by President­elect Carol Finn. As an outcome of the membership vote a year ago, the composition and the focus of the Council changed. With the creation of the Board of Directors to handle the business and fiduciary responsibilities of the organization, the Council is free to focus on science policy and other science-related matters. There are currently 59 Council members, including section presidents and presidents-elect, focus group chairs and vice chairs, committee chairs, early-career scientists, and the AGU president, president-elect, and executive director.

  3. AGU acts on NSF Page Charge Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast action by Headquarters alerted AGU members to a proposed change to the National Science Foundation's page charge policy that would weaken the ability of scientific societies to serve the scientific community.If adopted, NSF's new policy, announced in the Federal Register December 18, would remove the prohibition against allowing page charges to commercially produced journals. The proposal for the change was supposedly put forth to obtain a reaction from the scientific community.

  4. AGU Scientists Testify at Climate Change Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    2006-09-01

    AGU recently helped the U.S. House of RepresentativesCommittee on Government Reform to organize the hearing by suggestingpotential witnesses and outlining potentialtopics to explore, such as the global carboncycle, rapid climate change, climate feedbackprocesses, and satellite measurements. Climatechange falls within the committee'sbroader interest in the federal government'sprograms on energy and resources. Four AGUmembers testified at a 20 July hearing.

  5. AGU testifies on Space Station's cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    On May 1, before a standing-room-only House hearing, Representative Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) hammered hard questions at Richard Truly, administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, over the cost of the redesigned Space Station Freedom. AGU President G. Brent Dalrymple was also invited to testify about the station's cost and scientific merit as part of an expert panel before the House Government Operations subcommittee on government activities and transportation. Other witnesses included another AGU member, Louis J. Lanzerotti, chairman of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council.The hearing, which ran three-and-a-half intense hours, dealt with new estimates of Freedom's cost that are well in excess of NASA's $30 billion figure for the revised design. Charles A. Bowsher, U.S. comptroller general, testified about a new study by the General Accounting Office that estimates a $118 billion cost for the station, more than triple NASA's figure. AGU's testimony and the subcommittee's staff both projected an even higher figure—$180 billion—although they used different assumptions to reach it.

  6. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  7. Listeria monocytogenes aguA1, but Not aguA2, Encodes a Functional Agmatine Deiminase

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Chen, Jianshun; Fang, Chun; Xia, Ye; Shan, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wen, Guilan; Song, Houhui; Fang, Weihuan

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is adaptable to low pH environments and therefore crosses the intestinal barrier to establish systemic infections. L. monocytogenes aguA1 and aguA2 encode putative agmatine deiminases (AgDIs) AguA1 and AguA2. Transcription of aguA1 and aguA2 was significantly induced at pH 5.0. Deletion of aguA1 significantly impaired its survival both in gastric fluid at pH 2.5 and in mouse stomach, whereas aguA2 deletion did not show significant defect of survival in gastric fluid. With agmatine as the sole substrate, AguA1 expressed in Escherichia coli was optimal at 25 °C and over a wide range of pH from 3.5 to 10.5. Recombinant AguA2 showed no deiminase activity. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that all nine AguA1 mutants completely lost enzymatic activity. AguA2 acquired AgDI activity only when Cys-157 was mutated to glycine. AguA1 mutation at the same site, G157C, also inactivated the enzyme. Thus, we have discovered Gly-157 as a novel residue other than the known catalytic triad (Cys-His-Glu/Asp) in L. monocytogenes that is critical for enzyme activity. Of the two putative AgDIs, we conclude that only AguA1 functionally participates in the AgDI pathway and mediates acid tolerance in L. monocytogenes. PMID:23918931

  8. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  9. AGU Committee Update: Recent activities of NG Technical Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.

    Beginning this year, the AGU has adopted a series of new policies designed to highlight the interdisciplinary aspects of the Union. As part of these new policies, members will soon be able to affiliate with the AGU Technical Committees, including the Nonlinear Geophysics (NG) Committee. In addition, the Technical Committees are now able to sponsor or co-sponsor technical sessions at both the Spring and Fall annual meetings, as well as make awards for best research and papers, and sponsor nominations for AGU Fellows and Union-wide awards.A website for the NG committee, with descriptions of the committee's activities and other functions, can be found via a link from the main AGU website, which is maintained by Jon Pelletier (University of Arizona). An AGU/NG listserver is maintained by the AGU staff liaison to NG, Dan Moore (DMoore@agu.org). AGU members wishing to be apprised of NG committee activities by inclusion in the listserv should either sign up through the NG web site, or send email to Dan Moore. As described, the NG committee can nominate an AGU member for election to AGU Fellow status. Don Turcotte (Cornell University) chairs the NG subcommittee on Fellow nominations.

  10. Getting our hands wet: AGU participates in 2012 USA Science and Engineering Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm; Asher, Pranoti

    2012-05-01

    At the 2nd USA Science & Engineering Festival, held in Washington, D. C., from 27 to 29 April, AGU's Education Division (http://education.agu.org/) joined the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE; http://www.cosee.net/) in presenting a series of hands-on activities for children. Titled "Get Your Hands Wet," these activities were developed by COSEE and focused on chemical oceanography, climate change, ocean exploration/measurement, contaminants, physical oceanography, and marine biology. AGU education staff helped to run events such as making sand cards to illustrate the various stages of weathering of rocks and teaching a carbon cycle game, which allowed students to "become" carbon molecules and travel throughout the Earth system. AGU videographer Derek Sollosi captured some of the action at the COSEE/AGU booth on film, along with images of the rest of the festival (seehttp://youtu.be/oX8wPxYZj48). Other popular exhibits included models of NASA rovers, a jet from the U.S. Air Force, and remotely operated vehicles from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Celebrities from Mythbusters, The Big Bang Theory, NCIS, and other popular television shows made appearances on stage. For more about these and other exhibits and festival events, see http://www.usasciencefestival.org/.

  11. AGU journals increase in importance according to 2010 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2011-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.

  12. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  13. AGU Journals Increase Speed and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Fast publication and high quality and impact are important for effective dissemination of geoscience research. With this in mind, AGU's journal editors and staff, along with staff at our publishing partner, Wiley, have been working to increase both the speed of publication and the impact of the research published in our 18 peer-reviewed journals while maintaining our commitment to quality. Significant progress continues to be made on both fronts, as evidenced by the most recent publication times and the 2013 release of the Journal Citation Reports®, which was issued by Thomson Reuters on 29 July.

  14. AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources Sub-Committee on Diversity Program for the term 2004-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. J.; Hiza, M.; Jenkins, G.; Karsten, J.; Molina, L.; Pyrtle, A.; Runyon, C.

    2004-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) founded the Diversity Subcommittee in 2000 to address what the AGU felt were important issues for the future of the geoscience community. A recent AGU statement of commitment and concern about issues of diversity reads, in part: It is essential that new strategies for educating, recruiting, and retaining geoscientists from currently under-represented populations be developed (a) for individual investigators seeking students to fill classes or work in their research programs; (b) for institutions looking to replace faculty and researchers; (c) for the larger community looking to the public for continued research funding, and (d) for the future US membership of AGU. In an effort to fulfill its charge, the majority of the 2004-2006 sub-committee's activities will be directed towards: (1) Education of the AGU Membership, including the sub-committee itself, on the salient issues of Diversity; (2) Mentoring and supporting minority students in the pipeline of Earth and Space Science education as well as minority faculty seeking to establish successful collaborations; (3) Establishing a mechanism for quantitative assessment of (a) the AGU demographics, (b) member knowledge, and (c) success of programs in the area of Diversity; (4) Conducting the first ever Chapman Conference on the needs of investigators with disabilities (July, 2005); (5) Partnering with other agencies and societies to build bridges; (6) Creating mechanisms for marketing the Earth and Space sciences to minority audiences; (7) Nurturing of minority members already in the AGU; promoting these members for honors and awards within AGU. Details, goals, and milestones of this program will be presented.

  15. New software system to improve AGU membership management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Almost 2 years ago, AGU began investigating how it could more efficiently manage member and customer records as well as support processes that currently run on multiple systems. I am pleased to announce that on 25 June, as the result of intense efforts, AGU will migrate to a new database software system that will house the majority of AGU operations. AGU staff will have more tools at their disposal to assist members, and members will have more intuitive and user-friendly options when using the online interface to update their profiles or make purchases. I am particularly excited about this major improvement to our infrastructure because it better positions AGU to achieve goals in its strategic plan.

  16. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  17. Bagla, Kwok Win 2010 AGU Journalism Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2010-11-01

    A veteran Indian reporter and a rookie science writer have won AGU's 2010 journalism awards. Pallava Bagla will receive the David Perlman Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-News for two articles he wrote about the impact of climate change on Himalayan glaciers. The first of his articles, “No sign yet of Himalayan meltdown, Indian report finds,” published in Science, explores dissent among glaciologists regarding a passage in the Fourth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The passage suggests that Himalayan glaciers are highly likely to disappear by 2035. His second article, “Himalayan glaciers melting deadline ‘a mistake,’” published by BBC News, discusses a possible typographical error in the disputed passage. In the article, Bagla indicates that this error appears to explain the panel's controversial acceleration of when Himalayan glaciers are expected to vanish.

  18. Search the AGU journals in the ADS Full Text Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E.; Accomazzi, A.

    2012-12-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System has been developing over the last two years. ADS Labs now includes a full-text search interface which users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes present and past astronomical literatures, publications from the main physics journals, and all content published by the AGU. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org. The ADS is funded by NASA grant NNX12AG54G.

  19. AGU and American Geosciences Institute Webinar Series to Strengthen Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti M.; Keane, Christopher M.

    2013-02-01

    The AGU Education and Public Outreach department in collaboration with the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) are continuing their partnership to support Earth and space science departments through AGU's Heads and Chairs Program. Through this partnership, AGI's Workforce Program and AGU's education staff continue to host monthly, hour-long webinars and online discussions on various topics that hit at the heart of the health and success of Earth and space science departments. We invite department heads and chairs as well as faculty, administrators, and program directors to join in this unique free program.

  20. Christine McEntee Takes Office as AGU Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-09-01

    In a historic transition event, AGU staff and volunteer leadership welcomed incoming executive director Christine W. McEntee and said farewell to outgoing interim executive director Robert Van Hook. The event, with the theme “A Bridge to the Future: From Strength to Strength,” took place at AGU headquarters in Washington, D. C., on 30 August. McEntee comes to AGU from the American Institute of Architects, where she served as executive vice president and chief executive officer since 2006. She is the Union's third executive director.

  1. AGU Career Center attracts hundreds of Fall Meeting attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The poster hall of the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting was the venue not only for scientific discussion and exchange of ideas—Fall Meeting attendees also explored new career opportunities and received career advice at AGU's Career Center. For many years, recruiters and hiring managers have found ideal candidates for open positions during the AGU Fall Meeting through the Career Center. Last year was no exception: Recruiters browsed resumés, visited posters, and attended talks to find talented individuals to interview during the week. In addition, hundreds of meeting attendees looking for a new job or a postdoc position visited the Career Center and checked the online AGU Career Center job board to request interviews. Career counselor Alaina Levine of Quantum Success Solutions gave private one-on-one career advice to 47 meeting attendees, making sure that each individual she counseled left the session with clearer career objectives and tactics to bring these objectives to fruition.

  2. Strong Showing for AGU Journals in 2009 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-06-01

    AGU publishes great science, which is recognized in several ways. One of the most widely recognized is from Thomson Reuters, which provides the Journal Citation Report (JCR) each year as a component of the Web of Science®. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2009 statistics released last week, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. For the twelfth time, two different AGU titles hold the top rank in their categories, and AGU titles hold the second spot in two other categories and third in two more.

  3. AGU Council looks to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Precollege education was the focus of an important action taken by the AGU Council at its December 4, 1990, meeting in San Francisco. An expenditure of $50,000 was authorized to provide staff time to develop and implement programs in this area. The Union is looking forward to significant grant support for these education activities. With the funds the Education and Human Resources Committee hopes to improve the flow of students into the Earth and space sciences and generate an appreciation of science among all students and the general public.The Council also approved proceeding with plans for the construction of a new headquarters building. At current growth rates, the headquarters building will be full by 1994. After an extended study of a wide range of alternatives, the Ad Hoc Committee on Real Estate, chaired by Ned Ostenso, recommended that the current “obsolescent” building be demolished and a new and larger one built on the same site. While plans are being made for the next step in this process, a search will also be conducted for a suitable building in a good location in Washington that could be purchased at a reasonable price. The current state of the real estate market dictates keeping one's options open.

  4. AGU 2002-2003 Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illa Amerson, a Ph.D. candidate at the Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton, was selected as AGU's 26th Congressional Science Fellow for 2002-2003. Starting in September, Amerson will serve a one-year assignment in the office of a senator or representative, or on a committee's staff as one of only a handful of scientists on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. Once in an office, Amerson can expect to work as a regular member of the staff, serving as a legislative assistant. Her duties could include advising her boss how to vote on specific bills, writing speeches or press releases, crafting legislation, meeting with lobbyists and special interest groups, and even answering constituent mail.Amerson expects to receive her Ph.D. in environmental science and engineering this summer. Her dissertation focuses on the environmental impact of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). She completed a M.S. in civil and environmental engineering at Arizona State University and a S.B. in chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Amerson has also spent three years working in environmental regulation and consulting, dealing primarily with air and water quality issues.

  5. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  6. Free Workshop for Teachers at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, Anne

    2013-10-01

    In keeping with its commitment to fostering the next generation of Earth and space scientists, AGU is partnering with the National Earth Science Teachers Association to hold the annual Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting. GIFT allows K-12 science educators (both classroom and informal) to hear from scientists about their latest Earth and space science research, explore new classroom resources for engaging students, and visit exhibits and technical sessions during the Fall Meeting.

  7. Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

  8. Serial recall and presentation schedule: a micro-analysis of local distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Brown, Gordon D A

    2005-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness theories, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbours during presentation are more distinct and thus are recalled better. Event-based theories, which deny that elapsed time plays a role at encoding, explain isolation effects by assuming that temporal isolation provides extra time for rehearsal or consolidation of encoding. The two classes of theories can be differentiated by examining the symmetry of isolation effects: Event-based accounts predict that performance should be affected only by pauses following item presentation (because they allow time for rehearsal or consolidation), whereas distinctiveness predicts that items should also benefit from preceding pauses. The first experiment manipulated inter-item intervals and showed an effect of intervals following but not preceding presentation, in line with event-based accounts. The second experiment showed that the effect of following interval was abolished by articulatory suppression. The data are consistent with event-based theories but can be handled by time-based distinctiveness models if they allow for additional encoding during inter-item pauses.

  9. News media and new media: Strong coverage of AGU Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Peter

    2011-05-01

    As scientists at AGU's 2010 Fall Meeting engaged one another with talks, posters, and hallway chats last December, a steady stream of reporting and commentary about all things Fall Meeting spilled out from the Moscone Center in San Francisco, Calif., to audiences throughout the world. Some 150 journalists—representing print, online, and broadcast media outlets, plus freelancers—reported from the meeting. Other reporters not present at the meeting participated in press conferences and other press events via live webcasts. Writers for nearly 2 dozen Earth and space science blogs churned out Fall Meeting-related blog postings. Twitter users also busily commented from the meeting, generating more than 4500 tweets labeled with the meeting's #AGU10 hashtag (a Twitter identity code). The outpouring of meeting-related news and commentary added up to more than 3000 stories, of which many reached far-flung parts of the globe, according to an analysis made using Vocus, a media monitoring service.

  10. Lanzerotti to Head New AGU Journal on Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    Louis J. Lanzerotti has been named editor of a new AGU online publication devoted to the emerging field of near-Earth space conditions and their effects on technical systems. Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Applications, will be the first journal dedicated solely to the subject, and will include peer-reviewed research, as well as news, features, and opinion articles. A quarterly magazine digest will also be published from the online edition and distributed free of charge to space weather professionals. Lanzerotti, a longtime AGU member who was elected an AGU Fellow in 1985, is currently a consulting physicist at Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories, and a distinguished research professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He also serves on the governing board of the American Institute of Physics. He is author or co-author of more than 500 publications, including many related to space weather and its effects on communications.

  11. Common interests bind AGU and geophysical groups around the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    In continuation of our work to strengthen alliances with key organizations in the Earth and space science community, AGU president Michael McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and I held a series of meetings with leaders from other science societies during the 2011 Fall Meeting. Over the course of 2 days we met with leaders from the Geophysical Society of America, European Geosciences Union, Japan Geosciences Union, Ethiopian Geophysical Union, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Chinese Geophysical Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial. This gave us a valued opportunity to discuss the common interests and challenges we all face and to learn from each other's experience. The meetings allowed AGU to strengthen existing cooperative agreements and reach new levels of understanding between us and other societies. Additionally, we met with representatives from the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute to discuss their intention to establish a geophysical union modeled after AGU.

  12. Member Input Sought to Ensure AGU's Continued Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Timothy L.

    2008-11-01

    As an organization, AGU is indeed fortunate. Our Union has a growing membership worldwide with an average annual increase of 5.9% over the last 5 years. We are financially strong; we have planned carefully and managed our assets and our annual budgets so that we are able to navigate difficult times. Our Fall Meeting is ``the'' event for Earth and space scientists from more than 100 countries. Our publications continue to grow and evolve. Our outreach programs are gaining recognition in the communities we serve. Our development efforts are strengthening our ability to do more without taxing the revenues from meetings and publications. AGU is a preeminent scientific society.

  13. Science policy events at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Are you interested in the intersection of science and policy, looking to make an impact on Capitol Hill, or concerned about the increasing number of attacks against scientists and their academic freedom? AGU Public Affairs offers many events at the 2012 Fall Meeting to assist member involvement in political processes and inform scientists of their rights and options should their research come under legal fire. Learn how you can share your science with policy makers to help inform policy at two luncheon events at the Fall Meeting. If you have ever considered working as a science expert for a member of Congress or reporting science in a mass media outlet, then you should attend the first luncheon, How to be a Congressional Science Fellow or Mass Media Fellow. The event will feature current AGU Congressional Science Fellows detailing their experiences working in Congress as well as past AGU Mass Media Fellows sharing their stories of reporting for a news organization. The luncheon will be held on Tuesday, 4 December, from 12:30 to 1:30 P.M. at the Marriott Hotel, in room Golden Gate B. In addition, current and former fellows will be available for one-on-one interactions at the AGU Marketplace from 3:30 to 4:30 P.M. on Tuesday, 4 December, through Thursday, 6 December.

  14. AGU Members Learn Ways to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2013-01-01

    Gasps filled the room as scientists listened to a talk about the looming U.S. "fiscal cliff" and sequestration impacts on the science community. This was but one example of efforts by AGU's Public Affairs team during this year's Fall Meeting to talk to members about the latest news on the federal budget and what was happening on Capitol Hill.

  15. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  16. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  17. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  18. Iterative refinement scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric

    1992-01-01

    We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.

  19. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC[1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1], [3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR) [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE59514. PMID:26697381

  20. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC[1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1], [3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR) [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE59514. PMID:26697381

  1. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC[1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1], [3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR) [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE59514.

