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Sample records for agua dulce diplodon

  1. [Water birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández Vázquez, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, Mexico, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño), with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño). A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce and 73 in Ermitaño. The higher species richness and abundance was observed during winter, when migratory species arrived. Most species prefered shallow waters, except seabirds which prefered protected areas such as dunes in Agua Dulce. Other groups, like clucks and related species. prefered low salinity areas, for example in the south-east area of Ermitaño. The higher abundance of the shorehirds was found when the water level on the estuary was low. Herons were seen often at areas with high salinity and influenced by tides (e.g. mouth of Ermitaño).

  2. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Agua Dulce Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Reservoir heterogeneity in the middle Frio Formation: Case studies in Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, Nueces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Selected middle Frio (Oligocene) reservoirs of Stratton field and the contiguous Agua Dulce field are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to improve reserve growth in mature gas fields. Over the past four decades, Stratton has produced 2.0 tcf of gas from 113 middle Frio reservoirs, and Agua Dulce has produced 1.6 tcf from 116 reservoirs. Recent drilling and workover activities, however, suggest the presence of additional untapped or bypassed middle Frio reservoirs. Four reservoirs, the E18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, E31/6,100-ft, and E41/Bertram, were evaluated over a 13,000-acre tract that includes areas adjacent to both fields. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Channel-fill deposits are 30 ({plus minus}15) ft thick and 2,500 ({plus minus}500) ft wide. Splay deposits are up to 30 ft thick proximal to channels and extend as much as 2 mi from channels. Channel-fill and associated splay sandstones are reservoir facies (porosity 20%; permeability = 10s to 100s md); floodplain mudstones and levee sandy mudstones are barriers to flow facies separating individual reservoirs vertically and laterally. The E41/Bertram reservoir is an example of a laterally stacked channel system deposited during relatively slow aggradation. This reservoir includes sand-on-sand contacts and is composed of mostly leaky compartments. The E 18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, and E31/6,100ft reservoirs are examples of vertically stacked channel systems reflecting higher rates of aggradation. Vertically stacked architectures are more favorable for isolated compartments and therefore are better candidates for infield reserve growth.

  5. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  6. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  7. Heavy metal and other trace elements in native mussel Diplodon chilensis from Northern Patagonia Lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D; Vigliano, P; Lippolt, G; Arribére, M

    2004-01-01

    Native mussels, Diplodon chilensis, were sampled from four lakes in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina in order to evaluate heavy-metal distribution in the region and to assess the contribution of this compartment of the trophic web to their circulation in the food chain. The concentration of potential pollutants Ag, As, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se, and other nine elements of interest (Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Sr, and Zn) were determined in Diplodon chilensis pooled samples. Digestive glands were analyzed separately from soft tissues. Geological tracers Sc, Ta, Th, and rare earth elements were also determined in order to discriminate lithophile contributions. Elemental concentrations of Ba, Br, Fe, Sr, Se, and Zn in total soft tissues samples do not show significant differences among sampling sites. Arsenic and Cr contents in total soft tissues and digestive gland pooled samples are higher in sampling points close to zones with human settlements. Silver contents in samples collected in Lake Nahuel Huapi were higher than in the other lakes studied, and up to 50-fold higher than the sample collected in Lake Traful, considered as the reference. Mercury highest concentration values measured in total soft tissues pooled samples from lakes Nahuel Huapi and Moreno were found to be similar to those observed in other reported Hg contamination situations, and they are three to five times higher than those of the reference samples collected in Lake Traful.

  8. Oxidative stress and histological alterations produced by dietary copper in the fresh water bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Sebastián E; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Luquet, Carlos M; Eppis, Maria Rosa; Bianchi, Laura; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the oxidative stress effects and histological alterations caused by dietary copper on the filter-feeding freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Bivalves were fed during 6 weeks with the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus previously exposed to copper. Metal concentration in algae cultures and bivalve digestive gland was measured by TXRF. A maximum accumulation of 0.49 μg Cu/mg protein was detected at week 6. Also at this week, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) showed the highest decrease (50%) in response to Cu exposure. SOD and GST activities were significantly increased at weeks 4, 5 and 6, reaching an activity on average 50% higher than in controls for GST. CAT activity and GSH increased significantly at weeks 5 and 6. Despite this response, oxidative damage measured as TBARS and carbonyl groups contents increased significantly at weeks 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Digestive tubule and duct atrophy and cell-type replacement in treated mussels were observed by histological studies. The presence of intracellular rhodanine-positive granules, suggests copper accumulation in intracellular vacuoles of digestive cells.

  9. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  10. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization.

  11. Project DULCE: Strengthening Families through Enhanced Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sege, Robert; Kaplan-Sanof, Margot; Morton, Samantha J.; Velasco-Hodgson, M. Carolina; Preer, Genevieve; Morakinyo, Grace; DeVos, Ed; Krathen, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Project DULCE (Developmental understanding and legal Collaboration for everyone) integrated the Strengthening families approach to building family protective factors into routine health care visits for infants in a primary health care setting. The core collaborators--Boston medical Center pediatric primary care, the medical-legal partnership |…

  12. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets.

    PubMed

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-03-01

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about-right scale and purchase intent. External preference mapping and the ideal sensory characteristics of dulce de leche were determined. The results were also evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks, and logistic regression. Overall, significant product acceptance was related to intermediate scores of the sensory attributes in the descriptive test, and this trend was observed even after consumer segmentation. The results obtained by sensometric techniques showed that optimizing an ideal dulce de leche from the sensory standpoint is a multidimensional process, with necessary adjustments on the appearance, aroma, taste, and texture attributes of the product for better consumer acceptance and purchase. The optimum dulce de leche was characterized by high scores for the attributes sweet taste, caramel taste, brightness, color, and caramel aroma in accordance with the preference mapping findings. In industrial terms, this means changing the parameters used in the thermal treatment and quantitative changes in the ingredients used in formulations.

  13. Project DULCE: Strengthening Families through Enhanced Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sege, Robert; Kaplan-Sanof, Margot; Morton, Samantha J.; Velasco-Hodgson, M. Carolina; Preer, Genevieve; Morakinyo, Grace; DeVos, Ed; Krathen, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Project DULCE (Developmental understanding and legal Collaboration for everyone) integrated the Strengthening families approach to building family protective factors into routine health care visits for infants in a primary health care setting. The core collaborators--Boston medical Center pediatric primary care, the medical-legal partnership |…

  14. Modulation of immune and antioxidant responses by azinphos-methyl in the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Castro, Juan Manuel; Bianchi, Virginia Angélica; Pascual, Mariano; Venturino, Andrés; Luquet, Carlos Marcelo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune response-total hemocyte number, cell type proportion, hemocyte viability, lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytic activity, cellular acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, and humoral bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activity--in Diplodon chilensis exposed to 0.2 mg/L of azinphos-methyl (AZM), using Escherichia coli as immunological and pro-oxidant challenges. In addition, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were analyzed in gill tissue. Mussels from an unpolluted site were treated for 3 d as follows: 1) experimental control; 2) solvent effects control (acetone 0.01%); 3) bacterial challenge effects control (E. coli, 5 cells/mL × 10(4) cells/mL); 4) pesticide effects control (AZM in acetone); 5) control for combined effects of solvent and bacterial challenge; and 6) exposed to AZM, then challenged with E. coli. The results showed increased granulocyte proportion and phagocytic activity. Partial reversion of deleterious effects of E. coli on lysosomal membranes was observed in mussels exposed to AZM and then challenged with E. coli. Total hemocyte number and humoral bacteriolytic activity were increased only by E. coli challenge. Acid phosphatase activity was increased by both E. coli and AZM, whereas the stimulating effect of E. coli on alkaline phosphatase activity was negatively modulated by AZM. Azinphos-methyl inhibited phenoloxidase activity regardless of the E. coli challenge. Gill glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased by E. coli treatment either alone or pretreated with acetone or AZM and by AZM alone. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were reduced by AZM alone or combined with the E. coli challenge and by acetone followed by the E. coli challenge. Both acetone and AZM seem to be important modulators of immune and antioxidant responses in D. chilensis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1785-1794. © 2016 SETAC. © 2017

  15. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a…

  16. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a…

  17. Biographical Sketches from Interviews Conducted by Lourdes Ruiz, Teacher, Dulce Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pono, Filomena P., Comp.

    Eight biographical sketches of some Jicarilla Apache and Spanish American people who live and work in Dulce, New Mexico are given. These sketches contain brief descriptions of the lives of Jose Gabriel Abeyta, Cevero Caramillo, Chon LaBrier, Espeedie Garcia Ruiz, Raleigh Tafoya, Norman Tecube, Hubert Velarde, and Henry "Buster" L.…

  18. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  19. Morphological and histochemical characterization of gill filaments of the Brazilian endemic bivalve Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1856) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae).

    PubMed

    Nogarol, Larissa Rosa; Brossi-Garcia, Ana Luiza; David, José Augusto de Oliveira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the morphological description and histochemical characterization of gill filaments of the Brazilian endemic bivalve Diplodon expansus, aiming to broaden the morphological knowledge of this species and establish the structure of the gills that will serve as control in histopathological studies applied to biomonitoring. The gill filaments are divided into three zones: frontal, intermediate, and abfrontal. In the center of the filament, haemocytes circulate through the haemolymph vessel, which is internally lined by endothelium. The frontal surface of the filament is covered with cilia, the lateral surface exhibits aquifer ducts, and the abfrontal surface presents ciliated and nonciliated cells. The epithelium of the filaments is composed of ciliated cells, nonciliated absorptive cells, and mucocytes. The support of the filaments is made by two specialized structures called skeletal rod and skeletal loop. Based on the obtained information, the gill filaments of the studied species present some peculiar characteristics that are not yet reported in detail in the literature such as the simultaneous presence of skeletal rod and skeletal loop. On the other hand, the general constitution of the filament is similar to that described for both marine and limnic bivalves and seems to be suitable for ecotoxicological studies.

  20. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves.

  1. Surface morphology of Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1856; Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) gill filaments after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine herbicide.

    PubMed

    Nogarol, Larissa Rosa; Brossi-Garcia, Ana Luiza; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian endemic species Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1856) is found in freshwater bodies in the country's southeast, in large anthropogenic influence regions especially with an extensive agriculture emphasis. One of the main pesticides used in the species occurrence region is the atrazine herbicide, which has a great contamination potential in the aquatic environment. Therefore, several studies into its toxicity in aquatic systems have been developed. However, the tested concentrations are usually very high and rarely found in the environment and the short-term exposure responses in other aquatic organisms such as native bivalves are still scarce. Thus, this study sought to consider the potential effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of atrazine herbicide on the surface morphology of gill filaments of the bivalve D. expansus under laboratory-controlled conditions after short-term exposure. None of the animals died before the end of the experiment. The main alterations were observed on the frontal surface of filaments, which include mucus accumulation, cilia loss, and disruption. Mucus increased secretion and accumulation in the frontal filaments region preceded as a protective mechanism. Cilia loss and disruption on the frontal surface of the gill filament indicated that ciliated frontal cells were more sensitive to atrazine exposure and these alterations may cause gills functional damages, compromising the uptake of food particles and respiration. Therefore, higher sublethal concentrations of atrazine may compromise the survival and consequently the population of D. expansus in agriculture areas after a longer period of continuous exposure.

  2. Pithecellobium dulce mediated extra-cellular green synthesis of larvicidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Sudharsan, S; Veerakumar, V; Pravin, N; Vithiya, K

    2012-10-01

    Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Pithecellobium dulce, which acts as a reducing and capping agent. It is observed that use of P. dulce leaf extract makes a fast, environmentally benign and convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles so prepared have been characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope studies. Furthermore, these nanoparticles show effective larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=21.56 mg/L and r(2)=0.995) due to high surface to volume ratio.

  3. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  4. Distribution and biomass of arrow worms (Chaetognatha) in Golfo de Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, B

    1996-12-01

    The chaetognath species guild was analyzed from samples collected during the cruise of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 and February, 1994, finding the following ten species of the genera Sagitta and Krohnitta: S. enflata, S. hexaptera, S. pacifica, S. neglecta, S. regularis, S. bedoti, S. friderici, S. popovicii, S. pulchra and K. pacifica. Because of their distributional patterns in the study area these species were ascribed to the following ecological groups: neritic, semi-neritic and oceanic. A strong gradient in species richness from offshore to inshore waters (8 to one respectively) was found in both gulf systems. Inshore chaetognaths were dominated by juveniles and adults of S. friderici in Golfo de Nicoya and by S. popovicii in Golfo Dulce. Biomass spectra were more continuous and of wider range in the Golfo Dulce area showing a dominance of larger chaetognaths, suggesting a more general developed pelagic system in Golfo Dulce, where larger chaetognaths might structure the plankton community by strong grazing pressure from above.

  5. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  6. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Pithecell’obium dulce Benth. Leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Sugumaran, M.; Vetrichelvan, T.; Venkapayya, D

    2006-01-01

    The macroscopical characters of the leaves, leaf constants, physico-chemical constants, extractive values, colour, consistency, pH, extractive values with different solvents, micro chemical test, fluorescence characters of liquid extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under visible and UV light at 254mn, measurement of cell and tissues were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters for leaves of Pithecellobium, dulce Benth which will enable the future investigators for identification of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study on different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22557213

  7. Dulce de Leche, a typical product of Latin America: characterisation by physicochemical, optical and instrumental methods.

    PubMed

    Gaze, L V; Costa, M P; Monteiro, M L G; Lavorato, J A A; Conte Júnior, C A; Raices, R S L; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-02-15

    The physicochemical profile of Dulce de Leche (DL) was determined by both routine analysis and others techniques (HPLC, GC-MS and ICP-OES). Seven Brazilian commercial brands were characterised for moisture content, protein, fat, ash, pH and titratable acidity, mineral content (sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus), colour parameters and instrumental analysis (carbohydrates content and volatile compounds). Overall, extensive variability among all the parameters evaluated were observed, suggesting different operational procedures in the dairy factories along the DL processing. In this sense, an increase of intrinsic quality of DL is related closely the standardization of operational parameters using during the manufacture.

  8. Screening of natural polysaccharides extracted from the fruits of Pithecellobium dulce as a pharmaceutical adjuvant.

    PubMed

    S, Preethi; A, Mary Saral

    2016-11-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from the dried fruiting bodies of Pithecellobium dulce with 20% ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction. The polysaccharides were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and afford three water-soluble polysaccharides PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3. These isolated compounds were subjected to acid hydrolysis, methylation, IR and GC-MS for its compositional analysis and revealed that all the three fractions are heteropolysaccharides. PDP-1 was found to be composed of xylose, mannose, galactose and Rhamnose. PDP-2 and PDP-3 composed of xylose, Rhamnose, glucose, ribose, galactose, and mannose. The micromeretic properties of the extracted polysaccharides possessed a bulk density of 0.69g/ml, 0.65g/ml and 0.71g/ml for PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3 respectively. The Hausner's ratio and Carr's index confirm the good flow property and compressibility of the polysaccharides. The polysaccharides extracted from Pithecellobium dulce fruits were tested for its application as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. The in vitro drug release study suggests that the extracted polysaccharides are potential candidates as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. Furthermore, the three isolated polysaccharides were subjected to its radical scavenging activity using DPPH, phospho molybdenum assay and reducing power assay. The results exhibited that the polysaccharides can be explored as a novel natural antioxidant and can be recommended as a functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Agua Caliente and Their Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryterband, Roman

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the traditional music of the Agua Caliente band of California's Desert Cahuilla Indian tribe, including accompanying instruments, types of songs, thematic material, and performance routines. Exploring the structure of the music, the article describes meter, tempo, harmony and tonal gravitations, and use of words. (DS)

  10. Agua Caliente and Their Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryterband, Roman

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the traditional music of the Agua Caliente band of California's Desert Cahuilla Indian tribe, including accompanying instruments, types of songs, thematic material, and performance routines. Exploring the structure of the music, the article describes meter, tempo, harmony and tonal gravitations, and use of words. (DS)

  11. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  12. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  13. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  14. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  15. The social structure of Golfo Dulce bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the influence of behavioural state

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors such as habitat and food availability affect the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Here, we describe the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, a semi-enclosed, fjord-like tropical embayment resembling a pelagic system. We also examine behaviour-linked social strategies by comparing social structure relative to behavioural state: feeding versus non-feeding. We analysed 333 sightings over 210 days from boat-based surveys. Despite the uniqueness of the area, the 47 analysed adults had a social structure similar to other populations: a well-differentiated fission–fusion society with sex-specific patterns of associations and aggression. These results indicate that differences in social structure relative to other populations were a matter of degree. Association strength of dyads was highly correlated across behavioural states, indicating constraints on social fluidity. Males displayed a marked difference in lagged association rate and females displayed a small difference in association homogeneity between states. We suggest this difference in population-wide social connections between behavioural states, particularly for males, was due to mating strategies, a pressure which is strongest during non-feeding behaviour and relaxed during feeding. This finding highlights the importance of considering behavioural state when examining individual bonds and the behavioural plasticity for which the bottlenose dolphin is well known. PMID:27853584

  16. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  17. The social structure of Golfo Dulce bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the influence of behavioural state.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Kelsey; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    Ecological factors such as habitat and food availability affect the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Here, we describe the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, a semi-enclosed, fjord-like tropical embayment resembling a pelagic system. We also examine behaviour-linked social strategies by comparing social structure relative to behavioural state: feeding versus non-feeding. We analysed 333 sightings over 210 days from boat-based surveys. Despite the uniqueness of the area, the 47 analysed adults had a social structure similar to other populations: a well-differentiated fission-fusion society with sex-specific patterns of associations and aggression. These results indicate that differences in social structure relative to other populations were a matter of degree. Association strength of dyads was highly correlated across behavioural states, indicating constraints on social fluidity. Males displayed a marked difference in lagged association rate and females displayed a small difference in association homogeneity between states. We suggest this difference in population-wide social connections between behavioural states, particularly for males, was due to mating strategies, a pressure which is strongest during non-feeding behaviour and relaxed during feeding. This finding highlights the importance of considering behavioural state when examining individual bonds and the behavioural plasticity for which the bottlenose dolphin is well known.

  18. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anzaldo-Campos, María Cecilia; Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-04-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce-only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (-3.0% [-33 mmol/mol]) and PD (-2.6% [-28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (-1.3% [-14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were detected between PD and PD-TE on these indicators (P = 0.54 and 0.86, respectively). Several within-group improvements were observed on other clinical and self-report indicators but did not vary significantly across groups. Project Dulce with and without wireless technology substantially improved glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations.

  19. 54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 72. Headgates for Agua Fria project canal on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Headgates for Agua Fria project canal on east end of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 61. View of the Agua Fria River stream bed from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View of the Agua Fria River stream bed from atop Waddell Dam. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 74. View of flume crossing the Agua Fria River from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. View of flume crossing the Agua Fria River from the east embankment. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and lands to be irrigated by the Agua Fria Water and Land Company. Photographer Mark Durben, 1987 Source: 'Map of the Agua Fria Valley and the Western Portion of the Salt River Valley Showing the System of Reservoirs and Canals of the Agua Fria Water and Land Company and the Land to be Irrigated Thereby 160,000 Acres of New Land to be Reclaimed in the Maricopa County, Arizona Territory,' (Brochure) Union Photo Engraving Company, c. 1895, Salt River Project Research Archives, Tempe, Arizona. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 2. William Beardsley standing along the Agua Fria River near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. William Beardsley standing along the Agua Fria River near construction site of the Agua Fria project. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler, James D. 'Report on the Water Supply of the Agua Fria River, and the Storage Reservoir Project of the Agua Fria Water and Land Company For Irrigation in the Gila River Valley, Arizona,' (September 29, 1903). Arizona Historical Collection, Hayden Library, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. (Typewritten.) - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Subjects and Methods: Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce–only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. Results: HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (−3.0% [−33 mmol/mol]) and PD (−2.6% [−28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (−1.3% [−14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were detected between PD and PD-TE on these indicators (P = 0.54 and 0.86, respectively). Several within-group improvements were observed on other clinical and self-report indicators but did not vary significantly across groups. Conclusions: Project Dulce with and without wireless technology substantially improved glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations. PMID:26914371

  6. An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Mencherini, T; Cau, A; Bianco, G; Della Loggia, R; Aquino, R P; Autore, G

    2007-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, are reported to affect the inflammatory process and to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the inflammatory mediators, the effects of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of the leaves of Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery) on iNOS expression and NO production in the J774.A1 macrophage cell line stimulated for 24 h with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated. The extract of A. graveolens var. dulce contained apiin as the major constituent (1.12%, w/w, of the extract). The extract and apiin showed significant inhibitory activity on nitrite (NO) production in-vitro (IC50 0.073 and 0.08 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) and iNOS expression (IC50 0.095 and 0.049 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) in LPS-activated J774.A1 cells. The croton-oil ear test on mice showed that the extract exerted anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 microg cm(-2)), with a potency seven-times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Our results clearly indicated the inhibitory activity of the extract and apiin in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production when added before LPS stimulation in the medium of J774.A1 cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extract demonstrated in-vivo might have been due to reduction of iNOS enzyme expression.

  7. 76 FR 73504 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Alice, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Airport, Agua Dulce, TX, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument... Old Hoppe Place Airport, Agua Dulce, TX, due to the cancellation of all standard instrument...

  8. 27 CFR 9.218 - Sierra Pelona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... area are titled: (1) Agua Dulce, CA, 1995; (2) Sleepy Valley, CA, 1995; and (3) Ritter Ridge, Calif... below: (1) The beginning point is on the Agua Dulce map at the intersection of the section 26 east... line 0.15 mile, crossing over the Agua Dulce Road, to the line's intersection with the...

  9. 27 CFR 9.218 - Sierra Pelona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... area are titled: (1) Agua Dulce, CA, 1995; (2) Sleepy Valley, CA, 1995; and (3) Ritter Ridge, Calif... below: (1) The beginning point is on the Agua Dulce map at the intersection of the section 26 east... line 0.15 mile, crossing over the Agua Dulce Road, to the line's intersection with the...

  10. 27 CFR 9.218 - Sierra Pelona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area are titled: (1) Agua Dulce, CA, 1995; (2) Sleepy Valley, CA, 1995; and (3) Ritter Ridge, Calif... below: (1) The beginning point is on the Agua Dulce map at the intersection of the section 26 east... line 0.15 mile, crossing over the Agua Dulce Road, to the line's intersection with the...

  11. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  12. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  13. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  14. Checklist of copepods from Gulf of Nicoya, Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with comments on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    1996-12-01

    A list of 54 copepod species (Crustacea) in 23 families is presented for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Identifications are from zooplankton samples of the Victor Hensen Expedition during December 1993 and February 1994. Samples were taken with a Bongo net (0.60 m net opening, 2.50 m net length) with 200 microns mesh size. Oblique hauls were done from the surface to the ground at a towing speed of aprox. 1 knot. 37 species (68.5%) were found in the Gulf of Nicoya, 36 in Golfo Dulce (66.6%) and 17 (31.4%) species were common to both gulfs, while only twelve species (22.2%) were found in Coronado Bay. Four species (7.4%) were distributed along the coast and were common to the three regions: Paracalanus parvus, Euchaeta sp., Oithona plumifera and O. similis. Eleven species of calanoids found normally in the Costa Rica Dome show the influence of typical oceanic waters principally at the mouth of Gulf of Nicoya. Differences were observed in the composition and presence of the copepod species when the inner and outer (upper and lower) parts of both gulfs were compared. Gulf of Nicoya was dominated in its upper part by typical neritic estuarine species like Acartia lilljenborgii, Paracalanus parvus and, Hemyciclops thalassius as well as species of Pseudodiaptomus. On the other hand a more oceanic composition of copepods was observed in the lower part of the gulf. Both small species, like Oncaea venusta, as well as larger species, such as Pleuromamma robusta, Eucalanus attenuatus, E. elongatus and Rhincalanus nasutus, were typical of these waters. Oithona plumifera and O. similis were found in the lower part too; and both species are typical from oceanic water. Coronado Bay was characterized by the presence of typical oceanic species like Neocalanus gracilis, Euchaeta longicornis, Eucalanus attenuatus and Haloptilus ornatus with more transitional species like Clausocalanus pergens and C. furcatus near the coast. In the Golfo Dulce differences in copepod composition were

  15. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  16. Improvement in diabetes care of underinsured patients enrolled in project dulce: a community-based, culturally appropriate, nurse case management and peer education diabetes care model.

    PubMed

    Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Walker, Chris; Rivard, Lisa; Talavera, Gregory; Reimann, Joachim O F; Salmon, Michelle; Araujo, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To improve clinical diabetes care, patient knowledge, and treatment satisfaction and to reduce health-adverse culture-based beliefs in underserved and underinsured populations with diabetes. A total of 153 high-risk patients with diabetes recruited from six community clinic sites in San Diego County, California were enrolled in a nurse case management (NCM) and peer education/empowerment group. Baseline and 1-year levels of HbA(1c), lipid parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, knowledge of diabetes, culture-based beliefs in ineffective remedies, and treatment satisfaction were prospectively measured. The NCM and peer education/empowerment group was compared with 76 individuals in a matched control group (CG) derived from patients referred but not enrolled in Project Dulce. After 1 year in Project Dulce, the NCM and peer education/empowerment group had significant improvements in HbA(1c) (12.0-8.3%, P < 0.0001), total cholesterol (5.82-4.86 mmol/l, P < 0.0001), LDL cholesterol (3.39-2.79 mmol/l, P < 0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (80-76 mmHg, P < 0.009), which were significantly better than in the CG, in which no significant changes were noted. Accepted American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care, knowledge of diabetes (P = 0.024), treatment satisfaction (P = 0.001), and culture-based beliefs (P = 0.001) were also improved. A novel, culturally appropriate, community-based, nurse case management/peer education diabetes care model leads to significant improvement in clinical diabetes care, self-awareness, and understanding of diabetes in underinsured populations.

  17. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Lorenzetti, Angélica; Daguer, Heitor; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2016-11-15

    A simple extraction, rapid routine method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche, a traditional South American product, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and fully validated. The limits of detection were set to 24.41mgkg(-1) (sorbic acid), 0.10mgkg(-1) (natamycin) and 2μgkg(-1) (tylosin). Recoveries ranged from 95% to 110%. Proportionally, internal standardization was more efficient than external standard, resulting in a smaller measurement of uncertainty. In total, 35 commercial samples from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay have been assessed. The proposed method was tested on other dairy desserts, demonstrating to be versatile. Although tylosin was not detected in any sample, a high rate of non-compliance was found, with 67.39% of samples above the maximum allowed for sorbic acid and a maximum concentration of 2105.36±178.60mgkg(-1). In two samples, natamycin was irregularly found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of supplementing rice straw with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliages on digestibility, microbial N supply and nitrogen balance of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S

    2010-10-01

    A total of 12 crossbred (Boer × Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 ± 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production.

  19. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Agua Caliente Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National... Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw-Harquahala Planning Area, located in central Arizona. The... occupied or used portions of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria...

  1. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the Agua...

  2. Isolation, purification, and identification of the main phenolic compounds from leaves of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill./Pers.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyan; Zhuang, Linwu; Song, Dandan; Lu, Chunliang; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    We developed a simple and meaningful preparative method for the separation and purification of the main phenolic compounds from the leaves of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill./Pers.) and we established an accurate and specific analytical method for the identification of the main phenolic compounds from celery leaves. The crude extract from celery leaves was prefractioned by polyamide resin to enrich the phenolic compounds. They were then purified further by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and seven main phenolic compounds were obtained: including chlorogenic acid, luteolin 7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, apiin, chrysoeriol 7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-(6''-O-malonyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, and apigenin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-(6''-O-malonyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside. Their purities were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were confirmed using UV spectrophotometry, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Our studies indicate that preparative high-performance liquid chromatography combined with polyamide resin is a simple and meaningful preparative method for the separation and purification of phenolic compounds from the leaves of celery or other plants, and the use of UV spectrophotometry, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy is an accurate and specific analytical method for the identification of phenolic compounds.

  3. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  4. Regulation of the alpha-glucuronidase-encoding gene ( aguA) from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R P; van de Vondervoort, P J I; Hendriks, L; van de Belt, M; Visser, J

    2002-09-01

    The alpha-glucuronidase gene aguA from Aspergillus niger was cloned and characterised. Analysis of the promoter region of aguA revealed the presence of four putative binding sites for the major carbon catabolite repressor protein CREA and one putative binding site for the transcriptional activator XLNR. In addition, a sequence motif was detected which differed only in the last nucleotide from the XLNR consensus site. A construct in which part of the aguA coding region was deleted still resulted in production of a stable mRNA upon transformation of A. niger. The putative XLNR binding sites and two of the putative CREA binding sites were mutated individually in this construct and the effects on expression were examined in A. niger transformants. Northern analysis of the transformants revealed that the consensus XLNR site is not actually functional in the aguA promoter, whereas the sequence that diverges from the consensus at a single position is functional. This indicates that XLNR is also able to bind to the sequence GGCTAG, and the XLNR binding site consensus should therefore be changed to GGCTAR. Both CREA sites are functional, indicating that CREA has a strong influence on aguA expression. A detailed expression analysis of aguA in four genetic backgrounds revealed a second regulatory system involved in activation of aguA gene expression. This system responds to the presence of glucuronic and galacturonic acids, and is not dependent on XLNR.

  5. Comparative biomass spectra and species composition of the zooplankton communities in Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    von Wangelin, M; Wolff, M

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a subset of plankton samples obtained during an expedition of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in 1993/94. It aims at the identification of the main plankton taxa for a general description and comparison of the plankton communities of the gulf systems Golfo de Nicoya (GN) and Golfo Dulce (GD) and the analysis of biomass spectra at inshore and offshore stations at the end of the rainy season and during the dry season. Inshore plankton biomass was significantly higher in GN than GD and exceeded offshore biomass several times, while in the GD area the reverse was found. In the rainy season, inshore biomass spectra of GN and GD were discontinuous with biomass concentrations at small sizes (around 0.06 mg) suggesting little developed communities, with highest production and energy use occurring in the small organisms. From the rainy to the dry season inshore species richness increased in both gulf systems and a shift was observed towards the larger size groups resulting in more continuous biomass spectra. In GN, bivalve larvae, foraminifers, ostracods, mysids and nauplii increase heavily in abundance and some gelatinous specimens occur. In GD, gelatinous zooplankton appears in enormous abundance and dominate the community biomass, followed by large chaetognaths and ostracods. In GD, inshore plankton has neritic and oceanic elements and differs less from the offshore plankton, whereas in GN, inshore plankton in largely neritic. The high abundance of fish eggs and invertebrate larvae suggest that this area is an important spawning ground. While in the rainy season inshore biomass was about 15 times higher in GN compared to GD, this difference was reduced to 3-4 times in the dry season due to the appearance of the large predators mentioned above. The changes from the rainy to the dry season at the offshore stations of both gulf systems are less pronounced in terms of total biomass, shape of the biomass spectra and

  6. Vitamin D status among indigenous Mayan (Kekchi) and Afro-Caribe (Garifuna) adolescents from Guatemala: a comparative description between two ethnic groups residing on the Rio Dulce at the Caribbean coast in Izabal Province, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Ali; Solomons, Noel W; Campos, Raquel; Soto-Méndez, María José; Caplan, Emily; Armas, Laura; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2016-03-31

    To assess vitamin D status and the influence of risk factors such as skin pigmentation and time spent outdoors on hypovitaminosis D among Guatemalan Kekchi and Garifuna adolescents. Cross-sectional study, with convenient sampling design. Blood samples, anthropometric and behavioural data were all collected during the dry season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by RIA. Communities of Rio Dulce and Livingston, Izabal Province, Caribbean coast of Guatemala, with latitude and longitude of 15°49'N and 88°45'W for Livingston and 15°46'N and 88°49'W for Rio Dulce, respectively. Eighty-six adolescents, divided evenly by sex and ethnicity, with mean age of 14 years. Mean (sd) 25(OH)D value was 27·8 (7·2) ng/ml for the total group, with 25·8 (5·9) and 29·8 (7·9) ng/ml, respectively, in Kekchis and Garifunas (P=0·01). Use of vitamin D supplementation, clothing practices and sun protection were not statistically different between groups. Skin area exposed on the day of data collection ranged from 20·0 % minimum to 49·4 % maximum, with mean (sd) exposure of 32·0 (8.5) %. With univariate regression analysis, age (P=0·034), sex (P=0·044), ethnicity (P=0·010), time spent outdoors (P=0·006) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·001) were predictive. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only sex (P=0·034) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·044) remained as predictors of 25(OH)D. Despite residing in an optimal geographic location for sunlight exposure, nearly 65 % of study adolescents were either insufficient or deficient in vitamin D. Correction and long-term prevention of this nutritional problem may be instrumental in avoiding adverse effects in adulthood attributed to low 25(OH)D during adolescence.

  7. Informe: Agua potable - la EPA necesita adoptar medidas adicionales para garantizar que los pequeños sistemas de agua comunitarios señalados como graves infractores logren cumplir con las normas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Informe #16-P-0108, 22 de Marzo de 2016. La EPA puede proteger mejor al público del agua potable contaminada, lo que incluye a casi 200,000 personas en Puerto Rico que todavía carecen de agua potable segura.

  8. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of fluid and temperature flow were developed for the Agua Caliente Spring to (1) test the validity of the conceptual model that the Agua Caliente Spring enters the valley-fill deposits from fractures in the underlying basement complex and rises through more than 800 feet of valley-fill deposits by way of a washed-sand conduit and surrounding low-permeability deposits (spring chimney) of its own making, (2) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of discharging water, and (3) determine the source of thermal water in the perched aquifer. A radial-flow model was used to test the conceptual model and the effect of water-level declines. The observed spring discharge and temperature could be simulated if the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the spring orifice was about 200 feet per day and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the orifice (spring chimney) was about 0.00002 feet per day. The simulated vertical hydraulic conductivity is within the range of values reported for sand; however, the low value simulated for the horizontal hydraulic conductivity suggests that the spring chimney is cemented with increasing depth. Chemical data collected for this study indicate that the water at Agua Caliente Spring is at saturation with respect to both calcite and chalcedony, which provides a possible mechanism for cementation of the spring chimney. A simulated decline of about 100 feet in the regional aquifer had no effect on the simulated discharge of Agua Caliente Spring and resulted in a slight increase in the temperature of the spring discharge. Results from the radial-flow- and three-dimensional models of the Agua Caliente Spring area demonstrate that the distribution and temperature of thermal water in the perched water table can be explained by flow from a secondary shallow-subsurface spring orifice of the Agua Caliente Spring not contained by the steel collector tank, not by leakage from the

  9. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Todd; Stewart, Royce

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  10. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  11. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  12. HOJA INFORMATIVA Presencia de PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable Avisos de salud

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales y locales para que puedan adoptar las me

  13. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  14. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  15. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  16. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  17. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  18. Flood of February 1980 along the Agua Fria River, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomsen, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The flood of February 20, 1980, along the Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam, Maricopa County, Ariz., was caused by heavy rains during February 13-20. The runoff filled Lake Pleasant and resulted in the largest release--66,600 cubic feet per second--from the reservoir since it was built in 1927; the maximum inflow to the reservoir was about 73,300 cubic feet per second. The area inundated by the releases includes about 28 miles along the channel from the mouth of the Agua Fria River to the Beardsley Canal flume crossing 5 miles downstream from Waddell Dam. The flood of 1980 into Lake Pleasant has a recurrence interval of about 47 years, whereas the flood of record (1919) has a recurrence interval of about 100 years. (USGS)

  19. Agua Caliente Solar Feasibility and Pre-Development Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carolyn T. Stewart, Managing Partner; Red Mountain Energy Partners

    2011-04-26

    Evaluation of facility- and commercial-scale solar energy projects on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Reservation in Palm Springs, CA. The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) conducted a feasibility and pre-development study of potential solar projects on its lands in southern California. As described below, this study as a logical and necessary next step for ACBCI. Support for solar project development in California, provided through the statewide California Solar Initiative (CSI), its Renewable Portfolio Standard and Feed-in Tariff Program, and recently announced Reverse Auction Mechanism, provide unprecedented support and incentives that can be utilized by customers of California's investor-owned utilities. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program funding allowed ACBCI to complete its next logical step to implement its Strategic Energy Plan, consistent with its energy and sustainability goals.

  20. Hydrologic characteristics of the Agua Fria National Monument, central Arizona, determined from the reconnaissance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions in the newly created Agua Fria National Monument were characterized on the basis of existing hydrologic and geologic information, and streamflow data collected in May 2002. The study results are intended to support the Bureau of Land Management's future water-resource management responsibilities, including quantification of a Federal reserved water right within the monument. This report presents the study results, identifies data deficiencies, and describes specific approaches for consideration in future studies. Within the Agua Fria National Monument, the Agua Fria River flows generally from north to south, traversing almost the entire 23-mile length of the monument. Streamflow has been measured continuously at a site near the northern boundary of the monument since 1940. Streamflow statistics for this site, and streamflow measurements from other sites along the Agua Fria River, indicate that the river is perennial in the northern part of the monument but generally is intermittent in downstream reaches. The principal controls on streamflow along the river within the monument appear to be geology, the occurrence and distribution of alluvium, inflow at the northern boundary and from tributary canyons, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. At present, (2004) there is no consistent surface-water quality monitoring program being implemented for the monument. Ground-water recharge within the monument likely results from surface-water losses and direct infiltration of precipitation. Wells are most numerous in the Cordes Junction and Black Canyon City areas. Only eight wells are within the monument. Ground-water quality data for wells in the monument area consist of specific-conductance values and fluoride concentrations. During the study, ground-water quality data were available for only one well within the monument. No ground-water monitoring program is currently in place for the monument or surrounding areas.

  1. View facing southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's Residence (left) and Garage (right), with stone pillar in foreground - Toney Residence, 10700 Escondido Canyon Road, Agua Dulce, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's Residence, with rock formations in the background - Toney Residence, 10700 Escondido Canyon Road, Agua Dulce, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Use of Archival Sources to Improve Water-Related Hazard Assessments at Volcán de Agua, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, A. A.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Williams, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study focuses on the use of archival sources from the 18th Century Spanish Empire to develop a greater understanding of mudflow trigger mechanisms at Volcán de Agua in Guatemala. Currently, hazard assessments of debris flows at Volcán de Agua are largely based on studies of analogous events, such as the mudflow at Casita Volcano in 1998 caused by excessive rainfall generated by Hurricane Mitch. A preliminary investigation of Spanish archival sources, however, indicates that a damaging mudflow from the volcano in 1717 may have been triggered by activity at the neighbouring Volcán de Fuego. A VEI 4 eruption of Fuego in late August 1717 was followed by 33 days of localized 'retumbos' and then a major local earthquake with accompanying mudflows from several 'bocas' on the southwest flank of Agua. Of particular importance for this study is an archival source from Archivos Generales de Centro América (AGCA) that consists of a series of letters, petitions and witness statements that were written and gathered following the catastrophic events of 1717. Their purpose was to argue for royal permission to relocate the capital city, which at the time was located on the lower flanks of Volcán de Agua. Within these documents there are accounts of steaming 'avenidas' of water with sulphurous smells, and quantitative descriptions that suggest fissure formation related to volcanic activity at Volcán de Fuego. Clear evidence for volcano-tectonic activity at the time, combined with the fact there is no mention of rainfall in the documents, suggest that outbursts of mud from Agua's south flank may have been caused by a volcanic perturbation of a hydrothermal system. This single example suggests that further analysis of archival documents will provide a more accurate and robust assessment of water related hazards at Volcán de Agua than currently exists.

  4. Chihuahuan desert flora of La Calera, Municipio de Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    A total of 555 plant collections were made on 20 trips in 2002-2008 to La Calera area in the Sierra Anibácachi, Municipio de Agua Prieta, 11.3 km south of the Arizona border (31°13’59”N 109°37’53”W, elevation range from 1220 m to 1539 m) in northeastern Sonora. Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone substrates is dominated by creosotebush (Larrrea divaricata), Chihuahuan...

  5. Enhancement of uranium 234 in springwaters of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Bonotto, D.M. )

    1993-07-01

    In this study, the effect of combined chemical etch and leach processes on the generation of enhanced activity ratios (ARs) was investigated for mineral water samples from several spring of Aguas de Prata. Aguas de Prata is an important tourist site in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, located at the western edge of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline complex. Results show that active uranium dissolution is occurring in the springwaters. Enhanced Uranium 234/Uranium 238 activity ratios for dissolved U are explained in terms of combined chemical etch and leach processes responsible for the bulk dissolution of rock matrix rather than by alpha recoil effects. Several direct correlations support the effectiveness of etch/leach mechanisms, for example, between AR and total dissolved solids, ionic strength, carbon dioxide partial pressure, traditional index of base exchange, and new index of base exchange. A higher AR value is found to be directly related to a higher value of dissolution rate and a higher value of Radon 222 content is found to be related to a higher value of specific surface area. These relationships explain a good inverse logarithmic correlation between AR and Radon 22 content of the studied waters.

  6. [Active search for leprosy and other skin diseases in school children from Agua de Dios, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gerzaín; González, Rosalba; Gonzalez, Deysy; Granados, Carolina; Pinto, Rafael; Herrera, Hilda; Gutiérrez, Luisa F; Hernández, Elkin; López, Fernando; Gómez, Yenny

    2007-01-01

    Actively searching for leprosy, other skin diseases and BCG vaccination scars amongst school children from Agua de Dios, the municipality having the highest prevalence of leprosy in Colombia. A clinical examination of the children was carried out by nurses, interns, general practitioners and experts on leprosy. Skin smear tests and skin biopsies were performed when the clinical findings suggested leprosy. Anti-phenolic glycolipid antibodies in blood were determined in special cases. 86 % of the 2 844 school children were examined; 833 had skin diseases and 16 % of these required evaluation by specialists. Four new cases of paucibacillary leprosy, two indeterminate and two primary polyneuritic cases were found. Pediculosis capitis, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, hypopigmented nevus, insect bites and miliaria were frequently detected. BCG vaccination scars were absent in 387 children; following several logistical problems, they were vaccinated. Four children had signs of childhood abuse. An 11-year-old girl presented hypopigmented mycosis fungoides. All diseases and conditions found were treated. The community received information regarding the results, emphasising the importance of an early diagnosis of leprosy. The incidence of leprosy found (16/10,000) was 123 times higher than the rest of the country's incidence. It is advisable to continue clinical examinations in Agua de Dios and research into risk factors for acquiring leprosy.

  7. Dulce Public Schools Community Education Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Bureau of Educational Planning and Development.

    Adults in a multi-ethnic, small, rural school district were surveyed to determine their evaluation and expectations of district schools. Of the 301 respondents, 72% were Jicarilla Apache/other Indian, 14% Spanish/Mexican, and 14% Anglo; most were aged 19-45; 81% had completed high school; 76% were employed. Respondents rated the elementary, high,…

  8. Dulce Public Schools Community Education Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. Bureau of Educational Planning and Development.

    Adults in a multi-ethnic, small, rural school district were surveyed to determine their evaluation and expectations of district schools. Of the 301 respondents, 72% were Jicarilla Apache/other Indian, 14% Spanish/Mexican, and 14% Anglo; most were aged 19-45; 81% had completed high school; 76% were employed. Respondents rated the elementary, high,…

  9. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  10. New geologic slip rates for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Within the southern San Andreas transform plate boundary system, relatively little is known regarding active faulting in northern Baja California, Mexico, or offshore along the Inner Continental Borderland. The inner offshore system appears to be fed from the south by the Agua Blanca Fault (ABF), which strikes northwest across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Therefore, the geologic slip rate for the ABF also provides a minimum slip rate estimate for the offshore system, which is connected to the north to faults in the Los Angeles region. Previous studies along the ABF determined slip rates of ~4-6 mm/yr (~10% of relative plate motion). However, these rates relied on imprecise age estimates and offset geomorphic features of a type that require these rates to be interpreted as minima, allowing for the possibility that the slip rate for the ABF may be greater. Although seismically quiescent, the surface trace of the ABF clearly reflects Holocene activity, and given its connectivity with the offshore fault system, more quantitative slip rates for the ABF are needed to better understand earthquake hazard for both US and Mexican coastal populations. Using newly acquired airborne LiDAR, we have mapped primary and secondary fault strands along the segmented western 70 km of the ABF. Minimal development has left the geomorphic record of surface slip remarkably well preserved, and we have identified abundant evidence meter to km scale right-lateral displacement, including new Late Quaternary slip rate sites. We verified potential reconstructions at each site during summer 2015 fieldwork, and selected an initial group of three high potential slip rate sites for detailed mapping and geochronologic analyses. Offset landforms, including fluvial terrace risers, alluvial fans, and incised channel fill deposits, record displacements of ~5-80 m, and based on minimal soil development, none appear older than early Holocene. To quantitatively constrain landform ages

  11. Assessment of paleo-oxygenation conditions on the Agua Nueva Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian), Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, F.; Canet, C.; Barragan-Manzo, R.; Alfonso, P.

    2013-05-01

    Organic-carbon-rich, laminated sediments are characteristic and widespread in the global stratigraphic record of the mid-Cretaceous, mainly during the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE's). In central-eastern Mexico, deposits of the Agua Nueva Formation are constituted by dark-gray, carbonaceous and laminated limestone with pyritic layers related to the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE 2. Herein, through different proxies, variations of paleo-redox conditions are studied in detail on a stratigraphic section of the Agua Nueva Formation. A first approach to redox conditions comes from the analysis of the stratigraphic record. Laminated fabrics and the paucity of bioturbation are typical features of a poorly oxygenated sedimentary environment. The presence of well-preserved fish remains and inoceramid bivalve shells is also consistent with those conditions. On the other hand, discrete light-colored and bioturbated thin levels indicate limited increases in the dissolved oxygen content. Geochemical proxies include δ13C in carbonates, δ34S in pyrite and the concentration of various redox-sensitive trace-elements. δ13C (VPDB) ranges from 0.39‰ to 1.30‰, whereas δ34Spy (VCDT) is between -41.23‰ and -11.27‰. The stratigraphic variation patterns of both isotopic values (δ13C and δ34S) are roughly opposite, reflecting changes in the burial of organic matter (OM) and, consequently, in the rate of bacterial sulphate reduction. Thus, positive 13C-rich carbonates represent lower free oxygen condition which enhanced burial flux of OM, tend to shift δ13C of carbonates toward positive values and triggered the incorporation of 32S into the sulfide by bacteria. This situation is also suggested by an enrichment of the sediments in V, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo and U. The abundance and size distribution of pyrite framboids proved to be in good agreement with the geochemical results. They also suggest dysoxic to anoxic conditions for the stratigraphic section studied. Both parameters have been

  12. Thermal Fluid and Fault Interactions at the Intersection of Two Faults, Agua Caliente, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R. E.; Evans, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agua Caliente Springs lies at a unique intersection between the NNW-trending Elsinore fault and the 40° northeast-dipping, likely inactive West Salton detachment fault; it provides an opportunity to study damage zone geometry, fault behavior in crystalline rocks, a left-stepover zone between the Julian and Coyote segments, microseismicity, and the influence of thermal fluids on rock deformation. The Elsinore fault bounds the northwestern flank of the Tierra Blanca Mountains with strike-slip and normal motion; the detachment fault wraps around the northernmost portion of the mountains. Damage along the Elsinore ranges in thickness from a narrow slip plane to > 100 m along the eastern flank of the Tierra Blanca Mountains. Subsidiary faults trend northeast and southeast, and slip orientations vary from normal to strike-slip horizontal motion. Thermal fluids (~30°C) emerge at the intersection of the West Salton detachment and Elsinore faults actively alter the 94 Ma La Posta tonalite pluton, already fractured and crushed during fault slip, to a fine-grained white to orange powder through mineral re-equilibration. Grain sizes decrease with closer proximity to the faults. Fault cores contain thin dark green zones of chlorite ± epidote, and fault surfaces are coated with a thin layer of the same. Origin of the mineralization may be from reworked biotite crystals. We present water chemistry data from the hot springs at Agua Caliente in conjunction with geochemical and petrographic analysis of the surrounding rock. Water analyses include cation and anion measurements, bicarbonate, stable isotopes, tritium, and a multi-month recording of spring conductivity, water level, and temperature fluctuations. Cation geothermometry shows the fluids are enriched in Na, Ca, Mg, K, and Si from broken down quartz, plagioclase, and orthoclase. Water level and temperature data are compared to seismicity during the logging interval; temperatures so far have diurnal fluctuations indicating

  13. Use of renewable sources of energy in Mexico case: San Antonio Agua Bendita

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Vera, J. )

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a project undertaken in Mexico to electrify the remote village of San Antonio Agua Bendita (SAAB) using a custom designed hybrid power system. The hybrid power system will provide grid quality electricity to this community which would otherwise not have been electrified via traditional distribution lines. The hybrid power system was designed to electrify the entire community, incorporate multiple sources of renewable power with on-demand power, operate autonomously, and be cost effective in dollars per watt of electricity generated over the system's usable life. A major factor in the success of this project is the use of renewable energy for economic development and community partnership. Many rural electrification projects have provided power for domestic use but few have successfully provided power to improve the economic condition of the people served by the system. The SAAB hybrid avoids this pitfall by providing 120 VAC power at 60 Hz to anticipated industrial loads in the village, as well as providing grid quality power for domestic use.

  14. Application of Radio Echo Sounding at the arid Andes of Argentina: the Agua Negra Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Juan Pablo; Maturano, Aníbal

    1999-10-01

    The results of ground-based Radio Echo Sounding (RES) of the Agua Negra Glacier of the arid Andes of Argentina are analyzed. The glacier (30°15'S, 69°50'W) extends from 5.200 to 4600 m in altitude, and presents a smooth and convex upward surface without evident crevasses. Most potential crevasses seem to be sealed by the high rate of melting-freezing due to extreme differences between positive (diurnal) and negative (night) energy peaks. Seismic methods suggest the existence of a thick unit of debris or altered rock at the base of the glacier. Higher than normal seismic velocities indicate a very compact ice system (ice+voids), very dense near the glacier terminus. An impulse transmitter of 12 MHz was used for the RES survey, with 4 m half-length antennas, and an antenna separation of 30 m. Three profiles were surveyed and isolated measurements were taken in addition, covering about a tenth of the total glacier surface. Very clear bottom echoes occurred in most cases, indicating a maximum ice thickness of 50 to 55 m and an ice volume beneath the surveyed area of 2.0×10 6 m 3. The total glacier volume is estimated as 10 times higher, representing an important water resource for this region. It is also possible that an older ice body lies beneath the debris that forms the present glacier base. The multistorey structure of local glaciers may be an inheritance of past glacial cycles, modulating the evolution of a complex glaciolithic system. These preliminary results, suggest the RES method works well on local glaciers, provided one take into account problems such as debris saturation, low-scale relief producing scattered echoes and low ice thickness. Its application should contribute to studies of the water reserves in this largely glacier-dependent arid region.

  15. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    PubMed

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  16. Investigating microbial diversity and UV radiation impact at the high-altitude Lake Aguas Calientes, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Lorena; Chong, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Farías, María Eugenia; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond; Minkley, Edwin, Jr.; Yu, Yeoungeob

    2007-09-01

    The High-Lakes Project is funded by the NAI and explores the highest perennial volcanic lakes on Earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several lakes ~6,000 m elevation. These lakes represent an opportunity to study the evolution of microbial organisms in relatively shallow waters not providing substantial protection against UV radiation. Aguas Calientes (5,870 m) was investigated (November 2006) and samples of water and sediment collected at 1, 3, 5, and 10 cm depth. An Eldonet UV dosimeter positioned on the shore records UV radiation and temperature, and is logging data year round. A UV SolarLight sensor allowed acquisition of point measurements in all channels at the time of the sampling. UVA, UVB, and PAR peaks between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm reached 7.7 mW/cm2, 48.5 μW/cm2, and 511 W/m2, respectively. The chemical composition of the water sample was analyzed. DNA was extracted and DGGE analyses with bacterial and archaeal 16S fragments were performed to describe microbial diversity. Antibiotic resistances were established previously in similar environments in Argentine Andean wetlands. In order to determine these resistances in our samples, they were inoculated onto LB and R2A media and onto R2A medium containing either chloramphenicol, ampicillin or tetracycline. Bacterial was higher than archeal cell number determined by RT-PCR in all the samples, reaching maximum total values of 5x10 5 cell mL-1. DGGE results from these samples and Licancabur summit lake (5,916 m) samples were also compared. Eight antibiotic-resistant Gram negative strains have been isolated with distinct resistance patterns.

  17. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  18. Chemical and physical parameters as trace markers of anthropogenic-induced salinity in the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhama Manteca, I.; Alhama, F.; Rodríguez Estrella, T.

    2012-11-01

    Agua Amarga coastal aquifer in southern Spain has been the subject of chemical and physical measurements since May 2008 in order to monitor the potential effects of water withdrawal for the Alicante desalination plants on the salt marsh linked to the aquifer. Electrical conductivity contour maps and depth profiles, piezometric-head contour maps, hydrochemical analyses, isotopic characterizations and temperature depth profiles show not only the saltwater intrusion caused by water abstraction, but also the presence of a pronounced convective density-driven flow below the salt marsh; this flow was a consequence of saltwork activity in the early 1900s which generated saline groundwater contamination. The influence of a seawater recharge programme, carried out over the salt marsh in 2009-2010, on the diminishing groundwater salinity and the recovery of groundwater levels is also studied. Based on collected field data, the project provides a deeper understanding of how these successive anthropogenic interventions have modified flow and mixing processes in Agua Amarga aquifer.

  19. Mid-late Holocene environments of Agua Buena locality (34°50'S 69°56'W), Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Diego; Mehl, A.; Zarate, M. A.; Paez, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    In southern South America the acquisition of high-quality Holocene paleoclimate data is a priority due to the paucity of complete, continuous and well dated records. Here we report preliminary results from a combined sedimentological and palynological study of an alluvial fan sequence and the laterally connected sedimentary deposits of the Vega de la Cueva profile at Agua Buena east of the Andes in central Argentina. The main geomorphological units of the area were identified and mapped based on satellite image analysis and multiple field surveys. The sedimentological and pollen results allowed us to reconstruct the development of some environments. The Agua Buena record corresponds to the distal facies of the Arroyo Bayo alluvial fan starting the aggradation process prior to ca. 4100 cal yr BP. The organic-rich levels found were formed during the development of wetlands (vegas) dominated by Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Poaceae. These highly productive environments with almost permanent water saturation were important between 4100 and 2800 cal yr BP, indicating more stable conditions. After 2800 cal yr BP, the organic content was comparatively lower with increasing sedimentation rates that are indicative of higher fluvial discharges. This information is fundamental to interpret both the pollen and charcoal records of the area and to evaluate their representativeness and potential to reconstruct past local and/or regional vegetation.

  20. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers.

  1. Amino acid epimerization dating of Quaternary coastal deformation in SE Iberian Peninsula: The region between Aguas and Antas Rivers' mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E.; Sánchez-Palencia, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    The coastal area between the mouths of the Aguas and Antas Rivers presents a deformed system of raised marine deposits, some of which have been strongly affected by active tectonics. The use of amino acid epimerization dating of Glycymeris shells from raised coastal deposits allowed determining the age of these marine deposits, all of them linked to highstand sea levels in the Mediterranean realm, with ages between MIS 11 and MIS 1. These results allowed corroborating the age of some previously studied sites, and using new sampling sites, the general aminostratigraphy for the Quaternary raised marine deposits on the Mediterranean coast was confirmed. The main deformation event took place after MIS 11 and continued until MIS 5, and was linked to the activity of the Palomares Fault.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  3. The Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera, NW Argentina: An example of a tectonically controlled, polygenetic collapse caldera, and its regional significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrinovic, I. A.; Martí, J.; Aguirre-Díaz, G. J.; Guzmán, S.; Geyer, A.; Paz, N. Salado

    2010-07-01

    Polygenetic, silicic collapse calderas are common in the central Andes. Here we describe in detail the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in NW Argentina, which comprises two caldera-forming episodes that occurred at 17.15 Ma and 10.3 Ma. We analyse the significance of its structural setting, composition, size and the subsidence style of both caldera episodes. We find that the caldera eruptions had a tectonic trigger. In both cases, an homogeneous dacitic crystal-rich (>60 vol.% of crystals) reservoir of batholithic size became unstable due to the effect of increasing regional transpression, which favoured local dilation through minor strike-slip faults from which ring faults nucleated and permitted caldera collapse. Both calderas are similar in shape, location and products. The 17.15 Ma caldera has an elliptical shape (17 × 14 km) elongated in a N30° trend; both intracaldera and extracaldera ignimbrites covered an area of around 620 km 2 with a minimum volume estimate of 140 km 3 (DRE). The 10.3 Ma episode generated another elliptical caldera (19 × 14 km), with the same orientation as the previous one, from which intracaldera and outflow ignimbrites covered a total area of about 1700 km 2, representing a minimum eruption volume of 350 km 3(DRE). In this paper we discuss the significance of the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in comparison with other well known examples from the central Andes in terms of tectonic setting, eruption mechanisms, and volumes of related ignimbrites. We suggest that our kinematic model is a common volcano-tectonic scenario during the Cenozoic in the Puna and Altiplano, which may be applied to explain the origin of other large calderas in the same region.

  4. The Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera, NW Argentina: an example of a tectonically controlled, polygenetic, collapse caldera, and its regional significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrinovic, Ivan A.; Martí, Joan; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J.; Guzmán, Silvina R.; Geyer, Adelina; Grosse, Pablo; Salado Paz, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    Polygenetic, silicic collapse calderas such as Cerro Galán, Pastos Grandes, La Pacana, Vilama, Negra Muerta, Farallón Negro, Cerro Guacha, among others are common in the central Andes. Here we describe in detail the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in NW Argentina, which comprises two caldera-forming episodes occurred at 17.15 Ma and 10.3 Ma, respectively. We analyse the significance of its structural setting, composition, size and the subsidence style of both caldera episodes. Our results reveal that the caldera eruptions had a tectonic trigger. In both cases, an homogeneous dacitic crystal-rich (>60 vol. % of crystals) reservoir of batholitic size became unstable due to the effect of increasing regional transpression, favouring local dilation throughout minor strike slip faults from which ring faults nucleated and permitted caldera collapse. Both episodes are similar in shape, location and products of the resulting calderas. The 17.15 Ma caldera has an elliptical shape (17 × 14 km) and is elongated in a N30° trend; both intracaldera and extracaldera ignimbrites covered an area of around 620 km2 with a minimum volume estimate of 138 km3 (DRE). The 10.3 Ma episode generated another elliptical caldera (19 ×14 km), with the same orientation as the previous one, from which intracaldera and outflow ignimbrites covered a total area of about 1,700 km2, representing a minimum eruption volume of 341 km3 (DRE). In this work we discuss the significance of the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in comparison with other well known examples from the central Andes in terms of tectonic setting, eruption mechanisms, and volumes of related ignimbrites. We suggest that our kinematic model is a common volcano-tectonic scenario during the Cenozoic in the Puna and Altiplano, which may be applied to explain the origin of other large calderas in the same region.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of 'agua celeste' use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-09-01

    Agua celeste, or "heavenly water", is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of agua celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs≥18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14-23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8h per day, and younger age. We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. aguA, the gene encoding an extracellular alpha-glucuronidase from Aspergillus tubingensis, is specifically induced on xylose and not on glucuronic acid.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R P; Poulsen, C H; Madrid, S; Visser, J

    1998-01-01

    An extracellular alpha-glucuronidase was purified and characterized from a commercial Aspergillus preparation and from culture filtrate of Aspergillus tubingensis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 107 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 112 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry, has a determined pI just below 5.2, and is stable at pH 6.0 for prolonged times. The pH optimum for the enzyme is between 4.5 and 6.0, and the temperature optimum is 70 degrees C. The alpha-glucuronidase is active mainly on small substituted xylo-oligomers but is also able to release a small amount of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid from birchwood xylan. The enzyme acts synergistically with endoxylanases and beta-xylosidase in the hydrolysis of xylan. The enzyme is N glycosylated and contains 14 putative N-glycosylation sites. The gene encoding this alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) was cloned from A. tubingensis. It consists of an open reading frame of 2,523 bp and contains no introns. The gene codes for a protein of 841 amino acids, containing a eukaryotic signal sequence of 20 amino acids. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 91,790 Da and a calculated pI of 5.13. Multiple copies of the gene were introduced in A. tubingensis, and expression was studied in a highly overproducing transformant. The aguA gene was expressed on xylose, xylobiose, and xylan, similarly to genes encoding endoxylanases, suggesting a coordinate regulation of expression of xylanases and alpha-glucuronidase. Glucuronic acid did not induce the expression of aguA and also did not modulate the expression on xylose. Addition of glucose prevented expression of aguA on xylan but only reduced the expression on xylose.