  2. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  3. Public outreach events at 2011 AGU Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany; Asher, Pranoti

    2011-11-01

    On Sunday, 4 December, three free family events planned by AGU Education and Public Outreach will lead off this year's Fall Meeting. The events begin at noon with the public lecture, which, AGU is thrilled to announce, will be delivered by NASA astronaut Drew Feustel, who holds a Ph.D. in geophysics. In 2009, Feustel served on the crew of STS- 125, the final space shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, and, earlier this year, STS-134, which traveled to the International Space Station (ISS). He served as the lead space walker during STS-134; the mission delivered to ISS the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), a state-of-the-art cosmic ray particle physics detector designed to examine fundamental issues about matter and the origin and structure of the universe. He will speak about the Hubble STS-125 mission and the STS-134 mission, as well as about how his experiences as a geophysicist influenced his experiences as an astronaut.

  4. AGU Joins MentorNet to Support Young Geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Inés

    2009-11-01

    AGU has joined MentorNet as a partner in a mentoring network that encourages diversity in the engineering and science professions. MentorNet matches protégés and mentors and provides mentoring advice, suggestions, and gentle reminders to keep the exchange going. This partnership makes it possible for AGU to connect student members who would like a mentor in the geosciences with members who want to mentor. Mentoring is key to encouraging young people—particularly women, Latinos, and African Americans—to become involved and stay involved with the sciences. MentorNet partners with institutions of higher education, industry, government, and professional societies to provide online programs to serve science professionals and students.

  5. COPA to sponsor two Union sessions at AGU Spring Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    Members of AGU's Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) will convene two Union sessions designed to highlight the link between geophysical research and the broader societal concerns at the upcoming AGU Spring meeting in Boston. Session U05, titled “Contaminated Groundwater and Litigation: Lessons from the Woburn Case,” will focus on the union of geophysical science and the legal system, geophysical science and health effects, and geophysical science and public participation. The Woburn, Massachusetts, toxic tort case, made popular by Jonathan Harr's book A Civil Action, will be used to illustrate the role and interaction of geophysical science with public policy in these areas. COPA members Jim Mercer and Margo Kingston will convene the session Wednesday June 5, starting at 8:30 a.m. in room CC302.

  6. AGU Science Policy Conference: 2012 Recap and 2013 Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, E. R.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In the spring of 2012, AGU held its inaugural Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of this new conference is to ensure diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of Earth and space science policy. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policymakers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss Arctic, oceans, natural resources, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as Hydraulic Fracturing, Mitigation and Resiliency to Severe Weather, Governance and Security in the Arctic, and Ocean Acidification are examples of some of the intriguing science policy issues addressed at the conference. The AGU Science Policy Conference will be an annual spring event in Washington, D.C.

  7. Maeve Boland selected as AGU Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, Kaitlin

    2009-10-01

    Maeve Boland, research assistant professor at the Colorado School of Mines, is AGU's 2009-2010 Congressional Science Fellow. Boland, who has a Ph.D. in geology from the Colorado School of Mines, is spending a year working in the office of U.S. Sen. Byron Dorgan (D-N. D.). She was selected in March by AGU's Committee on Public Affairs after a competitive interview process, and she is AGU's 32nd Congressional Science Fellow. In September, Boland and 31 other Congressional Science Fellows participated in a 2-week course in politics and the legislative process put on by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She then interviewed with a number of congressional offices and was offered a position in the office of Sen. Dorgan, who chairs the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development and is a member of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Boland is working as a legislative fellow carrying out a range of duties such as organizing congressional hearings, crafting legislation, advising legislators on votes, meeting with lobbyists, and writing speeches. Fellows also are often asked to assist their senator or representative during committee hearings and on the U.S. House or Senate floors during legislative debates.

  8. Tales of quakes and consequences garner 2012 AGU journalism awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Peter

    2012-11-01

    When a court last month convicted seismologists of wrongdoing for how they characterized earthquake risk in the weeks preceding a deadly 2009 temblor in the city of L'Aquila, Italy, the verdict shocked scientists around the world. More than a year before that judgment came down, freelance reporter Stephen S. Hall had explored the legal case and its implications for scientists and for society in an article published in the 15 September 2011 issue of Nature. Because of the deep and compelling way in which Hall reported on the case, AGU in July chose Hall as the 2012 winner of the Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism - Features. Remarkable coverage of an earthquake also stood out for judges of the other of this year's AGU journalism honors: the 2012 David Perlman Award for Excellence in Journalism - News. Also in July, AGU selected a team at The Washington Post, including two staff writers, Brian Vastag and Steven Mufson, and the Post's graphics staff, to receive the Perlman Award for their superb reporting on the unusual 5.8 magnitude earthquake that shook the Washington, D. C., region in August 2011.

  9. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  10. Research in rock deformation: Report of the Second Rock Deformation Colloquium, 1989 AGU Spring Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Harry

    In response to the considerable interest expressed at the first Rock Deformation Colloquium held at the Fall 1988 AGU meeting in San Francisco, a second dinner meeting was held on Monday evening, May 8, 1989, at the Omni Hotel in Baltimore. The principal business items were a report by Steve Kirby (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.) concerning the meeting the previous day of the rock deformation steering committee and an after dinner presentation by Steve Freiman of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Md., entitled “The Environmental Effects on Subcritical Crack Growth.” Kirby reported that a technical committee for rock deformation has been established within the Tectonophysics Section of AGU; the steering committee will attempt to establish constructive working relations with allied societies and disciplines, such as ceramics, metallurgy, materials science, structural geology, and surface science. Brian Evans of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Terry Tullis of Brown University in Providence, R.I., and Harry Green of the University of California at Davis agreed to be a subcommittee to propose a name for the technical committee, for discussion at the next steering committee meeting to be held before the 1989 Fall AGU meeting. Green also agreed to investigate the possibility of convening a special session at the Fall Meeting on the nature and mechanism of deep-focus earthquakes. (The session is Deep Slab Deformation and Faulting, T21B and T22A, organized by Harry and Ken Creager of the University of Washington, Seattle; it will be all day on Tuesday, December 5.)

  11. Expression of the agmatine deiminase pathway in Enterococcus faecalis is activated by the AguR regulator and repressed by CcpA and PTS(Man) systems.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cristian; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Víctor S; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTS(Man)) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTS(Man) and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches.

  12. Expression of the Agmatine Deiminase Pathway in Enterococcus faecalis Is Activated by the AguR Regulator and Repressed by CcpA and PTSMan Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTSMan) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTSMan and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches. PMID:24155893

  13. New AGU scientific integrity and professional ethics policy available for review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, Linda

    2012-09-01

    The AGU Task Force on Scientific Ethics welcomes your review and comments on AGU's new Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy. The policy has at its heart a code of conduct adopted from the internationally accepted “Singapore Statement,” originally created by the Second World Conference on Research Integrity (http://www.singaporestatement.org/), held in 2010. The new policy also encompasses professional and publishing ethics, providing a single source of guidance to AGU members, officers, authors, and editors.

  14. New AGU scientific integrity and professional ethics policy available for review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    The AGU Task Force on Scientific Ethics welcomes your review and comments on AGU's new Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy. The policy has at its heart a code of conduct adopted from the internationally accepted "Singapore Statement," originally created by the Second World Conference on Research Integrity (http://www.singaporestatement.org/), held in 2010. The new policy also encompasses professional and publishing ethics, providing a single source of guidance to AGU members, officers, authors, and editors

  15. AGU candidates for office, 1998”2000, Union officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcia K. McNutt. AGU member since 1976, Director of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Major areas of interest are lithospheric tectonics and mantle geodynamics. B.A. in physics (Phi Beta Kappa, summa cum laude), 1973, Colorado College; Ph.D. in Earth science, 1978, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Researcher at U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, 1979-1982semi Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982-1997. Member of American Association for the Advancement of Science. Authored 74 publications, 45 in AGU journals. Most important publications include The Superswell and mantle dynamics beneath the South Pacific, Science, 248, 969-975,1990semi Marine geodynamics: depth-age revisited, Rev. Geophys., U.S. National Report Supplement, 413-418,1995 Mapping the descent of Indian and Eurasian plates beneath the Tibetan plateau from gravity anomalies, J. Geophys. plume theory to explain multiple episodes of stress-triggered volcanism in the Austral Islands, Nature, in press, 1997. Awarded Macelwane Medal, 1988; Doctor of Science (honoris causa), Colorado College, 1988; NSF Visiting Professorship for Women, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 1989-1990semi Griswold Professor of Geophysics, MIT, 1991-1997 Outstanding Alumni Award, The Blake Schools, Minneapolis, 1993; Capital Science Lecturer, Carnegie Institution, 1995; Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar, 1996-1997 MIT School of Science Graduate Teaching Prize, 1996. AGU service as Associate Editor and Guest Editor of Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, member of Program, Budget and Finance, and Audit and Legal Affairs committeessemi; chair of Publications and Macelwane committees, and President of the Tectonophysics Section.

  16. AGU hosts Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Building on informal meetings among a small group of scientific societies and research institutions concerned with climate science, AGU hosted a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, 7-8 March 2011, in Washington, D. C. Presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 science organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The keynote speaker for the summit was Bob Inglis, former U.S. representative from South Carolina's 4th Congressional District.

  17. Comment on "AGU Statement Regarding the Conviction of Italian Seismologists"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Franco

    2013-02-01

    I disagree with AGU's position on the conviction of Italian seismologists, which is, I believe, based on an inaccurate reading of the news (Eos 93(44), 444, doi:10.1029/2012EO440013). As a matter of fact, the L'Aquila ruling is based on the finding that the defendant scientists lacked both independence and good faith and that they gave unscientific (ideological, a priori, and, in the end, lethal) advice to the population. The defendants are, moreover, given the opportunity to appeal if they believe the tribunals have incorrectly assessed the evidence.

  18. Enter AGU student contest to win free Fall Meeting registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-07-01

    AGU is excited to announce its first Student Video and Student T-shirt Design competitions. This is an opportunity for students to display their artistic sides and share their creativity and love of science with the world. Entries could highlight an aspect of Earth or space science in an educational and/or entertaining way or showcase a career path in geophysical sciences. Winners of these student-only competitions will be awarded free registration to the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

  19. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  20. AGU journals continue to rank highly in Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jon; Warner, Mary

    2012-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in the 2011 Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. The impact factor of several AGU journals increased significantly, continuing their trend over the previous 5 years, while others remained consistent with the previous year's ranking. Paleoceanography is an outstanding performer in both the Paleontology and Oceanography categories. Since 1995, Paleoceanography has been the top-ranked journal in the Paleontology category (of 49 titles in 2011), with an Impact Factor of 3.357. In the Oceanography group (59 journals total), Paleoceanography ranks third in Impact Factor. Reviews of Geophysics, with an Impact Factor of 12.364 (an increase of 2.826 from the prior year's score of 9.538), ranks second in Geochemistry and Geophysics out of a total of 77 journals in this cohort. Water Resources Research comes in at second place in the Limnology group, with 19 titles, and third place in the Water Resources group, which has a cohort of 78 titles.

  1. Elections for AGU leadership positions: What you can expect in the months to come

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Tim; Kavner, Abby; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; Farrington, John; Cashman, Kathy; Spohn, Tilman

    2012-02-01

    It's hard to believe that it is again time to consider elections for AGU leadership positions. Just over 18 months ago, AGU launched a new governance model and strategic plan. Since then, the AGU Board of Directors, the AGU Council, and staff leaders have partnered with us, the members of the Governance Committee, to move AGU forward in the positive direction set by members. Much has been accomplished in a short time, and much is left to do to achieve AGU's envisioned future (see http://www.agu.org/about/mission.shtml). We need to elect the next set of leaders who can carry on the direction and vision set in motion by the Future Focus Task Force and the first group of Board and Council members tasked with guiding this new plan. This year, AGU members will elect leaders for the next term (2013-2014). Below is a synopsis of what we've been doing, along with a timeline for nominations and elections.

  2. AGU Publications Continue to Rank High in 2012 Journal Citation Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Mary

    2013-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank high in the 2012 Journal Citation Reports® (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 19 June. The impact factor of several AGU journals increased significantly, continuing their trend of the previous 5 years, while others remained consistent with the previous year's ranking.

  3. AGU's new task force on scientific ethics and integrity begins work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter; Townsend, Randy

    2011-11-01

    In support of the new strategic plan, AGU has established a new task force to review, evaluate, and update the Union's policies on scientific misconduct and the process for investigating and responding to allegations of possible misconduct by AGU members. As noted by AGU president Michael McPhaden, "AGU can only realize its vision of `collaboratively advancing and communicating science and its power to ensure a sustainable future' if we have the trust of the public and policy makers. That trust is earned by maintaining the highest standards of scientific integrity in all that we do. The work of the Task Force on Scientific Ethics is essential for defining norms of professional conduct that all our members can aspire to and that demonstrate AGU's unwavering commitment to excellence in Earth and space science."

  4. AGU scientists meet with legislators during Geosciences Congressional Visits Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-10-01

    This year marks the fourth annual Geosciences Congressional Visits Day (Geo-CVD), in which scientists from across the nation join together in Washington, D. C., to meet with their legislators to discuss the importance of funding for Earth and space sciences. AGU partnered with seven other Earth and space science organizations to bring more than 50 scientists, representing 23 states, for 2 days of training and congressional visits on 20-21 September 2011. As budget negotiations envelop Congress, which must find ways to agree on fiscal year (FY) 2012 budgets and reduce the deficit by $1.5 trillion over the next 10 years, Geo-CVD scientists seized the occasion to emphasize the importance of federally funded scientific research as well as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. Cuts to basic research and STEM education could adversely affect innovation, stifle future economic growth and competitiveness, and jeopardize national security.

  5. Coastal and estuarine studies continue to grow at AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Malcolm

    Coastal and estuarine science is a rapidly growing area of research driven in part by an increasing awareness of man's impact on the coastal zone and the importance of understanding its fragile ecosystems. This area of study fits well into AGU's initiatives on enhancing interdisciplinary research.Coastal and Estuarine Studies is an open, numbered series of monographs that covers all branches of coastal and estuarine sciences, coastal meteorology, marine policy, coastal conservation, environmental toxicology, coastal ocean engineering, and transportation. However, all book topics must be firmly grounded in the geosciences. The series aims to promote the synthesis and speedy publication of significant contemporary research results in important and rapidly evolving fields. Forty-two volumes have been published since the series was founded in 1978.

  6. CO2 Emissions Generated by a Fall AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    osborn, G.; Malowany, K. S.; Samolczyk, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The process of reporting on and discussing geophysical phenomena, including emissions of greenhouse gases, generates more greenhouse gases. At the 2010 fall meeting of the AGU, 19,175 delegates from 81 countries, including, for example, Eritrea, Nepal, and Tanzania, traveled a total of 156,000,000 km to congregate in San Francisco for five days. With data on home bases of participants provided by AGU, we estimated the CO2 emissions generated by travel and hotel stays of those participants. The majority of the emissions from the meeting resulted from air travel . In order to estimate the footprint of such travel, (a) distances from the largest airport in each country and American state (except Canada and California) to San Francisco were tabulated , (b) basic distances were converted to emissions using the TerraPass (TRX Travel Analytics) carbon calculator, (c) it was assumed that half the California participants would fly and half would drive, (d) it was assumed that half of Canadians would fly out of Toronto and half out of Vancouver, and (e) a fudge factor of 10% was added to air travel emissions to account for connecting flights made by some participants to the main airports in the respective countries (connecting flights are disproportionately significant because of high output during takeoff acceleration). Driving impacts were estimated with a Transport Direct/RAC Motoring Services calculator using a 2006 Toyota Corolla as a standard car. An average driving distance of 50 km to the departure airport, and from the airport upon return, was assumed. Train impacts were estimated using the assumption that all flying participants would take BART from SFO. Accomodation impacts were estimated using an Environmental Protection Agency calculator, an assumed average stay of 3 nights, and the assumption that 500 participants commuted from local residences or stayed with friends. The above assumptions lead to an estimate, which we consider conservative, of 19 million kg of

  7. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  8. Regulation of the alpha-glucuronidase-encoding gene ( aguA) from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R P; van de Vondervoort, P J I; Hendriks, L; van de Belt, M; Visser, J

    2002-09-01

    The alpha-glucuronidase gene aguA from Aspergillus niger was cloned and characterised. Analysis of the promoter region of aguA revealed the presence of four putative binding sites for the major carbon catabolite repressor protein CREA and one putative binding site for the transcriptional activator XLNR. In addition, a sequence motif was detected which differed only in the last nucleotide from the XLNR consensus site. A construct in which part of the aguA coding region was deleted still resulted in production of a stable mRNA upon transformation of A. niger. The putative XLNR binding sites and two of the putative CREA binding sites were mutated individually in this construct and the effects on expression were examined in A. niger transformants. Northern analysis of the transformants revealed that the consensus XLNR site is not actually functional in the aguA promoter, whereas the sequence that diverges from the consensus at a single position is functional. This indicates that XLNR is also able to bind to the sequence GGCTAG, and the XLNR binding site consensus should therefore be changed to GGCTAR. Both CREA sites are functional, indicating that CREA has a strong influence on aguA expression. A detailed expression analysis of aguA in four genetic backgrounds revealed a second regulatory system involved in activation of aguA gene expression. This system responds to the presence of glucuronic and galacturonic acids, and is not dependent on XLNR.

  9. AGU's historical records move to the Niels Bohr Library and Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kristine C.

    2012-11-01

    As scientists, AGU members understand the important role data play in finding the answers to their research questions: no data—no answers. The same holds true for the historians posing research questions concerning the development of the geophysical sciences, but their data are found in archival collections comprising the personal papers of geophysicists and scientific organizations. Now historians of geophysics—due to the efforts of the AGU History of Geophysics Committee, the American Institute of Physics (AIP), and the archivists of the Niels Bohr Library and Archives at AIP—have an extensive new data source: the AGU manuscript collection.

  10. AGU Launches Web Site for New Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Randy

    2013-03-01

    AGU's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics policy, approved by the AGU Board of Directors and Council in December 2012, is now available online on a new Web site, http://ethics.agu.org. As the Web site states, the policy embodies a "set of guidelines for scientific integrity and professional ethics for the actions of the members and the governance of the Union in its internal activities; in its public persona; and most importantly, in the research and peer review processes of its scientific publications, its communications and outreach, and its scientific meetings."

  11. Space station astronauts discuss life in space during AGU interview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”

  12. Cresting the Ocean-Outreach Wave, AGU Signs Memorandum of Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Time and tide wait for no one, not even science educators. With this in mind, AGU and the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), recognizing our mutual interests and objectives, signed a memorandum of understanding in October 2012. The memorandum will serve to further AGU's strategic goals of informing society about the excitement of Earth and space science and building the global scientific talent pool.

  13. Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Surender

    1991-01-01

    Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

  14. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  15. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his

  16. Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.

    2007-01-01

    . Igel, W.H.K. Lee, and M. Todorovska during the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting. The goal of this session was to discuss rotational sensors, observations, modeling, theoretical aspects, and potential applications of rotational ground motions. The session was accompanied by the inauguration of an International Working Group on Rotational Seismology (IWGoRS) which aims to promote investigations of all aspects of rotational motions in seismology and their implications for related fields such as earthquake engineering, geodesy, strong-motion seismology, and tectonics, as well as to share experience, data, software, and results in an open Web-based environment. The primary goal of this article is to make the Earth Science Community aware of the emergence of the field of rotational seismology.