  7. aguA, the Gene Encoding an Extracellular α-Glucuronidase from Aspergillus tubingensis, Is Specifically Induced on Xylose and Not on Glucuronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Poulsen, Charlotte H.; Madrid, Susan; Visser, Jaap

    1998-01-01

    An extracellular α-glucuronidase was purified and characterized from a commercial Aspergillus preparation and from culture filtrate of Aspergillus tubingensis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 107 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 112 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry, has a determined pI just below 5.2, and is stable at pH 6.0 for prolonged times. The pH optimum for the enzyme is between 4.5 and 6.0, and the temperature optimum is 70°C. The α-glucuronidase is active mainly on small substituted xylo-oligomers but is also able to release a small amount of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid from birchwood xylan. The enzyme acts synergistically with endoxylanases and β-xylosidase in the hydrolysis of xylan. The enzyme is N glycosylated and contains 14 putative N-glycosylation sites. The gene encoding this α-glucuronidase (aguA) was cloned from A. tubingensis. It consists of an open reading frame of 2,523 bp and contains no introns. The gene codes for a protein of 841 amino acids, containing a eukaryotic signal sequence of 20 amino acids. The mature protein has a predicted molecular mass of 91,790 Da and a calculated pI of 5.13. Multiple copies of the gene were introduced in A. tubingensis, and expression was studied in a highly overproducing transformant. The aguA gene was expressed on xylose, xylobiose, and xylan, similarly to genes encoding endoxylanases, suggesting a coordinate regulation of expression of xylanases and α-glucuronidase. Glucuronic acid did not induce the expression of aguA and also did not modulate the expression on xylose. Addition of glucose prevented expression of aguA on xylan but only reduced the expression on xylose. PMID:9440512

  8. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  9. Integrated measures for preservation, restoration and improvement of the environmental conditions of the Lagoon Olho d'Agua basin.

    PubMed

    Florencio, L; Kato, M T; de Lima, E S

    2001-06-01

    The Lagoon Olho d'Agua in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil has received increasing environmental concern due to significant stress from pollution in the catchment. The existing environmental problems are the result of great pressure from a broad range of human activities, especially in the last 10 years. Serious pollution exists mainly from some industrial and urban activities, which increased intensively after the eighties. There is a strong social and economical pressure for housing and construction near the lagoon, due to the available land nearby beaches and estuarine zone, and recently by growing tourism activities. Uncontrolled land use by low-income communities and the pressure for construction by developers have led to landfilling and to deterioration of water quality in the lagoon catchment. Improvement of the environmental conditions in the catchment needs integrated measures. Guidelines and some specific actions involving several institutions have been established and refer to sanitation and urban infrastructure as the main priorities. A main target is the construction of low-cost sewage system with smaller and decentralised treatment plants.

  10. Commission Review of a Proposal by the Santa Clarita Community College District To Establish the Canyon Country Educational Center. Commission Report 04-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the Commission considers a proposal by the Santa Clara Community College District to establish an educational center in the community of Canyon Country. The district was created in 1968 when the communities of Valencia, Newhall, Canyon Country, Agua Dulce, and Val Verde voted overwhelmingly for its establishment. It serves a…

  11. An Eco-hydrologic Assessment of Small Experimental Catchments with Various Land Uses within the Panama Canal Watershed: Agua Salud Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to water management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One of the project’s main objectives is to understand how reforestation effects seasonal stream flows. To meet this objective, a baseline characterization of hydrology on the small catchment scale is being assessed across different land uses typical in rural Panama. The small experimental catchments are found within Panama’s protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all of which are part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The land uses being monitored include a variety of control catchments as well as treated pasture sites. The catchments used for this study include a mature old regrowth forest, a 50% deforested or mosaic regrowth site, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site (saccharum spontaneum) as experimental controls and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. Installed instrumentation includes a network of rain gauges, v-notched weirs, atmometers, an eddy covariance system and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across these six geologically and topographically similar catchments are available from 2009 and 2010. Classic water balance and paired catchment techniques were used to compare the catchments on an annual, seasonal, and event basis. This study sets the stage for hydrologic modeling and for better understanding the effects of vegetation and land-use history on rainfall-runoff processes for the Agua Salud Project and Panama Canal

  12. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  13. Middle Pleistocene to Holocene geochronology of the River Aguas terrace sequence (Iberian Peninsula): Fluvial response to Mediterranean environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Lothar; Julià, Ramon; Burjachs, Francesc; Hilgers, Alexandra

    2008-06-01

    Our results from the River Aguas basin suggest that fluvial archives, travertine and slope deposits provide sensitive resolution records of environmental changes during the last 170 kyr. From the chronostratigraphic data sets we have established a model of middle and late Pleistocene river response for littoral basins on the southern Iberian Peninsula. U/Th and OSL dating indicate the major periods of travertine formation of the Alfaix travertine platform, which range from 169 to 26 kyr. At least four incision events interrupted this aggradation period: between 167 and 148 kyr, between 148 and 110 kyr, around 95 kyr and at 71 kyr. Aggradation ceased after 26 kyr and incision occurred during OIS 2. Subsequently, the terraces T4a and T4b were deposited. OSL dating of the T4a channel deposit provides maximum ages of 28, 20 and 18 kyr. However, short climatic events, such as the Younger Dryas, produced two more river incision episodes during OIS 2. Nonetheless, for river systems influenced by tectonics, climate and sea-level changes it is difficult to assess the weight of each controlling factor. Regarding the three mechanisms of Pleistocene river dynamics in middle-size catchment areas of the littoral region of southeastern Spain, our results support the hypothesis that large scale tectonics triggered the general downcutting trend, whereas the main aggradation and incision phases occurred during periods of major sea-level changes. Over short-time scales the influence of climate variability, as documented by pollen records, plays a decisive role. Thus, the river responses to the three cyclic mechanisms operate at different time scales although synergetic processes should be considered with respect to the magnitude of abrupt incision/aggradation events.

  14. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    PubMed

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  15. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  16. Geochemical Redox Indices and microfacies of the Cenomanian-Turonian Agua Nueva/Eagle Ford Fm, Mexico, Evidence for Anoxia Related to OAE2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurrasse, F. J.; Sanchez-hernandez, Y.; Blanco, A.

    2013-05-01

    Widespread occurrence of black, C-organic-rich sediments within the time of the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary attests to the occurrence of a major global event affecting the carbon cycle coined OAE 2. Intense carbon sequestration in sediments associated with the development of anoxic waters in the deep-ocean and epicontinental seas also led to enhanced export of trace elements as organo-metallic compounds, hence their subsequent enrichment in oxygen-deficient to anoxic sediments. In some areas, stratification of the water column coupled with controlling local factors affected microbial productivity leading to TOC-enriched sediments developed under suboxic/anoxic conditions, in others microbial communities led to high TOC values. We integrate geochemical redox indicators and microfacies characterization to assess oxygenic conditions in the Cenomanian-Turonian C-org-rich deposit of the Agua Nueva Formation and the coeval Eagle Ford Fm/ Boquillas Fm. We studied laminated samples of the Agua Nueva from Xilitla, San Luis Potosi State; San Eugenio (type locality of the Formation), Tamaulipas State; and the Eagle Ford at Quarry Los Temporales, northern Coahuila State). Microfacies at all localities reveal the prevalence of coccoid cyanobacteria, some filamentous morphotypes and degraded shell fragments, as the primary components, regardless of TOC values. Planktonic foraminifera constitute 15 to 20 % of the microfossils reaching highest abundance at Los Temporales, including macro-organisms (crustaceans). Absence of benthic foraminifera, and parallel alignment of all components attest to the absence of bioturbation, thus oxygen-deficient bottom waters. Eagle Ford samples are low in TOC, whereas the Agua Nueva samples are enriched in OM as brown amorphous macerals with bacterial coccospheres in lamination attributed to sustained microbial blooms. TE concentrations (V, Ni, U) and redox indices (V/(V+Ni), Ni/Co, V/Cr and U/Th) from the three localities confirm that these

  17. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  18. Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

    2013-05-01

    We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org < 1.0wt%), with occasional brown shale and green bentonite layers. Well-preserved fossil-fish assemblages occur in the laminated dark limestone beds, which include shark teeth (cf. Ptychodus), scales of teleosteans (Ichthyodectiformes), as well as skeletal remains of holosteans (Nursallia. sp), and teleosteans (cf. Rhynchodercetis, Tselfatia, and unidentified Enchodontids). Thin section and SEM analyses of the laminated, dark limestones, reveal a micritic matrix consisting of dark and light sub-parallel wavy laminae, continuous and discontinuous folded laminae with shreds of organic matter, filaments, oncoids, and interlocking structures. The structures are identical to those previously described for the Cenomanian-Turonian Indidura Fm at Parras de la Fuente (Coahuila state) demonstrated to be of microbial origin (Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish

  19. Benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Aalenian-Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) boundary in the Barranco de Agua Larga section (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sílvia; Canales, María Luisa; Sandoval, José; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the benthic foraminiferal assemblages recorded across the Aalenian - Bajocian boundary in the Barranco de Agua Larga section (Betic Cordillera, SE of Spain), where the ammonite record has enabled the recognition of the Gigantea Subzone in the Bradfordensis Zone (Middle Aalenian), the Concavum and Limitatum subzones in the Concavum Zone (Upper Aalenian) and the Discites Zone (Lower Bajocian). This reference section is characterized by an alternation of limestones and marly limestones corresponding to distal marine environmental conditions, where a total of 17 samples have been collected. They have provided abundant and diverse foraminiferal assemblages, constituted by well-preserved specimens displaying close similarities to those already described for the Jurassic carbonate platforms of the Boreal Realm. From the study of the samples, a total of 3139 specimens have been obtained, corresponding to 5 suborders, 11 families, 25 genus and 80 species. The representatives of the Suborder Lagenina are the most abundant, Vaginulinidae is the most abundant family and Lenticulina is the most abundant genus. From a specific level, the most abundant species are Thurammina jurensis (Franke), Lenticulina muensteri (Roemer) and Prodentalina pseudocommunis (Franke). The occurrence of Astacolus dorbignyi (Roemer) in the Gigantea Subzone has enabled the recognition of the Astacolus dorbignyi Zone. The first occurrence of Lenticulina quenstedti (Gümbel) in the Concavum Subzone has allowed the recognition of the Lenticulina quenstedti Zone. In Barranco de Agua Larga section this species co-occur with Ramulina spandeli Paalzow, the index fossil used in the establishment of the Ramulina spandeli Zone. This zone was defined in the lower part of the Discites Zone in the Murtinheira section (the Bajocian GSSP) and related to distal platform conditions. In the Iberian Basin the Ramulina spandeli Zone was recognized in the Hontoria del Pinar section, but not in the

  20. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future.

  1. Serologic survey of infectious diseases in populations of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from Aguas Emendadas Ecological Station, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila M; Silva, Jean C R; Galera, Paula D; Lion, Marília B; Marinho-Filho, Jader S; Ragozo, Alessandra Mara Alves; Gennari, Solange Maria; Dubey, J P; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Pinheiro, José Wilton; Santana, Vânia Lúcia de Assis; França, Gilvan L; Rodrigues, Flávio H G

    2013-03-01

    Domestic dogs are reservoirs for many infectious diseases and may represent a potential source of infection for wild canid populations. A serologic investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, and Leptospira spp. was conducted on three maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and seven crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), all free-living, at the Aguas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE), Federal District, Brazil, between February and October 2006. Out of the 10 samples analyzed, eight (80%) were seropositive for T. gondii: 3/3 (100%) of the maned wolves and 5/7 (71.4%) of the crab-eating foxes. None of the animals presented anti-N. caninum, B. abortus, and Leptospira spp. antibodies. This study demonstrated that the wild canid populations at ESECAE presented high exposure to T. gondii and indicated that there is high environmental contamination at the Station, which can be attributed to its proximity to urban zones, the presence of domestic cats in the study area, or the existence of other wild infected felines.

  2. A late Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction from Agua Caliente, southern Belize, linked to regional climate variability and cultural change at the Maya polity of Uxbenká

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Prufer, Keith M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-07-01

    We report high-resolution macroscopic charcoal, pollen and sedimentological data for Agua Caliente, a freshwater lagoon located in southern Belize, and infer a late Holocene record of human land-use/climate interactions for the nearby prehistoric Maya center of Uxbenká. Land-use activities spanning the initial clearance of forests for agriculture through the drought-linked Maya collapse and continuing into the historic recolonization of the region are all reflected in the record. Human land alteration in association with swidden agriculture is evident early in the record during the Middle Preclassic starting ca. 2600 cal yr BP. Fire slowly tapered off during the Late and Terminal Classic, consistent with the gradual political demise and depopulation of the Uxbenká polity sometime between ca. 1150 and 950 cal yr BP, during a period of multiple droughts evident in a nearby speleothem record. Fire activity was at its lowest during the Maya Postclassic ca. 950-430 cal yr BP, but rose consistent with increasing recolonization of the region between ca. 430 cal yr BP and present. These data suggest that this environmental record provides both a proxy for 2800 years of cultural change, including colonization, growth, decline, and reorganization of regional populations, and an independent confirmation of recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the same region.

  3. Quantifying Hydrological Ecosystem Services of Various Land Covers and Uses on Small Experimental Catchments within the Panama Canal Watershed: The Agua Salud Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Agua Salud Project

    2011-12-01

    As a part of the Agua Salud Project, a baseline characterization of hydrologic processes on the small catchment scale (~0.24 to 2.0 km2) is assessed across different land uses and covers typical to rural Panama. The land covers being monitored include a mature secondary forest, a disturbed catchment with a mosaic of various aged secondary growth and agricultural use, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site as experimental controls, and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. The catchments are found within Panama's protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Using hydrological data from the first two and a half years of the project, three main ecosystem services are observed. The forested area exhibited lower storm event peaks, decreased flashiness, and greater stream flow during the dry season compared to the disturbed mosaic site. Lower hydrograph peaks and flashiness mitigate the risk of substantial flood damage during the major flood events generally seen in Panama between October and December. The mature forest (1.35 km2) catchment has shown lower average flood peaks in comparison to the disturbed site. For storm peaks less than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are on average 51% lower. For storm peaks greater than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are approximately 40% lower. In 1998, draft restrictions were imposed in the Panama Canal because of a deficit of dry season water after an El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulted in decreased wet season rainfall. The water that is available during the end of the dry season has the potential to insure the full operation of the Canal during El Niño drought years. Toward the end of the dry season (March through May) our data shows that roughly 34% more water was available during a relatively dry year with respect to antecedent wet season rainfall

  4. Cyanobacteria/Foraminifera Association from Anoxic/Dysoxic Beds of the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous - Cenomanian/Turonian) at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Piñón, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Rojas-León, A.; Duque-Botero, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Agua Nueva Formation in the vicinity of Xilitla, State of San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico, consists of interbedded brown shale (Grayish orange 10YR 7/4 to Moderate yellowish brown 10YR 5/4) and dark-gray fossiliferous limestone (Bluish gray 5B 6/1 to Dark bluish gray 5B 4/1), varying between 10 and 20 cm in thickness. The sequence also includes 2 to 4 cm- thick intermittent bentonite layers (Moderate greenish yellow 10Y 7/4, to dark greenish yellow 10Y 6/6 and Light olive 10Y 5/4). At the field scale, shaly intervals show no apparent internal structures, whereas most limestone beds show primary lamination at the millimeter scale (1-2 mm), and intermittent layers of black chert of about 5 cm thick. Pyrite is present as disseminated crystals and as 2 cm-thick layers. Bioturbation or macrobenthic organisms other than inoceramids do not occur in the Agua Nueva Formation at Xilitla. Unusual macrofossils are present only in limestone strata, and consist of well- preserved diverse genera of fishes such as sharks, Ptychodus sp. and teleosteans, Rhynchodercetis sp., Tselfatia sp., Goulmimichthys sp., and scales of Ichtyodectiformes, as well as ammonites and inoceramids (Blanco et al., 2006). The presence of Inoceramus (Mytyloides) labiatus (Maldonado-Koederll, 1956) indicates an Early Turonian age for the sequence. Total carbonate content (CaCO3 = TIC) varies between 62 and 94% in the Limestone beds, which yield Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from 0.4% to 2.5%; the shale intervals contain TIC values consistently lower than 33% and TOC lower than 0.8% Microscopically the limestone beds vary from mudstone to packstone composed essentially of coccoid cyanobacteria similar to coeval deposits in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, at Parras de La Fuente (Duque- Botero 2006). Similarly, the microspheroids are spherical to sub-spherical, and occur as isolated elements or aggregates forming series of chains of parallel-packed light lamina 1-2 mm thick. Filamentous cyanobacteria

  5. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  6. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  7. Geology, geochemistry, geochronology, and economic potential of Neogene volcanic rocks in the Laguna Pedernal and Salar de Aguas Calientes segments of the Archibarca lineament, northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, J. P.; Jourdan, F.; Creaser, R. A.; Maldonado, G.; DuFrane, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study presents new geochemical, geochronological, isotopic, and mineralogical data, combined with new geological mapping for a 2400 km2 area of Neogene volcanic rocks in northwestern Argentina near the border with Chile, between 25°10‧S and 25°45‧S. The area covers the zone of intersection between the main axis of the Cordillera Occidental and a set of NW-SE-trending structures that form part of the transverse Archibarca lineament. This lineament has localized major ore deposits in Chile (e.g., the late Eocene La Escondida porphyry Cu deposit) and large volcanic centers such as the active Llullaillaco and Lastarría volcanoes on the border between Chile and Argentina, and the Neogene Archibarca, Antofalla, and Cerro Galán volcanoes in Argentina. Neogene volcanic rocks in the Laguna Pedernal and Salar de Aguas Calientes areas are mostly high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and range from basaltic andesites, through andesites and dacites, to rhyolites. Magmatic temperatures and oxidation states, estimated from mineral compositions, range from ~ 1000 °C and ∆FMQ ≈ 1.0-1.5 in andesites, to ~ 850 °C and ∆FMQ ≈ 1.5-2.0 in dacites and rhyolites. The oldest rocks consist of early-middle Miocene andesite-dacite plagioclase-pyroxene-phyric lava flows and ignimbrites, with 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 17.14 ± 0.10 Ma to 11.76 ± 0.27 Ma. Their major and trace element compositions are typical of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone, and show strong crustal contamination trends for highly incompatible elements such as Cs, Rb, Th, and U. These rocks are geochemically grouped as sub-suite 1. This widespread intermediate composition volcanism was followed in the middle-late Miocene by a period of more focused rhyodacitic flow-dome complex formation. These felsic rocks are characterized by less extreme enrichments in highly incompatible elements, and increasing depletion of heavy rare earth elements. These rocks are geochemically grouped as sub-suite 2. The

  8. Characterisation of the sedimentary processes responsible for the filling and excavation of two intra mountainous basins (Agua Amarga and Collon Cura) in the Andes of Neuquén (Argentina) during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnel, C.; Huyghe, D.; Nivière, B.; Messager, G.; Dhont, D.; Fasentieux, B.; Hervouët, Y.; Xavier, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Intramontane basins constitute potential good recorders of orogenic systems deformation history through the documentation of their remnant sedimentary filling and observation of syntectonic growth strata. In this work, we focus on the Neuquén basin, located on the eastern flank of the Andes between 32°S and 41°S latitude. It has been structured since the late Triassic, first as back arc basin and as compressive foreland basin since the upper Cretaceous. Most of the sedimentary filling is composed of Mesozoic sediments, which have been importantly studied because of their hydrocarbon potential. On the contrary, Cenozoic tectonic and sedimentologic evolutions remain poorly documented in regard to the Mesozoic. The structural inheritance is very important and strongly influences the deformation and shortening rates from the North to the South of the basin. Thus, the northern part exhibits a classical configuration from the western high Andes, to younger fold and thrust belts and piggy-back basins to the East. On the contrary, no fold and thrust belt exist in the southern part of the basin and the deformation is restricted to the internal domain. Nevertheless, contemporaneous intramontane basins (the Agua Amarga to the North and the Collon Cura basin to the South) existed in these two parts of the basin and seem to have followed a similar evolution despite of a different structural context. To the North, the partial closing of the Agua Amarga basin by the growth of the Chuihuidos anticlines during the Miocene is characterised by the deposition of a fining upward continental sequence of ~250 m thick, from lacustrine environment at the base to alluvial and fluviatile environments in the upper part of the section. In the Collon Cura, the sedimentary filling, due to the rising of the Piedra del Aguila basement massif, reach at maximum 500 m and consist in fluvial tuffaceous material in the lower part to paleosoils and coarse conglomeratic fluvial deposits in the upper

  9. Posible origen del agua terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R. B.; Brunini, A.

    The most plausible sources of the terrestrial water are found in the main external asteroid belt, the giant planetary region and in the Kuiper belt, because of its great presence of ices. However, the timing of earth planets's formation (108 years) marks an inferior limit for the dynamical lifetime of the objects of interest since the previous megaimpacts would volatilize the icy material previusly accreted. The central parameter that allow us to rebuild the origin of water in the solar system is the rate of the Deuterium/Hydrogen isotope (D/H). The D/H measured in three comets has an average value two times greater that the value measured in the terrestrial oceans. Morbidelli et al. support that the main part of the present buldge of water on earth was product of the accretion, in the last formation stages, of some planetary embryos originally formed in the external asteroid belt. In the Jupiter zone, the D/H could be of the order of the terrestrial value. Then, we would have there posible sources with an apropiate isotopic composition that have survived for several 108 years. These sources are: the Troyan asteroids, objects in the Jupiter-Saturn region and objects in the external limit of the asteroidal belt. As for this last group we have considered in this work, the Hilda Family asteroids. The Hilda Family asteroids are placed in the 3/2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. From the present distribution of the Hilda's orbital parameters, we generate randomly, inicial conditions for 500 massless particles in the Hildas region. Trough numerical simulations we follow their dynamical evolution during 500 millon years and its final state. The mayority of these particles are eyected out of the Solar System (76 %) due to the gravitational action of Jupiter and only a 24 % stay in the resonance zone. The 8.1 % of the particles that leave the resonance, hit Jupiter. Some objects have encounters with the terrestrial planets. From the number of encounters with each planet, we obtain the number of colisions and the total mass that impact with those planets. Assuming a primordial population of 108 objects in the Hildas zone, the mass that colide with Venus, the Earth and Mars is 4.6x1016 kg., 6.9x1016 kg. y 2.4x1016 kg. respectively. The total mass of water present on Earth is 3x1020 kg., much greater than the quantity provided by the hildas. So, this population wouldn't be the main responsable for the water in the terrestrial planets.

  10. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is

  11. Ripening of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Guamúchil] Fruit: Physicochemical, Chemical and Antioxidant Changes.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe F; López-Díaz, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 (o)Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %). Carotenoids were not detected and chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound. Maximal availability of these bioactives per ripening stage (p ≤ 0.03) was as follows: I (protein/ lipids/ sucrose/ proanthocyanidins/ hydrolysable phenolics), II (total sugars/ascorbic acid), III (total phenolics), IV (flavonoids/ chlorogenic acid) and VI (fructose/ glucose/ anthocyanins). Color change was explained by sucrose (β = 0.47) and anthocyanin (β = 0.20) contents (p < 0.001). Radical scavenging capacity (ORAC, DPPH and TEAC) strongly correlated with total PC (r = 0.49-0.65, p ≤ 0.001) but 89 % of ORAC's associated variance was explained by anthocyanin + sucrose + ascorbic acid (p ≤ 0.0001). Guamúchil fruit could be a more convenient source of specific bioactive compounds if harvested at different ripening stages.

  12. Physical Measurements of Water Properties Across the Mouth of the Gulf of California during April 2013 (PESCAR24 Cruise) (Mediciones Fisicas de las Propiedades del Agua a Traves de la Boca del Golfo de California Durante Abril de 2013 (Crucero PESCAR24)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-26

    ningún datos del CTD disponible en el lance de subida para la estación 11, se utilizó información del Sistema de Adquisición de Datos en Curso (UDAS... sistema de adquisición de datos MK21 con su hardware asociado, los cuales también fueron adquiridos de Lockheed Martin Sippican. La lista de... sistema de agua de mar no contaminada desde un receptáculo situado junto a la quilla del barco, a unos tres metros bajo la superficie. Estos datos

  13. An analysis of rate-sensitive skin in gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, D.N.; Schell, E.J.

    1983-10-01

    This paper documents the analysis of rate dependent skin in a gas well. Three build-up tests and an isochronal test are analyzed in some detail. The results indicate the rate dependent skin is due to nondarcy flow near the wellbore. Evidence is presented that suggest the non-darcy flow results from calcium carbonate scale partially plugging the perforations. Also, the summary of a pressure build-up study is included on the wells recently drilled in Champlin's Stratton-Agua Dulce Field.

  14. Analysis of rate-sensitive skin in gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, D.N.; Schell, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study documents the analysis of rate dependent skin in a gas well. Three build-up tests and an isochronal test are analyzed in some detail. The results indicate the rate dependent skin is due to non-Darcy flow near the well bore. Evidence is presented that suggest the non-Darcy flow results from calcium carbonate scale partially plugging the perforations. Also, the summary of a pressure build-up study is included on the wells recently drilled in Champlin's Stratton-Agua Dulce field.

  15. Agua Arriba--Up the Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Migratory Child Div.

    Designed for migratory agricultural workers whose children attended Florida schools during the winter, this directory lists and describes summer educational programs outside the state of Florida. The programs are said to provide trained teachers and other personnel, planned recreational and vocational training, and enrichment programs designed for…

  16. Aguas!: An Introduction to Hispanic Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Johnny

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the number of Hispanic children in schools is growing. Presents an annotated bibliography of 46 Hispanic plays, sources of information, and organizations dealing with Hispanic themes and ideas. (PA)

  17. Aguas!: An Introduction to Hispanic Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Johnny

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the number of Hispanic children in schools is growing. Presents an annotated bibliography of 46 Hispanic plays, sources of information, and organizations dealing with Hispanic themes and ideas. (PA)

  18. Agua Arriba--Up the Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Migratory Child Div.

    Designed for migratory agricultural workers whose children attended Florida schools during the winter, this directory lists and describes summer educational programs outside the state of Florida. The programs are said to provide trained teachers and other personnel, planned recreational and vocational training, and enrichment programs designed for…

  19. Fluvial architecture and reservoir compartmentalization in the Oligocene middle Frio Formation of south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Seeligson, Stratton, and Agua Dulce fields are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to develop and test methodologies and technologies for gas reserve growth in conventional reservoirs in mature gas fields. Over the last four decades, each field has produced approximately 2 tcf of gas from middle Frio reservoirs alone. Recent drilling and workover results and reservoir pressure data, however, point to the possibility of additional reserves. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies based on well logs and cores indicate that middle Frio reservoirs are architecturally complex. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a continuum of architectural styles that has important implications for reservoir compartmentalization. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Relatively slow aggradation resulted in laterally stacked channel systems; whereas more rapid aggradation resulted in vertically stacked channel systems. Laterally stacked sandstone bodies predominate at Seeligson field, leading to separate but potentially leaky reservoir compartments. By contrast, vertically stacked sandstone bodies predominate at Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, favoring more isolated reservoir compartments. Thus, a high potential for reserve growth through the identification of untapped compartments, poorly drained acreage, and bypassed zones exists for each of these fields, but differences in reservoir architecture must be taken into account as part of exploitation strategies.

  20. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted technology applications for in-field reserve growth. Annual report, August 1988-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Guevara, E.H.; Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Langford, R.P.

    1990-01-15

    Activities during the year comprised screening and selection of gas fields for detailed studies; integrated geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and engineering analyses of the fields selected; and data acquisition in cooperative wells. A comprehensive workplan was prepared, and a methodology for geological and engineering screening of sandstone reservoirs was developed and applied to leading candidate fields. Contacts made with field operators resulted in active participation of Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Inc., and Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc. Lake Creek, Seeligson, McAllen Ranch, and Stratton-Agua Dulce fields were selected for study. These fields are representative of a spectrum of depositional systems and reservoir heterogeneities in highly productive gas reservoirs in the Texas coastal plain. Producing intervals are fluvial Frio reservoirs in Seeligson and Stratton-Agua Dulce fields, deltaic Vicksburg reservoirs in McAllen Ranch field, and deltaic Wilcox reservoirs in Lake Creek field. New data, comprising cores, open- and cased-hole logs, vertical seismic profiles, and sequential formation-pressure tests, were acquired in two wells in Seeligson field and in one well in McAllen Ranch field. Results to date suggest that reservoir heterogeneity can be defined using integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering data.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of a flavonoid isolated from celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Daihui; Xie, Jingli; Xu, Xueshu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, a flavonoid was separated and purified from celery leaf through ethanol extraction, column chromatography and crystallization. The product was identified as apiin by LC/ESI-MS, and its antioxidant activities were evaluated in vitro, including by 1,1-diphenl-2-picrylhyrazyl free radical (DPPH˙), superoxide radical (O2(-)˙) and hydroxyl radical (OH˙) scavenging assays. IC50 values were 68.0 μg ml(-1) in the DPPH assay, 0.39 mg ml(-1) in the O2(-)˙ assay and 48.0 μg ml(-1) in the OH˙ assay. The antioxidant activities were investigated in vivo with the use of mice models. All data were measured including the contents of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and lipofuscin (LPF), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), in the serum, brain, heart, liver and kidney. Results showed that apiin had a remarkable scavenging activity on MDA and LPF, promoted TAOC and significantly enhanced the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT.

  2. Light exposure inhibiting tissue browning and improving antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Lim, Loong-Tak; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Shao, Jianfeng

    2013-12-01

    Fresh-cut celery is perishable and susceptible to tissue browning during storage. In this study, the effect of continuous light exposure (2000 lux) on browning related enzyme activity of fresh-cut celery was investigated during 8d storage at 7 °C using darkness (0.2 lux) as control. Light exposure significantly suppressed polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and subsequently decreased soluble quinone accumulation and browning index (BI) evolution during storage. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity (AC) values were all higher when the fresh-cut celery samples were exposed to light than in darkness during storage. A significant positive correlation between TP and AC was observed at both light (R=0.884, P<0.01) and dark (R=0.705, P<0.01) conditions.

  3. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    ée de canal de marée est étudiée. L'évolution hydrochimique de la lentille d'eau douce est reconstituée, révélant que les principales réactions chimiques sont l'échange de cations, la dissolution de calcite et l'oxydation de matières organiques. La formation et l'évolution de la lentille d'eau douce sont modélisées en recourant à un modèle en deux dimensions de transport de soluté dépendant de la densité la sensibilité au drainage et les conductivités sont étudiées. Le niveau du drainage influence surtout la profondeur de la lentille d'eau douce, alors que le temps de formation de la lentille est surtout influencé par la conductivité. Resumen. La distribución de las aguas dulces y salinas en acuíferos costeros está influenciada por muchos procesos. Se ilustra la influencia de la heterogeneidad del medio y de la interferencia humana mediante acciones tales como la recuperación de terrenos en la llanura costera belga, donde, hacia el año 1200 D.C., se aprovechó un medio sometido a fluctuaciones mareales. La salinidad del acuífero, que fue invadido por agua salada, está siendo rebajada desde entonces. La distribución espacial de turba, arcilla, limo y arena influencia el flujo general y la distribución de agua dulce y salina, además de afectar el esquema de drenaje, y origina el desarrollo de lentejones de agua dulce. Se inspecciona la calidad del agua en y en torno a los lentejones de agua dulce bajo la cresta de un canal mareal invertido. Se reconstruye la evolución hidroquímica de los lentejones de agua dulce, proponiendo como reacciones principales el intercambio catiónico, la disolución de calcita y la oxidación de materia orgánica. Se modela la formación y evolución de los lentejones mediante un modelo bidimensional de transporte con densidad variable, y se estudia la sensibilidad del drenaje y de las conductividades. El nivel de drenaje influencia sobretodo la profundidad de los lentejones de agua dulce, mientras el tiempo

  4. Abundance, breeding and growth of Callinectes arcuatus Ordway and Callinectes toxotes Ordway (Decapoda, brachyura, portunidae) in a lagoon system on the Mexican Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. K. G.

    1982-01-01

    Regular sampling during 1975-1976 showed that Callinectes arcuatus was seasonally abundant, maximum biomass occurring between February and May, and that C. toxotes was relatively scarce. Both species occurred in higher densities in the canals and esteros than in the open lagoons and distribution appeared related to water depth, substrate type and turbidity. Female C. arcuatus dominated in Estero Agua Dulce at the seaward end of Caimanero and, between March and August, they emigrated to the sea to spawn, followed by the males. Recruitment of juvenile crabs occurred between January and May each year and growth rates of 5-11 mm month -1 were obtained for C. arcuatus of different sizes. Recommendations for a future fishery are given.

  5. "Un trago dulce pero adentro con sabor amargo" (A Bittersweet Swallow): Constructing Counterspaces to Explore Undocumented Status across Academic, Family, and Community Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Obed; Flores, Sofia; Gallo, Sarah; Lara, María; Link, Holly; Arreguín, Diana; Peregrina, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In this article a group of seven Latina/o immigrants, parents, advocates, and ethnographers draw on critical race theory to explore what it means to co-present on, and engage in, difficult conversations about immigration and documentation status. We theorize how, through critical collaboration motivated by our joint presentation, we co-constructed…

  6. "Un trago dulce pero adentro con sabor amargo" (A Bittersweet Swallow): Constructing Counterspaces to Explore Undocumented Status across Academic, Family, and Community Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Obed; Flores, Sofia; Gallo, Sarah; Lara, María; Link, Holly; Arreguín, Diana; Peregrina, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In this article a group of seven Latina/o immigrants, parents, advocates, and ethnographers draw on critical race theory to explore what it means to co-present on, and engage in, difficult conversations about immigration and documentation status. We theorize how, through critical collaboration motivated by our joint presentation, we co-constructed…

  7. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%.

  8. La Gotita de Agua (The Little Drop of Water).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palandra, Maria; Puigdollers, Carmen

    This Spanish reader for children in kindergarten and first grade is about a drop of water that comes to life in a trip through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation, and subsequent return to a drier part of the earth's surface environment. The story is suitable for reading aloud or independent reading. The text is entirely in Spanish.…

  9. La Gotita de Agua (The Little Drop of Water).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palandra, Maria; Puigdollers, Carmen

    This Spanish reader for children in kindergarten and first grade is about a drop of water that comes to life in a trip through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation, and subsequent return to a drier part of the earth's surface environment. The story is suitable for reading aloud or independent reading. The text is entirely in Spanish.…

  10. Quarterly progress report for Concilio Central - Agua Caliente Del Sol

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, E.

    1982-01-21

    The Concilio Central has completed the five (5) solar water heaters called for in the project. In total the project was a learning experience for all involved and did demonstrate the validity of using the sun's energy to heat water for residential use. Each of the five heaters constructed and installed produce sixty-six (66) gallons of 110/sup 0/ water (average temperature) every sunny day. The residents who received the water heaters are satisfied with the water temperature and amount and readily adapted to the availability of hot water in their homes.

  11. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas

    2003-10-01

    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  12. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    qualité de l'eau vers une absence de fluctuations, de polluées vers non polluées, d'acides vers basiques, d'oxygénées vers anoxiques et méthanogènes, depuis des échanges de base inexistants vers des échanges significatifs, de l'eau douce vers l'eau saumâtre. Ceci est montré pour une nappe d'eau douce dans une dune côtière des Pays-Bas. Dans "l'hydrosome", on montre que la disparition du carbonate de calcium par lessivage à plus de 15m et celle de cations adsorbés d'origine marine (Na+, K+ et Mg2+) à plus de 2500m vers l'aval-gradient correspond à environ 5000 ans d'écoulement, depuis que la barrière de la plage avec les dunes s'est mise en place. Les zones d'alimentation ponctuelle dans les dunes sont mises en évidence par l'eau souterraine montrant une plus faible évolution prograde de sa qualité que l'eau souterraine de la dune alentour. L'eau du Rhin utilisée pour la réalimentation artificielle dans les dunes a fourni des types hydrochimiques distincts, qui marquent l'écoulement, le mélange et les âges de l'eau souterraine. Resumen El flujo subterráneo tiene una gran importancia sobre la hidroquímica de un sistema ya que reduce la mezcla por difusión, transporta las huellas químicas y biológicas de las acciones antrópicas en la zona de recarga y drena el sistema acuífero. Las tendencias globales vienen regidas por las diferencias en el flujo de agua meteórica que atraviesa el subsuelo. En un hidrosoma individual (cuerpo de agua de un origen específico), se suele desarrollar la siguiente línea de evolución (secuencia de facies) en la dirección del flujo: de gran a nula fluctuación en la calidad del agua, de agua contaminada a no contaminada, de ácida a básica, de óxica a anóxica-metanogénica, de nulo a importante cambio de base y de agua dulce a salobre. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las aguas dulces presentes en las dunas costeras de Holanda. En este hidrosoma, el lixiviado de carbonato cálcico, hasta 15m, y de

  13. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Otay Mesa Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Warners Ranch Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Vail Lake Quadrangle, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Valley Center Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Mint Canyon Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Orange Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Butler Peak Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Harrison Mountain Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch and Poomacha Fire Perimeters, Mesa Grande Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Rice Fire Perimeter, Bonsall Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Grass Valley Fire Perimeter, Lake Arrowhead Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Morena Reservoir Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Boucher Hill Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, San Onofre Bluff Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Piru Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Dulzura Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Tustin Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  10. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Green Valley Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  11. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, San Clemente Quadrangle, Orange and San Diego Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  12. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Potrero Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  13. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Temecula Quadrangle, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Canyon Fire Perimeter, Malibu Beach Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Sleepy Valley Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Santa Ysabel Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch and Magic Fire Perimeters, Val Verde Quadrangle, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Cobblestone Mountain Quadrangle, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Tule Springs Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, Las Pulgas Canyon Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Santiago Peak Quadrangle, Orange and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Cajon Fire Perimeter, Devore Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Cajon Fire Perimeter, San Bernardino North Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, Margarita Peak Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Whitaker Peak Quadrangle, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Fillmore Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, San Vicente Reservoir Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Keller Peak Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Ramona Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  10. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch and Poomacha Fire Perimeters, Rodriguez Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  11. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Rancho Santa Fe Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  12. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Tecate Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  13. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Escondido Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Barrett Lake Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Pechanga Quadrangle, Riverside and San Diego Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Palomar Observatory Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Magic and Buckweed Fire Perimeters, Newhall Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, San Pasqual Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Jamul Mountains Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Otay Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, El Cajon Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Black Star Canyon Quadrangle, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Lake Forest Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Warm Springs Mountain Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Pala Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Poway Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    ézométriques sont plusieurs centaines de mètres au-dessus du niveau de la mer à quelques kilomètres de la côte. On pensait jusqu'à présent que des niveaux piézométriques aussi élevés dans des îles de volcans en bouclier n'existaient que dans le cas de nappes perchées ou de blocage par un dyke, mais dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, des niveaux piézométriques élevés existent dans un aquifère apparemment sans dyke et complètement saturé. Un nouveau modèle conceptuel de présence d'eau souterraine dans les îles de volcans en bouclier est nécessaire pour expliquer les conditions observées dans le sud du bassin de Lihue. Resumen. Se ha determinado la existencia de un espeso lentejón de aguas subterráneas dulces en una extensa región de baja permeabilidad situada al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, en Kauai (Hawaii, Estados Unidos de América). El modelo conceptual convencional de las aguas subterráneas en Hawai y en otros cinturones de islas volcánicas no considera la existencia de lentejones tan gruesos de agua dulce. En dicho modelo, las acumulaciones de flujos de lava que constituyen la mayoría de los cinturones volcánicos se desarrollan en grandes áreas de permeabilidad relativamente baja y con pequeños lentejones de agua dulce. En el sur de la cuenca de Lihue, las lavas de relleno y los sedimentos forman una región extensa de baja conductividad hidráulica regional que, con el clima húmedo de la zona, está saturada hasta prácticamente la superficie del terreno, mientras que el nivel freático se encuentra centenares de metros por encima del nivel del mar a pocos kilómetros de la línea de costa. Se creía hasta ahora que, en los cinturones de islas volcánicas, tales niveles sólo tenían lugar en acuíferos colgados o en condiciones de confinamiento por diques, pero, al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, se dan en acuíferos completamente saturados que no están limitados por diques. Se necesita un nuevo modelo conceptual de las aguas subterráneas en

  8. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    gradients verticaux de charge à partir des mesures de niveau piézométrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilisé pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette méthode à un système eau douce - eau salée simulé numériquement montre que la méthode est la plus précise lorsque le gradient est mesuré dans un puits pénétrant profondément dans l'aquifère. Même en utilisant un puits peu profond, la méthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de précision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqué. L'application de la méthode à des données de terrain montre que la foration, les méthodes de mesure de niveau et les hétérogénéités au sein de l'aquifère peuvent être la cause de difficultés, mais que les effets de ces difficultés peuvent être réduits. Resumen Para la estimación de la productividad de pozos en acuíferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimación precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz teórica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relación de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimación de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropía del acuífero. En este artículo se presenta un método para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforación de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicación del método a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numéricamente muestra que el método es más preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el método permite una estimación más precisa de la

  9. Preliminary flora of Ojo de Agua Tonibabi, Sierra La Madera, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    Ejido Tonibabi is located 12 kilometers east-northeast of Moctezuma in east-central Sonora, México (29°50’16’’N 109°33’45’’W, 780 m elevation). The vegetation is riparian in the wetlands and foothills thornscrub on slopes. The flora was inventoried on transects in different areas in Ejido Tonibabi. Specimens were collected to identify by comparing with specimens in the...

  10. Bird list of San Bernardino Ranch in Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Melinda Cardenas-Garcia; Monica C. Olguin-Villa

    2013-01-01

    Interest and investigation of birds has been increasing over the last decades due to the loss of their habitats, and declination and fragmentation of their populations. San Bernardino Ranch is located in the desert grassland region of northeastern Sonora, México. Over the last decade, restoration efforts have tried to address the effects of long deteriorating economic...

  11. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  12. Richness of mammals on the San Bernardino Ranch in the municipality of Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Mario Erandi Bonillas-Monge; Carlos Manuel Valdez-Coronel

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the San Bernardino Ranch has performed, as economical activities, livestock and farming, which has contributed to the deterioration of regional ecosystems. The ranch is ecologically important due to the diverse types of habitats of conservation interest such as the semi-desert grassland, the riparian vegetation, and a large ciénega, in which restoration...

  13. [FAMILY EATING HABITS AND PERCEPTION OF RISK IN EATING DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: los aspectos relacionados con la comida, la figura, el peso y el ejercicio físico, transmitidos de padres a hijos, y los factores socioculturales de índole mediática, como las redes sociales, pueden influir en el desarrollo de Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA). Objetivos: analizar la influencia de la alimentación familiar y la percepción de esta sobre la influencia de las redes sociales en el inicio y mantenimiento del TCA. Método: 30 padres de pacientes con TCA participaron voluntariamente en este estudio cumplimentando una serie de cuestionarios, y recogiéndose su peso y talla. Resultados: se observa una subestimación del peso en casos de sobrepeso (33,33%) y obesidad (25%), ya que ni siquiera se plantean realizar una dieta futura (91,67% y 25%, respectivamente) (2 = 11,31; p < 0,01). Destaca un exceso en el consumo de carnes, snacks y dulces. Durante el fin de semana hay un incremento en el consumo de kcal y azúcar (p < 0,01) y colesterol (p < 0,05), disminuyendo la ingesta de fibra, Fe, Zn y Mg (p < 0,01). Asimismo, se consume menos agua y pan, aumentando el picoteo (p < 0,01) y la frecuencia de aparición de un único plato (p < 0,05). Discusión y conclusiones: los hábitos alimentarios de estos familiares mejoran gracias a la educación nutricional incluida en el tratamiento. Los familiares no perciben adecuadamente el riesgo de las redes sociales en sus hijos, pudiendo contribuir al mantenimiento y a futuras recaídas del TCA.

  14. Renewable Energy Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jicarilla Apache Tribe

    2003-04-01

    The Jicarilla Apache Nation is in Rio Arriba County in North Central New Mexico. The photovoltaic project was installed at the Dulce High School in the town of Dulce. Dulce is in the most northern part of the reservation near the New Mexico/Colorado boundary and can be reached from the New Mexico State Capitol in Santa Fe, hence to the town of Chama along U.S. Highway 84 to the junction of U.S. Highway 64. Dulce is about 12 miles west of the junction along U.S. Highway 64. Dulce community is in the mountainous part of the Nation with a population of about 4000. No industry exists in the community, however, a few commercial sites do exist such as a motel, restaurants, gas stations, food and liquor stores.

  15. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    descanso y la alimentación de cientos de aves migratorias en ruta entre Norte y Suramérica. Antes del drenaje de los humedales costeros para propósitos agrícolas, pantanos de agua dulce como los de la Laguna Cartagena, Laguna Guánica y Ciénaga El Anegado proveían hábitat a más de 1 00 especies de aves residentes y migratorias . Los humedales de las tierras altas del área central son el último refugio de la cotorra puertorriqueña, una especie en peligro de extinción. Aún los humedales del área metropolitana de San Juan (Laguna La Torrecilla, Torrecilla Baja, Laguna de Piñones hasta Punta Vacía Talega) proveen un hábitat excelente para la vida silvestre, mantienen criaderos de peces de alto valor económico y proveen recreación y oportunidades educativas a la población urbana.Treintiocho especies de vertebrados, moluscos y crustáceos, y 46 especies de aves, algunos raros o en peligro de extinción como la mariquita, el alcatraz, el pato dominicano, el pato silbón y la paloma cabeciblanca han sido observados en el área . También las playas asociadas con estos humedales urbanos proveen sitios de anidaje para las tortugas carey de concha y tinglar, ambas en peligro de extinción (Del Llano y otros, 1986).

  16. [Prevalence and associated risk factors of arterial hypertension in Sobremonte and Ojo de Agua Departments in Cordoba State].

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Antonio; Camino Willhuber, Gastón; Chaile, Iván

    2008-01-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is a disease with multiple risk factors (RF), and it is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of AH in Sobremonte area and its correlation to other risk factors. The study was done in an special programme called "Solidarity in Health" (SIH) supported by the College of Medicine at the National University of Córdoba, which provided primary care to residents of Cachi Yaco (Sobremonte Department). It is an small village near Santiago del Estero province located in 226 km from Córdoba city. They went to the city and they examined the patients at the the "French and Berutti" school for nine consecutive years (2000-2008). Sobremonte area is the poorest deparment in the province of Córdoba and it has the highest rate of lowest socio-economic development, and a very deficient health care system.. The only hospital providing primary care is in San Francisco del Chañar, and the access is not free. The study involved the determination of the arterial pressure (AP) according to the seventh "JNC"criteria, body mass index (BMI), levels of alcohol consumption, exercise, salt consumption, diabetes and smoking in all the patients. Additionally, three water samples from different representative zones were collected and tested for sodium concentration. 471 patients were included. The incidence of AH was 43.5% of the patients. (51% men and 36% women). Higher incidence of AH was found in patients between 50 and 59 years old. There was a stadistical difference in the BMI, diabetes, and alcohol consumption between healthy patients and patients with AH. There was not any correlation between AH and exercise. We found higher levels of sodium in the water of this area and it was between 13-35 higher than in C6rdoba city and it was correlated with AH. We conclude that the increased sodium consumption is one of the most important risk factor of AH in this population.

  17. Binational air quality studies along the Arizona-Sonora border: Ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, G.J. Keene, F.E.

    1999-07-01

    A study to address Ambos (Both) Nogales' air quality concerns was conducted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), in conjunction with Mexico's Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP), from 1994 to 1998. The study, which is part of the US-Mexico Border XXI Program, consisted of the following tasks: (1) air sampling/monitoring; (2) emissions inventory; (3) meteorological modeling; and, (4) health risk assessment. The following types of samples were collected: particulate matter (PM); volatile organic compounds; semi-volatile organic compounds; and aldehydes. All samples were collected for a 24-hour period; every sixth day during the warm months (April--September), and every third day during the cold months (October--March). There were a total of six sampling stations; three on each side of the border. PM samples were collected at all six sites, while samples for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) were collected at four of those sites. Sample analyses were performed at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nevada. Furthermore, four of the sites were outfitted with meteorological equipment, in order to gather data on wind speed and direction. PM and meteorological data are still being collected at two sampling sites, one in Arizona and one in Sonora. An emissions inventory of point, mobile and area sources for the Ambos Nogales area (12 x 19 km. domain), was developed following completion of the sampling effort. In order to accomplish this task, ADEQ contracted the services of RADIAN International and Powers Engineering; which in turn enlisted the services of Heuristica Ambiental of Hermosillo, Sonora. This task was completed in July, 1997. Vehicular emissions were found to be one of the main contributors of air emissions in the Ambos Nogales area. The third task of this project consisted developing meteorological models of the study area.

  18. 40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjuntas Municipio Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco... Aguada Municipio Aguadilla Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Anasco Municipio Arecibo... Municipio Aguas Buenas Municipio Aibonito Municipio Añasco Municipio Arecibo Municipio Arroyo...

  19. Channel Classification across Arid West Landscapes in Support of OHW Delineation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ ...................................................................... 24 Figure 12. Landscape perspective at...27 Figure 16. Active channel at Agua Fria River, AZ...33 Figure 24. Landscape perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ

  20. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    d'un aquifère qui s'étend sous la mer à partir des données concernant les effets de marée sur les eaux souterraines dans le bassin de la rivière Jahe, dans la province de Shandong, Chine. La limite de salinité est déterminée en faisant converger les fluctuations des hauteurs piézométriques avec les valeurs calculées, et les paramètres de l'aquifère sont estimés dans la zone s'étendant sous la mer. L'incidence de la longueur de l'aquifère sous la mer sur les fluctuations des niveaux est étudiée. On en conclut que la longueur du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer peut correspondre à certains aquifères paramètres dans la zone d'extrapolation. Par conséquent, la limite de salinité déterminée à partir des effets de marée est l'équivalent d'une limite hydrodynamique plutôt que la véritable limite de l'aquifère. El principal objetivo de los estudios sobre intrusiones de agua salada en acuíferos costeros confinados es predecir la posición de la interfase agua dulce-agua salada, la cual puede determinarse a partir de la longitud del techo del acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar. Los registros de niveles de agua subterránea afectados por las mareas puede utilizarse para inferir las condiciones hidrológicas y determinar los parámetros hidráulicos de un acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar. En este artículo se ha desarrollado un modelo de flujo tri-dimensional de agua subterránea de densidad variable para determinar la longitud del techo equivalente de un acuífero que se extiende por debajo del mar a partir de datos, afectados por la marea, de niveles de agua subterránea en la Cuenca del Río Jahe, Provincia Shandong, China. El límite hacia el océano se obtiene por convergencia de fluctuaciones de presiones hidráulicas observadas en pozos con valores calculados, y se estiman los parámetros del acuífero en la zona extendida. Se estudian los impactos de la longitud del techo del acuífero y los parámetros del acu

  1. Seismic Hazard Study for Selected Sites in New Mexico and Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-27

    Since 1938 the largest earthquake to occur in the New Mexico area was the 23 January 1966, Dulce event, mb = 4. 6. This event definitely occurred off...Washington, D.C. 14. Herrmann, R. B., Dewy, J. W., and Park, S. (1980) The Dulce , New Mexico earthquake of 23 January 1966, BSSA, 70(No. 6):2171-2183...Dewy, J.W., and Park, S. (1980) The Dulce , New Mexico earthquake of 23 January 1966, BSSA, 70(No. 6):2171-2183. 15. Wechsler, D.J., Cash, D.J

  2. Primal-Dual Methods for Linear Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Dulce B. Poncele6n and Michael A. Saunders TECHNICAL REPORT SOL 91-3 May 1991 Department of Operations-Research Stanford University 91-03882Stanford, CA...for Linear Programming by Philip E. Gill, Walter Murray, Dulce B. Poncele6n and Michael A. Saunders TECHNICAL REPORT SOL 91-3 May 1991 U ’ .mve dj 1...DUAL METHODS FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING* Philip E. GILLt Walter MURRAY$ Dulce B. PONCELE6N§ and Michael A. SAUNDERS t Technical Report SOL 91-31 May 1991

  3. 75 FR 30110 - Unblocking of Specially Designated National and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ..., Mexico; Calle Geiser 101, Colonia Colinas de Agua Caliente, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; Avenida... Agua Caliente, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico; Calle Coronado 21760, Colonia Mesetas del Guaycura...

  4. 1. Overall view from above, Hogan Ring not seen, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overall view from above, Hogan Ring not seen, looking northwest. - Hooded Fireplace Pueblito, On a northern point of Superior Mesa about 700 meters west of Largo Canyon Wash, Dulce, Rio Arriba County, NM

  5. Water-resources reconnaissance of Île de la Gonâve, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troester, Joseph W.; Turvey, Michael D.

    y en todos los manantiales, cavidades y pozos excavados, hecho que indica la contaminación bacteriana de la mayor parte de fuentes de agua. Debido a las dificultades para obtener agua dulce, los 110.000 habitantes utilizan una media de sólo 7 L por persona al día.

  6. The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín

    promouvoir des activités de diffusion des sciences, de la technologie et de la gestion de l'eau en Espagne et à l'étranger, surtout en Amérique latine, et pour tenter d'orienter la politique de l'eau à l'égard des eaux souterraines. Ces activités incluent principalement l'organisation de réunions techniques et scientifiques sur des sujets classiques tels que l'eau souterraine dans la nouvelle Loi sur l'Eau, la surexploitation, l'eau souterraine dans la gestion des ressources en eau, la pollution de l'eau souterraine, l'estimation des écoulements naturels, entre autres. Les retombées de ces activités sur la récente politique de l'eau en Espagne paraissent significatives et l'expérience acquise peut être appliquée à d'autres pays. Resumen España es un país relativamente grande (unos 500,000km2) con áreas extensas en las que existe un elevado número de buenos acuíferos. En algunas zonas estos acuíferos son intensamente aprovechados y constituyen el recurso más importante de agua dulce. Sin embargo, el aprovechamiento y la protección de las aguas subterráneas pocas veces han sido debidamente considerados por la Administración hidráulica española, a pesar de la presión ejercida por distintos grupos y por algunos miembros responsables de la propia Administración hidráulica para corregir esta situación. Durante el último decenio el Comité Español de la Asociación Internacional de Hidrogeólogos (AIH) ha sido muy activo en promover reuniones para difundir la ciencia, la tecnología y la adecuada gestión del agua subterránea en España y en el extranjero, especialmente en Ibero-América. También ha intentado que los temas referentes al agua subterránea tuviesen la oportuna consideración en la política hidrológica general. Estas actividades han consistido principalmente en la organización de reuniones científicas y técnicas sobre temas actuales tales como el agua subterránea en la planificación hidrológica, contaminación del agua

  7. 77 FR 39507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... the Fowler Museum at UCLA's professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Agua... associated funerary objects are two mountain lion phalanges. In 1998, Ginger Ridgeway, Curator, Agua Caliente... territory of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation,...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Cultivo y Manejo de Estanques Pesqueros de Agua Fresca (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-1D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakroff, Marilyn; Druben, Laurel, Ed.

    This is the Spanish translation of a "how-to" manual, designed as a working and teaching tool for extension agents as they establish and/or maintain local fish pond operations. The manual presents information to facilitate technology transfer and to provide a clear guide for warm water fish pond construction and management. Major topic…

  10. Installation of devices in water tanks to prevent drowning of wild animals (Instalacion de Estructuras Dentro de Tanques de Agua Para Evitar El Ahogamiento de Animales Silvestres)

    Treesearch

    Alberto Lafon

    2006-01-01

    Domestic farm and ranch properties use a variety of water retention structures and water supply infrastructures that benefit wildlife. Some water supply systems, however, are harmful to wild birds, small mammals, and reptiles. Water supply systems include metal water tanks, cemented reservoirs, or excavated earthen retention ponds (or tanques as they are known in...

  11. Water contamination control: Guide for project planning and financing. Technical paper. Control de la contaminacion del agua: Guias para la planificacion y financiamiento de proyectos

    SciTech Connect

    Palange, R.C.; Zavala, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides guidelines for administrators, supervisors, and others involved in decision making to satisfy the need for facilities to control water contamination, but who possibly lack specialized training in engineering, economics, financial administration, or other pertinent specialties.

  12. Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Herrera, Roger; Sánchez-y-Pinto, Ismael; Gamboa-Vargas, José

    2002-09-01

    aquifère. La zone karstifiée a été modélisée en posant l'hypothèse qu'il fonctionne hydrauliquement comme un milieu poreux granulaire. Au cours de la calibration, les hypothèses suivantes ont été testées: (1) les phénomènes karstiques jouent un rôle important dans le système aquifère, (2) un anneau ou une ceinture de dépressions dans la région est la manifestation d'une zone à forte transmissivité qui permet l'écoulement en conduits de l'eau souterraine en direction du Golfe du Mexique, et (3) la situation géologique dans la partie sud du Yucatan détermine les écoulements souterrains. Le modèle montre que la faille de la Sierrita de Ticul, dans la partie sud-ouest de la région étudiée, joue le rôle de barrière et que les valeurs de la piézométrie décroissent en direction du nord-est. La modélisation montre également que la dynamique du système aquifère à l'échelle régionale n'a pas été modifiée malgré le grand nombre de puits de pompage, parce que le volume pompé est faible en comparaison du volume de recharge; en outre, le réseau karstique très bien développé dans cette région possède une très forte conductivité hydraulique. Resumen. El modelo conceptual actual del acuífero cárstico no confinado de la Península de Yucatán (México) es el de un lentejón de agua dulce flotando sobre agua salada, más densa, la cual penetra más de 40 kilómetros tierra adentro. Debido a la alta conductividad hidráulica del acuífero, existe un gradiente hidráulico muy bajo cuyo rango está entre 7 y 10 milímetros por kilómetro en la porción norte de la península. Se utilizó el código AQUIFER para investigar el sistema de flujo de las aguas subterráneas a escala regional en el acuífero. La zona carstificada se modeló suponiendo que actúa hidráulicamente como un medio poroso granular. Como parte de la calibración, se probaron las siguientes hipótesis: (1) las características cársticas desempeñan un papel importante

  13. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

  14. 77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 76 FR 63292 - Combined Notice Of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... p.m. Eastern Time on Tuesday, October 25, 2011. Docket Numbers: ER12-21-000. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC. Description: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.12: Application...

  16. Realistic Reflections for Marine Environments in Augmented Reality Training Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Static Backgrounds. Top: Agua Background. Bottom: Blue Background.............48 Figure 27. Ship Textures Used to Generate Reflections. In Order from...Figure 26. Two Tested Static Backgrounds. Top: Agua Background. Bottom: Blue Background Figure 27. Ship Textures Used to Generate

  17. 77 FR 3759 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER12-21-002. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC. Description: Clarification of Notice of Change in Status for Agua Caliente. Filed Date: 1/13/12....

  18. 77 FR 10737 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER12-21-003. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC. Description: Notice of Change in Status of Agua Caliente Solar, LLC. Filed Date: 2/14/12. Accession...

  19. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to... PEDRO RIVER BASIN: Copper Creek SANTA CRUZ RIVER BASIN: Agua Caliente Wash Nogales Wash Sonoita...

  20. 77 FR 23502 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... to follow up questions from the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Aqua Caliente Indian... Anthropology is responsible for notifying the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Aqua...

  1. 76 FR 64082 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... following exempt wholesale generator filings: Docket Numbers: EG12-1-000. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC. Description: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC Notice of Self Certification of Exempt Wholesale...

  2. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... staff in consultation with representatives of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians... Native American human remains were removed is the aboriginal land of the Agua Caliente Band of...

  3. 76 FR 80922 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... following electric corporate filings: Docket Numbers: EC12-52-000. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC, MidAmerican AC Holding, LLC. Description: Application of MidAmerican AC Holding, LLC, and Agua Caliente...

  4. 77 FR 23499 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Indian Arts & Culture/Laboratory of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Items The 29 cultural items to be repatriated are funerary objects consisting of two Agua Fria glaze bowl fragments, four Agua Fria glaze- on-red bowls, one Cieneguilla glaze-on-yellow cup, one Santa...

  5. 77 FR 19696 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: California Department of Parks and Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... identity that can be reasonably traced between the unassociated funerary objects and the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California; Augustine Band of Cahuilla...

  6. Sediment Budget Calculations Oceanside, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Volume of Sediment Dredged from Agua Hedionda Lagoon vs. Time ............................. 13 7 Cumulative Volume of Accretion or Erosion as a Function...17 10 Oceanside Sub-Cell 2-3, Oceanside Harbor ............ 17 11 Oceanside Sub-Cell 3-4, Oceanside Harbor to Agua Hedionda Lagoon...18 12 Oceanside Sub-Cell 4-5, Agua Hedionda Lagoon ........ 18 13 Oceanside Sub-Cell 5-6, Agua Hedionda Lagoon to Southern

  7. Decapitation Operations: Criteria for Targeting Enemy Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    port city of Agua Prieta opposite the American town of Douglas, Arizona. Agua Prieta, geographically separated from Carranza’s strongholds, was...The United States assisted the defenders of Agua Prieta with trainloads of US and Mexican reinforcements, artillery, munitions, and equipment...Americans helped convert Agua Prieta from a small port city into an impregnable fortress prior to Villa’s attack. Early morning on 1 November, Villa

  8. 75 FR 42485 - Additional Designation of Entities and Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... is as follows: Individuals 1. ARISTIZABAL MEJIA, Diego, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES...); (INDIVIDUAL) . 4. MEJIA MOLINA, Luis Bernardo, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA... (Colombia); (INDIVIDUAL) . Entities 1. BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA, Carrera 43A...

  9. 77 FR 7179 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Land Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Proposed Land Exchange Between the Bureau of Land Management and Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in... Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (Tribe) in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...: AguaCalienteExchange@blm.gov . Mail: Field Manager, Palm Springs-South Coast Field Office, 1201...