  17. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  18. Executive Director Fred Spilhaus Steps Down; Interim Leader Takes AGU Reins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Peter

    2009-02-01

    After 39 years as AGU executive director, Fred Spilhaus has stepped down from his post; he will become executive director emeritus. At a 27 January 2009 staff meeting at AGU headquarters, in Washington, D. C., three of the Union officers introduced Robert T. Van Hook, who will serve as interim executive director while AGU conducts a worldwide search for a new executive director. The search is expected to start in the summer of 2009 and to take from 6 to 18 months. ``AGU is a growing, vibrant organization that wishes to thoughtfully chart its course for the coming decades,'' Van Hook said. ``I am a professional interim executive, here to build on Fred Spilhaus's legacy. I want to help this extraordinary Union of researchers, teachers, and students take careful stock of where it is today, where it wants to go tomorrow, and what kind of staff leader it needs to help it get there,'' he said. ``My job is to get you ready for the next executive director,'' Van Hook told AGU staff, noting that he is not a candidate for the position himself.

  19. Member Engagement Is Key to Our Success: A Note From AGU's New President, Carol Finn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Carol Finn has been a member of AGU since 1980. She currently serves as a senior research geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey, and her major research interests include geological interpretation of potential field data, volcano hazards, and tectonics. Finn received her B.A. in geology from Wellesley College, her M.S. in geophysics from the University of Colorado, and her Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of Colorado. She is a member of the Department of Geological Sciences Advisory Board for the University of Colorado and a fellow of the Geological Society of America, and she has written 54 referreed publications—half in AGU journals. Below are a few words from Finn as she starts her new position as AGU president.

  20. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  1. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  2. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    After the fall of the ex-communist system about twenty years ago, the East European countries faced a significant, multilateral challenge in all aspects of their economical, financial, military, scientific and especially educational and professional life. They had a pretty robust tradition in classic education and research, but had to prepare their young generation and specialists for a hard competition for grad-, post grad- and professional level competing with colleagues from other parts of the world. They had to restructure their systems and re-discovered the professional societies. AGU represented a certain model of efficiency on handling various aspects of geoscientific activities: integration of geophysics with other related disciplines like atmospheric sciences, hydrology and hydrogeology, volcanism, geochemistry etc., from deep Earth to the intergalactic space. Close cooperation with other boundary sciences, regular and very well organized meetings dedicated more to Solid earth (AGU Fall Meeting) or Near-Surface Geophysics (AGU Spring Meetings), its very close cooperation with the sister societies from Europe, other North, Central and South American countries as well as the Far East and Australia, permanent opening towards a strong international cooperation with all countries and societies world- wide, very active interest in education and career orientation, strong publication policy represented a certain attraction and a very tempting model for the East European countries. Their very quick development has to be joined by transformation of their higher education and research system in such a way that they become more and more competitive with other countries worldwide. They have to develop their own system so that it attracts more and more youngsters to remain/return home and contribute to the advance of their home countries and, in close partnerships with other developed and developing countries, with the guidance of the professional societies like AGU

  3. Prototype resupply scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Steve; Hughes, Angi; Byrd, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Resupply scheduling for the Space Station presents some formidable logistics problems. One of the most basic problems is assigning supplies to a series of shuttle resupply missions. A prototype logistics expert system which constructs resupply schedules was developed. This prototype is able to reconstruct feasible resupply plans. In addition, analysts can use the system to evaluate the impact of adding, deleting or modifying launches, cargo space, experiments, etc.

  4. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  5. Further Comment on "AGU Statement Regarding the Conviction of Italian Seismologists"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Alessandro; Cocco, Massimo; Cultrera, Giovanna; Galadini, Fabrizio; Margheriti, Lucia; Nostro, Concetta; Pantosti, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    In the opinion of the undersigned, AGU's position statement regarding the conviction of Italian seismologists, issued following the 22 October 2012 conviction of six Italian scientists and one government official related to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (see Eos, 93(44), 444, 10.1029/2012EO440013), is absolutely right and correct. We believe that Franco Marenco's opinion disagreeing with AGU's position (Eos, 94(6), 63, doi:10.1002/2013EO060006) is misleading because it is based only on biased information gathered from the media. We invite Marenco and anyone who is interested in better understanding the L'Aquila trial and related issues to retrieve and read original documents and information from http://processoaquila.wordpress.com/.

  6. AGU Members Visit Capitol Hill to Promote Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, Kaitlin

    2010-10-01

    Climate change, earthquake preparedness, rare earth elements, hydraulic fracking, and America's global competitiveness in science are among the science topics in policy headlines today. For legislators to create good policy on these and other topics related to the Earth and space sciences, they need access to good science, which is why AGU encourages its members to participate in Congressional Visits Days. On 21-22 September, 55 Earth and space scientists from 24 states brought their expertise to the U.S. Congress, in Washington, D. C., for the third annual Geosciences Congressional Visits Day (Geo­CVD). AGU partnered with four other geosciences societies to bring a large scientific presence to Capitol Hill.

  7. AGU and Wiley-Blackwell to partner on publication of journals and books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2012-07-01

    AGU has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Wiley-Blackwell to partner in journal and book publishing. The agreement, effective 1 January 2013, is a significant step forward in transforming AGU publishing consistent with our strategic plan goal of scientific leadership and collaboration. Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Family-owned and publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange, the company is strong in every major academic and professional field and partners with many of the world's leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell, a leader in developing models for open access and providing developing nations with access to science, publishes nearly 1500 peer-reviewed journals and more than 1500 new books annually. The company publishes approximately 700 society titles.

  8. President's message: Dues increase will help build the foundation for AGU's future success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2012-09-01

    The world is a very different place than it was 43 years ago. In 1969, Jimi Hendrix rocked the legendary Woodstock music festival, Neil Armstrong took the first steps on the Moon, and U.S. drivers paid an average of 35 cents a gallon for gas. Today, digital music files have replaced vinyl records, NASA's Curiosity rover is transmitting data and imagery from the surface of Mars, and a growing number of cars run on alternative fuels. In the same way, 43 years ago AGU was a very different organization. Membership hovered around 10,000, and the Fall Meeting was still in its infancy. Today, AGU's membership has increased to more than 61,000, Fall Meeting attendance has topped 20,000, and an entire generation of geoscientists who weren't even born in 1969 now comprises 28% of our current membership.

  9. Lights, camera, action…critique? Submit videos to AGU communications workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2011-08-01

    What does it take to create a science video that engages the audience and draws thousands of views on YouTube? Those interested in finding out should submit their research-related videos to AGU's Fall Meeting science film analysis workshop, led by oceanographer turned documentary director Randy Olson. Olson, writer-director of two films (Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus and Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy) and author of the book Don't Be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in an Age of Style, will provide constructive criticism on 10 selected video submissions, followed by moderated discussion with the audience. To submit your science video (5 minutes or shorter), post it on YouTube and send the link to the workshop coordinator, Maria-José Viñas (mjvinas@agu.org), with the following subject line: Video submission for Olson workshop. AGU will be accepting submissions from researchers and media officers of scientific institutions until 6:00 P.M. eastern time on Friday, 4 November. Those whose videos are selected to be screened will be notified by Friday, 18 November. All are welcome to attend the workshop at the Fall Meeting.

  10. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  11. AGU supports free and open communication of scientific findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    Scientists, policy makers, and supporting institutions should guard and promote unfettered communication of scientific data, debates, and findings as a component of scientific expression. Advances in science and the benefits of science to policy, technological progress, and society as a whole depend upon the free exchange of scientific data and information as well as on open debate. The ability of scientists to present their findings to the scientific community, policy makers, the media, and the public without censorship, intimidation, or political interference is imperative. With the specific limited exception of proprietary information or constraints arising from national security, scientists must be permitted unfettered communication of scientific results. In return, it is incumbent upon scientists to communicate their findings in ways that portray their results and the results of others, objectively, professionally, and without sensationalizing or politicizing the associated impacts.

  12. AGU Ocean Sciences Award to John A. Knauss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauss, John A.

    John Knauss began his career in oceanography at the Naval Electronics Laboratory in 1947, after receiving his B.S. in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a M.S. in physics from the University of Michigan. He then became an oceanographer for the Office of Naval Research (ONR), both as a civilian and as a naval officer. John was one of a small group of physical oceanographers at ONR who convinced the Navy to increase its support of oceanographic research in the universities; this led to the Ten Year Program in Oceanography (TENOC) report. This was followed by an exceptional career as a graduate student and research oceanographer at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where he had the rare experience of making the first full-scale measurements of a newly discovered current, the Cromwell Current, or Pacific Equatorial Under current; this study served as his Ph.D. dissertation. John's penchants for probing new areas and clarifying existing observations were further evidenced in his Gulf Stream transport work. The Pacific Under current had been discovered in 1952 by Cromwell, Montgomery, and Stroup; Knauss was able to show that it was a narrow coherent feature that spanned at least the entire eastern Pacific. The large transport of the under current measured by Knauss established it as a major component of the circulation in the Pacific. He then undertook an exploration of the Indian Ocean to determine whether or not the Under current was present in that ocean. The discovery of the Indian Ocean Under current in 1963 completed the reconnaissance of the three oceans; the under current had been shown to be a significant feature of the circulation in all three tropical oceans. Notably, all of his early work on descriptive oceanography remains theoretically topical at the present time.

  13. AGU Climate Scientists Offer Question-and-Answer Service for Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stacy

    2010-03-01

    In fall 2009, AGU launched a member-driven pilot project to improve the accuracy of climate science coverage in the media and to improve public understanding of climate science. The project's goal was to increase the accessibility of climate science experts to journalists across the full spectrum of media outlets. As a supplement to the traditional one-to-one journalist-expert relationship model, the project tested the novel approach of providing a question-and-answer (Q&A) service with a pool of expert scientists and a Web-based interface with journalists. Questions were explicitly limited to climate science to maintain a nonadvocacy, nonpartisan perspective.

  14. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  15. Long-term in vivo clearance of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles and their biocompatibility after systemic injection.

    PubMed

    Sancey, Lucie; Kotb, Shady; Truillet, Charles; Appaix, Florence; Marais, Arthur; Thomas, Eloïse; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Blandine; Cottier, Michèle; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Panczer, Gérard; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Tillement, Olivier

    2015-03-24

    We previously reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based nanoparticles (NPs) denoted AGuIX (activation and guiding of irradiation by X-ray) NPs and demonstrated their potential as an MRI contrast agent and their efficacy as radiosensitizing particles during X-ray cancer treatment. Here we focus on the elimination kinetics of AGuIX NPs from the subcellular to whole-organ scale using original and complementary methods such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), intravital two-photon microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This combination of techniques allows the exact mechanism of AGuIX NPs elimination to be elucidated, including their retention in proximal tubules and their excretion as degraded or native NPs. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic AGuIX NP administration induced moderate and transient effects on renal function. These results provide useful and promising preclinical information concerning the safety of theranostic AGuIX NPs.

  16. Long-term in vivo clearance of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles and their biocompatibility after systemic injection.

    PubMed

    Sancey, Lucie; Kotb, Shady; Truillet, Charles; Appaix, Florence; Marais, Arthur; Thomas, Eloïse; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Blandine; Cottier, Michèle; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Panczer, Gérard; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Tillement, Olivier

    2015-03-24

    We previously reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based nanoparticles (NPs) denoted AGuIX (activation and guiding of irradiation by X-ray) NPs and demonstrated their potential as an MRI contrast agent and their efficacy as radiosensitizing particles during X-ray cancer treatment. Here we focus on the elimination kinetics of AGuIX NPs from the subcellular to whole-organ scale using original and complementary methods such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), intravital two-photon microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This combination of techniques allows the exact mechanism of AGuIX NPs elimination to be elucidated, including their retention in proximal tubules and their excretion as degraded or native NPs. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic AGuIX NP administration induced moderate and transient effects on renal function. These results provide useful and promising preclinical information concerning the safety of theranostic AGuIX NPs. PMID:25703068

  17. AGU scientists urge Congress to invest in research and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacker, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    With the "fiscal cliff" of sequestration drawing closer and threatening to hit basic science research funding with an 8.2% cut, according to an estimate by the Office of Management and Budget, congressional compromise on a budget plan is more urgent than ever. To discuss the value of scientific research and education with their senators and representatives, 55 Earth and space scientists from 17 states came to Washington, D. C., on 11-12 September to participate in the fifth annual Geosciences Congressional Visits Day sponsored by AGU and six other geoscience organizations. Although their specialties varied from space weather to soil science, the scientists engaged members of Congress and their staff in a total of 116 meetings to discuss a common goal: securing continued, steady investment in the basic scientific research that allows scientists to monitor natural hazards, manage water and energy resources, and develop technologies that spur economic growth and job creation. To make the most of these visits on 12 September, participants attended a training session the previous day, during which they learned about the details of the policy- making process and current legislative developments and practiced conducting a congressional meeting. Congressional Science Fellows, including past AGU fellow Rebecca French, described their experiences as scientists working on Capitol Hill, and White House policy analyst Bess Evans discussed the president's stance on sequestration and funding scientific research.

  18. Scheduling the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Traverso, Henry P.

    This "how-to-do-it" manual on the intricacies of school scheduling offers both technical information and common sense advice about the process of secondary school scheduling. The first of six chapters provides an overview of scheduling; chapter 2 examines specific considerations for scheduling; chapter 3 surveys the scheduling models and their…

  19. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  20. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  1. Presentation Timer

    2010-06-23

    Abstract Conferences and Meetings feature many presentations on a tight schedule. The Session Timer system provides an electronic display for showing the remaining time in a presentation. It provides continuous feedback so the speaker can judge the pace throughout a presentation. The timer automates the job so the session chairman does not have to awkwardly interrupt the speaker.

  2. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  3. Transmutation of Radioactive Nuclear Waste — Present Status and Requirement for the Problem-Oriented Nuclear Database: Approach to Scheduling the Experiments (Reactor, Target, Blanket)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artisyuk, V.; Ignatyuk, A.; Korovin, Yu.; Lopatkin, A.; Matveenko, I.; Stankovskiy, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2005-05-01

    Transmutation of nuclear wastes (Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products) remains an important option to reduce the burden of high-level waste on final waste disposal in deep geological structures. Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) are considered as possible candidates to perform transmutation due to their subcritical operation mode that eliminates some of the serious safety penalties unavoidable in critical reactors. Specific requirements to nuclear data necessary for ADS transmutation analysis is the main subject of the ISTC Project ♯2578 which started in 2004 to identify the areas of research priorities in the future. The present paper gives a summary of ongoing project stressing the importance of nuclear data for blanket performance (reactivity behavior with associated safety characteristics) and uncertainties that affect characteristics of neutron producing target.

  4. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  5. Ocean Sciences Best Student Papers for 1988 Joint AGU/ASLO Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ocean Sciences Section has selected four students to receive Best Student Paper Awards for the 1988 Joint AGU and American Society for Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Meeting held last January in New Orleans.Brad M. Bebout received a Best Student Paper Award for his paper “The Use of Agricultural Waste (Corn Slash) to Support Microzone-Associated Nitrogen Fixation by Marine Microorganisms.” Bebout is an M.S. candidate in marine sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His thesis is on “The Role of Marine Fungi in Food Selection and Nutrition of the Salt Marsh Periwinkle Littorina irrorata Say (Gastropoda).” He received his B.A. in biology from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

  6. Young geologist trades neptunium for newspapers as 2012 AGU Mass Media Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Though the lure of rocks, minerals, and radioactive elements took her away from her original studies, one geology Ph.D. candidate is returning to her journalism roots this summer as AGU's 2012 Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellow. Jessica Morrison is one of 12 young scientists nationwide who are trading in their lab coats for reporters' notebooks in mid-June as part of the program coordinated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which helps young scientists cultivate communication skills to help disseminate scientific information to general audiences. Morrison is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame. She spends her days in a laboratory investigating the geochemistry of actinides, the radioactive elements in the "no man's land" of the periodic table—the section that often gets left off or moved to the bottom. These are elements like uranium, neptunium, and plutonium.

  7. Share your expertise with Congress: Apply for an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Scientists interested in using their skills to work on problems of public importance should consider applying for an AGU Congressional Science Fellowship. The fellowship is an opportunity to directly influence high-priority public policy issues such as natural hazards mitigation, mineral and energy resources, air and water quality, and federal support for basic research. Following an intensive 2-week course on politics and the legislative process run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, congressional fellows work for a year as staff members in the offices of a senator, representative, or congressional committee. Their duties as staff members may include writing legislation, advising on votes, organizing congressional hearings, meeting with lobbyists and constituents, and conducting legislative research, among other tasks.

  8. Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler (SOSS) Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    NASA - KAIA (Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement) - KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute) collaboration surface air traffic management research has been ongoing since May 2015. In the first year collaboration, NASA's SOSS software has been transferred to KAIA and KARI teams to provide fast time simulation capability. Incheon International Airport model has been developed for SOSS.

  9. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  10. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  11. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his

  12. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  13. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  14. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  15. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  16. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  17. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  18. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  19. Reply to Comments on “AGU Statement: Investigation of Scientists and Officials in L'Aquila, Italy, Is Unfounded”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael

    2010-10-01

    It is critical to recognize the benefits and limitations of scientific knowledge, particularly when it comes to predicting hazards. I agree with G. J. Wasserburg that AGU should help scientists communicate their work accurately and understandably so it can provide the greatest value to society. This objective is explicit in AGU's new strategic plan (http://www.agu.org/about/strategic_plan.shtml) and is consistent with our vision of both advancing and communicating Earth and space science to ensure a sustainable future. We as a community have an obligation to increase the role of science in informing policy to mitigate the impacts of natural disasters. Such efforts require an open exchange of ideas and information and a clear understanding of the limitations of our knowledge. In response to Flavio Dobran, I agree that scientists are not above the law and, like all citizens, must be held accountable for their actions. However, laws and lawmakers must also recognize what science can and cannot do. We cannot yet reliably predict precisely when earthquakes will occur.

  20. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  1. NASA scheduling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  2. Dynamic Proportional Share Scheduling in Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholm, Thomas; Lai, Kevin

    We present the Dynamic Priority (DP) parallel task scheduler for Hadoop. It allows users to control their allocated capacity by adjusting their spending over time. This simple mechanism allows the scheduler to make more efficient decisions about which jobs and users to prioritize and gives users the tool to optimize and customize their allocations to fit the importance and requirements of their jobs. Additionally, it gives users the incentive to scale back their jobs when demand is high, since the cost of running on a slot is then also more expensive. We envision our scheduler to be used by deadline or budget optimizing agents on behalf of users. We describe the design and implementation of the DP scheduler and experimental results. We show that our scheduler enforces service levels more accurately and also scales to more users with distinct service levels than existing schedulers.

  3. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  4. A planning and scheduling lexicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

    1989-01-01

    A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

  5. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  6. Ability Grouping Plus Heterogeneous Grouping: Win-Win Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Describes a type of block scheduling for middle schools that combines heterogeneous grouping in all subjects within the block and ability grouping. Presents a method of compiling data for block schedules to assist planning. (JPB)

  7. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  8. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  9. Wave scheduling - Decentralized scheduling of task forces in multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tilborg, A. M.; Wittie, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Decentralized operating systems that control large multicomputers need techniques to schedule competing parallel programs called task forces. Wave scheduling is a probabilistic technique that uses a hierarchical distributed virtual machine to schedule task forces by recursively subdividing and issuing wavefront-like commands to processing elements capable of executing individual tasks. Wave scheduling is highly resistant to processing element failures because it uses many distributed schedulers that dynamically assign scheduling responsibilities among themselves. The scheduling technique is trivially extensible as more processing elements join the host multicomputer. A simple model of scheduling cost is used by every scheduler node to distribute scheduling activity and minimize wasted processing capacity by using perceived workload to vary decentralized scheduling rules. At low to moderate levels of network activity, wave scheduling is only slightly less efficient than a central scheduler in its ability to direct processing elements to accomplish useful work.