  10. Radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Niel; Sprinkle, Craig

    2001-03-01

    édolomitisation), (2) la réduction des sulfates accompagnant une dégradation microbienne du carbone organique, (3) la recristallisation de la calcite (échange isotopique), et (4) le mélange d'eau douce avec de l'eau salée, jusqu'à 7%, dans certaines zones côtières. Les transferts minéraux nets calculés sont extrêmement faibles dans les parties situées dans l'amont de l'aquifère ils augmentent significativement dans les zones de l'aval, montrant en partie au moins l'existence d'une drainance ascendante depuis l'aquifère inférieur de Floride et une circulation qui met en relation les unités captives du système aquifère de Floride. Les âges radiocarbone corrigés sont indépendants des trajets d'écoulement et représentent des temps de transit de l'eau depuis la zone de recharge vers le point de prélèvement dans l'aquifère. En aval de Polk City (âge corrigé 1,7 ka) et de Keystone Heighats (âge corrigé 0,4 ka), 14 des 22 échantillons d'eau présentent des âges corrigés compris entre 20 et 30 ka, ce qui montre que la plus grande partie des ressources actuelles en eau douce de la nappe supérieure de Floride provient d'une recharge effectuée au cours de la dernière période glaciaire. Toutes ces eaux anciennes sont enrichies en 18O et en 2H par rapport à l'infiltration actuelle, avec un enrichissement maximal de δ18O d'environ 2.0‰. Resumen. Se han evaluado varios modelos geoquímicos con el fin de mejorar la datación del carbono inorgánico disuelto (CID) en las aguas subterráneas de las zonas confinadas del acuífero Superior de Florida, que ocupa el centro y nordeste de Florida (Estados Unidos). Las reacciones geoquímicas dominantes en cuanto a la actividad del 14C del CID incluyen: (1) disolución de dolomita y anhidrita, con precipitación de calcita (o de-dolomitización), (2) reducción de sulfato, acompañada por degradación microbiana de carbón orgánico, (3) recristalización de calcita (intercambio isotópico), y (4) mezcla de agua dulce

  11. Development of a sharp interface model that simulates coastal aquifer flow with the coupled use of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tolikas, Demetrios

    A simulation program, which works seamlessly with GIS and simulates flows in coastal aquifers, is presented in the present paper. The model is based on the Galerkin finite element discretization scheme and it simulates both steady and transient freshwater and saltwater flow, assuming that the two fluids are separated by a sharp interface. The model has been verified in simple cases where analytical solutions exist. The simulation program works as a tool of the GIS program, which is the main database that stores and manages all the necessary data. The combined use of the simulation and the GIS program forms an integrated management tool offering a simpler way of simulating and studying saline intrusion in coastal aquifers. Application of the model to the Yermasogia aquifer illustrates the coupled use of modeling and GIS techniques for the examination of regional coastal aquifer systems. Pour étudier un système aquifère côtier, nous avons développé un modèle aux éléments finis en quasi 3-D qui simule les écoulements d'eau douce et d'eau salée en régime aussi bien permanent que transitoire. Les équations qui les régissent sont discrétisées par un schéma de discrétisation de Garlekin aux éléments finis. Le modèle a été vérifié dans des cas simples où il existe des solutions analytiques. Toutes les données nécessaires sont introduites et gérées grâce à un logiciel de gestion de SIG. Le programme de simulation est utilisé comme un outil du logiciel de SIG, constituant ainsi un outil de gestion intégrée dont le but est de simuler et d'étudier l'intrusion saline dans les aquifères côtiers. L'application du modèle à l'aquifère de Yermasogia illustre l'utilisation couplée de la modélisation et des techniques de SIG pour l'étude des systèmes aquifères côtiers régionaux. Se ha desarrollado un modelo casi tridimensional de elementos finitos para simular el flujo de agua dulce y salada, tanto en régimen estacionario como en

  12. Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

  13. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducte...

  14. Assessing the Educational Needs of an Indian Community. Occasional Paper Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicenti, Loretta; Cordova, R. Rudy

    Experiences and events are presented on determining a successful way of conducting an education needs assessment on the Jicarilla Apache reservation in Dulce, New Mexico, using the following process: (1) identifying needs to devise questions on expressed concerns; (2) analyzing data; and (3) developing a program to correct the concern. The…

  15. Oligomeric flavanoids. Part 26. Structure and synthesis of the first profisetinidins with epifisetinidol constituent units

    Treesearch

    Petrus J. Steynberg; Jan P. Steynberg; E. Vincent Brandt; Daneel Ferreira; Richard W. Hemingway

    1997-01-01

    The natural occurrence of the first oligomeric profisetinidins with (2R,3R}-2,3-cis-epifisetinidol chain extender units is demonstrated in the bark of Pithecellobium dulce (Guamuchil). Semi-synthesis using the appropriate flavan-3-ol and flavan-3,4-diol precursors permits unequivocal structural...

  16. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  17. Management Approaches for Water Quality Enhancement at Whitney Point and East Sidney Lake, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    flos -aguae Anabaena sp. (colonial blue-greens) 8-16-88 Aphanizomenon flos -aguae Anabaena planctonica Coccoid sp. (colonial blue-greens...Goelosphaeriui sp. Microcystis aerug~inosa Comphosphaeria sp. 9-9-88 Aphanizomenon flos -aguae Oscillatoria sp. Melosira spp. Table 9 Dominant Phytoplankton Species...Cryptomonas spp. Rhodomonas minuta microflagellates 6-29-88 Rhodomonas minuta Cr’,ptomonas spp. 7-22-88 Aphanizomenon flos -aciuae Anabaena Planctonica

  18. Construction Foundation Report for Seepage Control Adits Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-02

    numerous minor joints. Joints faces in the mudstone are commonly striated and slickensided in random orientations. [1] The Agua Zarca Sandstone member of...the Triassic Chinle Formation overlies the Abo formation. Above the Agua Zarca Sandstone are the Salitral Shale Tongue and Poleo Sandstone members of...the Chinle Formation, which extends up to the im of the canyon. The Agua Zarca Sandstone is dominantly white to buff colored, medium to coarse grained

  19. A Near IR Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Wide Field, Low Resolution Hyperspectral Imaging on the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Satyapal, S.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Barclay, R.; Amato, D.; Arritt, B.; Brown, G.; Harvey, V.; Holt, C.; Kuhn, J.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss work in progress on a near-infrared tunable bandpass filter for the Goddard baseline wide field camera concept of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). This filter, the Demonstration Unit for Low Order Cryogenic Etalon (DULCE), is designed to demonstrate a high efficiency scanning Fabry-Perot etalon operating in interference orders 1 - 4 at 30K with a high stability DSP based servo control system. DULCE is currently the only available tunable filter for lower order cryogenic operation in the near infrared. In this application, scanning etalons will illuminate the focal plane arrays with a single order of interference to enable wide field lower resolution hyperspectral imaging over a wide range of redshifts. We discuss why tunable filters are an important instrument component in future space-based observatories.

  20. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  1. Environmental Assessment of Short-Term Construction Projects at the 150th Fighter Wing, New Mexico Air National Guard, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Artemesia sp.), apache plume (Fallugia paradoxa), and winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata). Wildlife in great basin grassland communities generally...Jicarilla Apache Tribe P.O. Box 507 Dulce, NM 87528 The Honorable Harry D. Early Governor, Pueblo of Laguna P.O. Box 194 Laguna, NM 87026 The...Honorable Sarah Misquez President, Mescalero Apache Tribe P.O. Box 176 Mescalero, NM 88340 The Honorable David A. Perez Governor, Pueblo ofNambe Route

  2. The Mar Chiquita Lake: An indicator of intraplate deformation in the central plain of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Adolfo Antonio

    2009-10-01

    The Mar Chiquita saline lake is located in the lowest part of one of the largest endorreic saline basins of South America. With a surface area of 6000-6500 km 2, the lake is located in a tectonic depression with an asymmetric cross section. The Sierras Pampeanas foothills, (with altitudes near 1500 m) are to the west and a 100-m topographic high (San Guillermo high) is to the east whose western border is bounded by a buried Middle Pleistocene fault (the Tostado-Selva Fault). The main tributary of the lake is the Dulce River, which flows from north to south. The southward flow of the river was impeded by an obstacle that closed the Dulce Valley, generating the Mar Chiquita Lake. The megafans of the Primero, Segundo, and Tercero Rivers deposited a large amount of sediment against the faulted border of the San Guillermo high, generating an obstacle that impeded the normal flow of the rivers and diverted the Dulce and the Salado Rivers to their present positions. Precise data concerning the age of the impounding of Mar Chiquita does not exist, but lacustrine conditions are undoubtedly younger than the uplift of the San Guillermo high, which occurred in the Middle Pleistocene. The well-preserved dry valley of the Dulce River, located southward of Mar Chiquita, is still visible in satellite images and confirms the youth of the impounding. The observations introduced in this paper allow us to understand the origin of a significant feature of the central plains of South America. The generation of Mar Chiquita Lake and upstream wetlands produced a pronounced environmental change in the arid Chaco-Pampeana Plain, which favored human life by introducing changes in vegetation and fauna.

  3. Site-Specific Seismic Evaluation of the Ground Based Free Electron - Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE) Project White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    network during this period was a magnitude 4.29 event on January 23, 1966 at Dulce , NM, located near the New Mexico -Colorado border. 21. The data from...WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NEW MEXICO AD-A242 999 by Ronald E. Wahl, Mary E. Hynes Michael K. Sharp, Joseph P. Koester Geotechnical Laboratory...FUNDING NUMBERS Based Free Electron - Technology Integration Experiment I Ord (GBFEL-TIE) Project, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico Reabable

  4. Archaeological Data Recovery in the Abiquiu Reservoir Multiple Resource Area, New Mexico,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    reservations in southern Colorado, and in 1681, the Apache were moved to the Jicarilla Reservation near Dulce , New Mexico (Schaafsma 1977). Ute sites...AD-A127 143 ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA RECOVERY IN THE AR QUIJU RESERVOI R is MULTIPLE RESOURCE AREA NEW MEXICO (U NICKENS AND ASSOCIATES MONTROSE CO A D...MULTIPLE RESOURCE AREA, NEW MEXICO by 44 Alan D. Reed Susan M. Chandler Kim Kreut.zer and~ Diana Christensen N IC NICKENS ASSOCIATESn < 1 L..PO Box

  5. Adaptive Logistics Support for Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    received from my family. Most of all, I thank my wife, Dulce , for assuming all responsibilities while I was almost entirely absorbed in my studies, and for...desired availability can be enhanced. As an example, one can imagine a Carrier- based Air Unit the aircraft of which experience diverse failures of...are closer in meaning to standard definitions of availability, i.e., the probability that the number of available units, e.g. carrier- based aircraft

  6. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Detailed Aggregate Resources Study. Pahroc Study Area, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    Norton Air Force Base , California 92409 Prepared by: Ertec Western, Inc. 3777 Long Beach Boulevard Long Beach, California 90807 5 June 1981 PHOTOGRAPH...THIS SHEET ~ LEVEL INVENTORY 2 DOCUMENT iDENTIFICATION q [ ~fmr puW roloo" and o f Ik DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ACCESSION FOR NTIS GRAil DulC TAB DT72...9 2.2.2 Basin-Fill Units . . ... .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. 10 3.0 ROAD- BASE AGGREGATES EVALUATION................... 12 3.*1 Study

  7. Novel loss-of-function putative aminotransferase alleles cause biosynthesis of capsinoids, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in mildly pungent chili peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Miwa, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2010-11-24

    Capsinoids are a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits. They have similar bioactivities to capsaicinoids such as suppression of fat accumulation and antioxidant activity. They are more palatable ingredients in dietary supplements than capsaicinoids because of their low pungency. Previous studies on nonpungent Capsicum annuum cultivars showed that capsinoid biosynthesis is caused by loss-of-function putative aminotransferase (p-amt) alleles. This study showed that three mildly pungent cultivars of Capsicum chinense (Zavory Hot, Aji Dulce strain 2, and Belize Sweet) contain high levels of capsinoid. It was shown that these cultivars have novel p-amt alleles, which contain mutations that differ from those of C. annuum. Sequence analysis of p-amt in Belize Sweet revealed that a 5 bp insertion (TGGGC) results in a frameshift mutation. A transposable element (Tcc) was found in the p-amt of Zavory Hot and Aji Dulce strain 2. Tcc has features similar to those of the hAT transposon family. This was inserted in the fifth intron of Zavory Hot and in third intron of Aji Dulce strain 2. The p-amt alleles harboring Tcc cannot produce an active p-AMT. These mildly pungent cultivars will provide a new natural source of capsinoids.

  8. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    acerca de su agua potable. Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable. Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  9. 27 CFR 9.209 - Calistoga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sections 13 and 14, T9N/R7W, and in the region labeled “Mallacomes or Moristul y Plan de Agua Caliente,” to... State Route 128 in the “Mallacomes or Moristul y Plan de Agua Caliente” region, T9N/R7W, of the...

  10. 43. River Crossing Flume carrying canal water west across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. River Crossing Flume carrying canal water west across the Agua Fria River approximately four miles downstream from Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: Nancy Bunch - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Gobierno Federal Contina Investigacin Cientfica Sobre Erupciones en Flint

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Flint, MICH. (24 de marzo, 2016) - Los expertos federales, del estado y del condado de salud y agua entienden que los residentes de Flint están preocupados por la calidad general de su agua-tanto como para beber y para bañarse. En este momento, el an

  12. Sensitivity Studies Using Multi-Region and Open Boundary Conditions for Terrain Bottom-Following Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Vol. 5, No. 1, 31-40, 1982. Fiuza, A. F. de G., Hidrologia e Dinamica das Aguas Costeiras de Portugal. Dissertacao apresentada a Universidade de...Upwelling: Its Sediment Record, part A, pp 85-97, Plenum, New York, 1983. Fiuza, A. F. G., Hidrologia e Dinamica das Aguas Costeiras de Portugal

  13. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  14. Echinostomatid larval stages in Lymnaea viatrix (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from southwest Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2007-04-01

    The partial life cycle of an echinostomatid found in Lymnaea viatrix from Patagonia, Argentina, was experimentally clarified. Emerging cercariae were exposed to laboratory-reared specimens of Biomphalaria sp. Metacercariae obtained from both naturally and experimentally infected snails were force-fed to chicks. Specimens recovered from the chicks belong to Echinoparyphium sp. on the basis of morphological features. The studied species possesses 43 collar spines arranged in 4-4-27-4-4 at all stages, a cercariae with over 100 small corpuscles in the excretory system, a cercariae tail without finfolds, and a metacercariae with a thin cyst wall. The present species cannot be assigned to Echinoparyphium megacirrus despite their morphological similarity because of differences in the habitats of L. viatrix and the intermediate hosts of E. megacirrus, namely Chilina dombeiana, Diplodon chilensis, and Temnocephala chilensis. More information on some life cycle stages and on the ecology of the intermediate hosts is needed to clarify the taxonomic status of the parasite. This study represents the first detailed description of parasites other than Fasciola hepatica in L. viatrix from Argentina.

  15. Emerging Futures for Sao Tome & Principe’s International Airport Campus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-03

    Tome and Principe Figure 2: Abandoned plantation home at Agua Ize Figure 3: Joint Development Zone Figure 4: Old Air-Traffic Control Tower Figure 5...34 PIIOTO I]V lAY A, BIESZKF Figure 2: Abandoned plamation home at Agua lze. A once thriving ~ocoa planta. tion. thi, run-down esrare is located on the...Operations 6 Jul -Friday Driving tour of the island [visit to Neves, Agua Ize, and viewed key development sites] 7 Jul-Saturday Departure ... •I. Introduction

  16. GPS Scintillation Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE...Depletions from 1 October 1994 2 3. GPS data from Agua Verde, Chile on the night of 1 October 1994 3 4. PL-SCINDA display of GPS ionospheric...comparison of GPS measurements with GOES8 L-band scintillation data, are discussed. 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE, CHILE As

  17. Swinging Over the Water Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    de una cuerda en el borde de un agujero de agua en x = 0, oscilando hacia arriba, y suelta la cuerda en algunos momentos, volando libremente por el...aire hasta que se sumerge en el agua en x = 0. Para pequeñas velocidades iniciales, el máximo rango de R se obtiene mediante la liberación de la...cuerda justo por debajo de su punto de inflexión y cayendo casi en línea recta hacia abajo en el agua desde el reposo. Por otra parte, como la velocidad

  18. Applying an Avian Index of Biological Integrity to Assess and Monitor Arid and Semi-arid Riparian Ecosystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    San Jacinto Foothills, Agua Tibia Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, and the Desert Transition (Figure 2). For more complete descriptions of these...San Jacinto Foothills (18), San Jacinto Mountains (7), Agua Tibia Mountains (7), and Desert Transition (20). Avian Community Sampling. Avian...28 -0.91 (P = 0.004) Santa Ana Mountains (16) 22.9 14 - 28 -0.75 (P < 0.001) Agua Tibia Mountains (7) 21.7 20 - 24 -0.79 (P = 0.036) Desert

  19. In vitro gas production of foliage from three browse tree species treated with different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    López, D; Vázquez-Armijo, J F; López-Villalobos, N; Lee-Rangel, H A; Salem, A Z M; Borquez-Gastelum, J L; Domínguez-Vara, I A; Rojo-Rubio, R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization of foliages from three browse trees (Pithecellobium dulce, Heliocarpus velutinus and Guazuma ulmifolia). Mixture of EFE product was added to the leaves of the three browse tree species at three dose levels: 0 (control), 3.5 and 7.0 mg/g of DM. Chemical composition of the foliages, including plant secondary metabolites such as total phenolics (TP), saponins (SAP) and aqueous fraction (AF), was determined. In addition, in vitro assaying of ruminal gas production kinetics was determined for the three browse three foliages treated with EFE. P. dulce had the highest crude protein content (p < 0.05), whereas G. ulmifolia had the highest content of neutral detergent fibre and SAP (p < 0.05) and H. velutinus had the lowest content of TP (p < 0.05). The interaction between tree species and dose level of EFE was significant (p < 0.05) for gas production (GP) at 24 h of incubation, parameters b and c of the accumulated GP curve, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolizable energy (ME). The lowest (p < 0.01) extent of accumulated GP as well as the b and c values occurred in G. ulmifolia at 0 mg EFE/g DM. P. dulce had the highest (p < 0.05) values for ME and SCFA at the highest dose of EFE. Tree species and dose level had significant (p < 0.05) effects on all parameters describing in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization. Addition of EFE improved the fermentation kinetics of the browse species considered in this study.

  20. Medical-Legal Strategies to Improve Infant Health Care: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Sege, Robert; Preer, Genevieve; Morton, Samantha J; Cabral, Howard; Morakinyo, Oluwatomisin; Lee, Vonne; Abreu, Catarina; De Vos, Edward; Kaplan-Sanoff, Margot

    2015-07-01

    Changes in health care delivery create opportunities to improve systems to better meet the needs of low-income families while achieving quality benchmarks. Families of healthy newborns receiving primary care at a single large urban safety-net hospital participated. Intervention families were randomly assigned a family specialist who provided support until the 6-month routine health care visit. The Developmental Understanding and Legal Collaboration for Everyone (DULCE) intervention is based on the Strengthening Families approach and incorporated components of the Healthy Steps and Medical-Legal Partnership models. Medical record reviews determined use of preventive and emergency care. Surveys conducted at baseline, postintervention (6 months), and follow-up (12 months) were used to determine hardship and attainment of concrete supports. Three hundred thirty families participated in the study. At baseline, 73% of families reported economic hardships. Intervention parents had an average of 14 contacts with the family specialist, and 5 hours of total contact time. Intervention infants were more likely to have completed their 6-month immunization schedule by age 7 months (77% vs 63%, P < .005) and by 8 months (88% vs 77%, P < .01). Intervention infants were more likely to have 5 or more routine preventive care visits by age 1 year (78% vs 67%, P < .01) and were less likely to have visited the emergency department by age 6 months (37% vs 49.7%, P < .03). The DULCE intervention accelerated access to concrete resources (P = .029). Assignment to the Project DULCE intervention led to improvements in preventive health care delivery and utilization and accelerated access to concrete supports among low-income families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. 45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work for roadway and roadway visible. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. A Wind-Forced Modeling Study of the Canary Current System from 30 Degrees N to 42.5 Degrees N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    the Portuguese continental margin during the upwelling regime, Grupo de Oceanografia, Laboratorio de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade... dinamica das Aguas costeiras de Portugal. Dissertacao apresentada a Universidade de Lisboa para obtencao do grau de Doutor em Fisica, especializacao

  3. 46. View of access portal holes drilled to place steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View of access portal holes drilled to place steel ties in Pleasant Dam buttresses. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing storage bins. Photographer unknown, c. 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Watchman Robert 'Jerry' Jones at Camp Dyer. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ties and roadway support work. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Detective científica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    La NASA posee muchos detectives que buscan pistas para resolver un misterio como la "detective científica" Monsi Roman. Se asegura de que el agua y el aire a bordo de la Estación Espacial Internaci...

  11. 23. Upstream view of buttress and arch form work and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Upstream view of buttress and arch form work and construction. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: ADWR. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice opening. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in Ohio. Photographer unknown, 1887. Source: William M. Beardsley - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 21. Buttress construction work, buttress at left shows top portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Buttress construction work, buttress at left shows top portion of buttress hollow 'H' design. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 68. Penstock at left with operating wheel mechanism. The two ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Penstock at left with operating wheel mechanism. The two outlets, center and right, have never been used. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are partially visible at far left. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 19. Upstream face of arches and buttresses at west end. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Upstream face of arches and buttresses at west end. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 73. View of canal, gunite lined, with turnout gates. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of canal, gunite lined, with turnout gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice opening at center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 67. View of penstock and housing. Motor at left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. View of penstock and housing. Motor at left is used to operate outlet valve. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at right. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer unknown, October 29, 1926. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 8. William Beardsley standing with his son Robert Beardsley. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William Beardsley standing with his son Robert Beardsley. Photographer unknown, c. early 1920s. Source: William M. Beardsley - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 14. View of construction progress from concrete placement tower. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of construction progress from concrete placement tower. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at center. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Magnesium in tap and bottled mineral water in Spain and its contribution to nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Armijo, Francisco; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Una adecuada ingesta de magnesio condiciona una buena salud ósea y previene y la resistencia a la insulina y la arteriosclerosis. Objetivo: Determinar el contenido en magnesio en aguas de bebida en España y valorar su contribución diaria a las ingestas recomendadas de este mineral. Métodos: En 2012 se analizaron por cromatografía iónica las concentraciones de magnesio de distintas aguas de consumo público en una muestra representativa de 108 poblaciones españolas que abastecen a 21.290.707 personas, así como de 109 aguas minerales naturales embotelladas comercializadas en España (97 españolas y 12 importadas). Resultados: La concentración media de magnesio en aguas de consumo público fue de 14,65±16,23 mg/L (rango: 0,07-70,08 mg/L). En 25 poblaciones el agua contenía 15-45 mg/L de magnesio y en 7 fue superior a 45 mg/L. La concentración media de magnesio de las 97 marcas españolas de aguas fue 16,27 mg/L (rango: 0,11-141,2 mg/L), 33 de ellas contenían 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, mientras que en 4 de ellas era mayor de 45 mg/L. De las 12 marcas importadas, 4 contenían más de 45 mg/L. Asumiendo la cantidad de ingesta de agua recomendada por la EFSA, si el agua contiene 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, ésta aportaría entre el 9 y el 76,5% de la ingesta de magnesio recomendada para los niños de 1-13 años, hasta el 25,7% en adolescentes, entre 7,5 y 25,7% en adultos, y hasta el 27% en lactantes. El agua conteniendo 60 mg/L de magnesio aportaría entre el 30 y el 102% de las recomendaciones según la edad. Discusión: El agua de consumo público de un tercio de ciudades españolas y de aguas minerales naturales puede ser considerada como una fuente complementaria importante de magnesio ingerido.

  1. [TOXIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF FLUORIDE PRESENCE IN BOTTLED WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE CANARY ISLANDS].

    PubMed

    Jáudenes Marrero, Juan Ramón; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Gutiérrez Fernández, Angel José; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Revert Gironés, Consuelo

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el flúor, como hormetina, es necesario en el organismo para evitar las caries, pero en cantidades excesivas puede llevar a efectos tóxicos adversos como la fluorosis dental o la fluorosis invalidante. Así, será importante no sobrepasar de forma crónica las IDR (Ingestas Diarias Recomendadas) para cada rango de edad y sexo. Se asume que la principal fuente de aporte de fluoruros es el agua. Objetivos: establecer las concentraciones de fluoruro en determinadas marcas de agua envasada que se consumen en Canarias, para renovar los datos ya desactualizados, y hacer la correspondiente evaluación del riesgo tóxico. Método: se han utilizado 25 muestras de siete marcas registradas y comercializadas diferentes, siendo analizadas mediante determinación potenciométrica con electrodo ion selectivo de fluoruro. Resultados: todas las marcas de agua analizadas cumplen con los criterios de calidad según la legislación actual española, ninguna puede considerarse “agua fluorada” y todas se pueden usar en la preparación de alimentos infantiles. Además, según las ingestas diarias de agua recomendadas por la EFSA para cada rango de edad, no se supera la IDR para ningún individuo mayor de cuatro años ni para ninguna de las marcas de agua analizadas. Conclusiones: las aguas envasadas producidas en Canarias tienen niveles de fluoruro similares a las producidas en la península (todas en un rango de 0,24 a 0,62 mg/L). Los individuos sobre los que recaen las restricciones más amplias de consumo de agua son los menores de un año, pero en cualquier caso, a medida que el individuo crece va aumentando la permisibilidad del aporte de fluoruros (aumenta hasta los 19 años) y, por tanto, aumenta la variedad de aguas envasadas que se pueden consumir sin superar la IDR. En ciertos lugares de la Comunidad Autónoma Canaria sería recomendable consumir agua envasada respecto al agua de abastecimiento público.

  2. Use of three fodder trees in the feeding of goats in the subhumid tropics in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olivares Perez, Jaime; Aviles Nova, Francisca; Albarran Portillo, Benito; Castelan Ortega, Octavio A; Rojas Hernandez, Saul

    2013-03-01

    Chemical composition, in vitro gas production with and without polyethyleneglycol (PEG-4000 MW), and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) foliage from Pithecellobium dulce, Gliricidia sepium and Haematoxylum brasiletto were determined. The preference test was run for 15 days: the first 10 days as adaption period and the 5 days served as evaluation period. It was conducted in ten developing female Creole goats of 6 months old, weighing 14 ± 2.0 kg in order to determine goat preference for any of the three foliages. Productive performance of 35 male creole kids of 6 months old (14 ± 3.0 kg) was also determined by ad libitum feeding of the foliage of the tree: the 30 and 15 % of each of the P. dulce (T1, T2), G. sepium (T3, T4), and H. brasiletto (T5, T6) foliages were added to the experiment diets, while T7 served as control diet that did not contain any foliage. The crude protein (CP), total phenols (TP), condensed tannins (CT), IVDMD, and IVOMD were different among the foliages. The PEG determined the biological activity of the TP and CT of H. brasiletto. Goats preferred to consume the foliage of P. dulce because of its higher content of CP and IVDMD and low content of TP and CT. In the productive response, dry matter intake (DMI) was higher in kids fed T1 diet and was stimulated by higher IVDMD and IVOMD, which resulted in the higher daily weight gain (DWG). The contribution with TP and CT of H. brasiletto to T5 and T6 and the rejection by the animals of G. sepium in T3 and T4 explain the negative effects on the DMI and the DWG. Findings of the study suggested higher kid performance for P. dulce foliage. Possible attributes may include its better CP, low TP and CT, and higher digestibility.

  3. Automatic start control for a three-phase electric motor using infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique Lima, Mario; Ramírez Arenas, Francisco; Rodríguez Pedroza, Griselda

    2006-02-01

    We introduce equipment for the automatic activation of a three-phase electric motor (1Hp, 3A, 240V AC) using 2 infrared sensors monitored by a Microchip microcontroller PIC16F62x@4Mhz for the control of a filling system. This project was carried out to Fabrica de Chocolates y Dulces Costanzo, where the automatization of cacao grain supply was required for a machine in charge of cleaning the cacao from its rind. This process demanded the monitoring of the filling level to avoid the spill of toasted cacao.