  10. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  11. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  12. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  13. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  14. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  15. Fundamentals of School Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Gwen

    The ability of the school administrator to schedule teachers' and students' time so that each receives the most from each school day has become an essential skill. This book has been prepared for school administrators at the elementary and middle school levels who need appropriate management techniques for scheduling students into classes. Chapter…

  16. What's behind Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierke, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of block scheduling in secondary schools focuses on its impact on the school library media center. Discusses increased demand for library services, scheduling classes, the impact on librarians' time, teaching information technology, local area networks, and the increased pace of activity. (LRW)

  17. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  18. Integrated online job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Chen, Kuan H.; Luh, Peter B.; Chiueh, T. D.; Chang, ShihChang; Thakur, Lakshman S.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology and e- commerce requires fast response form scheduling systems. Based on the Lagrangian relaxation approach for job shop scheduling, this paper present an integrated system that will generate schedules quickly. The Lagrangian relaxation approach is an iterative optimization process, where dynamic programming is solved in each iteration. Since dynamic programming is computational expensive especially for large problems, this paper develops the simplified dynamic programming, which will cut the computation time of each iteration by one order. Furthermore, a digital circuit to be embedded in PC is designed to implement the iterative optimization algorithm, leading to another order of speed improvement. The resulting integrated scheduling system consists of the hardware for optimization and the related software. It is estimated that two orders of magnitude gain in speed can be obtained, which will make on-line scheduling for practical job shops possible.

  19. Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-12-01

    The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement. PMID:26518610

  20. Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-12-01

    The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement.

  1. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  2. [Comment on “Looking at gender distribution among AGU Fellows”] An open letter to Ellen Druffel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    I would like to congratulate you on your excellent study of the gender distribution of AGU Fellows [Eos, Sept. 13, 1994]. However, I must take issue with your interpretation of some of the data. First of all you concentrate on the inequity in the awarding of AGU Fellowships. I, on the other hand, look at Figure 3 with amazement that, considering the obstacles in women's careers, the ratios are as good as they are. If you added only one 80-year-old woman, two 70-year-old women, two 60-year-olds and four 50-year-olds, the curves would look almost identical. Surely, it would be possible this year to elect 9 women to Fellowship out of the 30 Fellows to be elected. This change seems possible especially in sections like GP and Hydrology that clearly have a surplus of good female candidates, since none have been elected for some time. I think that the deficit can quickly be eliminated with just a modicum of attention to identifying the previously overlooked candidates and securing nominations for them. The following is some advice on the process, based on my nomination of two female candidate Fellows, one of whom was successful and one of whom thus far has not been successful.

  3. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  4. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  5. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  6. A Practical Variation of a Multiple-Schedule Procedure: Brief Schedule-Correlated Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Larsen, Kylie M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple schedules using continuous discriminative stimuli have been used to minimize children's disruptive requesting for teacher attention (e.g., colored floral leis; Tiger & Hanley, 2004; Tiger, Hanley, & Heal, 2006). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of, and children's preferences for, two multiple-schedule arrangements in which…

  7. Obtaining schedules for digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagadish, H. V.; Kailath, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A systematic technique is presented to derive correct schedules for a synchronous digital system, given a signal flow graph for an algorithm. It is also shown how to use this technique to derive designs that are optimal in having the lowest latency, the highest throughput, or the smallest number of registers. The same technique can also be used to verify digital systems that have already been designed.

  8. Schedule-Aware Workflow Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, Ronny S.; Russell, Nick C.; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.; Moleman, Arnold J.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    Contemporary workflow management systems offer work-items to users through specific work-lists. Users select the work-items they will perform without having a specific schedule in mind. However, in many environments work needs to be scheduled and performed at particular times. For example, in hospitals many work-items are linked to appointments, e.g., a doctor cannot perform surgery without reserving an operating theater and making sure that the patient is present. One of the problems when applying workflow technology in such domains is the lack of calendar-based scheduling support. In this paper, we present an approach that supports the seamless integration of unscheduled (flow) and scheduled (schedule) tasks. Using CPN Tools we have developed a specification and simulation model for schedule-aware workflow management systems. Based on this a system has been realized that uses YAWL, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Outlook, and a dedicated scheduling service. The approach is illustrated using a real-life case study at the AMC hospital in the Netherlands. In addition, we elaborate on the experiences obtained when developing and implementing a system of this scale using formal techniques.

  9. Compiling Planning into Scheduling: A Sketch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; Crawford, James M.; Smith, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are many approaches for compiling a planning problem into a static CSP or a scheduling problem, current approaches essentially preserve the structure of the planning problem in the encoding. In this pape: we present a fundamentally different encoding that more accurately resembles a scheduling problem. We sketch the approach and argue, based on an example, that it is possible to automate the generation of such an encoding for problems with certain properties and thus produce a compiler of planning into scheduling problems. Furthermore we argue that many NASA problems exhibit these properties and that such a compiler would provide benefits to both theory and practice.

  10. Schedule Uncertainty Control: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yan, Liu

    Risk control on project schedule is one of the focus problems in the academic circle and the practical area all the time. Lots of research about risk control on project schedule have been fulfilled and many achievements have appeared in recent several decades. The literature on the techniques of schedule uncertainty control was reviewed. A summary analysis on those chievements is presented such as CPM, PERT, MC, BBN, and so on and in light of that summary analysis a deep discussion in terms of advantages and disadvantages of existing research has been analyzed, so that researchers can continue to refine their research.

  11. Mixed-Integer Formulations for Constellation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valicka, C.; Hart, W.; Rintoul, M.

    Remote sensing systems have expanded the set of capabilities available for and critical to national security. Cooperating, high-fidelity sensing systems and growing mission applications have exponentially increased the set of potential schedules. A definitive lack of advanced tools places an increased burden on operators, as planning and scheduling remain largely manual tasks. This is particularly true in time-critical planning activities where operators aim to accomplish a large number of missions through optimal utilization of single or multiple sensor systems. Automated scheduling through identification and comparison of alternative schedules remains a challenging problem applicable across all remote sensing systems. Previous approaches focused on a subset of sensor missions and do not consider ad-hoc tasking. We have begun development of a robust framework that leverages the Pyomo optimization modeling language for the design of a tool to assist sensor operators planning under the constraints of multiple concurrent missions and uncertainty. Our scheduling models have been formulated to address the stochastic nature of ad-hoc tasks inserted under a variety of scenarios. Operator experience is being leveraged to select appropriate model objectives. Successful development of the framework will include iterative development of high-fidelity mission models that consider and expose various schedule performance metrics. Creating this tool will aid time-critical scheduling by increasing planning efficiency, clarifying the value of alternative modalities uniquely provided by multi-sensor systems, and by presenting both sets of organized information to operators. Such a tool will help operators more quickly and fully utilize sensing systems, a high interest objective within the current remote sensing operations community. Preliminary results for mixed-integer programming formulations of a sensor scheduling problem will be presented. Assumptions regarding sensor geometry

  12. Learning to improve iterative repair scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a general learning method for dynamically selecting between repair heuristics in an iterative repair scheduling system. The system employs a version of explanation-based learning called Plausible Explanation-Based Learning (PEBL) that uses multiple examples to confirm conjectured explanations. The basic approach is to conjecture contradictions between a heuristic and statistics that measure the quality of the heuristic. When these contradictions are confirmed, a different heuristic is selected. To motivate the utility of this approach we present an empirical evaluation of the performance of a scheduling system with respect to two different repair strategies. We show that the scheduler that learns to choose between the heuristics outperforms the same scheduler with any one of two heuristics alone.

  13. Fast Randomized STDMA Link Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sergio; Gras, Oriol; Friderikos, Vasilis

    In this paper a fast randomized parallel link swap based packing (RSP) algorithm for timeslot allocation in a spatial time division multiple access (STDMA) wireless mesh network is presented. The proposed randomized algorithm extends several greedy scheduling algorithms that utilize the physical interference model by applying a local search that leads to a substantial improvement in the spatial timeslot reuse. Numerical simulations reveal that compared to previously scheduling schemes the proposed randomized algorithm can achieve a performance gain of up to 11%. A significant benefit of the proposed scheme is that the computations can be parallelized and therefore can efficiently utilize commoditized and emerging multi-core and/or multi-CPU processors.

  14. Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

    2014-06-01

    A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements.

  15. SHRED: a CPU scheduler for heterogeneous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonian, Oveeyen; Coulson, Geoff

    2005-03-01

    General purpose workstations must support a wide variety of application characteristics; but it is hard to find a single CPU scheduling scheme that satisfactorily schedules processes from all types of applications. It is particularly difficult to get periodic deadline-driven continuous media processes to satisfactorily co-exist with others. A number of schemes have been proposed to address this issue, but these all suffer from one or more of the following limitations: i) unacceptable inefficiency, ii) non-determinism (i.e. introducing significant burstiness or jitter), iii) inability to explicitly support deadlines (so that deadlines may be missed even when the CPU is underloaded). This paper presents "SHRED (SHaretokens, Round-robin, Earliest-deadline-first, Deferred-processing)" -an efficient, proportional-share, deterministic, scheduling scheme that enables periodic deadline-driven processes to meet their explicit deadlines wherever possible, and degrades gracefully and adaptively when this is not possible. The scheme simultaneously ensures that non-deadline processes always obtain their fair share of CPU time whether in conditions of underload or overload. For experimental evaluation, a prototype of SHRED has been developed by replacing the Linux standard scheduler with the SHRED scheduler. The prototype has been evaluated against the standard Linux scheduler for various parameters and also against two proportional-share schemes, namely Stride and VTRR scheduling, for its overhead and its effect on jitter.

  16. Observation scheduling tools for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Hawkins, Robert; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki

    2004-09-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have implemented scheduling software in the Subaru Telescope observatory software system. The scheduling engine, Spike, developed at STScI is used with some modification for Subaru Telescope. Since the last report at SPIE (Munich, 2000), new functions to Spike are implemented on 1) optimized arrangement of an observation dataset, which consists of a target object and related calibrations, and 2) flexible scheduling of standard stars selected out of a standard star list, which is fed to Spike as a part of observation datasets. Observation datasets with some necessary information, prepared by an observer, are input to the scheduling tools to be converted to Spike Lisp input forms. A schedule created by Spike is inversely converted to Subaru observation commands to be executed with the observation control system. These applications are operable with Web-based display. We present an overall structure of the scheduling tools with some samples of Subaru observation commands of target datasets and a resultant schedule.

  17. Arousal, changeover responses, and preference in concurrent schedules.

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Margaret A; Williams, Ben A

    2003-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on multiple schedules that provided concurrent reinforcement in each of two components. In Experiment 1, one component consisted of a variable-interval (VI) 40-s schedule presented with a VI 20-s schedule, and the other a VI 40-s schedule presented with a VI 80-s schedule. After extended training, probe tests measured preference between the stimuli associated with the two 40-s schedules. Probe tests replicated the results of Belke (1992) that showed preference for the 40-s schedule that had been paired with the 80-s schedule. In a second condition, the overall reinforcer rate provided by the two components was equated by adding a signaled VI schedule to the component with the lower reinforcer rate. Probe results were unchanged. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on alternating concurrent VI 30-s VI 60-s schedules. One schedule provided 2-s access to food and the other provided 6-s access. The larger reinforcer magnitude produced higher response rates and was preferred on probe trials. Rate of changeover responding, however, did not differ as a function of reinforcer magnitude. The present results demonstrate that preference on probe trials is not a simple reflection of the pattern of changeover behavior established during training. PMID:14964707

  18. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  19. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  20. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  1. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  2. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  3. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of space operations is examined in the light of optimization heuristics for computer algorithms and iterative search techniques. Specific attention is given to the search concepts known collectively as intelligent perturbation algorithms (IPAs) and their application to crew/resource allocation problems. IPAs iteratively examine successive schedules which become progressively more efficient, and the characteristics of good perturbation operators are listed. IPAs can be applied to aerospace systems to efficiently utilize crews, payloads, and resources in the context of systems such as Space-Station scheduling. A program is presented called the MFIVE Space Station Scheduling Worksheet which generates task assignments and resource usage structures. The IPAs can be used to develop flexible manifesting and scheduling for the Industrial Space Facility.

  4. Job Scheduling in a Heterogeneous Grid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Smith, Warren; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  5. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  6. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  7. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  8. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  9. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  10. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-09-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  11. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  12. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  13. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  14. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  15. Class Schedules--Computer Loaded or Student Self-Scheduled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Edward F.

    1979-01-01

    In the two-step process of student scheduling, the initial phase of course selection is the most important. At Chesterton High School in Indiana, student self-scheduling is preferred over computer loading. (Author/MLF)

  16. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  17. Schedule-induced locomotor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Muller, P G; Crow, R E; Cheney, C D

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, humans received tokens either on a fixed-interval schedule for plunger pulling or various response-nondependent fixed-time schedules ranging from 16 to 140 seconds. Locomotor activity such as walking, shifting weight, or pacing was recorded in quarters of the interreinforcement interval to examine the induced characteristics of that behavior in humans. While performance was variable, several characteristics were present that have counterparts in experiments with nonhumans during periodic schedules of food reinforcement: (a) first quarter rates, and sometimes overall rates, of locomotor activity were greater during intervals that terminated in a visual stimulus and token delivery than those without: (b) overall rates of locomotor activity were greater during fixed-time 16-second schedules than during fixed-time 80- or 140-second schedules; (c) rates of locomotor activity decreased during the interreinforcement intervals; (d) locomotor activity was induced by response-dependent and response-nondependent token delivery. These results showed that the rate and temporal pattern of locomotor activity can be schedule-induced in humans. PMID:429959

  18. Force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N

    2014-03-01

    Fixed-ratio schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-ratio schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of ratio schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the ratio. The possibility that decreases in force during ratio execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-ratio 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the ratio; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the ratio, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics. PMID:24315798

  19. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  20. Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Van Huele, Christophe; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Integrated Physician and Surgery Scheduling Problem (IPSSP) as a new approach for solving operating room scheduling problems where staff rosters for the physicians are integrated in the optimization. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is created based on the most frequently observed objective and restrictions of the surgery scheduling and the physician rostering problem in the literature. We analyze schedules by relaxing both surgery and physician related constraints. We then measure the implications of setting these physician preferences on the surgery schedule. Our experiments show two main interesting insights for physician roster schedulers as well as operating theatre scheduling managers.

  1. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  2. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  3. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  4. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  5. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  6. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  7. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a kernel scheduling algorithm that is based on co-scheduling principles and that is intended for parallel applications running on 1000 cores or more where inter-node scalability is key. Experimental results for a Linux implementation on a Cray XT5 machine are presented.1 The results indicate that Linux is a suitable operating system for this new scheduling scheme, and that this design provides a dramatic improvement in scaling performance for synchronizing collective operations at scale.

  8. Deep Space Network Scheduling Using Evolutionary Computational Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seugnwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Terrile, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the specific approach taken to formulate the problem in terms of gene encoding, fitness function, and genetic operations. The genome is encoded such that a subset of the scheduling constraints is automatically satisfied. Several fitness functions are formulated to emphasize different aspects of the scheduling problem. The optimal solutions of the different fitness functions demonstrate the trade-off of the scheduling problem and provide insight into a conflict resolution process.

  9. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  10. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  11. Data analysis with the DIANA meta-scheduling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, A.; McClatchey, R.; Willers, I.

    2008-07-01

    The concepts, design and evaluation of the Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) meta-scheduling approach for solving the challenges of data analysis being faced by CERN experiments are discussed in this paper. Our results suggest that data analysis can be made robust by employing fault tolerant and decentralized meta-scheduling algorithms supported in our DIANA meta-scheduler. The DIANA meta-scheduler supports data intensive bulk scheduling, is network aware and follows a policy centric meta-scheduling. In this paper, we demonstrate that a decentralized and dynamic meta-scheduling approach is an effective strategy to cope with increasing numbers of users, jobs and datasets. We present 'quality of service' related statistics for physics analysis through the application of a policy centric fair-share scheduling model. The DIANA meta-schedulers create a peer-to-peer hierarchy of schedulers to accomplish resource management that changes with evolving loads and is dynamic and adapts to the volatile nature of the resources.

  12. Enhanced Software for Scheduling Space-Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barretta, Joseph A.; Johnson, Earl P.; Bierman, Rocky R.; Blanco, Juan; Boaz, Kathleen; Stotz, Lisa A.; Clark, Michael; Lebovitz, George; Lotti, Kenneth J.; Moody, James M.; Nguyen, Tony K.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Sargent, Susan; Shaw, Karma; Stoner, Mack D.; Stowell, Deborah S.; Young, Daniel A.; Tulley, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) computer program is used to develop streamlined schedules for the inspection, repair, and refurbishment of space shuttles at Kennedy Space Center. A scheduling computer program is needed because space-shuttle processing is complex and it is frequently necessary to modify schedules to accommodate unanticipated events, unavailability of specialized personnel, unexpected delays, and the need to repair newly discovered defects. GPSS implements constraint-based scheduling algorithms and provides an interactive scheduling software environment. In response to inputs, GPSS can respond with schedules that are optimized in the sense that they contain minimal violations of constraints while supporting the most effective and efficient utilization of space-shuttle ground processing resources. The present version of GPSS is a product of re-engineering of a prototype version. While the prototype version proved to be valuable and versatile as a scheduling software tool during the first five years, it was characterized by design and algorithmic deficiencies that affected schedule revisions, query capability, task movement, report capability, and overall interface complexity. In addition, the lack of documentation gave rise to difficulties in maintenance and limited both enhanceability and portability. The goal of the GPSS re-engineering project was to upgrade the prototype into a flexible system that supports multiple- flow, multiple-site scheduling and that retains the strengths of the prototype while incorporating improvements in maintainability, enhanceability, and portability.

  13. aguA, the gene encoding an extracellular alpha-glucuronidase from Aspergillus tubingensis, is specifically induced on xylose and not on glucuronic acid.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R P; Poulsen, C H; Madrid, S; Visser, J

    1998-01-01

    An extracellular alpha-glucuronidase was purified and characterized from a commercial Aspergillus preparation and from culture filtrate of Aspergillus tubingensis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 107 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 112 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry, has a determined pI just below 5.2, and is stable at pH 6.0 for prolonged times. The pH optimum for the enzyme is between 4.5 and 6.0, and the temperature optimum is 70 degrees C. The alpha-glucuronidase is active mainly on small substituted xylo-oligomers but is also able to release a small amount of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid from birchwood xylan. The enzyme acts synergistically with endoxylanases and beta-xylosidase in the hydrolysis of xylan. The enzyme is N glycosylated and contains 14 putative N-glycosylation sites. The gene encoding this alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) was cloned from A. tubingensis. It consists of an open reading frame of 2,523 bp and contains no introns. The gene codes for a protein of 841 amino acids, containing a eukaryotic signal sequence of 20 amino acids. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 91,790 Da and a calculated pI of 5.13. Multiple copies of the gene were introduced in A. tubingensis, and expression was studied in a highly overproducing transformant. The aguA gene was expressed on xylose, xylobiose, and xylan, similarly to genes encoding endoxylanases, suggesting a coordinate regulation of expression of xylanases and alpha-glucuronidase. Glucuronic acid did not induce the expression of aguA and also did not modulate the expression on xylose. Addition of glucose prevented expression of aguA on xylan but only reduced the expression on xylose.

  14. Multi-Telescope Observing: the LCOGT Network Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, E.; Lampoudi, S.

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is developing a worldwide network of fully robotic optical telescopes dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Observatory automation, longitudinal spacing of the sites, and a centralised network scheduler enable a range of observing modes impossible with traditional manual observing from a single location. These include continuous coverage of targets across sites, simultaneous observing with multiple resources, and cadenced time-series monitoring without diurnal gaps. The network also provides resource redundancy, with the potential for observations to be rescheduled in response to changing weather conditions. The scheduling model supports a wide variety of observing programs, which typically have very different constraints, goals, contingencies and timescales. Heterogeneous requests in a networked observing environment present specific, unusual challenges for telescope scheduling that do not arise with single-resource schedulers. Here, we discuss the design of the LCOGT network scheduler. We outline the scheduler's modular architecture, describe the implementation of its components, and highlight its current and planned capabilities.

  15. Heuristic-based scheduling algorithm for high level synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Gulam; Tan, Han-Ngee; Chng, Chew-Lye

    1992-01-01

    A new scheduling algorithm is proposed which uses a combination of a resource utilization chart, a heuristic algorithm to estimate the minimum number of hardware units based on operator mobilities, and a list-scheduling technique to achieve fast and near optimal schedules. The schedule time of this algorithm is almost independent of the length of mobilities of operators as can be seen from the benchmark example (fifth order digital elliptical wave filter) presented when the cycle time was increased from 17 to 18 and then to 21 cycles. It is implemented in C on a SUN3/60 workstation.

  16. A flexible nurse scheduling support system.

    PubMed

    Ozkarahan, I

    1989-01-01

    Salaries paid to nursing personnel constitute the largest chunk of a hospital's budget. Therefore, this human resource must be utilized efficiently. Hospitals provide continuous service without the exception of holidays and personal preferences. This causes the nurses' discontent in shift scheduling. And the consequence of this discontent is the nurse shortage. This and the pressures on hospitals to limit costs increase the importance of the nurse scheduling problem. Scheduling nursing personnel in hospitals is very complex due to the variety of conflicting interests or objectives between hospitals and nurses. Also, the demand, which varies widely 24-h a day 7-day a week is skill specific and hard to forecast. In the face of this complexity, the present nurse scheduling models have met with little success. In this paper, we propose a more flexible decision support system that will satisfy the interests of both hospitals and nurses through alternative models that attempt to accommodate flexible work patterns as it integrates time of the day (TOD) and day of the week (DOW) scheduling problems. PMID:2582748

  17. Integrated network design and scheduling problems :

    SciTech Connect

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  18. Planning, scheduling, and control for automatic telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Philips, Andy; Levinson, Rich; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for the appropriateness of Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) technology to the planning, scheduling, and control components of Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) management. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we give a brief summary of the planning and scheduling requirements for APTs. Following this, in section 3, we give an ERE project precis, couched primarily in terms of project objectives. Section 4 gives a sketch of the match-up between problem and technology, and section 5 outlines where we want to go with this work.

  19. Workshop Scheduling in the MRO Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Benjamin; Pauli, Dirk; Feller, Sebastian; Skyttä, Manu

    2010-09-01

    Scheduling is an important task in production planning, as it can significantly increase the productivity of a workshop. In this paper we concentrate on a job-shop problem which arises at workshops of typical MRO service providers. An MRO does not only need to minimize the production time (the makespan) and maximize the plant utilization, it also needs to maximize the service and protection level of its stock. Hence, it has several objective functions which usually contradict each other. In this paper we present the novel CTO algorithm which helps to find a schedule regarding the mentioned objective functions.

  20. Maglev guideway cost and construction schedule assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, D.; Kim, S.

    1997-05-01

    A summary of construction cost and scheduling information is presented for four maglev guideway designs on an example route from Baltimore, MD to Newark, NJ. This work results from the National Maglev Initiative (NMI), a government-industry effort from 1989 to 1994. The system design concepts used as a basis for developing cost and construction scheduling information, were submitted by four industry consortia solely for this analysis, and represent their own unpublished designs. The detailed cost and construction schedule analyses cover the main guideway only. A summary estimate was made for stations, power distribution systems, maintenance facilities, and other types of infrastructure. The results of the analyses indicate a number of design aspects which must receive further consideration by future designers. These aspects will affect the practical and economic construction and long-term maintenance of a high-speed maglev guideway.

  1. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  2. What is a "schedule of reinforcement"?

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N; Cole, B K

    1975-01-01

    Several ambiguities in the present terminology of behavior theory obscure some important theoretical assumptions and experimental details in current research. Left unclarified, such ambiguities impede the accurate analysis of laboratory procedures, and prevent reliable communication among researchers. This paper focuses on the term "schedule of reinforcement". It points out that two distinguishable operational rules are implicated in the term: in the case where reinforcement is of the so-called response contingent type, the "schedule" is really a rule to identify the response to be reinforced; in the case of non-contingent reinforcement, the "schedule" is truly a rule for delivery of reinforcement. Other terminological ambiguities that are encountered in a discussion of this term include "reinforcement" and "intermittency." A resolution of these problems will necessarily involve the procedures of non-contingent reinforcement, and the parameter of reinforcement probability.

  3. Distributed job scheduling in MetaCentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Šimon; Ruda, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    MetaCentrum - The Czech National Grid provides access to various resources across the Czech Republic. The utilized resource management and scheduling system is based on a heavily modified version of the Torque Batch System. This open source resource manager is maintained in a local fork and was extended to facilitate the requirements of such a large installation. This paper provides an overview of unique features deployed in MetaCentrum. Notably, we describe our distributed setup that encompasses several standalone independent servers while still maintaining full cooperative scheduling across the grid. We also present the benefits of our virtualized infrastructure that enables our schedulers to dynamically request ondemand virtual machines, that are then used to facilitate the varied requirements of users in our system, as well as enabling support for user requested virtual clusters that can be further interconnected using a private VLAN.

  4. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  5. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  6. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.

    1998-03-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has four irradiation experiments in reactor, and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments.

  7. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has one irradiation experiment in reactor and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments.

  8. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    To provide an updated summary of the status of irradiation experiments for the neutron-interactive materials program. The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has two irradiation experiments in reactor; and 8 experiments in the planning or design stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on 18 experiments.

  9. A User Centered Faculty Scheduled Development Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadian, Shohreh; Sly, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Colleges provide professional development opportunities to faculty to promote knowledge growth and improvement of skills. At the college, Scheduled Development (SD) time for faculty is based on the educational practice and recognition of the need for continuous professional development of faculty members. The paper presents a user-centered…

  10. Scheduling for Public Service in International Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in scheduling airline services for international operations are discussed. Charts are presented to show the transatlantic pattern of flights for a typical airline during the summer and winter months. The operations of a domestic airline operating overseas and a foreign airline operating to the United States are compared.

  11. Managing temporal relations in the MAESTRO scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on managing temporal relations in the MAESTRO scheduling system are given. The viewgraphs present information on such topics as why scheduling is hard, managing temporal relations, constraints on the placement of a single activity, constraints between activities, soft constraints (such as preferences), and contingency handling.

  12. Relative Persistence as a Function of Order of Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyal, James A.; Sytsma, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Stimulus analyzer theory as proposed by Sutherland and Mackintosh (1971) makes the unique prediction that the first-experienced reinforcement schedule will influence resistance to extinction more than subsequent schedules. Results presently reported of runaway acquisition and extinction indicate the opposite: C-P consistently produce substantially…

  13. Irrigation scheduling by ET and soil water sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when, where and how much to irrigate, usually with the goal of optimizing economic return on investment in land, equipment, inputs and personnel. This hour-long seminar presents methods of irrigation scheduling based, on the one hand on estimates of t...

  14. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  15. Schedule-induced licking during multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Yasuko Filby

    1972-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia was studied in rats bar pressing under two-component multiple schedules of food reinforcement. The first component of the multiple schedule was a variable-interval 1-min schedule throughout the experiment. The schedule comprising the second component was varied over blocks of sessions in terms of rate and magnitude of reinforcement, and was either variable-interval 3-min (one pellet), variable-interval 3-min (three pellets), variable-interval 1-min (one pellet), or extinction. Water intake per session varied with the rate of reinforcement in the schedule comprising the second component and was highest when the schedule was variable-interval 1-min. Both bar-pressing behavior and licking behavior showed behavioral interactions between the two components of the multiple schedules. With magnitude of reinforcement held constant, a matching relationship was observed between lick rate and reinforcement rate; the relative frequency of licks in the constant component matched the relative frequency of reinforcement in that component. Bar pressing, however, showed only a moderate degree of relativity matching. During the schedule-induced licking, a burst of licking followed each delivery of a pellet (post-prandial drinking). The duration of these bursts of licking was observed to be a function of the inter-reinforcement interval. PMID:16811598

  16. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    resources and to reduce the costs of communication. Planning and scheduling is generally a heavy consumer of time, memory and energy resources. This means careful thought must be given to how much planning and scheduling should be done on the sensors themselves, and how much to do elsewhere. The difficulty of planning and scheduling is exacerbated when reasoning about uncertainty. More time, memory and energy is needed to solve such problems, leading either to more expensive sensors, or suboptimal plans. For example, scientifically interesting events may happen at random times, making it difficult to ensure that sufficient resources are availanble. Since uncertainty is usually lowest in proximity to the sensors themselves, this argues for planning and scheduling onboard the sensors. However, cost minimization dictates sensors be kept as simple as possible, reducing the amount of planning and scheduling they can do themselves. Furthermore, coordinating each sensor's independent plans can be difficult. In the full presentation, we will critically review the planning and scheduling systems used by previously fielded sensor networks. We do so primarily from the perspective of the computational sciences, with a focus on taming computational complexity when operating sensor networks. The case studies are derived from sensor networks based on UAVs, satellites, and planetary rovers. Planning and scheduling considerations include multi-sensor coordination, optimizing science value, onboard power management, onboard memory, planning movement actions to acquire data, and managing communications.These case studies offer lessons for future designs of environmental sensor networks.

  17. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  18. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  19. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  20. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  1. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  2. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  3. AGU Chapman Conference Hydrogeologic Processes: Building and Testing Atomistic- to Basin-Scale Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents details of the Chapman Conference given on June 6--9, 1994 in Lincoln, New Hampshire. This conference covered the scale of processes involved in coupled hydrogeologic mass transport and a concept of modeling and testing from the atomistic- to the basin- scale. Other topics include; the testing of fundamental atomic level parameterizations in the laboratory and field studies of fluid flow and mass transport and the next generation of hydrogeologic models. Individual papers from this conference are processed separately for the database.

  4. On program restructuring, scheduling, and communication for parallel processor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polychronopoulos, Constantine D.

    1986-08-01

    This dissertation discusses several software and hardware aspects of program execution on large-scale, high-performance parallel processor systems. The issues covered are program restructuring, partitioning, scheduling and interprocessor communication, synchronization, and hardware design issues of specialized units. All this work was performed focusing on a single goal: to maximize program speedup, or equivalently, to minimize parallel execution time. Parafrase, a Fortran restructuring compiler was used to transform programs in a parallel form and conduct experiments. Two new program restructuring techniques are presented, loop coalescing and subscript blocking. Compile-time and run-time scheduling schemes are covered extensively. Depending on the program construct, these algorithms generate optimal or near-optimal schedules. For the case of arbitrarily nested hybrid loops, two optimal scheduling algorithms for dynamic and static scheduling are presented. Simulation results are given for a new dynamic scheduling algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is compared to that of self-scheduling. Techniques for program partitioning and minimization of interprocessor communication for idealized program models and for real Fortran programs are also discussed. The close relationship between scheduling, interprocessor communication, and synchronization becomes apparent at several points in this work. Finally, the impact of various types of overhead on program speedup and experimental results are presented. 69 refs., 74 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  6. Research on schedulers for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colome, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Guàrdia, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; Gesa, Lluis; Martínez, Francesc; Rodler, Florian

    2012-09-01

    The main task of a scheduler applied to astronomical observatories is the time optimization of the facility and the maximization of the scientific return. Scheduling of astronomical observations is an example of the classical task allocation problem known as the job-shop problem (JSP), where N ideal tasks are assigned to M identical resources, while minimizing the total execution time. A problem of higher complexity, called the Flexible-JSP (FJSP), arises when the tasks can be executed by different resources, i.e. by different telescopes, and it focuses on determining a routing policy (i.e., which machine to assign for each operation) other than the traditional scheduling decisions (i.e., to determine the starting time of each operation). In most cases there is no single best approach to solve the planning system and, therefore, various mathematical algorithms (Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, Multi-Objective Evolutionary algorithms, etc.) are usually considered to adapt the application to the system configuration and task execution constraints. The scheduling time-cycle is also an important ingredient to determine the best approach. A shortterm scheduler, for instance, has to find a good solution with the minimum computation time, providing the system with the capability to adapt the selected task to varying execution constraints (i.e., environment conditions). We present in this contribution an analysis of the task allocation problem and the solutions currently in use at different astronomical facilities. We also describe the schedulers for three different projects (CTA, CARMENES and TJO) where the conclusions of this analysis are applied to develop a suitable routine.

  7. Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

  8. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  9. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration.

  10. Volatile-rich Melts in the Earth's Upper Mantle (AGU Kuno Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2013-04-01

    The onset of silicate magma generation in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic fluid with variable water content could be stable ≤250 km beneath mid oceanic ridges [1-3], owing to the small fraction (<< 1 wt.%), its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present down to ~200 km [4-6] but large melt fractions is thought to be restricted to shallower depths. In this Kuno Award lecture, I will discuss the recent advancements on our understanding of deeper silicate melt generation induced by CO2-H2O volatiles and the relative stability of silicate versus carbonatitic melt in various tectonic settings. I will present recent experiments on carbonated peridotites that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle [7]. The new finding is that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and as a consequence the silicate melting of dry peridotite+CO2 beneath ridges commences at ~180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 ppm of mantle H2O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ~100 ppm CO2 becomes as deep as ~220-300 km [7]. This melting generates a kimberlitic magma with ~25 wt.% dissolved CO2 and 1-5 wt.% dissolved H2O. Based on the recent constraints of oxygen fugacity of the mantle in the garnet peridotite field [2, 3], we suggest that on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at ~250-180 km deep redox solidus, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains oceanic low-velocity zone and electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains (i.e., higher than average Fe3+/Fetotal), deeper carbonated

  11. Volatile-rich Melts in the Earth's Upper Mantle (AGU Kuno Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2013-04-01

    The onset of silicate magma generation in the Earth's upper mantle influences the thermal evolution of the planet, fluxes of key volatiles to the exosphere, and geochemical and geophysical properties of the mantle. Although carbonatitic fluid with variable water content could be stable ≤250 km beneath mid oceanic ridges [1-3], owing to the small fraction (<< 1 wt.%), its effects on the mantle properties are unclear. Geophysical measurements, however, suggest that melts of greater volume may be present down to ~200 km [4-6] but large melt fractions is thought to be restricted to shallower depths. In this Kuno Award lecture, I will discuss the recent advancements on our understanding of deeper silicate melt generation induced by CO2-H2O volatiles and the relative stability of silicate versus carbonatitic melt in various tectonic settings. I will present recent experiments on carbonated peridotites that constrain the location and the slope of the onset of silicate melting in the mantle [7]. The new finding is that the pressure-temperature slope of carbonated silicate melting is steeper than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite and as a consequence the silicate melting of dry peridotite+CO2 beneath ridges commences at ~180 km. Accounting for the effect of 50-200 ppm of mantle H2O on freezing point depression, the onset of silicate melting for a sub-ridge mantle with ~100 ppm CO2 becomes as deep as ~220-300 km [7]. This melting generates a kimberlitic magma with ~25 wt.% dissolved CO2 and 1-5 wt.% dissolved H2O. Based on the recent constraints of oxygen fugacity of the mantle in the garnet peridotite field [2, 3], we suggest that on a global scale, carbonated silicate melt generation at ~250-180 km deep redox solidus, with destabilization of metal and majorite in the upwelling mantle, explains oceanic low-velocity zone and electrical conductivity structure of the mantle. In locally oxidized domains (i.e., higher than average Fe3+/Fetotal), deeper carbonated

  12. Income maximizing on concurrent ratio-interval schedules of reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, David; Silberberg, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effect of food availability on pigeons' choice behavior under concurrent schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, 3 pigeons earned their daily food ration by choosing, in 30-min sessions, between concurrent variable-ratio 30 variable-interval 40-s schedules. Food presentations during both schedules lasted 2 or 12 s, depending upon the condition. Relative variable-ratio response rate was inversely related to hopper duration. In Experiment 2, 4 pigeons received their daily feeding by responding on the same schedule pair as in Experiment 1 (with 4-s food presentations) in sessions that varied in length from 10 to 30 min, depending on the condition. The length of a vertical slit projected on a response key increased with time so that “passage of time” might be more easily discriminable. As session duration decreased, relative variable-ratio response rate increased. In Experiment 3, 4 pigeons chose between two variable-interval 40-s schedules. One schedule operated without regard to the schedule selected, whereas the other operated only when the subject responded in its presence (dependent). Although these schedules had the same feedback function, preference for the dependent variable interval increased as session duration decreased from 30 to 10 min. The preference changes in these studies reveal the operation of an income-maximizing process in choice. PMID:16812610

  13. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  14. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  15. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  16. Scheduling Software for MS-DOS Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David H.; Prior, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Identifies four microcomputer-based software packages for scheduling and evaluates their usefulness for scheduling employees in a library setting. Evaluation criteria are applied to (1) Schedule Master, from Schedule Master Corporation; (2) Schedule Plus, from Cyclesoft, Inc.; (3) Who Works When, from Newport Systems; and (4) Working Hours, from…

  17. Solve Your Scheduling Puzzle without a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toy, Steve

    1982-01-01

    The small Lone Star school district in Otis (Colorado) developed a year-long process for creating its master course schedule. The scheduling process includes a needs assessment, a curriculum scheduling committee of teachers and students, a trial run of the schedule, and board approval of the master schedule. (RW)

  18. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  19. Toward a tool for scheduling application workflows onto distributed grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Anirban

    In this dissertation, we present a design and implementation of a tool for automatic mapping and scheduling of large scientific application workflows onto distributed, heterogeneous Grid environments. The thesis of this work is that plan-ahead, application-independent scheduling of workflow applications based on performance models can reduce the turnaround time for Grid execution of the application, reducing burden of Grid application development. We applied the scheduling strategies successfully to Grid applications from the domains of bio-imaging and astronomy and demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheduling approaches. We also proposed and evaluated a novel scheduling heuristic based on a middle-out traversal of the application workflow. A study showed that jobs have to wait in batch queues for a considerable amount of time before they begin execution. Schedulers must consider batch queue waiting times when scheduling Grid applications onto resources with batch queue front ends. Hence, we developed a smart scheduler that considers estimates of batch queue wait times when it constructs schedules for Grid applications. We compared the proposed scheduling techniques with existing dynamic scheduling strategies. An experimental evaluation of this scheduler on data-intensive workflows shows that its approach of planning schedules in advance improves over previous online scheduling approaches. We studied the scalability of the proposed scheduling approaches. To deal with the scale of future Grids consisting of hundreds of thousands of resources, we designed and implemented a novel cluster-level scheduling algorithm, which scales linearly on the number of abstract resource classes. An experimental evaluation using workflows from two applications shows that the cluster-level scheduler achieves good scalability without sacrificing the quality of schedule.