  4. Report by Commander Joint Task Force Eight to the Chairman, United States Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the 1962 Pacific Nuclear Tests (Operation DOMINIC). Enclosure L: Report of Scientific Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-06-04

    Los Alamos, New Mexico with each labora tory providing 12 de- v i ce s . 2. One of t h e primary reasons f o r conducting t h i s test s e r i e...information t o new appl ica t ions . ANNEX R TO APPENDIX A , REPORT OF DULCE EVENT # Design Yield: - Date/Time: 1716002 June 1962 Location...Cal i forn ia o r Kirtland AFB, New Mexico , depending on the laboratory involved. This would have followed preparat ion and mounting of t he

  5. [Seed germination of four tree species from the tropical dry forest of Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vargas Figueroa, Jhon Alexander; Duque Palacio, Olga Lucía; Torres González, Alba Marina

    2015-03-01

    The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30*C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20 degrees C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30 degrees C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of R dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment

  6. Operation Dominic Phase I Final Report JTU 8.4.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-08-01

    of the advance party from Kirtland Air Force Base , New Mexico. Two B-52 aircraft instrumented specifically for research, development and test work...r r iva l of the advance party from Kirtland Air Force Base , New Mexico. Two B-52 a i rcraf t ins t rumented specifically for research...LIi:C CHETCO TANANA 14 ’ [ c.c I-, .L AL:9, TRUCKEE YES 0 %?L 2.: RINCONADA DULCE P E T I T OTTAWI BIGHORN E.l,’LzsmE SUNSET

  7. Investigation of Semiconductor Lasers for Wideband Recording

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    AFB NT 13441. D D C Laboratory Directors’ Fund No. 01737406 Rome Air Development Center Air Force Systems Comnand «Sriffiss Air Force Base , New...N/if0 H DULC I«. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT fo/«M«R«p«»0 M V Distribution limited to U. S. Gov’t agenclea only; test and evaluation; March 1975...exhibited faintly detectable modulation and high base fog levels when exposed and developed in the same manner as AGFA 10E75. Experiments with

  8. TRADOC RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) Data Evaluation System (TRADES). Part 4. Alternative Concepts of Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-05

    SoreStat/Analysis Stat/Analysis User oduleuser Module____ dulC Figure 2-3. TRADES Request Flow 2-6 6. Point of contact 7. If automated data base : a...future data bases . > I , DD Fo - 1473 EDITION" OF NOVřISOBSOLETEU S JA 73,nsnNoNo s, ,sE, UNCLASS I FIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIONf OF THIS PAGE (Whn Date...use the U.S. Army Logistics Center Planning Factors Data Base (PFDB) mini-computer Part V: System Technical Paper (STP). The STP documents the data

  9. Two Counter-Rotating Vortices Approaching a Free Surface in a Viscous Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    approach and they can display the phenomenon of "rebounding." The numerical scheme is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and uses boundary-fitted...display the phenomenon of "rebounding.- The numerical scheme is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and uses bcundary-fitted coordinates to accommodate...allows thle co mputation to he dlone onl a tixed grid in the trans brined plane even though the physical g~rid lis ill motion1 duLc to thle movemient

  10. Third-Party Opportunism and the (In)Efficiency of Public Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-29

    Cambridge University Press. Iacoviello, M. and M. Tommasi (2002). Diagnóstico institucional de sistemas de servicio civil: caso Argentina. In Diálogo...Savedoff (2000). Oportunismo gubernamental y suministro de agua. In P. T. Spiller and W. D. Savedoff (Eds.), Agua perdida: compromisos institucionales para...el suministro de servicios públicos sanitarios, pp. 1–39. Washington, D.C.: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo . Spiller, P. T. and M. Tommasi (2007

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Nitrocellulose to Aquatic Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabeana fios- aguae ; the chlcrophyte (green) Selenastrum capricornutum; and the chrysophyte (diatom) Navicula pelliculcsa...pelliculosa and of optical density for A. flos- aguae were performed. Chloro- phyll a analyses were conducted according to the procedures of Strickland...vacuum flask and taken to complete dryness under vacuum. The residue was treated with 4 mi of acetic acid, diluted to 100 mi with 0.5% w/v of

  12. Area Handbook Series: Portugal, A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Aguas Livres ) that brought water to Lisbon. Jodo encouraged the development of decorative arts such as furniture design, clock- making, and tapestry...Energy. 0 sector empresarial do es- tado na indulstria e energia : Andlise e propostas de atuWdo. Lisbon: 1984. __ ._ Presid~ncia do Conselho. IV Piano de...xxv; reversed, 98 appointments by, 188, 190-91, 266, Aqueduct of Free Waters, 39 268, 269; committees of, 189; constit- Aqueduto das Aguas Livres . Se

  13. POTENTIAL Use of Digital Computer Ground Water Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico , as part of a water supply study of the Albuquerque Greater Urban Area (AGUA). Although the material...Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico , as part of a water supply study of the Albuquerque Greater Urban Area (AGUA). Although the m terial pre- sented herein...Albuquerque Area, Bernalillo ard Sandoval Counties, New Mexico : New Mexico State Engineer Technical Report 21, 117 p. Holcomb Research Institute , June

  14. Nanostructure and composition of bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Soldati, A. L.; Wirth, R.; Huth, J.; Wehrmeister, U.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    Shells and pearls of unionid mussels (Hyriopsis cumingii, Margaritifera margaritifera, Diplodon chilensis patagonicus) were studied by high resolution microbeam methods and -computer tomography to gather insight into the nanostructure and chemical composition of nacre and prism layers. Natural and cultured pearls are formed by many mollusc species and their generation is very similar to that of shells resulting in identical prismatic and nacreous structures of shells and pearls. Basic difference is, however that pearl culturing methods induce biomineralisation of CaCO3 around a crystalline bead which results in a reverse structural organisation compared to bivalve shells. Bivalve shell growth starts from a thick organic matrix (the periostracum; Eyster and Morse, 1984) which is followed towards the inside by two variously thick layers consisting of prismatic CaCO3 aggregations and layers of CaCO3 platelets, respectively. Platelets and prisms are individually covered by a chitinous organic matrix which lends structural support and is thought to exert control over the mineralization process. The minerals within the organic sheaths are highly-aligned poly-twinned crystals with a slightly distorted lattice due to inclusions of organic molecules (Pokroy et al., 2006). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Microscopy analyses of the shells and pearls show that both structures, prisms and platelets, consist of nanometre-sized organic membrane-coated granules of CaCO3 (Jacob et al., 2008). In the vicinity of the periostracum, the granules consist of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), but the crystallinity increases with increasing distance from the periostracum. The transition from disordered (amorphous) to crystalline CaCO3 is gradual within a few micrometers and coincides with a decrease in porosity. Concentrations of sulphur and phosphorus are higher in ACC than in aragonite indicating a

  15. Rb-Cs ratio as an indicator of fish diet in lakes of the Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D; Macchi, P J; Vigliano, P; Arribére, M; Colombo, J C

    2006-01-01

    The ratios of Rb to Cs contents were studied in five fish species from seven lakes located in the Patagonia Andean Range, Argentina in order to trace fish diet. The species studied were native velvet catfish (Diplomistes viedmensis) and creole perch (Percichthys trucha), and exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and brook trout (Salvenilus fontinalis). Rainbow trout specimens from two farms were also studied, as well as fish food items and native mussels (Diplodon chilensis). Rb and Cs concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A positive correlation of Cs concentration in the muscle of velvet catfish with fish length was observed, probably associated with the long biological half-life of this element in this species, whereas the Rb concentration remained constant, hence inhibiting the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a tracer in this case. Seasonal variations observed for rainbow trout and Cs concentration background bias in one of the lakes studied are also a limiting factor to the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a diet tracer. Rb-Cs ratios allowed clear differentiation of rainbow trout raised in farms from the natural specimens that lived in the same environment, in agreement with Rb-Cs ratios determined in both diets. Rb-Cs ratios in rainbow trout showed significant differences between Rivadavia and Futalaufquen lakes compared to Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes, which could be associated with a higher participation of plankton in the diet in the first case. No relevant variations in Rb-Cs ratios of brown trout were observed, probably because of the similarity in the diet.

  16. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species ('Candidatus Scalindua profunda'), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  17. The man swimming against the stream knows the strength of it: Hydraulics and social relations in an Argentinean irrigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits W.; Nooijen, Ronald van

    In this paper we discuss hydraulic behavior of irrigation infrastructure within a context of spatially distributed power relations in an Argentinean irrigation system. In the Río Dulce basin, the irrigation area known as the Proyecto Río Dulce (PRD, command area 350,000 hectares) is the main irrigated area. An interesting characteristic of the PRD is that the larger landowners are mainly situated in tail end areas. Despite this potentially disadvantageous position, downstream farmers do not encounter problems in terms of water availability. This should not be regarded as self-evident: the hydraulic properties of the canals induce a need for downstream farmers to take deliberate action to ensure proper water delivery to their farms. When upstream farmers do not irrigate, too much water can flow downstream; when they irrigate too much, or manipulate cross regulators, downstream water scarcity can be the result; when canals are not maintained, extensive plant growth will increase hydraulic resistance and decrease discharges. It is not a coincidence that the downstream farmers invest heavily in canal operation and maintenance. These investments appear to be appropriate, as larger farmers tend to irrigate much more on average, compared to the smaller farmers upstream. The Argentinean case brings up issues on the structuring effects of irrigation systems, which need stronger theoretical understanding.

  18. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Four Corners: Jicarillas look for gas in exotic test of coal beds in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Jicarilla Energy Company, owned and operated by the Jicarilla Apache Indian tribe, plans to be come an active operating company with an exploratory venture near Dulce, New Mexico. The company is planning 2 wells that, if successful, would supply valuable information to researchers and natural gas to a portion of the Dulce community. The project is an exotic test of coal beds in the Fruitland and Middle Mesaverde formations for gas. Although coal beds are not considered to be primary commercial drilling objectives in the area, there are a number of wells farther south and west in the San Juan basin that appear to produce from coal seams as well as from interbedded sands. Although the Jicarilla project is not expected to result in highly productive wells it could aid researchers who are evaluating coal beds in a number of areas for occluded gas content. The 2 wells planned are apparently some of the first to be drilled with the coal beds as primary objective.

  20. Aphelochaeta (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with a description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2016-04-12

    Five new species of bitentaculate Cirratulidae belonging to the genus Aphelochaeta are herein described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, all from shallow subtidal depths. Aphelochaeta antelonga sp. nov. is characterized by a long biannulate peristomium and fibrillated capillary setae and is from 11-18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta guimondi sp. nov., with a wide dorsal trough in the thorax and hirsute capillaries (visible using SEM), is described from 11-26 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta praeacuta sp. nov., with its first peristomial annulation extending as a dorsal crest over the second annulation and first setiger, was collected from 11-28 m in Bahia Culebra. Aphelochaeta striata sp. nov., collected from 11-28 m in the Gulf of Nicoya, is recognized by its narrow body and the transverse blue stripes across the venter of setigers 5-8 produced with methyl green stain. Aphelochaeta zebra sp. nov., collected from a coral reef in Golfo Dulce, is characterized by its expanded posterior end and the darkly staining intersegmental regions using methyl green stain. Additionally, A. glandaria Blake, 1996, a species reportedly with a widespread geographic distribution (Blake, 1996), was also encountered subtidally from the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce.

  1. Promotion of water consumption in elementary school children in San Diego, USA and Tlaltizapan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Moreno-Saracho, Jessica E; Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of water may help promote health and prevent obesity in children by decreasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. This study used evidence-based strategies to increase water consumption in Mexican-American and Mexican children. In 2012, two schools in San Diego, USA and two other in Tlaltizapan, Mexico were recruited to Agua para Niños (Water for Kids), a program designed to promote water consumption among elementary grade students. Guided by operant psychology, the intervention focused on school and classroom activities to encourage water consumption. One control and one intervention school in each country were included. Agua para Niños resulted in increases in observed water consumption and bottle possession among US and Mexican students. Teacher receptivity to the program was very positive in both countries. Agua para Niños yielded sufficiently positive behavioral changes to be used in a future fully randomized design, and to contribute to school nutrition policy changes.

  2. Rainfall-runoff modeling of recent hydroclimatic change in a subtropical lake catchment: Laguna Mar Chiquita, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troin, Magali; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Piovano, Eduardo; Sylvestre, Florence

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThe 1970s abrupt lake level rise of Laguna Mar Chiquita in central Argentina was shown to be driven by an increase in the Rio Sali-Dulce discharge outflowing from the northern part of the lake catchment. This regional hydrological change was consistent with the 20th century hydroclimatic trends observed in southeastern South America. However, little is known about the impacts of climate or land cover changes on this regional hydrological change causing the sharp lake level rise. To address this question, the present study aims to provide an integrated basin-lake model. We used the physically-based SWAT model in order to simulate streamflow in the Sali-Dulce Basin. The ability of SWAT to simulate non-stationary hydrological conditions was evaluated by a cross-calibration exercise. Based on observed daily meteorological data over 1973-2004, two successive 9-year periods referred to as wet (P1976-1985 = 1205 mm/yr) and dry (P1986-1995 = 796 mm/yr) periods were selected. The calibration yielded similar Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at the monthly time scale for both periods (NSEwet = 0.86; NSEdry = 0.90) supporting the model's ability to adapt its structure to changing climatic situations. The simulation was extended in scarce data conditions over 1931-1972 and the simulation of monthly discharge values was acceptable (NSE = 0.71). When precipitation in the model was increased until it reach the change observed in the 1970s (ΔP/P¯=22%), the resulting increase in streamflow was found to closely match the 1970s hydrological change (ΔQ/Q¯=45%). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the land cover changes had a minor impact on the 1970s hydrological changes in the Sali-Dulce Basin. Integrating the SWAT simulations within the lake model over 1973-2004 provided lake level variations similar to those obtained using observed discharge values. Over the longer period, going back to 1931, the main features of lake levels were still adequately reproduced, which

  3. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  4. Riego y fertirriego

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2012-01-01

    El agua es el factor que más puede afectar el crecimiento y la sanidad de las plantas por sí solo. Es esencial para casi todos los procesos vegetales: la fotosíntesis, el transporte de nutrientes, el crecimiento y el desarrollo celular. De hecho, del 80 al 90% del peso de un plantín es agua, por lo cual el manejo del riego es una de las tareas más trascendentes dentro...

  5. Combating Terrorism: A Socio-Economic Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    S . N av y (S te ph an ie L yn ne J oh ns on ) Byrd ndupress.ndu.edu issue 41, 2 d quarter 2006 / JFQ        17 economy of more than $13...companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a world leader...B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez— Aguas de Amazonas Water for All in

  6. Public health assessment for petitioned Phelps Dodge Corp Douglas Reduction Works, Douglas, Cochise County, Arizona, Region 9. Cerclis No. AZD008397143. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Phelps-Dodge site, a former copper-smelting operation just outside Douglas and possibly Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. This site contributed to lead-contaminated surface soils in residential areas in Douglas. Exposure to the lead-contaminated soils may have contributed and/or caused elevated blood levels in children living in both Douglas, AZ and Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. Past emissions from the smelter included arsenic, lead, sulfur dioxide, inhalable particulate matter, and other heavy metals. The levels detected by air monitoring were elevated above health guidelines.

  7. Estimating Population Density of the San Martin Titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in Peru Using Vocalisations.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Silvy M; García-Suikkanen, Carolina; Tello-Alvarado, Julio C; Vermeer, Jan; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the population density of the critically endangered Callicebus oenanthe in the Ojos de Agua Conservation Concession, a dry forest area in the department of San Martin, Peru. Results showed significant differences (p < 0.01) in group densities between forest boundaries (16.5 groups/km2, IQR = 21.1-11.0) and forest interior (4.0 groups/km2, IQR = 5.0-0.0), suggesting the 2,550-ha area harbours roughly 1,150 titi monkeys. This makes Ojos de Agua an important cornerstone in the conservation of the species, because it is one of the largest protected areas where the species occurs.

  8. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of celery and white mustard in food.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Magdalena; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-11-01

    The developed duplex real-time PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of traces of potentially allergenic white mustard (Sinapis alba) and celery roots (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), celery stalks (A. g. var. dulce) and leaf celery (A. g. var. secalinum). The duplex assay does not show any cross-reactivity with 64 different biological species, including various members of the Brassicaceae and Apiaceae family. In raw model sausages spiked with white mustard and celery roots, the LOD was found to be 0.001% white mustard and 0.005% celery. In model sausages brewed at 75-78°C for 15 min the LOD was found to be 0.005% white mustard and 0.005% celery. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to check if commercial food products are labelled in compliance with the legal regulations.

  9. Two color morphs of the pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, from different locations of Costa Rica: snake venomics, toxicity, and neutralization by antivenom.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Bruno; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Solórzano, Alejandro; Ureña-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Montes, María Laura; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-05-30

    The yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura, is the most broadly distributed snake species. Despite being endowed with a highly lethal venom, a proteomic analysis of its toxin composition was unavailable. The venoms of specimens collected in Golfo de Papagayo and Golfo Dulce (Costa Rica), where two distinctive color morphs occur, were chromatographically compared. The latter inhabits a fjord-like gulf where the transit of oceanic sea snakes into and from the basin is restricted, thus possibly affecting gene flow. RP-HPLC evidenced a conserved venom protein profile in both populations, despite their divergent color phenotypes. Following a trend observed in other sea snakes, P. platura venom is relatively simple, being composed of proteins of the three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), 5'-nucleotidase, and metalloproteinase families. The first three groups represent 49.9%, 32.9%, and 9.1% of total venom protein, respectively. The most abundant component (~26%) is pelamitoxin (P62388), a short-chain 3FTx, followed by a major basic PLA2 (~20%) and a group of three isoforms of CRISPs (~9%). Whereas isolated pelamitoxin was highly lethal to mice, neither the PLA2 nor the CRISP fraction caused death. However, the PLA2 rapidly increased plasma creatine kinase activity after intramuscular injection, indicating its myotoxic action. Differing from myotoxic PLA2s of viperids, this PLA2 was not cytolytic to murine myogenic cells in vitro, suggesting possible differences in its mechanism of action. The median lethal dose (LD50) estimates for P. platura crude venom in mice and in three species of fishes did not differ significantly. The sea snake antivenom manufactured by CSL Ltd. (Australia), which uses Enhydrina schistosa as immunogen, cross-recognized the three major components of P. platura venom and, accordingly, neutralized the lethal activity of crude venom and pelamitoxin, therefore being of potential usefulness in

  10. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  11. Blast Predictions at Christmas Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGEI5CY Jack W. Reed and Hugh W. Church Sandia Laboratory Albuquerque, New Mexico & DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Wl . . j i. n...Laboratory Albuquerque, New Mexico August I963 UNCLASSIFIED wr-2057 3-k ■*^«»<*ig£*g,j£; UNCLASSIFIED ABSTRACT Blast pressures from the Dominic...176.9 0.1530 0.1530 O.O696 6.67 J 176.6 0.I3II O.I366 0.0555 5-93 20 - Dulce A 54.1 0.554 0.402 0.114 1.96 M 51.4 - O.V79 0.107 1.79 L 135.6 O

  12. Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribére, María; Bubach, Débora; Vigliano, Pablo; Rizzo, Andrea; Alonso, Marcelo; Sánchez, Ricardo

    2005-01-05

    The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by (210)Pb and (137)Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as suspended load collected from three sites of lake Nahuel Huapi. The biota studied were the native mussel Diplodon chilensis (digestive gland and total soft tissues pooled samples) and five species of fish, two native and three introduced (liver and muscle pooled samples). Ag contents were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The upper layers of the sediment cores sampled in lake Nahuel Huapi were enriched in Ag contents compared to deep layers in accumulation periods corresponding to the second half of the 20th century, but this enrichment was neither observed in the reference lake Traful, nor in lakes Espejo Chico and Escondido. Ag was enriched over background level (0.1 microg g(-1)) also in suspended load collected in lake Nahuel Huapi. Ag fluxes to sediments were computed for suspended load and enriched sediment core layers. Highest Ag fluxes, from 350 to 470 microg m(-2) year(-1), were measured in Nahuel Huapi near the site where the liquid effluents of the Bariloche city sewage treatment plant are released to the lake. The spatial distribution of the other Ag fluxes suggests that this is the main source of Ag to lake Nahuel Huapi and lateral transport occurs within the water body. Ag concentrations on biota samples were consistent with these conclusions. Mussels collected in lake Nahuel Huapi showed higher Ag concentrations than in the other lakes, especially when compared to lake Traful. Ag contents in mussels were strongly associated with sediment intake, but enriched probably due to sediment grain size sorting during the intake processes

  13. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  14. A review of the Tagus river tufa deposits (central Spain): age and palaeoenvironmental record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Delgado, A.; Reyes, E.; Díaz-Bautista, A.

    2009-05-01

    Here we determined the aminostratigraphy and aminochronology of tufa deposits located in central Spain associated with the Tagus river and some of its tributaries (the Henares, Dulce, Cifuentes, Ruguilla, Trabaque, Escabas and Guadiela rivers). We used aspartic acid and glutamic acid racemization ratios obtained from the ostracod Herpetocypris reptans. Tufa accumulations were found to be of different origins; those in the Henares, Cifuentes and Ruguilla rivers are of paludal origin, while those in the Dulce and Tagus rivers are of fluvial origin. A generally good correspondence was found between the age of the deposits and the position of the terraces above the current thalweg. However, the geomorphological evolution of the Henares, Cifuentes and Ruguilla rivers (infilling of pre-existing valleys) has produced deposits of distinct ages at the same elevation above the current river thalweg, and sometimes, older tufas are located below younger ones. We distinguished eight main tufa-deposition episodes. These occurred predominantly during even Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS), at 406 ± 90 (MIS 11), 264 ± 68 (MIS 7e), 189 ± 40 (MIS 7a), 130 ± 27 (MIS 6-5e), 101 ± 25 (MIS 5c), 32 ± 10 (MIS 3), 14 ± 4 (MIS 1), and 6 ± 2 (MIS 1) ka. These results are in agreement with the dating of similar deposits from nearby areas and other zones of Spain and Europe. The tufa stable-isotope compositions were similar to other examples in central and southern Spain and their plot falls in the same field as other lowland European stream tufas. Oxygen stable isotopes were influenced mainly by temperature and rainfall. The δ13C values indicated a major effect of soil-derived carbon rather than carbon from the catchment area, but moderated in each tributary by evaporation, flow regime and biological effects (photosynthesis).

  15. Adherence to dietary recommendations among Spanish and immigrant adolescents living in Spain; the AFINOS study.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Veiga, Oscar Luis; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Regidor, Enrique; Martínez, David; Marcos, Ascensión; Calle, María Elisa

    2013-11-01

    Objetivos: Este estudio compara la adherencia a las recomendaciones nutricionales de adolescentes inmigrantes y españoles residentes en la Comunidad de Madrid, España. Se comparó el consumo de ocho grupos principales de alimentos (verduras, frutas, pan/cereales, carne, huevos, pescado, legumbres, leche/derivados lácteos) incluyendo el consumo excesivo y deficiente de huevos, carne y pescado. También fue valorado el consumo excesivo de dulces y bebidas azucaradas. Posteriormente se analizó la influencia del tiempo de residencia en España sobre los mencionados hábitos de dieta. Material y método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en el que fueron recogidos datos auto-reportados durante el periodo comprendido entre Noviembre 2007 y Febrero 2008. Se obtuvo una muestra representativa de adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre 13 y 17 años (n=2081, 1055 mujeres) residentes en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los participantes pertenecían a centros de enseñanza secundaria seleccionados aleatoriamente según la distribución geográfica de los adolescentes en la región. Resultados: Los inmigrantes adolescentes presentaron una mayor probabilidad de no cumplir las recomendaciones nutricionales para el consume de carne, pescado, legumbres, pan/cereales y leche/derivados, de consumir una cantidad insuficiente de pescado y más dulces y bebidas azucaradas que sus compañeros españoles. Los adolescentes españoles mostraron una mayor probabilidad de no cumplir con la recomendación establecida para verduras. El tiempo de residencia afectó débilmente los hábitos de dieta, asociando aspectos tanto positivos como negativos. Conclusiones: La probabilidad de no cumplir las recomendaciones nutricionales fue mayor entre los adolescentes inmigrantes con excepción del consumo de frutas y verduras.

  16. [FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH A HEALTY BODY WEIGHT IN CHILEAN STUDENTS OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Fernández Godoy, Eloina; Fuentes Fuentes, Jessica; Hidalgo Fernández, Andrea; Quintana Muñoz, Carol; Yunge Hidalgo, Wilma; Fehrman Rosas, Pamela; Delgado Sánchez, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: determinar los patrones de alimentación y asociar el consumo de diversos alimentos con el estado nutricional de estudiantes universitarios chilenos de Nutrición y Dietética. Material y métodos: estudio transversal. Se evaluaron 634 estudiantes de Nutrición y Dietética de la Universidad San Sebastián de las ciudades de Santiago, Concepción, Valdivia y Puerto Montt. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta alimentaria y se le realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: el 68% de los estudiantes consume desayuno diariamente, 36,1% y 37,1% consume las porciones recomendadas de frutas y verduras, el 64,9% consume bebidas azucaradas frecuentemente. Se observa una asociación entre un buen peso corporal y el consumo de verduras (≥ 2 porciones/día) OR = 0,662 (0,440-0,996), alimentos integrales OR = 0,474 (0,224-1,002) y un bajo consumo de frituras y snack dulces OR = 0,643 (0,406- 1,019) y OR = 0,545 (0,360-0,825), respectivamente. Conclusiones: los estudiantes presentan una ingesta insuficiente de alimentos saludables y un elevado consumo de alimentos poco saludables, además se observa que la ingesta de verduras y cereales integrales, así como un bajo consumo de frituras y bocadillos dulces se asocian a un estado nutricional normal en los estudiantes evaluados.

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  18. [THE COMPARISON BETWEEN FOOD HABITS AND PHYSICAL CONDITION AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND OTHER UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Valdes-Badilla, Pablo; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Durán-Agüero, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los estudiantes universitarios manifiestan mayor susceptibilidad a la hora de adquirir hábitos inadecuados durante su formación, que podrían asentarse a lo largo de su vida. Objetivo: comparar los hábitos alimentarios y la condición física entre estudiantes de Educación Física y otras carreras universitarias de la misma universidad y sede. Métodos: la muestra incluyó a 343 estudiantes, hombres (70%), 212 estudiantes pertenecientes a la carrera de Educación Física (EF) y 131 estudiantes a otras carreras (OC) de la Universidad Autónoma de Chile, sede Temuco. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta de hábitos alimentarios validada y pruebas de condición física. Resultados: los estudiantes varones de EF presentan una menor frecuencia para el consumo de lácteos, verduras y alcohol (p < 0,05); en cambio las mujeres de EF presentan mayor frecuencia de consumo de comida casera, galletas y snacks dulces (p < 0,05). Mientras que la condición física, como es de esperar, alcanza mejor rendimiento en los estudiantes de EF. Conclusión: al parecer no existen grandes diferencias entre los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes de EF y los de OC de la misma universidad, mientras que la condición física es concordante al mayor estímulo que reciben los estudiantes de EF en su formación académica, que les serviría de excusa para consumir mayor cantidad de bebidas azucaradas, comida basura, galletas y snacks dulces.

  19. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters.

  20. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable.

  1. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  2. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    morning dives. Then the boat heads towards Scripps Pier (Figure 13). Tom Lorensen joins the team there, swimming out to the boat for the afternoon...Oceanside Pier to south of Agua Hedionda Lagoon VI Batiquitos Lagoon VII San Elijo Lagoon VIII San Dieguito River IX South of Solidad Valley, near Torrey

  3. 78 FR 36763 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...-3143-006. Applicants: NRG Power Marketing LLC, NRG Power Marketing LLC, Agua Caliente Solar, LLC... Devon LLC, GenCon Energy LLC, GenCon Middletown LLC, Green Mountain Energy Company, High Plains Ranch II... Status of NRG Power Marketing LLC, et al. Filed Date: 6/11/13. Accession Number: 20130611-5148. Comments...

  4. International Aid Statistics: World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-31

    Each 0 0 00 0 ~/ Excludes Theatre Transfers. See Appendix A for sources and coverage • . . : . ~J Nicar- agua 14 0 0 0 0 14 4 18 311 310...cereal products 615 Susar, chocolate and saccharine products 619 ~ther Foodstuffs not classified above 620 Agricultural Products Other Than

  5. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Report. Volume IIB. Gila Bend Group and White Sands Missile Range Extension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-07

    SbdokMbsmn Trigo Mountains V-erckMbsmn Chocolate Mountains V bedrock/d basement:11Castle Dome Mountains V bedrock/G basemebt Palomas Mountain V...are: (1) portions of the San Andrea* systaft 11n greater than 100 nm to the northwest; (2) the Agua -640 Slanc fut lying approximately __nm to the

  6. 78 FR 59662 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Marketing LLC, Agua Caliente Solar, LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Avenal Park..., NRG Solar Alpine LLC, NRG Solar Avra Valley LLC, NRG Solar Blythe LLC, NRG Solar Borrego I LLC, NRG Solar Roadrunner LLC, NRG Sterlington Power LLC, NRG Wholesale Generation LP, OSWEGO HARBOR POWER LLC...

  7. Enhancing Command Communications and Innovation with SAINT:Semantics, Adaptation, and Influence in Networked Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Goldberg, K. Sastry, and T.-L. Yu, Performance analyses of factorization based on Gaussian PDF in RECGA. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary...keynote], Congresso Mexicano dc Com- putation Evolutiva (CONCEV), Aguas Calientes, Mexico, May, 2005. Evolutionary Tools for Human-Innovation and

  8. Hurricane Havens Handbook for the North Atlantic Ocean. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-28

    which crosses central southern Florida. The 72 hour position is represented, in general, by an arc from the Yucatan Peninsula across Cuba, thence...3,625 ft) in the east, and the Serra de Agua de Pau (3,114 ft) in the center. There is a gap about 5 n mi wide between the western and central massifs

  9. A Strategic Examination of the Punitive Expedition into Mexico, 1916-1917

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    southwest of El Paso, Texas, in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. On 1 November, near the border town of Agua Prieta, 11 Villa’s army was again...Guatemala, Yucatan , or South America; are you going to go after him?” The Secretary replied “Well, no, I am not.” Scott suggested “That is not what you

  10. PFOA y PFOS - PREGUNTAS Y RESPUESTAS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preguntas y respuestas sobre la decisión de la EPA de publicar avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estat

  11. 76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto.... Contiguous Municipalities (Economic Injury Loans Only): Puerto Rico: Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Catano, Ceiba...

  12. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    inclinacion transversal de las W ater. aguas atlanticas y Mediterraneas en el Estrecho de Gibraltar. Boletin del Instituto Espaiol de X1. References...gyre in the Alboran Sea. Jour- Parrilla, 6. (1983b). Mar de Alboran. Situacion del nal of Geophysical Researcj 84(C7):3733-3742. giro anticihonico en

  13. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  14. In situ enzyme aided adsorption of soluble xylan biopolymers onto cellulosic material.

    PubMed

    Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, J F; van Zyl, W H

    2016-06-05

    The functional properties of cellulose fibers can be modified by adsorption of xylan biopolymers. The adsorption is improved when the degree of biopolymers substitution with arabinose and 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups, is reduced. α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and α-d-glucuronidase (AguA) enzymes were applied for side group removal, to increase adsorption of xylan from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) bagasse (BH), bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) (BM), Pinus patula (PP) and Eucalyptus grandis (EH) onto cotton lint. The AguA treatment increased the adsorption of all xylans by up to 334%, whereas, the AbfB increased the adsorption of the BM and PP by 31% and 44%, respectively. A combination of AguA and AbfB treatment increased the adsorption, but to a lesser extent than achieved with AguA treatment. This indicated that the removal of the glucuronic acid side groups provided the most significant increase in xylan adsorption to cellulose, in particular through enzymatic treatment.

  15. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

  16. Staff Development: Finding the Right Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standerfer, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, when the author joined the staff of Agua Fria High School in Phoenix, Arizona, as an assistant principal, she was excited to find that the students' school day started an hour and a half later than normal each Wednesday to provide staff development time for the teaching staff. That first year, however, neither the principal, Bryce…

  17. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  18. Proceedings of a Seminar on Water Quality Data Collection and Management, 25-26 January 1977, Denver, Colorado.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    particularly zinc and fluoride, which severely damaged aquatic life in the St. Mary River and adversely affected benthic organisms in the Kootenai...did occur in Lake Koocanusa. Massive surface scums of Alphanizomenon flos- aguae , a blue-green algae characteristic of eutrophic waters, covered large

  19. Vinegar as a disarming agent to prevent further discharge of the nematocysts of the stinging hydromedusa Olindias sambaquiensis.

    PubMed

    Mianzan, H W; Fenner, P J; Cornelius, P F; Ramírez, F C

    2001-07-01

    Olindias sambaquiensis, known as agua viva, is an endemic hydromedusa that is distributed from latitude 23 degrees to 42 degrees south in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is known to cause severe stings. This is the first report of the use of vinegar in disarming O sambaquiensis nematocysts and includes preliminary observations on its use in managing the stings of hydromedusae.

  20. 77 FR 7600 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Restoration Design Energy Project--Agua Caliente Solar Energy Zone in Yuma County, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land... years. This is for the purpose of protecting potential sites for future solar energy development while... Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) in the RDEP. The analysis will establish whether some or all of these lands are...