  20. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: A New Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, K.; Balser, D.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; Shelton, A.; Braatz, J.; Harnett, J.; Maddalena, R.; Mello, M.; Sessoms, E.

    2009-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing a dynamic scheduling system which schedules observers, rather than running scripts. The DSS works by breaking each project into one or more sessions which have associated observing criteria such as RA, Dec, and frequency. Potential observers may also enter dates when members of their team will not be available for either on-site or remote observing. The scheduling algorithm uses those data, along with the predicted weather, to determine the most efficient schedule for the GBT. The DSS provides all observers at least 24 hours notice of their upcoming observing. In the uncommon (< 20%) case where the actual weather does not match the predictions, a backup project, chosen from the database, is run instead. Here we give an overview of the GBT DSS project, including the ranking and scheduling algorithms for the sessions, the scheduling probabilities generation, the web framework for the system, and an overview of the results from the beta testing which were held from June - September, 2008.

  1. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (JGB)

  2. Matching and maximizing with concurrent ratio-interval schedules.

    PubMed

    Green, L; Rachlin, H; Hanson, J

    1983-11-01

    Animals exposed to standard concurrent variable-ratio variable-interval schedules could maximize overall reinforcement rate if, in responding, they showed a strong response bias toward the variable-ratio schedule. Tests with the standard schedules have failed to find such a bias and have been widely cited as evidence against maximization as an explanation of animal choice behavior. However, those experiments were confounded in that the value of leisure (behavior other than the instrumental response) partially offsets the value of reinforcement. The present experiment provides another such test using a concurrent procedure in which the confounding effects of leisure were mostly eliminated while the critical aspects of the concurrent variable-ratio variable-interval contingency were maintained: Responding in one component advanced only its ratio schedule while responding in the other component advanced both ratio schedules. The bias toward the latter component predicted by maximization theory was found.

  3. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation. Donald K. Balmer (H), Mark Bushnell (O), Charles J . Garcia (SS), Enzo Mantovani (S), Vicky Pease (T), James E. Quick (V), Gerard Schuster (S), Endre Skaar, Michael Underwood (T), J o hn J . Whipple (H).

  4. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Aubrey L. Anderson (O), Lennart A. Anderson (V), Kathleen W. Baird (V), William R. Bergmann (A), E. N. Bernard (O), Joyce R. Blueford (O), Wayne M. Brewer (T), Nancy Ann Brewster (O), Philip S. Callahan (O), Jack G. Calvert (A), Drew A. Carey (O), Benjamin Chen (O), J. W. Cole (V), George Courtney (T), Charles G. Crawford (H).

  5. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Raffi Aroian (P), David Baker (P), D. Craig Barilotti (O), Stephen J. Barnes (V), Thomas O. Barnwell (H), Robert P. Bessette (G), Brian Bicknell (H), William Blumberg (A), Michele A. Boccadoro (G), Richard Boylan (T), Robert C. Bucknam (T), Roman J. Budzianowski (H), Bruce M. Crowe (V), Charles G. Cunningham (V).

  6. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Henry D. I. Abarbanel (O), Julia C. Allen (H), Gwendolyn L. Anson (GP), Andrew Bakun (O), C. A. Bengtson (T), Patricia A. Berge (S), Peter R. Betzer (O), Pierre Boivin (V), Michael V. Capobianco (P), Martin C. Chapman (S), Chu-Yung Chen (V), Timothy J. Clarke (S), Steven C. Constable (GP), Michele Dermer (H), G. M. Dow (T), Carl E. Draper (G), Dean A. Dunn (O), I. B. Everingham (S).

  7. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  8. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  9. Group scheduling problems in directional sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Alok; Rossi, André

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of scheduling a set of groups of directional sensors arising as a result of applying an exact or a heuristic approach for solving a problem involving directional sensors. The problem seeks a schedule for these groups that minimizes the total energy consumed in switching from one group to the next group in the schedule. In practice, when switching from a group to the next one, active sensors in the new group have to rotate in order to face their working direction. These rotations consume energy, and the problem is to schedule the groups so as to minimize the total amount of energy consumed by all the sensor rotations, knowing the initial angular positions of all the sensors. In this article, it is assumed that energy consumption is proportional to the angular movement for all the sensors. Another problem version is also investigated that seeks to minimize the total time during which the sensor network cannot cover all the targets because active sensors are rotating. Both problems are proved to be ?-hard, and a lower bound for the first problem is presented. A greedy heuristic and a genetic algorithm are also proposed for addressing the problem of minimizing total rotation in the general case. Finally, a local search is also proposed to improve the solutions obtained through a genetic algorithm.

  10. Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

  11. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  12. An integrated scheduling and program management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

  13. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Motivation and Classroom Practice in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesinger, Kevin D.; Crippen, Kent J.; Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a mixed-method investigation into the effects of Block Schedule on student self-efficacy, attitude, and instructional practices within the context of mathematics. Students exposed to block schedule showed no change in attitude toward mathematics, whereas those on a traditional schedule demonstrated a significant…

  14. Collaborative Scheduling Using JMS in a Mixed Java and .NET Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Ray; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chet

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation to demonstrate collaborative scheduling using Java Message Service (JMS) in a mixed Java and .Net environment is given. The topics include: 1) NASA Deep Space Network scheduling; 2) Collaborative scheduling concept; 3) Distributed computing environment; 4) Platform concerns in a distributed environment; 5) Messaging and data synchronization; and 6) The prototype.

  15. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  16. Expert system for on-board satellite scheduling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, John M.; Sary, Charisse

    1988-01-01

    An Expert System is described which Rockwell Satellite and Space Electronics Division (S&SED) is developing to dynamically schedule the allocation of on-board satellite resources and activities. This expert system is the Satellite Controller. The resources to be scheduled include power, propellant and recording tape. The activities controlled include scheduling satellite functions such as sensor checkout and operation. The scheduling of these resources and activities is presently a labor intensive and time consuming ground operations task. Developing a schedule requires extensive knowledge of the system and subsystems operations, operational constraints, and satellite design and configuration. This scheduling process requires highly trained experts anywhere from several hours to several weeks to accomplish. The process is done through brute force, that is examining cryptic mnemonic data off line to interpret the health and status of the satellite. Then schedules are formulated either as the result of practical operator experience or heuristics - that is rules of thumb. Orbital operations must become more productive in the future to reduce life cycle costs and decrease dependence on ground control. This reduction is required to increase autonomy and survivability of future systems. The design of future satellites require that the scheduling function be transferred from ground to on board systems.

  17. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children Recommend on Facebook ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Schedule for ...

  18. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHARTNetworks: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques forWirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of theWirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  19. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHARTNetworks: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques forWirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of theWirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed.

  20. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  1. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Grid scheduling divisible loads from two sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moges, M.A.; Yu, D.; Robertazzi, T.

    2009-07-10

    To date closed form solutions for optimal finish time and job allocation are largely obtained only for network topologies with a single load originating (root) processor. However in large-scale data intensive problems with geographically distributed resources, load is generated from multiple sources. This paper introduces a new divisible load scheduling strategy for single level tree networks with two load originating processors. Solutions for an optimal allocation of fractions of load to nodes in single level tree networks are obtained via linear programming. A unique scheduling strategy that allows one to obtain closed form solutions for the optimal finish time and load allocation for each processor in the network is also presented. The tradeoff between linear programming and closed form solutions in terms of underlying assumptions is examined. Finally, a performance evaluation of a two source homogeneous single level tree network with concurrent communication strategy is presented.

  3. 5 CFR 532.254 - Special schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exist in the private sector that are incompatible with regular schedule practices, and serious... authorization for a special schedule shall include instructions for its construction, application,...

  4. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  5. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  6. Funding to Support the Participation of Scientists Engaged in DOE Research in the 2008 AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee D.

    2009-05-11

    This project provided travel awards for scientists engaged in research relevant to the DOE mission to participate in the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics held October 13-16, 2008, in Portland, Maine (http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/). The objective of this Chapman Conference was to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists that are leaders in their field and have a personal interest in exploring this new interdisciplinary field or are conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community and to generate a roadmap for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of earth science research. The sixty participants were an international group of academics, graduate students and scientists at government laboratories engaged in biogeophysics related research. Scientists from Europe, Israel and China traveled to engage North American colleagues in this highly focused 3.5 day meeting. The group included an approximately equal mix of microbiologists, biogeochemists and near surface geophysicists. The recipients of the DOE travel awards were [1] Dennis Bazylinski (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), [2] Yuri Gorby (Craig Venter Institute), [3] Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), [4] Susan Hubbard (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), [5] Roelof Versteeg (Idaho National Laboratory), [6] Eric Roden (University of Wisconsin), [7] George Luther (University of Delaware), and [8] Jinsong Chen (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)

  7. A software tool for dataflow graph scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1994-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is presented for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described using a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on multiple processors. The dataflow paradigm is very useful in exposing the parallelism inherent in algorithms. It provides a graphical and mathematical model which describes a partial ordering of algorithm tasks based on data precedence.

  8. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  9. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  10. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, M. T.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Clark, M. H.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in use since September, 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while preserving telescope flexibility and data quality without creating undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria; observer availability and qualifications for remote observing; three-dimensional weather forecasts; and telescope state, the DSS software optimally schedules observers 24 to 48 hours in advance for a telescope that has a wide-range of capabilities and a geographical location with variable weather patterns. The DSS project was closed October 28, 2011 and will now enter a continuing maintenance and enhancement phase. Recent improvements include a new resource calendar for incorporating telescope maintenance activities, a sensitivity calculator that leverages the scheduling algorithms to facilitate consistent tools for proposal preparation, improved support for monitoring observations, scheduling of high frequency continuum and spectral line observations for both sparse and fully sampled array receivers, and additional session parameters for observations having special requirements.

  11. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  12. Deep space network resource scheduling approach and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Bowling, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) resource scheduling is the process of distributing ground-based facilities to track multiple spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has carried out extensive research to find ways of automating this process in an effort to reduce time and manpower costs. This paper presents a resource-scheduling system entitled PLAN-IT with a description of its design philosophy. The PLAN-IT's current on-line usage and limitations in scheduling the resources of the DSN are discussed, along with potential enhancements for DSN application.

  13. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  14. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  15. Scheduling logic for Miles-In-Trail traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnestvedt, Robert G.; Swenson, Harry; Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which can be used for scheduling arrival air traffic in an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC or Center) entering a Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Facility . The algorithm aids a Traffic Management Coordinator (TMC) in deciding how to restrict traffic while the traffic expected to arrive in the TRACON exceeds the TRACON capacity. The restrictions employed fall under the category of Miles-in-Trail, one of two principal traffic separation techniques used in scheduling arrival traffic . The algorithm calculates aircraft separations for each stream of aircraft destined to the TRACON. The calculations depend upon TRACON characteristics, TMC preferences, and other parameters adapted to the specific needs of scheduling traffic in a Center. Some preliminary results of traffic simulations scheduled by this algorithm are presented, and conclusions are drawn as to the effectiveness of using this algorithm in different traffic scenarios.

  16. Schedule segmentation and delay-reduction theory.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M

    1996-06-01

    In order to explain the data obtained from studies which examined effects of schedule segmentation on choice, the present study proposed five quantitative models stemming from delay-reduction theory. A total of 108 choice proportions reported in the schedule segmentation literature were plotted against choice proportions predicted by the models. Linear regression equations and their correlation coefficients were then obtained by the method of least squares, in order to examine which of the five equations was the best in explaining the obtained data. The best model determined the values of the alternatives by multiplying the values of conditioned stimuli associated with them, each of which was obtained by subtracting a non-reinforcement interval after its offset from an amount of delay reduction informed by its onset.

  17. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  18. E-Scheduling the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an operations concept for electronic scheduling and software interface for organizations to extract required views of the schedule. Advantages include widespread accessibility to a common schedule document, virtually instantaneous distribution of new schedule releases, and the ability of missions to perfom conflict resolution off-line without time-consuming meetings.

  19. Constraint-Based Modeling and Scheduling of Clinical Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Armin

    In this article a constraint-based modeling of clinical pathways, in particular of surgical pathways, is introduced and used for an optimized scheduling of their tasks. The addressed optimization criteria are based on practical experiences in the area of Constraint Programming applications in medical work flow management. Objective functions having empirical evidence for their adequacy in the considered use cases are formally presented. It is shown how they are respected while scheduling clinical pathways.

  20. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling and Bulk Synchronous Parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a kernel scheduling algorithm that is based on coscheduling principles and that is intended for parallel applications running on 1000 cores or more. Experimental results for a Linux implementation on a Cray XT5 machine are presented. The results indicate that Linux is a suitable operating system for this new scheduling scheme, and that this design provides a dramatic improvement in scaling performance for synchronizing collective operations at scale.

  1. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume uncertain amounts of a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have uncertain utility. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We show that the problems are NP- complete, and present some results that characterize the behavior of some simple heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  2. Knowledge based tools for Hubble Space Telescope planning and scheduling: Constraints and strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark; Vick, Shon; Sponsler, Jeff; Lindenmayer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) presents an especially challenging scheduling problem since a year's observing program encompasses tens of thousands of exposures facing numerous coupled constraints. Recent progress in the development of planning and scheduling tools is discussed which augment the existing HST ground system. General methods for representing activities, constraints, and constraint satisfaction, and time segmentation were implemented in a scheduling testbed. The testbed permits planners to evaluate optimal scheduling time intervals, calculate resource usage, and to generate long and medium range plans. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and plans are an important feature of the system. High-level scheduling strategies using rule based and neural net approaches were implemented.

  3. Schedules of food postponement: II. Maintenance of behavior by food postponement and effects of the schedule parameter

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Fogle C.; Smith, James B.

    1977-01-01

    In Experiment I, food-deprived, feeder-trained squirrel monkeys pressed a lever to postpone brief electric shocks (Response-Shock=Shock-Shock interval=30 seconds). Forty-one three-hour sessions of shock postponement were followed by 120 sessions of concurrent shock and food postponement. The shock schedule was unchanged and the food schedule was Response-food interval–20 seconds, Food-food interval 10 seconds. After concurrent shock and food postponement, the shock schedule was discontinued and 40 sessions of food postponement ensued, followed by 53 sessions of extinction. After extinction, food postponement was resumed for 11 sessions. Stable responding with low food rates was maintained under food-postponement after the concurrent schedule. Responding decreased to low levels under extinction and recovered immediately to previous levels when the food-postponement schedule was re-instated. In Experiment II, a parameter of the food-postponement schedule was studied sequentially. Using the same subjects, the Response-food–Food-food interval was manipulated from four seconds to 80 seconds with several orders of presentation. Relations of response rates and food rates to the parameter were similar to those seen under shock postponement. Exposure to very short postponement times (four seconds), resulting in very high food rates, decreased but did not abolish subsequent responding at longer postponement times. Results are discussed from the point of view that reinforcing functions of stimuli consequent on responding depend on a prior history of scheduled contact with those stimuli. PMID:16812031

  4. Applying dynamic priority scheduling scheme to static systems of pinwheel task model in power-aware scheduling.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ye-In; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task's priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10-80% over the existing algorithms. PMID:25121126

  5. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  7. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  8. The sleeping giant: Reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, M D

    1984-11-01

    Schedule research has been the core of operant conditioning, but it is no longer an active area, at least with respect to its traditional focus of describing and explaining moment-to-moment behavior. Yet schedules are central in psychology: Not only do they establish lawful behavior, but they also play a major role in determining the effects of other variables. The reason for the decline appears to be primarily theoretical, in that the work seems not to have led to meaningful integration. The search for controlling variables brought into play by schedule specification has proven unsuccessful, and a catalog of all possible schedule effects is of limited interest. The paper reviews the reasons for the contemporary state of affairs. One prediction about future developments is that instead of revealing component variables and their modes of interaction, schedule effects will be treated as basic empirical laws. Theory will take the form of abstract statements that integrate these separate laws by reference to higher-order principles rather than by reduction to supposedly simpler component variables.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  10. The sleeping giant: Reinforcement schedules

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Schedule research has been the core of operant conditioning, but it is no longer an active area, at least with respect to its traditional focus of describing and explaining moment-to-moment behavior. Yet schedules are central in psychology: Not only do they establish lawful behavior, but they also play a major role in determining the effects of other variables. The reason for the decline appears to be primarily theoretical, in that the work seems not to have led to meaningful integration. The search for controlling variables brought into play by schedule specification has proven unsuccessful, and a catalog of all possible schedule effects is of limited interest. The paper reviews the reasons for the contemporary state of affairs. One prediction about future developments is that instead of revealing component variables and their modes of interaction, schedule effects will be treated as basic empirical laws. Theory will take the form of abstract statements that integrate these separate laws by reference to higher-order principles rather than by reduction to supposedly simpler component variables. PMID:16812403

  11. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  12. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  13. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  14. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  15. Decision Support for Iteration Scheduling in Agile Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőke, Ákos

    Today’s software business development projects often lay claim to low-risk value to the customers in order to be financed. Emerging agile processes offer shorter investment periods, faster time-to-market and better customer satisfaction. To date, however, in agile environments there is no sound methodological schedule support contrary to the traditional plan-based approaches. To address this situation, we present an agile iteration scheduling method whose usefulness is evaluated with post-mortem simulation. It demonstrates that the method can significantly improve load balancing of resources (cca. 5×), produce higher quality and lower-risk feasible schedule, and provide more informed and established decisions by optimized schedule production. Finally, the paper analyzes benefits and issues from the use of this method.

  16. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    PubMed

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-03-08

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries.

  17. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    PubMed

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries. PMID:26960253

  18. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  19. Predit: A temporal predictive framework for scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paolucci, E.; Patriarca, E.; Sem, M.; Gini, G.

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling can be formalized as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). Within this framework activities belonging to a plan are interconnected via temporal constraints that account for slack among them. Temporal representation must include methods for constraints propagation and provide a logic for symbolic and numerical deductions. In this paper we describe a support framework for opportunistic reasoning in constraint directed scheduling. In order to focus the attention of an incremental scheduler on critical problem aspects, some discrete temporal indexes are presented. They are also useful for the prediction of the degree of resources contention. The predictive method expressed through our indexes can be seen as a Knowledge Source for an opportunistic scheduler with a blackboard architecture.

  20. An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES Key Schedule Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsow, Alex

    A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from decayed memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% decay, well over twice the decay capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% decay. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images decayed up to 60%.

  1. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  3. [Fee schedules and cost containment].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, François R; Perneger, Thomas

    2009-11-11

    Medical fee schedules are controversial. In this paper we examine the reasons that justify the imposition of fee schedules in the presence of a socially financed health insurance system, and examine the ways of constructing a medical fee schedule. The weakness of fee-for-service tariffs is that they do not allow a control of health care costs if the volume of services is unchecked. Current solutions to this problem--audit of doctors' average cost per case, freeze on new medical practices, or the insurers' discretion in choosing the doctors they reimburse--have multiple drawbacks. Alternatives to fee-for-service payment--such as flat fees, or payment based on the quality of medical services--are discussed.

  4. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues'.

    PubMed

    Wood, John N

    2015-04-19

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  5. Multi-criteria evaluation methods in the production scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.; Grabowik, C.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a discussion on the practical application of different methods of multi-criteria evaluation in the process of scheduling in manufacturing systems. Among the methods two main groups are specified: methods based on the distance function (using metacriterion) and methods that create a Pareto set of possible solutions. The basic criteria used for scheduling were also described. The overall procedure of evaluation process in production scheduling was presented. It takes into account the actions in the whole scheduling process and human decision maker (HDM) participation. The specified HDM decisions are related to creating and editing a set of evaluation criteria, selection of multi-criteria evaluation method, interaction in the searching process, using informal criteria and making final changes in the schedule for implementation. According to need, process scheduling may be completely or partially automated. Full automatization is possible in case of metacriterion based objective function and if Pareto set is selected - the final decision has to be done by HDM.

  6. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  7. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  8. Sleep and circadian schedule disorders.

    PubMed

    Labyak, Susan

    2002-12-01

    The timing and synchronization of human circadian rhythms is important for health and well-being. Some individuals, for reasons that remain unclear, display less resilience or flexibility in their ability to synchronize to the 24-hour world and are thus diagnosed with a circadian schedule disorder. The objective of this article is to briefly introduce concepts about human circadian timing and to review what is known about chronic, long-term circadian schedule disorders such as delayed sleep phase syndrome, advanced sleep phase syndrome, irregular sleep-wake patterns, and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. Practical considerations for the clinician caring for these individuals are discussed. PMID:12587363

  9. A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.

    PubMed

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

  10. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  11. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  12. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  14. Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Edward L.

    This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

  15. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  16. Rate-matching packet scheduler for real-rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Walpole, Jonathan; McNamee, Dylan; Pu, Calton; Steere, David C.

    2000-12-01

    A packet scheduler is an operating system component that controls the allocation of network interface bandwidth to outgoing network flows. By deciding which packet to send next, packet schedulers not only determine how bandwidth is shared among flows, but also play a key role in determining the rate and timing behavior of individual flows. The recent explosion of rate and timing-sensitive flows, particularly in the context of multimedia applications, has focused new interest on packet schedulers. Next generation packet schedulers must not only ensure separation among flows and meet real-time performance constraints, they must also support dynamic fine- grain real-location of bandwidth for flows with variable-bit- rate requirements. Unfortunately, today's packet schedulers either do not support rate and timing sensitive flows, or do so with reservation systems that are relatively coarse-grain and inflexible. This paper makes two contributions. First it shows how bandwidth requirements can be inferred directly from real-rate flows, without requiring explicit specifications from the application. Second, it presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of a rate-matching packet scheduler that uses these inferred requirements to automatically and dynamically control the bandwidth allocation to flows.

  17. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  18. HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

  19. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable.

  20. Neural networks for process scheduling in real-time communication systems.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, S; Mirabella, O

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the use of Hopfield-type neural networks for process scheduling in the area of factory automation, where bus-based communication systems, called FieldBuses, are widely used to connect sensors and actuators to the control systems. We show how it overcomes the problem of the computational complexity of the algorithmic solution. The neural model proposed allows several processes to be scheduled simultaneously; the time required is polynomial with respect to the number of processes being scheduled. This feature allows real-time process scheduling and makes it possible for the scheduling table to adapt to changes in process control features. The paper presents the neural model for process scheduling and assesses its computational complexity, pointing out the drastic reduction in the time needed to generate a schedule as compared with the algorithmic scheduling solution. Finally, the authors propose an on-line scheduling strategy based on the neural model which can achieve real-time adaptation of the scheduling table to changes in the manufacturing environment.

  1. Adaptive Parallel Job Scheduling with Flexible CoScheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, Eitan; Feitelson, Dror; Petrini, Fabrizio; Fernandez, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abstract—Many scientific and high-performance computing applications consist of multiple processes running on different processors that communicate frequently. Because of their synchronization needs, these applications can suffer severe performance penalties if their processes are not all coscheduled to run together. Two common approaches to coscheduling jobs are batch scheduling, wherein nodes are dedicated for the duration of the run, and gang scheduling, wherein time slicing is coordinated across processors. Both work well when jobs are load-balanced and make use of the entire parallel machine. However, these conditions are rarely met and most realistic workloads consequently suffer from both internal and external fragmentation, in which resources and processors are left idle because jobs cannot be packed with perfect efficiency. This situation leads to reduced utilization and suboptimal performance. Flexible CoScheduling (FCS) addresses this problem by monitoring each job’s computation granularity and communication pattern and scheduling jobs based on their synchronization and load-balancing requirements. In particular, jobs that do not require stringent synchronization are identified, and are not coscheduled; instead, these processes are used to reduce fragmentation. FCS has been fully implemented on top of the STORM resource manager on a 256-processor Alpha cluster and compared to batch, gang, and implicit coscheduling algorithms. This paper describes in detail the implementation of FCS and its performance evaluation with a variety of workloads, including large-scale benchmarks, scientific applications, and dynamic workloads. The experimental results show that FCS saturates at higher loads than other algorithms (up to 54 percent higher in some cases), and displays lower response times and slowdown than the other algorithms in nearly all scenarios.

  2. 40 CFR 52.825 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... schedule. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.825, see the List of CFR Sections... variances if source(s) is on an accepted and approved compliance schedule. Note 3: City of Des...

  3. A DSN optimal spacecraft scheduling model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is described which uses mixed-integer linear programming to provide optimal DSN spacecraft schedules given a mission set and specified scheduling requirements. A solution technique is proposed which uses Bender's Method and a heuristic starting algorithm.

  4. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  5. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens Recommend on Facebook ... on track. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Preteens and Teens (7-18 years) 2016 ...

  6. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  7. 11 CFR 9006.3 - Alphabetized schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCING REPORTS AND RECORDKEEPING § 9006.3 Alphabetized schedules. If the authorized committee(s) of a candidate file a schedule of itemized receipts, disbursements, or debts and obligations pursuant to 11...

  8. Dynamic scheduling of medium-grained processes on multicomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Kale, L.V. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a scheme for dynamic scheduling of medium-grained processes. The basic scheme and its adaptive extensions are described, and contrasted with two other schemes that have been proposed. The performance of all the three schemes on a 64 processor IPSC/2 hypercube is presented and analyzed. The experimental results are shown.

  9. Re-scheduling as a tool for the power management on board a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albasheer, Omar; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The scheduling of events on board a spacecraft is based on forecast energy levels. The real time values of energy may not coincide with the forecast values; consequently, a dynamic revising to the allocation of power is needed. The re-scheduling is also needed for other reasons on board a spacecraft like the addition of new event which must be scheduled, or a failure of an event due to many different contingencies. This need of rescheduling is very important to the survivability of the spacecraft. In this presentation, a re-scheduling tool will be presented as a part of an overall scheme for the power management on board a spacecraft from the allocation of energy point of view. The overall scheme is based on the optimal use of energy available on board a spacecraft using expert systems combined with linear optimization techniques. The system will be able to schedule maximum number of events utilizing most energy available. The outcome is more events scheduled to share the operation cost of that spacecraft. The system will also be able to re-schedule in case of a contingency with minimal time and minimal disturbance of the original schedule. The end product is a fully integrated planning system capable of producing the right decisions in short time with less human error. The overall system will be presented with the re-scheduling algorithm discussed in detail, then the tests and results will be presented for validations.

  10. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the system...

  11. 9 CFR 390.6 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee schedule. 390.6 Section 390.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND... schedule. Department regulations provide for a schedule of reasonable standard charges for document...

  12. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  13. 21 CFR 1308.49 - Emergency scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency scheduling. 1308.49 Section 1308.49 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.49 Emergency scheduling. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 811(h) and without regard to...

  14. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  15. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  16. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  17. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  18. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  19. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

  20. Models of ratio schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R

    1997-07-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

  1. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  2. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  3. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  4. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  5. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  6. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  7. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  10. Scheduled Peripheral Component Interconnect Arbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Scott Alan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for arbitrating access of a communication bus. In one embodiment, a method includes performing steps on one or more processors. The steps include: receiving an access request from a device of the communication bus; evaluating a bus schedule to determine an importance of the device based on the access request; and selectively granting access of the communication bus to the device based on the importance of the device.

  11. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  12. Analysis of Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problems

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews. PMID:24526890

  13. The APT/ERE planning and scheduling manifesto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Philips, Andy; Levinson, Rich

    1991-01-01

    The Entropy Reduction Engine, ERE project, is focusing on the construction of integrated planning and scheduling systems. Specifically, the project is studying the problem of integrating planning and scheduling in the context of the closed loop plan use. The results of this research are particularly relevant when there is some element of dynamism in the environment, and thus some chance that a previously formed plan will fail. After a preliminary study of the APT management and control problem, it was felt that it presents an excellent opportunity to show some of the ERE Project's technical results. Of course, the alignment between technology and problem is not perfect, so planning and scheduling for APTs presents some new and difficult challenges as well.

  14. Optimal vaccination schedule search using genetic algorithm over MPI technology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immunological strategies that achieve the prevention of tumor growth are based on the presumption that the immune system, if triggered before tumor onset, could be able to defend from specific cancers. In supporting this assertion, in the last decade active immunization approaches prevented some virus-related cancers in humans. An immunopreventive cell vaccine for the non-virus-related human breast cancer has been recently developed. This vaccine, called Triplex, targets the HER-2-neu oncogene in HER-2/neu transgenic mice and has shown to almost completely prevent HER-2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis when administered with an intensive and life-long schedule. Methods To better understand the preventive efficacy of the Triplex vaccine in reduced schedules we employed a computational approach. The computer model developed allowed us to test in silico specific vaccination schedules in the quest for optimality. Specifically here we present a parallel genetic algorithm able to suggest optimal vaccination schedule. Results & Conclusions The enormous complexity of combinatorial space to be explored makes this approach the only possible one. The suggested schedule was then tested in vivo, giving good results. Finally, biologically relevant outcomes of optimization are presented. PMID:23148787

  15. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  16. Second-order schedules of drug self-administration in animals.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding by the subject on this unit schedule is then reinforced according to another schedule of reinforcement. Second-order schedules of drug injection allow the study of more complex behavioral sequences than do simple schedules and may more accurately reflect the human drug-abuse situation. Much of the early work in this area used primates as subjects and focused on the behavioral variables controlling responding. It was shown that long sequences of behavior could be maintained on second-order schedules with relatively infrequent injections of drug and that the second-order, brief-stimulus presentations were critical to the acquisition and maintenance of responding. Also, the continued presentation of the brief stimulus in extinction often led to prolonged extinction behavior. These studies clearly showed that environmental stimuli greatly influence drug self-administration behavior under second-order schedules. The focus of much of the more recent work with second-order schedules has been on the evaluation of pharmacological treatments for drug addiction, both as antagonist and substitution therapies. Both types of potential therapies have shown promise in these preclinical models of addictive behavior. The recent extension of second-order self-administration studies to rats as subjects has facilitated the investigation of neural mechanisms involved in this behavior. While this use of second-order schedules is a relatively recent phenomenon, significant contributions have already been made in identifying neural mechanisms critical to second-order schedule drug self-administration. This active area of research holds great promise for delineating specific brain regions critical to different aspects of drug addiction.

  17. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    literature: The inability of a GA to properly improve schedules and the generation of schedules with frequent interruptions. Finally, we demonstrate the scheduling framework for several operating telescopes: (1) Dynamic re-scheduling with the AUT Warkworth 12m telescope, (2) Scheduling for the Australian Mopra 22m telescope and scheduling for the Allen Telescope Array. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of the presented scheduling framework to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, in construction) and the SKA. In particular, during the development phase of the SKA, this dynamic, scalable scheduling framework can accommodate changing conditions.

  18. Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824

  19. Separation Assurance and Scheduling Coordination in the Arrival Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aweiss, Arwa S.; Cone, Andrew C.; Holladay, Joshua J.; Munoz, Epifanio; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Separation assurance (SA) automation has been proposed as either a ground-based or airborne paradigm. The arrival environment is complex because aircraft are being sequenced and spaced to the arrival fix. This paper examines the effect of the allocation of the SA and scheduling functions on the performance of the system. Two coordination configurations between an SA and an arrival management system are tested using both ground and airborne implementations. All configurations have a conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system and either an integrated or separated scheduler. Performance metrics are presented for the ground and airborne systems based on arrival traffic headed to Dallas/ Fort Worth International airport. The total delay, time-spacing conformance, and schedule conformance are used to measure efficiency. The goal of the analysis is to use the metrics to identify performance differences between the configurations that are based on different function allocations. A surveillance range limitation of 100 nmi and a time delay for sharing updated trajectory intent of 30 seconds were implemented for the airborne system. Overall, these results indicate that the surveillance range and the sharing of trajectories and aircraft schedules are important factors in determining the efficiency of an airborne arrival management system. These parameters are not relevant to the ground-based system as modeled for this study because it has instantaneous access to all aircraft trajectories and intent. Creating a schedule external to the CD&R and the scheduling conformance system was seen to reduce total delays for the airborne system, and had a minor effect on the ground-based system. The effect of an external scheduler on other metrics was mixed.

  20. Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions.

  1. BEHAVIORAL MOMENTUM AND ACCUMULATION OF MASS IN MULTIPLE SCHEDULES

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Cunningham, Paul J.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus–reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus–reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon’s key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824

  2. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  3. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  4. Multi Objective Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling using Composite Dispatching Rule and Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xili; Hao, Xinchang; Lin, Hao Wen; Murata, Tomohiro

    The applications of composite dispatching rules for multi objective dynamic scheduling have been widely studied in literature. In general, a composite dispatching rule is a combination of several elementary dispatching rules, which is designed to optimize multiple objectives of interest under a certain scheduling environment. The relative importance of elementary dispatching rules is modeled by weight factors. A critical issue for implementation of composite dispatching rule is that the inappropriate weight values may result in poor performance. This paper presents an offline scheduling knowledge acquisition method based on reinforcement learning using simulation technique. The scheduling knowledge is applied to adjust the appropriate weight values of elementary dispatching rules in composite manner with respect to work in process fluctuation of machines during online scheduling. Implementation of the proposed method in a two objectives dynamic job shop scheduling problem is demonstrated and the results are satisfactory.

  5. Multi-objective approach for energy-aware workflow scheduling in cloud computing environments.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Sonia; Chelouah, Rachid; Kadima, Hubert; Granado, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling workflow applications on heterogeneous computing systems like cloud computing infrastructures. In general, the cloud workflow scheduling is a complex optimization problem which requires considering different criteria so as to meet a large number of QoS (Quality of Service) requirements. Traditional research in workflow scheduling mainly focuses on the optimization constrained by time or cost without paying attention to energy consumption. The main contribution of this study is to propose a new approach for multi-objective workflow scheduling in clouds, and present the hybrid PSO algorithm to optimize the scheduling performance. Our method is based on the Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique to minimize energy consumption. This technique allows processors to operate in different voltage supply levels by sacrificing clock frequencies. This multiple voltage involves a compromise between the quality of schedules and energy. Simulation results on synthetic and real-world scientific applications highlight the robust performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Spring Symposium on Practical Approaches to Scheduling and Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Fox, Mark; Tate, Austin; Zweben, Monte

    1992-01-01

    The symposium presented issues involved in the development of scheduling systems that can deal with resource and time limitations. To qualify, a system must be implemented and tested to some degree on non-trivial problems (ideally, on real-world problems). However, a system need not be fully deployed to qualify. Systems that schedule actions in terms of metric time constraints typically represent and reason about an external numeric clock or calendar and can be contrasted with those systems that represent time purely symbolically. The following topics are discussed: integrating planning and scheduling; integrating symbolic goals and numerical utilities; managing uncertainty; incremental rescheduling; managing limited computation time; anytime scheduling and planning algorithms, systems; dependency analysis and schedule reuse; management of schedule and plan execution; and incorporation of discrete event techniques.

  7. Schedule induced behavior: a review of its generality, determinants and pharmacological data.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M; Singer, G

    1976-10-01

    Adjunctive or schedule induced behavior can be defined as an increase in the frequency of occurrence of an unreinforced behavior in the presence of conditions requiring an intermittent reinforced response, compared with the frequency of that behavior when no intermittent response is required. Although recognition has been given to the occurrence of other schedule induced behaviors it has most frequently been studied as schedule induced polydipsia in a rat on a food delivery schedule. In the present paper recent work on other schedule induced behaviors is reviewed including behaviors occurring in conjunction with nonconsumatory schedule parameters. These range from wheel running in the rat to game playing and maze solving in humans. This paper is also concerned with the review of pharmacological variables including the effects of peripheral and central administration. It is concluded that there may be either quantitative or qualitative differences in drug effects when schedule induced drinking is compared with deprivation induced drinking. A general activation theory [61] that adjunctive behaviors is the result of an increase in the excitability of motor pathways which lead through the lateral hypothalamus can account for the data presented in this and earlier reviews but is too broad in its conception to make specific predictions about the relationships between schedule induced and schedule controlled behavior.

  8. Real-time adaptive aircraft scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolitz, Stephan E.; Terrab, Mostafa

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important functions of any air traffic management system is the assignment of ground-holding times to flights, i.e., the determination of whether and by how much the take-off of a particular aircraft headed for a congested part of the air traffic control (ATC) system should be postponed in order to reduce the likelihood and extent of airborne delays. An analysis is presented for the fundamental case in which flights from many destinations must be scheduled for arrival at a single congested airport; the formulation is also useful in scheduling the landing of airborne flights within the extended terminal area. A set of approaches is described for addressing a deterministic and a probabilistic version of this problem. For the deterministic case, where airport capacities are known and fixed, several models were developed with associated low-order polynomial-time algorithms. For general delay cost functions, these algorithms find an optimal solution. Under a particular natural assumption regarding the delay cost function, an extremely fast (O(n ln n)) algorithm was developed. For the probabilistic case, using an estimated probability distribution of airport capacities, a model was developed with an associated low-order polynomial-time heuristic algorithm with useful properties.

  9. Multiprocessor scheduling problem with machine constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Tan, Zhiyi

    2001-09-01

    This paper investigates multiprocessor scheduling with machine constraints, which has many applications in the flexible manufacturing systems and in VLSI chip design. Machines have different starting times and each machine can schedule at most k jobs in a period. The objective is to minimizing the makespan. For this strogly NP-hard problem, it is important to design near-optimal approximation algorithms. It is known that Modified LPT algorithm has a worst-case ratio of 3/2-1/(2m) for kequals2 where m is the number of machines. For k>2, no good algorithm has been got in the literature. In this paper, we prove the worst-case ratio of Modified LPT is less than 2. We further present an approximation algorithm Matching and show it has a worst-case ratio 2-1/m for every k>2. By introducing parameters, we get two better worst-case ratios which show the Matching algorithm is near optimal for two special cases.

  10. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine. PMID:26098934

  11. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine. PMID:26098934

  12. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine.

  13. Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Forger, Daniel B; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2009-06-01

    Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.

  14. Effects of modeling versus instructions on sensitivity to reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    Neef, Nancy A; Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems associated with different variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. After responding proved insensitive to the schedules, sessions were preceded by either instructions or modeling, counterbalanced across students in a multiple baseline design across subjects. During the instruction condition, students were told how to distribute responding to earn the most reinforcers. During the modeling condition, students observed the experimenter performing the task while describing her distribution of responding to obtain the most reinforcers. Once responding approximated obtained reinforcement under either condition, the schedules of reinforcement were changed, and neither instruction nor modeling was provided. Both instruction and modeling interventions quickly produced patterns of response allocation that approximated obtained rates of reinforcement, but responding established with modeling was more sensitive to subsequent changes in the reinforcement schedules than responding established with instructions. Results were similar for students with and without ADHD.