  1. Modeling the Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the Northern Gulf of California Salinity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    Schwartzlose (1979), Masas de agua del Golfo de California, Cienc . Mar., 6, 43–63. Argote, M. L., A. Amador, M. F. Lavı’n, and J. R. Hunter (1995...entrance of the Gulf of California, Mexico, Cienc . Mar., 26, 561–583. Enfield, D. B. (1987), The intraseasonal oscillation in eastern Pacific sea levels

  2. Rainwater Harvesting for Military Installations -The Time is Now

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Catchment structure evidence dates back to third millennium B.C. • Negev Desert, Greece, Italy, Egypt, Turkey, Mexico • In U.S. – Historic evidence...WATER NO TOME El AGUA .. US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center Mitchell Physics RWH 386,800 GPY AC 1,058,300 GPY

  3. 78 FR 26023 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...-2742-002; ER11-2784-002; ER11-2805-002; ER10-3143-004. Applicants: NRG Power Marketing LLC, Agua...-1334-000. Applicants: Power Network New Mexico, LLC. Description: Power Network New Mexico MBRA...: Public Service Company of New Mexico. Description: Concurrence with APS Service Agreement No. 193 to be...

  4. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-15

    Agency, 1995. CASA, Flight Manual to Operators CASA 212 S43 Aircraft, Spain. Comando Naval de Operaciones , Venezuelan Navy, Manual de Doctrina de...Empleo del Comando de la Aviaci6n Naval (MAN-DC-CNAOP-0004), 2001. Comando Naval de Operaciones Venezuelan Navy. Observatorio Naval Cajigal, Aguas Marinas

  5. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  6. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  7. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  8. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  9. Comunidades de la Cuenca Baja del Río Merrimack

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lista de todas las comunidades que se incluyen en los límites 8, 10 y 12 del código de unidades hidrológicas (HUC) para la cuenca del río Merrimack y las ubicaciones de la ciudad de las estaciones de control de calidad del agua de la EPA.

  10. 77 FR 74652 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the...; ER10-2605-004. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Topaz Solar...

  11. Misión de operaciones en ambientes extremos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ¿En qué lugar del planeta se puede entrenar un astronauta en un entorno similar al espacio? ¿Qué les parece bajo el agua? NEEMO es un proyecto que envía a grupos de astronautas, ingenieros, médicos...

  12. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  13. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  14. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  15. 4. William Beardsley standing atop diversion dam. East cableway tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. William Beardsley standing atop diversion dam. East cableway tower and construction camp, Camp Dyer are visible in the foreground. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903 Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Introduction, establishment and dispersal in Mexico of the wasp Tetramesa romana, biological control agent of the giant reed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The arundo wasp, Tetramesa romana, is a specialist, plant-feeding insect biological control agent for the invasive weed - Arundo donax, also known as giant reed, carrizo cane, and in Mexico, carrizo gigante and el ladron de agua. This weed, which is native to Spain, grows along the banks of rivers, ...

  17. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  18. Staff Development: Finding the Right Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standerfer, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, when the author joined the staff of Agua Fria High School in Phoenix, Arizona, as an assistant principal, she was excited to find that the students' school day started an hour and a half later than normal each Wednesday to provide staff development time for the teaching staff. That first year, however, neither the principal, Bryce…

  19. Toxic hepatopathy in sheep associated with the ingestion of the legume Tephrosia cinerea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A disease known as water belly (barriga d’agua), characterized by chronic progressive ascites, affects sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The objectives of this investigation were to study the disease and to determine its cause. Only sheep grazing for long periods in pastures where...

  20. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program Industry Activity Inventory, Nevada-Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-02

    Agua Caliente Existing 150 gpm *One of five sites shown on Plate II may be the site of this project. There are also three additional sites outside the...SOURCE: Wells WATER RECIRCULATED: 80%, hopefully WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK AGRICULTURE OTHER ? OPERATION - REOPENED: Reopened NEW: WATER...year _________ TYPE OF BENEFICIAL USE: __ * ~~WATER SOURCE: ____-____ WATER RECIRCULATED: ___ _____ WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK ___AGRICULTURE

  1. A Statistical Analysis of Terrorism and Instability in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    C-3 C.1O.FA for Nica-. agua .. .. .. .. .... .... ...... .... .... ...... .... .... ....... C-3 C.l1.FA for Panama...are: Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front (CERF). It was formed in 1983. It has an estimated mem- bership of less than 20 activists. No external sponsors

  2. 63. Upstream face of Waddell Dam as viewed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Upstream face of Waddell Dam as viewed from the west abutment. Crane at center is used to service the penstock intake. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 18. Upstream face of arches, concrete placing tower is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Upstream face of arches, concrete placing tower is at far right. Tower at center was used to convey material. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 29. View of construction shops and housing from west abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of construction shops and housing from west abutment. River bed, foreground, downstream from dam site, being excavated for aggregate material. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 53. Humbug Creek looking downstream from Humbug Diversion Dam. Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Humbug Creek looking downstream from Humbug Diversion Dam. Retaining wall for canal is visible beginning at left center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 71. Close up view of downstream view of four large ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Close up view of downstream view of four large taintor gates and section for sector gate (now removed). Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at right and concrete weir at left added later. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant is at right, west tower and placement tower boom are visible. Photographer unknown, November 24, 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Malaria transmission in two localities in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dantur Juri, María J; Zaidenberg, Mario; Claps, Guillermo L; Santana, Mirta; Almirón, Walter R

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that affects people globally. The influence of environmental conditions in the patterns of temporal distribution of malaria vectors and the disease has been studied in different countries. In the present study, ecological aspects of the malaria vector Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis and their relationship with climatic variables, as well as the seasonality of malaria cases, were studied in two localities, El Oculto and Aguas Blancas, in north-western Argentina. Methods The fluctuation of An. pseudopunctipennis and the malaria cases distribution was analysed with Random Effect Poisson Regression. This analysis takes into account the effect of each climatic variable on the abundance of both vector and malaria cases, giving as results predicted values named Incidence Rate Radio. Results The number of specimens collected in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas was 4224 (88.07%) and 572 (11.93%), respectively. In El Oculto no marked seasonality was found, different from Aguas Blancas, where high abundance was detected at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. The maximum mean temperature affected the An. pseudopunctipennis fluctuation in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas. When considering the relationship between the number of malaria cases and the climatic variables in El Oculto, maximum mean temperature and accumulated rainfall were significant, in contrast with Aguas Blancas, where mean temperature and humidity showed a closer relationship to the fluctuation in the disease. Conclusion The temporal distribution patterns of An. pseudopunctipennis vary in both localities, but spring appears as the season with better conditions for mosquito development. Maximum mean temperature was the most important variable in both localities. Malaria cases were influenced by the maximum mean temperature in El Oculto, while the mean temperature and humidity were significant in Aguas Blancas. In Aguas Blancas peaks of

  11. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  12. [Tap water as a dietary source of exposure to fluoride in Tenerife; risk assessment].

    PubMed

    González Sacramento, Nazaret; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Gutiérrez Fernández, Ángel José; Luis González, Gara; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Revert Girones, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: el agua de consumo humano es la principal fuente de exposición al fluoruro para la población. De acuerdo con el Real Decreto 140/2003, el contenido en fluoruro en el agua de consumo humano no debe superar el valor paramétrico de 1,5 mg/L. Históricamente, ciertas aguas de consumo en Tenerife han superado este valor debido a sus características geológicas/volcánicas. El flúor juega un papel importante en la prevención de la caries dental. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica a concentraciones superiores a 1,5 mg/L en el agua de bebida puede provocar trastornos como la fluorosis dental. Objetivos: determinar la cantidad de fluoruro en el agua de consumo humano de 11 municipios del norte de la isla de Tenerife que en el momento del estudio superaba el valor paramétrico de fluoruro y estimar y evaluar toxicológicamente las ingestas diarias a partir del consumo de agua considerando las IDR (Ingestas Diarias Recomendadas) establecidas en España para distintos grupos poblacionales. Método: 44 muestras de aguas de abastecimiento público recogidas en los 11 municipios objeto del estudio fueron analizadas usando la determinación potenciométrica de fluoruro mediante el uso de un electrodo de ión selectivo. Resultados: 9 de los 11 municipios las aguas de abasto presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro medias que superaron el valor paramétrico fijado por la legislación española. Considerando un consumo medio diario de agua de 2 L, la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR) para mujeres (3 mg/día) es superada en 9 de los 11 municipios y la IDR para hombres (4 mg/día) es superada en 5 de los 11 municipios. Considerando un consumo medio diario de agua de 1,5 L, la IDR establecida para los niños de 2 a 3 años (0,7 mg/día) es superada ampliamente en todos los municipios. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos evidencian el problema de salud pública existente en la isla de Tenerife y justifican las restricciones de consumo establecidas por la Direcci

  13. Identification of the putrescine biosynthetic genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterization of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase of the arginine decarboxylase pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2003-03-01

    Putrescine can be synthesized either directly from ornithine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; the speC product) or indirectly from arginine via arginine decarboxylase (ADC; the speA product). The authors identified the speA and speC genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The activities of the two decarboxylases were similar and each enzyme alone appeared to direct sufficient formation of the polyamine for normal growth. A mutant defective in both speA and speC was a putrescine auxotroph. In this strain, agmatine deiminase (the aguA product) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (the aguB product), which were initially identified as the catabolic enzymes of agmatine, biosynthetically convert agmatine to putrescine in the ADC pathway: a double mutant of aguAB and speC was a putrescine auxotroph. AguA was purified as a homodimer of 43 kDa subunits and AguB as a homohexamer of 33 kDa subunits. AguA specifically deiminated agmatine with K(m) and K(cat) values of 0.6 mM and 4.2 s(-1), respectively. AguB was specific to N-carbamoylputrescine and the K(m) and K(cat) values of the enzyme for the substrate were 0.5 mM and 3.3 s(-1), respectively. Whereas AguA has no structural relationship to any known C-N hydrolases, AguB is a protein of the nitrilase family that performs thiol-assisted catalysis. Inhibition by SH reagents and the conserved cysteine residue in AguA and its homologues suggested that this enzyme is also involved in thiol-mediated catalysis.

  14. The role of two families of bacterial enzymes in putrescine synthesis from agmatine via agmatine deiminase.

    PubMed

    Landete, José M; Arena, Mario E; Pardo, Isabel; Manca de Nadra, María C; Ferrer, Sergi

    2010-12-01

    Putrescine, one of the main biogenic amines associated to microbial food spoilage, can be formed by bacteria from arginine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), or from agmatine via agmatine deiminase (AgDI). This study aims to correlate putrescine production from agmatine to the pathway involving N-carbamoylputrescine formation via AdDI (the aguA product) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (the aguB product), or putrescine carbamoyltransferase (the ptcA product) in bacteria. PCR methods were developed to detect the two genes involved in putrescine production from agmatine. Putrescine production from agmatine could be linked to the aguA and ptcA genes in Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 11700, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. By contrast Lactobacillus sakei 23K was unable to produce putrescine, and although a fragment of DNA corresponding to the gene aguA was amplified, no amplification was observed for the ptcA gene. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces putrescine and is reported to harbour aguA and aguB genes, responsible for agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase activities. The enzyme from P. aeruginosa PAO1 that converts N-carbamoylputrescine to putrescine (the aguB product) is different from other microorganisms studied (the ptcA product). Therefore, the aguB gene from P. aeruginosa PAO1 could not be amplified with ptcA-specific primers. The aguB and ptcA genes have frequently been erroneously annotated in the past, as in fact these two enzymes are neither homologous nor analogous. Furthermore, the aguA, aguB and ptcA sequences available from GenBank were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, revealing that gram-positive bacteria harboured ptcA, whereas gram-negative bacteria harbour aguB. This paper also discusses the role of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) in acid stress resistance.

  15. Late Miocene ignimbrites at the southern Puna-northern Sierras Pampeanas border (˜27°S): Stratigraphic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-López, Carolina; Guzmán, Silvina; Barrios, Fabiola

    2015-10-01

    New field observations and petrographic and geochemical data of pyroclastic deposits exposed along the Las Papas valley (border between southern Puna and northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) and further north, lead us to propose a new stratigraphic correlation and classification of the late Miocene volcanism in this area. We redefine the Las Papas, Las Juntas, Aguada Alumbrera and Rosada ignimbrites and define the Agua Caliente and Del Medio ignimbrites. The whole set of ignimbrites are rhyolites and less frequently dacites of calc-alkaline affinity. In the present contribution we divide ignimbrites into the Agua Negra and Rincón groups, based mainly on their geochemical signature. The Agua Negra Group is formed by the Las Papas and Las Juntas ignimbrites, indurated and welded, lithic-rich, with crystal-poor pumices and crystal-rich matrix. The Rincón Group comprises the Agua Caliente, Aguada Alumbrera, Rosada and Del Medio ignimbrites, with variable welding degrees, lithic and crystal content. The greater enrichment of crystals in the matrix in comparison with the crystal content in pumices indicates significant elutriation during flow transport and thus volume estimations are to be considered lower bounds for the actual erupted volume. The total minimum estimated volume for the ignimbrites of the Agua Negra and Rincón groups is 2.8 km3 (2.3 km3 DRE). Field relationships and new analytical data indicate that the different acid ignimbrites that crop out in this small area are related to at least two different magma chambers. The widespread Quaternary volcanism in this area covers the older deposits, thus making it difficult to recognize the volcanic centers that produced these late Miocene ignimbrites.

  16. Aquifers and hyporheic zones: Towards an ecological understanding of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Peter J.; Boulton, Andrew J.; Humphreys, William F.

    2005-03-01

    biotopes souterrains à des études multidisciplinaires qui intègrent l'écologie et l'hydrogéologie. L'approche multidisciplinaire cherche à élucider le fonctionnement des écosystèmes souterrains et leur rôle consistant à maintenir la qualité des eaux souterraines et de surface. Dans les écotones des eaux de la surfaces des aquifères, les gradients géochimiques et les biofilms microbiologiques contrôlent les transformations de la qualité de l'eau. La faune de subsurface (stygofauna) construisent les biofilms, altèrent la taille des pores interstitiels à travers leur mouvement, et transportent physiquement des matériaux à travers l'environnement des eaux souterraines. Par ailleurs, les changements de leur population signalent un déclin de la qualité de l'eau. Une meilleure intégration de l'écologie des eaux souterraines, de la biogeochimie, et de l'hydrogéologie pourra faire avancer de manière efficace de notre compréhension des écosystèmes souterrains, et spécialement en terme de bioremédiation des eaux souterraines contaminées, de maintenance et d'amélioration de la qualité des eaux de surface dépendant des écosystèmes souterrains, et l'amélioration de la protection des habitats des eaux souterraines durant l'extraction des ressources naturelles. En général, cela conduira à une meilleure compréhension de l'implication de l'hydrogéologie et de la géologie des aquifères à la distribution de la faune de subsurface et aux microbiota, aux processus écologiques tels que les cycles du carbone, et la gestion durable des eaux souterraines. Los entornos ecológicos en ambientes subsuperficiales están relacionados directamente con el flujo de agua subterránea, la conductividad hidráulica, biogeoquímica intersticial, tamaño de los poros, y vínculos hidrológicos con acuíferos adyacentes y ecosistemas superficiales. La ecología del agua subterránea ha evolucionado a partir de una ciencia que describe la biota subterránea única

  17. Effect of dimer dissociation on activity and thermostability of the alpha-glucuronidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: dissecting the different oligomeric forms of family 67 glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Shallom, Dalia; Golan, Gali; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2004-10-01

    The oligomeric organization of enzymes plays an important role in many biological processes, such as allosteric regulation, conformational stability and thermal stability. alpha-Glucuronidases are family 67 glycosidases that cleave the alpha-1,2-glycosidic bond between 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid and xylose units as part of an array of hemicellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes. Currently, two crystal structures of alpha-glucuronidases are available, those from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (AguA) and from Cellvibrio japonicus (GlcA67A). Both enzymes are homodimeric, but surprisingly their dimeric organization is different, raising questions regarding the significance of dimerization for the enzymes' activity and stability. Structural comparison of the two enzymes suggests several elements that are responsible for the different dimerization organization. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the alpha-glucuronidases AguA and GlcA67A can be classified into two distinct subfamilies of bacterial alpha-glucuronidases, where the dimer-forming residues of each enzyme are conserved only within its own subfamily. It seems that the different dimeric forms of AguA and GlcA67A represent the two alternative dimeric organizations of these subfamilies. To study the biological significance of the dimerization in alpha-glucuronidases, we have constructed a monomeric form of AguA by mutating three of its interface residues (W328E, R329T, and R665N). The activity of the monomer was significantly lower than the activity of the wild-type dimeric AguA, and the optimal temperature for activity of the monomer was around 35 degrees C, compared to 65 degrees C of the wild-type enzyme. Nevertheless, the melting temperature of the monomeric protein, 72.9 degrees C, was almost identical to that of the wild-type, 73.4 degrees C. It appears that the dimerization of AguA is essential for efficient catalysis and that the dissociation into monomers results in subtle conformational changes in the structure

  18. [ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AND HYDRATION IN SPANISH AND MOROCCAN POPULATIONS].

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Samira; Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Ortega, Virginia; Rivas, Ana; Ortega, Eduardo; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la dieta mediterránea (DM) comprende la ribera europea, africana y asiática del mar Mediterráneo. Características de la DM son variedad de alimentos y sobriedad. Junto a los nutrientes, es esencial la ingesta de agua y bebidas. Objetivo: estudiar la DM y la contribución del agua y las bebidas a la hidratación de dos poblaciones de la ribera mediterránea. Métodos: adultos procedentes del noroeste de Marruecos y sur de España (n = 400), completaron un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se analizó agua envasada consumida por la población y comprada en el mercado local (17 marcas/ tipos en Marruecos y 30 en el sur de España). Resultados: por cromatografía de intercambio iónico se analizaron diversas sales. El rango fue: Ca entre 140,16 y 439 mg/L; Mg entre 53,15 y 87,5 mg/L; Na entre 1169,78 y 257,2 mg/L y K 50,26 y 26,5 mg/L, valores tanto para muestras españolas como marroquís. Son aguas de mineralización media y su ingesta de minerales no contribuye más del 7% a la RDA de las poblaciones estudiadas. El seguimiento de la DM es superior en la población española (6,28 ± 1,38) que en la marroquí (4,42 ± 1,52). El perfil de ingesta de bebidas permite clasificar a la población al encontrar valores OR que van desde 1,6 a 11,01 para mayor ingesta de zumo, refrescos, te, agua envasada y total de ingesta de líquidos para la población marroquí frente a la española. Conclusión: el consumo de aguas envasadas no supone un suplemento mineral de interés en estas poblaciones.

  19. Effect of Dimer Dissociation on Activity and Thermostability of the α-Glucuronidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: Dissecting the Different Oligomeric Forms of Family 67 Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Shallom, Dalia; Golan, Gali; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2004-01-01

    The oligomeric organization of enzymes plays an important role in many biological processes, such as allosteric regulation, conformational stability and thermal stability. α-Glucuronidases are family 67 glycosidases that cleave the α-1,2-glycosidic bond between 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and xylose units as part of an array of hemicellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes. Currently, two crystal structures of α-glucuronidases are available, those from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (AguA) and from Cellvibrio japonicus (GlcA67A). Both enzymes are homodimeric, but surprisingly their dimeric organization is different, raising questions regarding the significance of dimerization for the enzymes' activity and stability. Structural comparison of the two enzymes suggests several elements that are responsible for the different dimerization organization. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the α-glucuronidases AguA and GlcA67A can be classified into two distinct subfamilies of bacterial α-glucuronidases, where the dimer-forming residues of each enzyme are conserved only within its own subfamily. It seems that the different dimeric forms of AguA and GlcA67A represent the two alternative dimeric organizations of these subfamilies. To study the biological significance of the dimerization in α-glucuronidases, we have constructed a monomeric form of AguA by mutating three of its interface residues (W328E, R329T, and R665N). The activity of the monomer was significantly lower than the activity of the wild-type dimeric AguA, and the optimal temperature for activity of the monomer was around 35°C, compared to 65°C of the wild-type enzyme. Nevertheless, the melting temperature of the monomeric protein, 72.9°C, was almost identical to that of the wild-type, 73.4°C. It appears that the dimerization of AguA is essential for efficient catalysis and that the dissociation into monomers results in subtle conformational changes in the structure which indirectly influence the active site region

  20. Recent fluctuations of the Argentinian glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Juan Carlos

    1999-10-01

    Some of the results obtained in the glaciological research carried out since 1979 at the Argentinian Andes are shown in this paper. The research covers a wide latitudinal gap extending from the Agua Negra glacier in the province of San Juan to the Frı´as glacier situated at Mount Tronador. Agua Negra and Piloto glaciers show a very similar behavior of almost continuous retreat since 1965 while at the Plomo region a small advance period, starting in 1982, is observed in five of the 10 glaciers studied. Finally, the Frı´as glacier fluctuations record shows a very strong recession since 1850 only interrupted by the 1976 advance that continued in 1977.

  1. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  2. A study of microseismicity in northern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. L.; Koczynski, T.; Madrid, J.

    1976-01-01

    Five microearthquake instruments were operated for 2 months in 1974 in a small mobile array deployed at various sites near the Agua Blanca and San Miguel faults. An 80-km-long section of the San Miguel fault zone is presently active seismically, producing the vast majority of recorded earthquakes. Very low activity was recorded on the Agua Blanca fault. Events were also located near normal faults forming the eastern edge of the Sierra Juarez suggesting that these faults are active. Hypocenters on the San Miguel fault range in depth from 0 to 20 km although two-thirds are in the upper 10 km. A composite focal mechanism showing a mixture of right-lateral and dip slip, east side up, is similar to a solution obtained for the 1956 San Miguel earthquake which proved consistent with observed surface deformation.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti.

  4. A study of microseismicity in northern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. L.; Koczynski, T.; Madrid, J.

    1976-01-01

    Five microearthquake instruments were operated for 2 months in 1974 in a small mobile array deployed at various sites near the Agua Blanca and San Miguel faults. An 80-km-long section of the San Miguel fault zone is presently active seismically, producing the vast majority of recorded earthquakes. Very low activity was recorded on the Agua Blanca fault. Events were also located near normal faults forming the eastern edge of the Sierra Juarez suggesting that these faults are active. Hypocenters on the San Miguel fault range in depth from 0 to 20 km although two-thirds are in the upper 10 km. A composite focal mechanism showing a mixture of right-lateral and dip slip, east side up, is similar to a solution obtained for the 1956 San Miguel earthquake which proved consistent with observed surface deformation.

  5. B chromosomes in four different populations of Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Heptapteridae): a comparative study of frequency and distribution.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Vivian Patrícia Oliveira; Carneiro, Juliana de Souza; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study 25 specimens of Rhamdia quelen from four different localities were analyzed cytogenetically. All showed a diploid number of 58 chromosomes, with a karyotypic formula of 36m + 16sm + 6st and FN = 116. Metacentric B chromosomes showing inter- and intraindividual variation were observed in all populations. C-banding revealed differences in the heterochromatin distribution pattern, with evidence of completely heterochromatic B chromosomes in three populations: Agua das Pedras, Agua dos Patos and Taquari rivers, and partially heterochromatic B chromosomes in the population at the fish farm station in Timbó/SC. The occurrence of B chromosomes in such distinct populations suggests that they could have arisen from the same ancestral state, before the geographic dispersal of this species.

  6. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory in South America: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The construction of the Agua Negra tunnel through the Andes between Argentina and Chile is a unique opportunity to build a world class deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere, with 1750 m of rock overburden. At 30 degrees latitude south, far from nuclear power plants, it provides a unique site for Dark Matter searches and Neutrino experiments, and can host multidisciplinary experiments with a specific focus on Earth sciences given its location in a peculiar geoactive region. Its operation is foreseen to be coordinated by an international consortium and to start in 2026. In this presentation the current status of the Agua Negra tunnel and the ANDES initiative will be reviewed, and the scientific programme of the planned laboratory will be discussed.

  7. Hydrochemistry of waters from five cenotes and evaluation of their suitability for drinking-water supplies, northeastern Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcocer, Javier; Lugo, Alfonso; Marín, Luis E.; Escobar, Elva

    Waters from five cenotes that are currently being used for aquatic recreational activities and that lie along the Cancun-Tulum touristic corridor, Mexico, were evaluated hydrochemically to determine whether the cenotes may be considered as potential drinking-water sources. Several parameters exceed the Mexican Drinking Water Standards (MDWS), but since they do not pose a significant health threat, four of the five cenotes may be used as drinking-water sources. The common contaminants in the Yucatan Peninsula, fecal coliforms and nitrate, are in most cases below the MDWS (0-460 MPN/100ml and 0.31-1.18mg/L, respectively). Although these four cenotes meet the MDWS, a careful groundwater management policy needs to be developed to avoid contamination (fecal and nitrates) and salt-water intrusion. Résumé Les eaux de cinq cénotés, qui sont normalement utilisées pour des activités de plein air, dans la région touristique de Cancun-Tulum (Mexique), ont été soumises à analyses chimiques pour savoir si les cénotés peuvent être considérés comme des sources d'eau potable. Plusieurs paramètres dépassent les normes mexicaines en matière d'eau potable; mais comme ceux-ci ne posent pas de problème réel de santé, quatre des cinq cénotés peuvent être captés pour l'eau potable. Les contaminants habituels dans les eaux de la presqu'île du Yucatan, coliformes fécaux et concentrations élevées en nitrate, sont la plupart du temps au-dessous des normes (respectivement 0 à 460 germes/100ml et 0,31 à 1,18mg/l). Bien que ces quatre cénotés satisfassent aux normes, il est nécessaire de mettre en place des règles précises de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, afin d'éviter la contamination par les germes fécaux et par les nitrates, ainsi que l'intrusion marine. Resumen Se analizó hidroquímica y bacteriológicamente el agua de algunos cenotes localizados a lo largo del corredor turístico Cancun-Tulum, que actualmente se utilizan para diversas actividades

  8. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    PubMed

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un estudio descriptivo del modelo de desayuno de una población universitaria y analizar su aporte energético y de nutrientes en relación con los requerimientos nutricionales establecidos. Material y métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos durante la mañana (desayuno/almuerzo) de un día lectivo a una muestra de 740 universitarios (286 varones y 454 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 25 años. De cada encuestado se registraba sexo, edad, peso, talla e índice de masa corporal y tipo de residencia. Se han calculado las ingestas porcentuales de nutrientes en relación con las ingestas recomendadas (%IR). Resultados: El 98,6% desayunaba y el 54,2% almorzaba diariamente, y el 53.5% realizaba ambas ingestas. Lácteos (92,6%), cereales (58,8%) y dulces (57,9%) en el desayuno, y cereales (46,6%), frutas (40,7%) y embutidos (34,9%) en el almuerzo eran los alimentos más habituales. El %IR de la ingesta calórica (desayuno/almuerzo) era del 24,4% en varones y del 24,6% en mujeres (NS). El %IR de la ingesta de colesterol (desayuno:/almuerzo) era de 38,2% en varones y del 23,9% en mujeres (p < 0,05). En el desayuno los %IR de minerales y vitaminas eran significativamente superiores (p < 0,05) respecto a los del almuerzo. Conclusiones: Este modelo de desayuno/almuerzo difería del prototipo dietético saludable con un consumo excesivo de dulces, bollería y repostería (desayuno) y carnes y derivados (almuerzo). La mitad de los encuestados no almorzaban y su ingesta calórica matutina estaba por debajo de lo recomendado. Tratándose de estudiantes universitarios inquieta el efecto potencialmente negativo que pudiera tener sobre el rendimiento académico.

  9. FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS DURING PREGNANCY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN A REGION OF THE NORTH EAST OF BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Da Mota Santana, Jerusa; Alves de Oliveira Queiroz, Valterlinda; Monteiro Brito, Sheila; Barbosa Dos Santos, Djanilson; Marlucia Oliveira Assis, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: las perspectivas de crecimiento en Brasil indican que los patrones dietéticos de la población se caracterizan por el aumento del consumo de grasas saturadas y trans, sodio, azúcares y refrescos. Este punto de vista epidemiológico y nutricional refleja el cambio en el patrón de la enfermedad y la muerte. Objetivo: este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los patrones de consumo de alimentos y los cambios en la dieta en el primer y tercer trimestres del embarazo. Metodología: se trata de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 185 mujeres embarazadas del Estado de Bahía, a partir de 2012 a 2013. Se utilizó el cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos para evaluar la ingesta alimentaria. Para identificar la norma alimentaria se adoptó el análisis factorial de componentes principales. Se utilizó la prueba de correlación de Pearson para identificar la correlación entre los patrones extraídos en cada trimestre. Resultados: se identificaron cuatro patrones de consumo de alimentos durante el embarazo. Hemos observado cambios en los patrones de alimentación durante los trimestres evaluados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces. Discusión: estos cambios en la dieta durante el embarazo acompañan a los cambios fisiológicos de cada embarazo. En el primer trimestre son síntomas comunes las náuseas y los vómitos; por otro lado, también se manifiesta antojos en el mismo periodo, lo cual puede justificar el consumo de mayor cantidad de alimentos considerados saludables. Conclusión: se observaron cambios en el patrón alimentario a lo largo de los diversos trimestres del embarazo examinados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces.

  10. Reconstruction of Sea State One

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Yoffast 7600 SUDEND 7696 96000o00o0oooo0o00o0o0o0...ooooo..o.o.o.oo.oo....oo..oo..oeoe...oooo.ooo 7760e9 |e osoe eeoooeoeeoo SUIROUTINE ROUNDER...DEFINE AGUA PEN COLOR 1290 2Iue*-6 DEFINE BLUE PEN COLOR. 1300 White*-I DEFINE WHITE PEN COLOR. 1316 Data color-Aqwa I DEFINE DATA SURFACE COLOR. 1320 La

  11. Providing for the Common Defense: Securing the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Agua Prieta Mexico.56 Shifting illegal immigration patterns and drug trafficking routes from easily accessible city based routes through Tijauna/San...Snell, “Gamma-Ray Technology: The Practical Container Inspection Alternative,” available from <http://www.saic.com/products/security/ pdf /saic/ pdf ...www.ombwatch.org/info/cii/homelandsecurityact02. pdf >; Internet; accessed on November 25, 2002. 34 107Louie, Gilot, “Same Mission, New Tactics: JTF-6 lays low after

  12. Existing Resources, Standards, and Procedures for Precise Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Deformations. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    commonplace, particularly in the monitoring of dams and hydro-electric power generating stations. Italy’s ENEL (Ente Nazionale per 1’ Energia Elettrica...State Commissions to enforce supervision and monitoring of dams by the new owners. Currently, dams owned by state organizations such as Agua y Energia ...Large Dams, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil May. Millmore, J.P. and J.A. Charles (1988). "A -survey of UK embankment dams." Proceedings of Reservoir Renovation 88

  13. 27 CFR 9.209 - Calistoga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... appropriate maps used to determine the boundary of the Calistoga viticultural area are four United States..., California. The boundary beginning point is on the Mark West Springs map at the point where the Napa-Sonoma... sections 13 and 14, T9N/R7W, and in the region labeled “Mallacomes or Moristul y Plan de Agua Caliente,” to...