  15. Effects of modeling versus instructions on sensitivity to reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Nancy A; Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems associated with different variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. After responding proved insensitive to the schedules, sessions were preceded by either instructions or modeling, counterbalanced across students in a multiple baseline design across subjects. During the instruction condition, students were told how to distribute responding to earn the most reinforcers. During the modeling condition, students observed the experimenter performing the task while describing her distribution of responding to obtain the most reinforcers. Once responding approximated obtained reinforcement under either condition, the schedules of reinforcement were changed, and neither instruction nor modeling was provided. Both instruction and modeling interventions quickly produced patterns of response allocation that approximated obtained rates of reinforcement, but responding established with modeling was more sensitive to subsequent changes in the reinforcement schedules than responding established with instructions. Results were similar for students with and without ADHD. PMID:15529886

  16. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with Multi-level Job Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yang-Ja; Kim, Ki-Dong; Jang, Seong-Yong; Park, Jinwoo

    This paper deals with a scheduling problem in a flexible job shop with multi-level job structures where end products are assembled from sub-assemblies or manufactured components. For such shops MRP (Material Requirement Planning) logic is frequently used to synchronize and pace the production activities for the required parts. However, in MRP, the planning of operational-level activities is left to short term scheduling. So, we need a good scheduling algorithm to generate feasible schedules taking into account shop floor characteristics and multi-level job structures used in MRP. In this paper, we present a GA (Genetic Algorithm) solution for this complex scheduling problem based on a new gene to reflect the machine assignment, operation sequences and the levels of the operations relative to final assembly operation. The relative operation level is the control parameter that paces the completion timing of the components belonging to the same branch in the multi-level job hierarchy. We compare the genetic algorithm with several dispatching rules in terms of total tardiness and the genetic algorithm shows outstanding performance for about forty modified standard job-shop problem instances.

  17. SORS: A New Software for the Simulation of Radiotherapy Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Pasquale; Simeone, Giovanni; Carioggia, Enza

    2010-10-01

    We present a software for choosing the best radiotherapy treatment schedule for head and neck cancers as a beginning radiotherapy plan or a temporarily interrupted plan. Its application occurs according to two modalities: the first adopts the best estimates for model parameters; the second takes into account the parameters' uncertainty too. In both cases, the choice becomes the schedule with the highest uncomplicated tumor control probability (UTCP). In the UTCP valuation, the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of each organ is related to the gravity of its possible late injury. For NTCP calculation, it has been adopted the empirical LKB (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman) model corrected for dose/fraction via linear-quadratic model and the incomplete repair effect. The tumor control probability (TCP) model is Poisson based and contains corrections for dose/fraction and regrowth effect; optionally, it can be accounted for the incomplete repair effect as well. At the end of processing, a detailed file with all informations about UTCP, TCP and single organ NTCP is furnished for every examined schedule. Moreover, a useful 3-D graphic representation of the schedule's UTCP is available, allowing the physician to easily understand the schedules with the highest radiotherapeutic efficacy. The open source characteristic allows the program to adapt to the individual clinical case as well as to be a valid support in radiobiological research.

  18. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have varying utility. We consider problems in which the resource consumption and utility of each activity is described by probability distributions. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We first show that while some of these problems are NP-complete, others are only NP-Hard. We then describe various heuristic search algorithms to solve these problems and their drawbacks. Finally, we present empirical results that characterize the behavior of these heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  19. Solution and reasoning reuse in space planning and scheduling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verfaillie, Gerard; Schiex, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    In the space domain, as in other domains, the CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problems) techniques are increasingly used to represent and solve planning and scheduling problems. But these techniques have been developed to solve CSP's which are composed of fixed sets of variables and constraints, whereas many planning and scheduling problems are dynamic. It is therefore important to develop methods which allow a new solution to be rapidly found, as close as possible to the previous one, when some variables or constraints are added or removed. After presenting some existing approaches, this paper proposes a simple and efficient method, which has been developed on the basis of the dynamic backtracking algorithm. This method allows previous solution and reasoning to be reused in the framework of a CSP which is close to the previous one. Some experimental results on general random CSPs and on operation scheduling problems for remote sensing satellites are given.

  20. Automating Mission Scheduling for Space-Based Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Muscettola, Nicola; Hansson, Othar; Mohan, Sunil

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of our planning and scheduling framework, HSTS, to reduce the complexity of science mission planning. This work is part of an overall project to enable a small team of scientists to control the operations of a spacecraft. The present process is highly labor intensive. Users (scientists and operators) rely on a non-codified understanding of the different spacecraft subsystems and of their operating constraints. They use a variety of software tools to support their decision making process. This paper considers the types of decision making that need to be supported/automated, the nature of the domain constraints and the capabilities needed to address them successfully, and the nature of external software systems with which the core planning/scheduling engine needs to interact. HSTS has been applied to science scheduling for EUVE and Cassini and is being adapted to support autonomous spacecraft operations in the New Millennium initiative.

  1. A human factors approach to range scheduling for satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Aitken, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Range scheduling for satellite control presents a classical problem: supervisory control of a large-scale dynamic system, with unwieldy amounts of interrelated data used as inputs to the decision process. Increased automation of the task, with the appropriate human-computer interface, is highly desirable. The development and user evaluation of a semi-automated network range scheduling system is described. The system incorporates a synergistic human-computer interface consisting of a large screen color display, voice input/output, a 'sonic pen' pointing device, a touchscreen color CRT, and a standard keyboard. From a human factors standpoint, this development represents the first major improvement in almost 30 years to the satellite control network scheduling task.

  2. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  3. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  4. Effects of Modeling Versus Instructions on Sensitivity to Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Nancy A.; Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems…

  5. 10 CFR 2.332 - General case scheduling and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statement (EIS) is involved, hearings on environmental issues addressed in the EIS may not commence before... the issues presented, relevant considerations which a party may bring to the attention of the presiding officer, the NRC staff's schedule for completion of its safety and environmental...

  6. 10 CFR 2.332 - General case scheduling and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statement (EIS) is involved, hearings on environmental issues addressed in the EIS may not commence before... the issues presented, relevant considerations which a party may bring to the attention of the presiding officer, the NRC staff's schedule for completion of its safety and environmental...

  7. 10 CFR 2.332 - General case scheduling and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statement (EIS) is involved, hearings on environmental issues addressed in the EIS may not commence before... the issues presented, relevant considerations which a party may bring to the attention of the presiding officer, the NRC staff's schedule for completion of its safety and environmental...

  8. Schedules of Reinforcement at 50: A Retrospective Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Published just over a half century ago, "Schedules of Reinforcement" (SOR) (Ferster & Skinner, 1957) marked the seminal empirical contribution of the book's second author and ushered in an era of research on behavior-environment relationships. This article traces the origins of both the methods and the data presented in SOR, and its legacy within…

  9. The entropy reduction engine: Integrating planning, scheduling, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John L.; Kedar, Smadar T.

    1991-01-01

    The Entropy Reduction Engine, an architecture for the integration of planning, scheduling, and control, is described. The architecture is motivated, presented, and analyzed in terms of its different components; namely, problem reduction, temporal projection, and situated control rule execution. Experience with this architecture has motivated the recent integration of learning. The learning methods are described along with their impact on architecture performance.

  10. A New Engine for Schools: The Flexible Scheduling Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Yaakov; Herer, Yale T.; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for the organization of schools, which we call the flexible scheduling paradigm (FSP). FSP improves student learning by dynamically redeploying teachers and other pedagogical resources to provide students with customized learning conditions over shorter time periods called "mini-terms" instead of semesters or years. By…

  11. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic background of…

  12. Irrigation scheduling and controlling crop water use efficiency with Infrared Thermometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific methods for irrigation scheduling include weather, soil and plant-based techniques. Infrared thermometers can be used a non-invasive practice to monitor canopy temperature and better manage irrigation scheduling. This presentation will discuss the theoretical basis for monitoring crop can...

  13. Cooperative Program Planning and Flexible Scheduling: What Do Principals Really Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Mary Louise

    1991-01-01

    Presents responses of approximately 16 principals in Halifax City School District (Nova Scotia) who were interviewed to elicit their personal professional opinions regarding scheduling of classes in the library, the concept of cooperative program planning, the adjustment to flexible scheduling and its inherent difficulties, and the type of staff…

  14. 29 CFR 778.327 - Temporary or sporadic reduction in schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION Special Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.327 Temporary or sporadic reduction in schedule. (a) The problem of reduction in the workweek is somewhat different where a... announced above. However, reduction on a more temporary or sporadic basis presents a different problem....

  15. 49 CFR Schedule B to Subpart B of... - Study Carriers' Revenue Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR Part 1206.) Presentation of statement on revenue sample studies. Historically, in order to... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Study Carriers' Revenue Data B Schedule B to... PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. B Schedule B to Subpart B of Part...

  16. 49 CFR Schedule B to Subpart B of... - Study Carriers' Revenue Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR Part 1206.) Presentation of statement on revenue sample studies. Historically, in order to... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Study Carriers' Revenue Data B Schedule B to... PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. B Schedule B to Subpart B of Part...

  17. 49 CFR Schedule B to Subpart B of... - Study Carriers' Revenue Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR Part 1206.) Presentation of statement on revenue sample studies. Historically, in order to... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Study Carriers' Revenue Data B Schedule B to... PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. B Schedule B to Subpart B of Part...

  18. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  20. Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a

  1. Peer-to-peer Cooperative Scheduling Architecture for National Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyska, Ludek; Ruda, Miroslav; Toth, Simon

    For some ten years, the Czech National Grid Infrastructure MetaCentrum uses a single central PBSPro installation to schedule jobs across the country. This centralized approach keeps a full track about all the clusters, providing support for jobs spanning several sites, implementation for the fair-share policy and better overall control of the grid environment. Despite a steady progress in the increased stability and resilience to intermittent very short network failures, growing number of sites and processors makes this architecture, with a single point of failure and scalability limits, obsolete. As a result, a new scheduling architecture is proposed, which relies on higher autonomy of clusters. It is based on a peer to peer network of semi-independent schedulers for each site or even cluster. Each scheduler accepts jobs for the whole infrastructure, cooperating with other schedulers on implementation of global policies like central job accounting, fair-share, or submission of jobs across several sites. The scheduling system is integrated with the Magrathea system to support scheduling of virtual clusters, including the setup of their internal network, again eventually spanning several sites. On the other hand, each scheduler is local to one of several clusters and is able to directly control and submit jobs to them even if the connection of other scheduling peers is lost. In parallel to the change of the overall architecture, the scheduling system itself is being replaced. Instead of PBSPro, chosen originally for its declared support of large scale distributed environment, the new scheduling architecture is based on the open-source Torque system. The implementation and support for the most desired properties in PBSPro and Torque are discussed and the necessary modifications to Torque to support the MetaCentrum scheduling architecture are presented, too.

  2. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 11: PEP, cost, schedules, and work breakdown structure dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Cost scheduling and funding data are presented for the reference design of the power extension package. Major schedule milestones are correlated with current Spacelab flight dates. Funding distributions provide for minimum expenditure during the first year of the project.

  3. A prototype combinatorial scheduler for space-borne observational instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey O.; Botten, Leroy H.; Strang, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler has been developed for observations to be carried out by the NASA Gamma Ray Observatory. The purpose of the scheduling system is to provide an automated method to determine optimized schedules conforming to all scheduling guidelines. Strategies used in creating COMPTEL/EGRET schedules and in scheduling OSSE targets are examined. It is concluded that the hybrid scheduler creates optimal schedules, or very nearly optimal schedules, and reduces the estimated scheduling time by 18 or 19 orders of magnitude, from about 10 to the 14th years to as few as 561 seconds.

  4. Effect of unsignaled delays between stimuli in a chain schedule on responding and resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E

    2008-03-01

    Behavioral momentum theory is an evolving theoretical account of the strength of behavior. One challenge for the theory is determining the role of signal stimuli in determining response strength. This study evaluated the effect of an unsignaled delay between the initial link and terminal link of a two-link chain schedule on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Pigeons were presented two different signaled delay to reinforcement schedules. Both schedules employed a two-link chain schedule with a variable interval 120-s initial link followed by a 5-s fixed time terminal link schedule. One of the schedules included a 5-s unsignaled delay between the initial link and the terminal link. Resistance to change was assessed with two separate disruption procedures: extinction and adding a variable time 20-s schedule of reinforcement to the inter-component interval. Baseline responding was lower in the schedule with the unsignaled delay but resistance to change for the initial link was unaffected by the unsignaled delay. The results suggest that not all unsignaled delays are equal in their effect on resistance to change.

  5. A pruning-based disk scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous I/O workloads.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeseok; Bahn, Hyokyung; Won, Youjip

    2014-01-01

    In heterogeneous I/O workload environments, disk scheduling algorithms should support different QoS (Quality-of-Service) for each I/O request. For example, the algorithm should meet the deadlines of real-time requests and at the same time provide reasonable response time for best-effort requests. This paper presents a novel disk scheduling algorithm called G-SCAN (Grouping-SCAN) for handling heterogeneous I/O workloads. To find a schedule that satisfies the deadline constraints and seek time minimization simultaneously, G-SCAN maintains a series of candidate schedules and expands the schedules whenever a new request arrives. Maintaining these candidate schedules requires excessive spatial and temporal overhead, but G-SCAN reduces the overhead to a manageable level via pruning the state space using two heuristics. One is grouping that clusters adjacent best-effort requests into a single scheduling unit and the other is the branch-and-bound strategy that cuts off inefficient or impractical schedules. Experiments with various synthetic and real-world I/O workloads show that G-SCAN outperforms existing disk scheduling algorithms significantly in terms of the average response time, throughput, and QoS-guarantees for heterogeneous I/O workloads. We also show that the overhead of G-SCAN is reasonable for on-line execution.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  7. Drug self-administration studies: a novel reinforcement schedule enhances choice.

    PubMed

    Meisch, Richard A; Gomez, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Relative reinforcing effects of different ethanol and different cocaine doses were studied under concurrent independent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules and concurrent nonindependent FR schedules with rhesus monkeys. Nonindependent FR schedules differed from independent FR schedules in that responses on either side counted towards the FR requirements of two concurrently presented choices. Thus, responses on the right operandum counted toward completion of both right and left FR schedules and, symmetrically, responses on the left did the same. Nonindependent schedules allow the number of responses per drug delivery to vary considerably, unlike independent schedules, thereby making the number of responses per delivery a sensitive dependent variable. In contrast, standard independent schedules do not allow responses per drug delivery to vary; the required number of responses is an independent variable. Three rhesus monkeys were subjects, and choices between different doses of ethanol or cocaine were studied. Larger doses maintained higher response rates than smaller doses - consistent with previous choice studies. By using nonindependent schedules, however, graded responses per drug delivery and increased switching between sides were obtained, providing additional data and useful measures of choice. PMID:23549451

  8. Schedule tightness among tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Beilock, Richard

    2003-06-01

    The extent to which schedules are sufficiently tight to encourage violations of Hours-of-Service Regulations, speed limits, or both was investigated through a survey of over 1,600 tractor-trailer drivers. The focus was on drivers with refrigerated trailers. The results indicate high incidence levels of tight schedules. For example, assuming average speed limits of 65 mph, 24% had violation-inducing schedules with regard to the movement they were making at the time of the interviews. Incorporating information about previous driving, the incidence of violation-inducing schedules rose to 40%. Comparison with an earlier study suggests that, despite increases in speed limits which would tend to loosen schedules, schedules have become tighter over the past decade. The implications of these findings for reforms of Hours-of-Service Regulations are briefly discussed.

  9. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  10. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 1, phase 2: Design considerations for a scheduling and resource allocation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, R. A.; Odoherty, R. J.; Ramsey, H. R.; Reynolds, C. C.; Willoughby, J. K.; Working, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Data and analyses related to a variety of algorithms for solving typical large-scale scheduling and resource allocation problems are presented. The capabilities and deficiencies of various alternative problem solving strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of computer system design.

  11. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  12. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  13. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  14. MOV reliability evaluation and periodic verification scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bunte, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.

  15. Reducing barriers to timely MR imaging scheduling.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Brooke V; Moriarity, Andrew K; Ametlli, Vanda; Kastan, David J

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study at the authors' large health system in 2011 required considerable preparation before an appointment time was given to a patient. Difficulties in promptly scheduling appointments resulted from the varying time required for examinations, depending on the requested protocol, availability of appropriate MR imaging equipment, examination timing, prior insurance authorization verification, and proper patient screening. These factors contributed to a backlog of patients to schedule that regularly exceeded 300. A multidisciplinary process-improvement team was assembled to improve the turnaround time for scheduling an outpatient MR imaging examination (the interval between the time when the order was received and the time when the patient was informed about the MR imaging appointment). Process improvements targeted by the team included protocol turnaround time, schedule standardization, schedule intervals, examination timing, service standards, and scheduling redesign. Using lean methods and multiple plan-do-check-act cycles, the time to schedule an outpatient MR imaging examination improved from 117 hours to 33 hours, a 72% reduction, during the 9-month study period in 2011-2012. The number of patients in the scheduling queue was reduced by 90%. Overall MR imaging examinations within the specific patient population studied increased from 773 patient studies during the first month of intervention to 1444 studies the following month and averaged over 1279 patient studies per month throughout the study.

  16. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a)...

  17. Empowering nurses through an innovative scheduling model.

    PubMed

    Maxson-Cooper, Pamela A

    2011-03-01

    In 1980, Froedtert Hospital opened its doors using an innovative registered nurse scheduling model. The hospital has grown to 500 beds, with over 1,600 registered nurses, and continues to use the 7/70 staffing pattern as a core scheduling model. Registered nurses work a straight seven, 10-hour days, and then have 1 week off, or 26 weeks off a year. For professional registered nurses in acute care, the schedule is predictable and consistent for years. This scheduling pattern has resulted in excellent registered nurse satisfaction, increased retention, and consistency in care delivery teams since 1980.

  18. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Payload crew training scheduler (PACTS) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of the payload specialist training scheduler (PACTS) is discussed in this user's manual which is used to schedule payload specialists for mission training on the Spacelab experiments. The PACTS program is a fully automated interactive, computerized scheduling program equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The PACTS program is designed to operate on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system, and has the capability to load output into a PDP 11/45 Interactive Graphics Display System for printing schedules. The program has the capacity to handle up to three overlapping Spacelab missions.

  20. Tool for Merging Proposals Into DSN Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Kwok, John; Call, Jared

    2008-01-01

    A Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) script called merge7da has been developed to facilitate determination, by a project scheduler in NASA's Deep Space Network, of whether a proposal for use of the DSN could create a conflict with the current DSN schedule. Prior to the development of merge7da, there was no way to quickly identify potential schedule conflicts: it was necessary to submit a proposal and wait a day or two for a response from a DSN scheduling facility. By using merge7da to detect and eliminate potential schedule conflicts before submitting a proposal, a project scheduler saves time and gains assurance that the proposal will probably be accepted. merge7da accepts two input files, one of which contains the current DSN schedule and is in a DSN-standard format called '7da'. The other input file contains the proposal and is in another DSN-standard format called 'C1/C2'. merge7da processes the two input files to produce a merged 7da-format output file that represents the DSN schedule as it would be if the proposal were to be adopted. This 7da output file can be loaded into various DSN scheduling software tools now in use.