  14. 27 CFR 9.209 - Calistoga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate maps used to determine the boundary of the Calistoga viticultural area are four United States..., California. The boundary beginning point is on the Mark West Springs map at the point where the Napa-Sonoma... sections 13 and 14, T9N/R7W, and in the region labeled “Mallacomes or Moristul y Plan de Agua Caliente,” to...

  15. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 2. Comprehensive Shoreline Response Computer Simulation, Bolsa Bay, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Vicksburg, MS. Gravens, M. B., Scheffner, N. W., and Hubertz, J. M. 1989. "Coastal Proces - ses from Asbury Park to Manasquan, New Jersey...34Applications of a Shoreline Prediction Model," Proceed - ings of Coastal Structures 󈨗, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 632- 645. Kraus, N. C. 1989...1980). 27. The success of the inlet channel at Agua Hedionda indicates that a stable non-navigable entrance at Bolsa Chica could be feasible provided a

  16. Environmental Assessment Report: Geotechnical Field Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    contains the San Andreas and Algodones faults. The Transition Zone trends north-northwest across Arizona and lies approximately 60 nm northeast of YPG/LWBGR...San Andreas fault zone, 2) the Agua Blanca fault in Mexico, 3) the Rio Grande Rift Zone in New Mexico and 4) an area of seismicity in north-central...2) the San Andreas shear zone and 3) the Jerome- Wasatch structural zone. Teleseismic events may be associated with the Aleutian and Mid-American

  17. Waterboarding, Interrogation vs. Torture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-18

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 18 DEC 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Spanish Inquisition process. Quoting from the article: The toca, also called tortura del agua , consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of...and into the breathing passages.3 Through forced suffocation and inhalation of water, the sufferer experiences the process of drowning in a controlled

  18. Capacity Development - The Pathway to Self-Reliance for Host Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    where we have some degree of control . Solutions to capac- ity development range from simple to complex, from short duration to long duration, and from...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capacity...International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management, in collab- oration with the National Water Authority—Autoridad Nacional del Agua

  19. The geography of health in South-East Mexico: a research study and agenda.

    PubMed

    Prothero, R M; Davenport, J M

    1986-01-01

    Work on the geography of health has been undertaken in association with the Centro de Investigaciones Ecologicas del Sureste, Chiapas State, Mexico. An example is given from a study of relationships between housing and Chagas' disease in the village of Agua Azul in Chiapas. Prospects for future work in medical geography might involve further studies of Chagas' disease and onchocerciasis, and of the health of refugees and of populations involved in the exploitation of petroleum reserves.

  20. PubMed

    Conroy-Ferreccio, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    En relación con el artículo "Influencia del sobrepeso y obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio del deuterio, pero no en el agua corporal total y la composición corporal en mujeres mayores de 60 años", es necesario discutir sobre cuál es la mejor definición de sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos mayores en este tipo de estudios.

  1. Flood Preparedness Planning: Metropolitan Phoenix Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    County Flood Control District also assists in forecasts for the Salt, Gila, and Agua Fria Rivers. The River Forecast Center (RFC) at Salt Lake City, Utah...The County Emergency Plan provides for the Sheriff’s office to be responsible for evacuation of unincorporated areas which are threatened by flooding ...Mitigation Measures. Formal County and City preparedness plans do not address individual or small grouped property losses due to floods . No provisions or

  2. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    and Agua Fria Rivers in the early and mid 1970’s (Maricopa County , 1980). However, recent flooding has temporarily destroyed the suitable rail...2,669,225 acres (4,170 square miles) which lies within southern Yuma County and extends eastward into Maricopa and Pima Counties in southwestern Arizona. The...valleys. The Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge lies within Luke AFR and is located on the border of Arizona and Mexico in Yuma and Pima Counties

  3. Observations on the seasonal distribution of native fish in a 10-kilometer reach of San Bernardino Creek, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    C. O. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    San Bernardino Creek is a northern tributary of the Río Yaqui that originates in the United States and crosses the International Border just east of Douglas, Arizona/Agua Prieta, Sonora and immediately south of San Bernardino/Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Six of eight Río Yaqui native fishes occur in this reach:four minnows, a sucker, and a poeciliid....

  4. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    efforts directed at the border have been superficial in nature, caused by political demand to “take action” without creating an economic disturbance...33 Buzan et al., Security, 25. 14 expand to the Pacific Ocean. Tensions between Mexico and the United States eventually evolved into...docview /508809004?accountid=12702 Woodbury, Richard and Agua Prieta. “Danger And Alarm On A New Alien Gateway.” Time, September 27, 1999. http

  5. Analysis of the Military Strategies and Warfare Principles of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro during the Cuban Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Placetas, Remedios, Caibarien, and Sancti Spiritus, the army was forced to retreat to Santa Clara , capital of Las Villas Province. Che Guevara’s...ultimate victory at Santa Clara was classical traditional army, as well as guerrilla, tactics; i.e., isolate, divide, and conquer. (16:286) With 300...relative safety in the Sierra Maestra Mountains, he attacked moving troop columns (Battle of El Hombrito) and truck columns (First Battle of Pino del Agua

  6. Standing Down a Joint Task Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    maintains a small American military presence in Hon- duras at a facility known as Soto Cano Air Base. Joint Task Force-Bravo (JTF–B), directly...medivac heli- copter capability, and assists Hon- duras in counterdrug actions.1 Since the United States has no base leasing agreement, its military...example, SOUTHCOM points out that JTF–B contributes millions of dollars annu- ally to the local economy of Comay- agua and that the departure of Amer

  7. Evaluation of Water Resources in Bolivia, South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    distribution. CORDECO. September 1988. Project: Potable Water System (in) Pocona. (Proyecto: Sistema de Aqua Potable.) Cochabamba, Bolivia: Planning...Diseno Final del Sistema de Aprovechamiento de las Aguas de Chusequeri.) The Chusequeri Project is an irrigation project for some 500 hectares. The...Multi-page explanation cf ... nnrn,,- , 5-ta i S Cruz. 0-20 CORDECRUZ. 1990. Division of Rural and Farming Programs. ( Unidad de Programas Rurales y

  8. Medida de los beneficios económicos de la integridad ecológica del Río Mameyes en Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Se realizó una valoración de contingencia a través de una encuesta en persona de los jefes de familia puertorriqueños, de abril a agosto de 1995, para estimar su consentimiento-parapagar por la preservación de niveles de agua en el Río Mameyes, y evitar la construcción de la represa propuesta...

  9. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas.

  10. Occurrence of agmatine pathway for putrescine synthesis in Selenomonas ruminatium.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shaofu; Poonpairoj, Phuntip; Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Takatuska, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Selenomonas ruminantium synthesizes cadaverine and putrescine from L-lysine and L-ornithine as the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan by a constitutive lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LDC/ODC). S. ruminantium grew normally in the presence of the specific inhibitor for LDC/ODC, DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, when arginine was supplied in the medium. In this study, we discovered the presence of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), the key enzyme in agmatine pathway for putrescine synthesis, in S. ruminantium. We purified and characterized ADC and cloned its gene (adc) from S. ruminantium chromosomal DNA. ADC showed more than 60% identity with those of LDC/ODC/ADCs from Gram-positive bacteria, but no similarity to that from Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we also cloned the aguA and aguB genes, encoding agmatine deiminase (AguA) and N-carbamoyl-putrescine amidohydrolase (AguB), both of which are involved in conversion from agmatine into putrescine. AguA and AguB were expressed in S. ruminantium. Hence, we concluded that S. ruminantium has both ornithine and agmatine pathways for the synthesis of putrescine.

  11. Geologic structure and tectonics of inner continental borderland of northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.; Victor, W.O.; Francisco, S.V.

    1987-05-01

    Detailed marine geophysical surveys of the inner California continental borderland west of northern Baja California show that the region is underlain by two major, northwest-trending, Quaternary, dextral wrench fault systems. The San Clemente fault system lies along the western part of the inner borderland and is delineated by the San Clemente and San Isidro fault zones. Together, these fault zones connect to form a long (300 km), narrow (5-10 km), continuous zone of faulting that is very similar to the larger San Andreas fault system onshore. The Agua Blanca fault system is a complex zone of shear delineated by three or more subparallel wrench fault zones in the eastern part of the inner borderland. The westernmost San Diego Trough-Bahia Soledad fault zone consists of relatively long (50 km), continuous, main fault traces which cut the Quaternary sediments of the nearshore basin trough. The Coronado Bank-Agua Blanca fault zone is more complicated, with numerous discontinuous, subparallel, right- and left-stepping, anastomosing fault traces which are associated with significant structural relief. A nearshore zone of faults, marked by the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone in the north and the Estero-Descanso fault zone in the south, parallels the coast and defines the eastern boundary of the California continental borderland structural province. All of these eastern fault zones merge into the transpeninsular Agua Blanca fault, and their N30/sup 0/W trend differs substantially from the trend of the major peninsular ranges fault zones.

  12. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    Bivalve shells are used as important palaeoclimate proxy archives and monitor regional climate variations. The shells mostly exist of two crystalline polymorphic phases of calcium carbonate calcite (rombohedric) and aragonite (orthorhombic). Calcite is the most stable polymorph at standard conditions, whereas vaterite (hexagonal) is the least stable and only rarely found in these structures. Shells are characterized by organized structures and several micro architectures of mollusc shell structures have been identified: Nacre shows different types: columnar and bricked forms and consists of composite inorganic- organic at the nano-scale. They are well known to display a "brick and mortar" structure. By AFM and FIB/TEM methods it could be shown, that its nanostructure consists of the structures in the range of 50 - 100 nm [1, 2]. These structures are vesicles, consisting of CaCO3 and are individually coated by a membrane. Most probably, the mantle epithelian cells of the bivalve extrude CaCO3 vesicles. By Raman spectroscopic investigations the crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, as well as ACC were determined. For some species (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, Hyriopsis cumingii) pure ACC (i.e. not intermingled with a crystalline phase) could be identified. The presence of an amorphous phase is generally deduced from the lack of definite lattice modes, whereas a broad Raman band in this region is to observe. In most of the cultured pearls (Pinctada maxima and genus Hyriopsis) the ν1-Raman band of ACC clearly displays an asymmetric shape and splits into two different bands according to a nanocrystalline and an amorphous fraction. The FWHMs of most of the crystalline fractions are too high for well crystallized materials and support the assumption of nanocrystalline calcium carbonate polymorph clusters in ACC. They are primarily composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) which is later transformed into a crystalline modification [3

  13. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  14. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste

  15. Mapping South American Summer Monsoon Changes during Heinrich Event 1 and the LGM: Insights from New Paleolake Records from the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cave stalagmite records show strong evidence of abrupt changes in summer monsoons during Heinrich events, but we lack rigorous constraints on the amount of wetting or drying occurring in monsoon regions. Studies on shoreline deposits of closed-basin lakes can establish quantitative bounds on water balance changes through mapping-based estimates of lake volume variations. We present new dating constraints on lake level variations in Agua Caliente I and Laguna Loyoques, two closed-basin, high-altitude paleolakes on the Altiplano-Puna plateau of the Central Andes (23.1°S, 67.4°W, 4250 masl). Because this area receives >70% of its total annual precipitation during austral summer, the region is ideally suited to capture a pure response to changes in the South American summer monsoon (SASM). The plateau is home to several small (<40 km2) lakes surrounded by well-preserved paleoshorelines that indicate past wetter conditions. Agua Caliente I is unique, having multiple shorelines encrusted with biologically-mediated calcium carbonate "tufa" deposits. Initial U-Th dating of these massive shoreline tufas reveals that these deposits are dateable to within ±50 to 300 years due to high U concentrations and low initial Th content (as indicated by high 230Th/232Th). Our U-Th dates show that Agua Caliente I was greater in lake surface area during two periods: 17.5-14.5 kyrs BP, coincident with Heinrich Event 1 (HE1), and 24-23 kyrs BP, roughly coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). At these times, Agua Caliente I also overflowed into a neighboring lake basin (Loyoques) through an 8-km long southeast-trending stream channel. Thus, during HE1 and the LGM, the lake was ~9 times larger in surface area relative to modern. Hydrologic modeling constrained by paleotemperature estimates is used to provide bounds for these past precipitation changes. We also tentatively explore physical mechanisms linking Heinrich events and the regional hydroclimate by comparing freshwater

  16. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    El agua es el principal constituyente del cuerpo humano. Está implicado en prácticamente la totalidad de sus funciones. Es especialmente importante en la termorregulación y en el rendimiento físico y cognitivo. El balance de agua refleja la ingesta y la pérdida de agua. La ingesta se realiza principalmente a través del consumo de agua potable y de bebidas (70 a 80%) más el agua que contienen los alimentos (20 a 30%). La pérdida de agua se realiza gracias a su excreción a través de la orina, las heces y el sudor. El interés por el tipo y la cantidad de bebidas consumidas no es nuevo, y numerosos enfoques se han utilizado para evaluarla, pero la validez de estos enfoques no se han establecido correctamente. Aún no existe, en población general, un cuestionario estandarizado desarrollado como herramienta de investigación para la evaluación de la ingesta de agua. El uso de información de diferentes fuentes y diferentes características metodológicas plantea problemas de comparabilidad entre estudios. En Europa los estudios epidemiológicos actuales que se centran exclusivamente en el consumo de bebidas son escasos. Los biomarcadores de ingesta permiten evaluar objetivamente la ingesta dietética sin el sesgo producido por los errores del auto-reporte. Además permiten superar el problema de la variabilidad intra-individual. Algunos métodos para medir ingesta alimentaria utilizan biomarcadores para validar los datos que recoge. Los marcadores biológicos ofrecen ventajas y son capaces de mejorar las estimaciones de la evaluación de ingesta dietética. Sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios que examinen sistemáticamente la correlación entre la ingesta de bebidas y los biomarcadores de hidratación en diferentes poblaciones. Utilizando el cuestionario de bebidas de Hedrick y col. se realizó un estudio piloto para evaluar la validez y fiabilidad de un modelo multimedia interactivo (IMM) y para compararlo con una versión en papel-auto administrado (PP

  17. Characterization of AgMaT2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.

  18. Systemic response to aphid infestation by Myzus persicae in the phloem of Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Divol, Fanchon; Vilaine, Françoise; Thibivilliers, Sandra; Amselem, Joëlle; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Dinant, Sylvie

    2005-03-01

    Little is known about the molecular processes involved in the phloem response to aphid feeding. We investigated molecular responses to aphid feeding on celery (Apium graveolenscv. Dulce) plants infested with the aphid Myzus persicae, as a means of identifying changes in phloem function. We used celery as our model species as it is easy to separate the phloem from the surrounding tissues in the petioles of mature leaves of this species. We generated a total of 1187 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), corresponding to 891 non-redundant genes. We analysed these ESTs in silico after cDNA macroarray hybridisation. Aphid feeding led to significant increase in RNA accumulation for 126 different genes. Different patterns of deregulation were observed, including transitory or stable induction 3 or 7 days after infestation. The genes affected belonged to various functional categories and were induced systemically in the phloem after infestation. In particular, genes involved in cell wall modification, water transport, vitamin biosynthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation and nitrogen and carbon mobilisation were up-regulated in the phloem. Further analysis of the response in the phloem or xylem suggested that a component of the response was developed more specifically in the phloem. However, this component was different from the stress responses in the phloem driven by pathogen infection. Our results indicate that the phloem is actively involved in multiple adjustments, recruiting metabolic pathways and in structural changes far from aphid feeding sites. However, they also suggest that the phloem displays specific mechanisms that may not be induced in other tissues.

  19. Use of EST-SSR markers for evaluating genetic diversity and fingerprinting celery (Apium graveolens L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nan; Wang, Ping-Yong; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Shen, Huo-Lin

    2014-02-10

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting celery molecular breeding are quite limited, thus few studies on celery have been conducted so far. In this study we made use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers generated from previous celery transcriptome sequencing and attempted to detect the genetic diversity and relationships of commonly used celery accessions and explore the efficiency of the primers used for cultivars identification. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of Apium graveolens L. var. dulce showed that approximately 43% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 45% among accessions, and 22% among horticultural types. The neighbor-joining tree generated by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and population structure analysis, as well as principal components analysis (PCA), separated the cultivars into clusters corresponding to the geographical areas where they originated. Genetic distance analysis suggested that genetic variation within Apium graveolens was quite limited. Genotypic diversity showed any combinations of 55 genic SSRs were able to distinguish the genotypes of all 30 accessions.

  20. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    PubMed

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  1. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed.

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Herrera Valenzuela, Tomás; Poblete Aro, Carlos; Durán Acevedo, Angelo; Valdés Badilla, Pablo

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: determinar los patrones alimentarios de ultramaratonistas chilenos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra incluyó 20 ultramaratonistas (n = 3 mujeres), quienes promediaban para la edad 33,0 ± 7,8 años, peso 71,1 ± 6,6 kg y estatura 1,72 ± 0,05 m. Se aplicó una encuesta de hábitos alimentarios validada y un punto de significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: los ultramaratonistas chilenos presentan bajo consumo de alimentos de acuerdo a las porciones recomendadas de frutas, verduras, pescado y leguminosas, y el 75% de ellos consume desayuno diariamente. Se observa ingestas moderadas de bebidas azucaradas, snacks dulces y alcohol, mientras que la ingesta de frituras (65%) corresponde al hábito no saludable más frecuente. Conclusión: los ultramaratonistas chilenos presentan un bajo cumplimiento en las porciones recomendadas de alimentos, pese al gran esfuerzo físico que realizan.

  3. Targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2010-08-01

    At present, 70 countries worldwide are affected by groundwater contamination by arsenic (As) released from predominantly geogenic sources. Consequently, the As problem is becoming a global issue. The option to target As-safe aquifers, which uses geological, geochemical, hydrogeological, morphological and climatic similarities to delimit As-safe aquifers, appears as a sustainable mitigation option. Two pilot areas, Meghna Flood Plain in Matlab Upazila, representative of Bengal Delta in Bangladesh, and Río Dulce Alluvial Cone, representing a typical aquifer setting in the Chaco-Pampean Plain in Argentina groundwater As occurrence, were compared. In rural Bangladesh, As removal techniques have been provided to the population, but with low social acceptance. In contrast, "targeting As-safe aquifers" was socially accepted in Bangladesh, where sediment color could be used to identify As-safe aquifer zones and to install safe wells. The investigation in Argentina is more complex because of very different conditions and sources of As. Targeting As-safe aquifers could be a sustainable option for many rural areas and isolated peri-urban areas.

  4. Electrochemical quantification of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plants using biosensors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Erika; Ramírez-Silva, María-Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Ibarra-Escutia, Pedro; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel

    2014-08-08

    The working area of a screen-printed electrode, SPE, was modified with the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr) using different immobilization methods, namely entrapment with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA), and cross-linking using GA and human serum albumin (HSA); the resulting electrodes were termed SPE/Tyr/PVA, SPE/Tyr/GA and SPE/Tyr/HSA/GA, respectively. These biosensors were characterized by means of amperometry and EIS techniques. From amperometric evaluations, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km', of each biosensor was evaluated while the respective charge transfer resistance, Rct, was assessed from impedance measurements. It was found that the SPE/Tyr/GA had the smallest Km' (57 ± 7) µM and Rct values. This electrode also displayed both the lowest detection and quantification limits for catechol quantification. Using the SPE/Tyr/GA, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) was determined from infusions prepared with "mirto" (Salvia microphylla), "hHierba dulce" (Lippia dulcis) and "salve real" (Lippia alba), medicinal plants commonly used in Mexico.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  6. Arsenic removal from groundwater of the Chaco-Pampean plain (Argentina) using natural geological materials as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Mellano, M Fernanda; Ramírez, Antonio E; Storniolo, Angel del R; Martín, Raúl A; Cortés, Julia; Litter, Marta I; Jean, Jiin-Shuh

    2011-01-01

    Use of natural geological materials for arsenic (As) removal is an emerging solution at a household level for poor people in remote rural settlements, especially when the materials are locally available and can be collected by the local population. Their low or zero cost makes these materials very attractive compared with synthetic or commercial materials. Sometimes, this may be the only option to provide safe water to very poor settlements. Their suitability for As removal from water is mainly due to adsorption, co-precipitation and ion exchange processes involving Fe- and Al-rich minerals and clay minerals present in the soils or sediments. In the present study, various clay-rich soils from the Santiago del Estero province (SDE, NW Argentina) and, for comparison, a laterite from the Misiones province have been tested as adsorbents for As in shallow naturally contaminated groundwaters of the Río Dulce alluvial aquifer in SDE. Batch adsorption experiments showed higher As(V) removal for the Misiones laterite sample (99 %) as compared with the soils from SDE (40-53 %), which can be related to lower contents of water-soluble and oxalate extractable Al and Fe in the last samples. These results suggest the application of the Misiones laterite soil as an alternative for As removal. However, high transportation costs from Misiones to SDE can be an economical restriction for the low-income population of SDE.

  7. [Identifying areas of high risk for ophidism in Cordoba, Argentina, using SIGEpi software].

    PubMed

    Leynaud, Gerardo C; Reati, Gustavo J

    2009-07-01

    To determine the case distribution of accidental ophidism in the Córdoba province of Argentina, identify high risk areas, and evaluate the usefulness of the SIGEpi software program (Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States of America). Information regarding the 299 cases of accidental ophidism reported in Córdoba in 1995-2006 was collected from the Provincial Epidemiology Department's official records of incidents involving venomous creatures. The SIGEpi software program was used for geographic mapping. Specific maps were produced to identify, quantify, and visualize the danger zones and areas of high risk for ophidism. The incidents occurred mostly in the northern and western areas of the province. Snakes of the Bothrops genus were responsible for the majority of the incidents (87.7% of the total). The departments with the highest annual incidence rates were Pocho and Río Seco (> 10 incidents per 100,000 residents). Three ophidism high-risk zones were identified: one in far west of the province, another in the far north, and another just north of Bañados del Río Dulce and the Mar Chiquita lagoon. Accidental ophidism constitutes a major health problem in the Córdoba province where incidence rates are higher than those areas with more severe economic issues tied to rural labor. SIGEpi software is a reasonable choice for studying public health challenges and proved to be effective in identifying areas at high risk for ophidism.

  8. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  9. Use of Genetic Effects and Genotype by Environmental Interactions for the Classification of Mexican Races of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Tarcicio S.; Goodman, Major M.; Casas, Eduardo D.; Rawlings, John O.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the questions of whether the additive and dominance effects present for morphological characters in racial crosses are of sufficient consistency and magnitude to allow such genetic effects to be used for racial classification, we used a diallel experiment among the 25 well-defined Mexican races of maize, which include the ancestral stocks of most commercial and genetic maize types. With such an experiment, genetic effects and genotype by environmental interactions for one or more characters can be used to measure genetic and adaptational or environmental similarity. We used average parental effects (general combining abilities), specific effects, and genotype by environmental effects of 21 characters from the diallel (grown at three locations) to group the Mexican races of maize. The groupings based upon average genetic effects and upon genotype by environmental interactions are more satisfactory than groupings based upon specific effects. The standard errors for genetic distances based upon specific (largely dominance) effects seem to be too high for practical use. Principal components analyses of the same data suggest a similar conclusion.—The groupings based upon average genetic effects are in general agreement with previous studies, with the exception of Maíz Dulce, which is grouped with the Cónicos, rather than being isolated from the other Mexican races of maize. PMID:17248866

  10. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  11. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  12. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  13. Use and abuse of the urban groundwater resource: Implications for a new management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drangert, J.-O.; Cronin, A. A.

    'OMS et UNICEF), établissant que la plupart des eaux résiduaires des zones urbaines reste non traitée (65% en Asie, 86% en Amérique latine et 100% en Afrique). La tâche à réaliser pour l'homme est de protéger les ressources en eau souterraine en sorte qu'elle reste disponible pour les habitants des villes dans le futur. Dans les prochaines 50 années, il faut s'attendre à ce que la population urbaine s'accroisse de 3 à 6 milliards de personnes selon les estimations des Nations Unies; aussi il est impératif de ne pas continuer à polluer les eaux souterraines sous les nouvelles zones urbaines en cours de construction. Dans cet article, nous analyserons la qualité des eaux souterraines et leur protection à la lumière des récents changements de politique de l'eau, c'est-à-dire de la gestion de l'alimentation en eau jusqu'à une gestion de la demande et en abordant éventuellement la période de gestion du recyclage. La urbanización lleva a una demanda elevada y concentrada de agua de calidad adecuada, acompañada por el vertido de volúmenes análogamente mayores de aguas residuales. Los alimentos se importan a ciudades donde los microorganismos y nutrientes de los excrementos humanos son descargados a ríos, lagos y, también, aguas subterráneas. Más aún, gran número de los bienes de consumo son eliminados vía las tuberías de las cloacas. Las deudas medioambientales, es decir, el empobrecimiento de las condiciones medioambientales, que requerirán de aportaciones humanas y económicas para rehabilitarlas, son comunes a todas las ciudades, sobretodo en el Hemisferio Sur, donde, según la Valoración Global de Suministro de Agua y Saneamiento (OMS y UNICEF), la mayor parte de las aguas residuales urbanas no son tratadas (65% en Asia, 86% en Latinoamérica, 100% en África). La tarea pendiente consiste en proteger los recursos de aguas subterráneas para que estén disponibles de forma rápida para los habitantes urbanos también el futuro. En los pr

  14. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    suivi des eaux souterraines à Taïwan". D'après ce programme, les données de base concernant les eaux souterraines, comprenant les mesures de niveau et les données de qualité, ont été acquises ; une base de données sûre est en cours d'élaboration, dans le but de gérer l'ensemble des ressources en eau. Cet article présente les buts, les stades de développement et une vue d'ensemble de ce plan. Le plan impose la mise en place de 517 stations de mesures hydrogéologiques et de 990 piézomètres en 17 ans. Selon ce programme, les variations du niveau des nappes doivent être suivies en continu, tandis que des échantillons pour la qualité de l'eau seront prélevés pour analyses uniquement au cours de la phase de foration, puis au moment de la mise en service des piézomètres. En 1996, le Département des Ressources en Eau et la Commission de Planification des Ressources en Eau ont été réunis pour former l'actuel Bureau des Ressources en Eau. Resumen En Taiwan, el rápido crecimiento económico, el aumento en el nivel de vida y los cambios sociales en los últimos años han resultado en un aumento en la demanda de agua. Por su estabilidad en términos de cantidad y calidad, las aguas subterráneas han sido durante años la fuente de agua para usos domésticos, agrícolas e industriales. En los últimos años, sin embargo, el establecimiento de un programa de gestión conjunta de aguas superficiales y subterráneas se ha visto comprometido por la falta de datos correspondientes a estas últimas. En 1992, el Departamento de Recursos de Agua (DWR) inició un programa titulado "Plan de Red de Control de Aguas Subterráneas en Taiwan". Bajo este programa, se están recogiendo datos básicos, incluyendo niveles piezométricos y datos de calidad, y se está construyendo una base de datos con el propósito de gestionar los recursos de agua totales. Este artículo presenta el marco, los objetivos y el estado de implantación del plan, que pretende la construcci

  15. Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

    2002-08-01

    é par la signature isotopique, qui a alors été utilisée pour calculer les contributions des trois sources: la pluie, l'eau ancienne et l'eau prélevée dans le fleuve, avec un taux moyen de mélange respectivement de 18, 17 et 65%. Comme indicateur de l'écoulement de l'eau, la concentration en Cl- varie dans une large gamme, dans un profil de 30 cm à 10 m en profondeur, avec une concentration maximale à une profondeur d'environ 1,2 m. Les concentrations sont relativement stables à partir de 2 m, profondeur de la limite entre les zones non saturée et saturée. On a ainsi montré que l'eau du Fleuve Jaune est prédominante dans le mélange, au sein de l'aquifère en termes d'écoulement de la nappe et de composition chimique. Resumen. Se ha recogido muestras de agua del Río Amarillo y de pozos para obtener medidas químicas e isotópicas en los condados de Yucheng y Qihe, que se abastecen con 6-9×108 m3 anuales de aguas de dicho río. Hay una zona de conductividad eléctrica (CE) elevada en las aguas subterráneas, la cual se corresponde bien a escala regional con una divisoria en el nivel piezométrico que representa la vía principal de flujo a través de la región, pero con un gradiente bajo. La zona de mayor CE a lo largo de la divisoria está localizada en el punto con la menor cota topográfica en el ámbito de estudio. La característica principal de las aguas subterráneas es la relación lineal que existe entre los aniones principales como resultado de un proceso de mezcla. Este efecto se confirma mediante la huella isotópica, que se utilizó para calcular las contribuciones de tres orígenes distintos: precipitación, aguas antiguas y aguas derivadas del río, obteniéndose porcentajes respectivos del 18, 17, y 65%. Como trazador del agua, la concentración de cloruro varía ampliamente en el perfil del suelo de 0,3-10 m, con un máximo a una profundidad aproximada de 1,2 m. Las concentraciones son relativamente estables hacia 2 m de profundidad, que

  16. Geology of the platanares geothermal area, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.; Duffield, W.; Musgrave, J.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Aldrich, J.; Flores, W.; Ritchie, A.; Goff, F.; Eppler, D.; Escobar, C.

    1991-01-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  17. Efficacy of Two Peroxygen-Based Disinfectants for Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, Joaquin; Sanchez-Acedo, Caridad; Avendaño, Catalina; del Cacho, Emilio; Lopez-Bernad, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Two commercial peroxygen-based disinfectants containing hydrogen peroxide plus either peracetic acid (Ox-Virin) or silver nitrate (Ox-Agua) were tested for their ability to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Oocysts were obtained from naturally infected goat kids and exposed to concentrations of 2, 5, and 10% Ox-Virin or 1, 3, and 5% Ox-Agua for 30, 60, and 120 min. In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide), and infectivity in neonatal BALB/c mice were used to assess the viability and infectivity of control and disinfectant-treated oocysts. Both disinfectants had a deleterious effect on the survival of C. parvum oocysts, since disinfection significantly reduced and in some cases eliminated their viability and infectivity. When in vitro assays were compared with an infectivity assay as indicators of oocyst inactivation, the excystation assay showed 98.6% inactivation after treatment with 10% Ox-Virin for 60 min, while the vital-dye assay showed 95.2% inactivation and the infectivity assay revealed 100% inactivation. Treatment with 3% Ox-Agua for 30 min completely eliminated oocyst infectivity for mice, although we were able to observe only 74.7% inactivation as measured by excystation assays and 24.3% with vital dyes (which proved to be the least reliable method for predicting C. parvum oocyst viability). These findings indicate the potential efficacy of both disinfectants for C. parvum oocysts in agricultural settings where soil, housing, or tools might be contaminated and support the argument that in comparison to the animal infectivity assay, vital-dye and excystation methods overestimate the viability of oocysts following chemical disinfection. PMID:15870337

  18. Efficacy of two peroxygen-based disinfectants for inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    PubMed

    Quilez, Joaquin; Sanchez-Acedo, Caridad; Avendaño, Catalina; del Cacho, Emilio; Lopez-Bernad, Fernando

    2005-05-01

    Two commercial peroxygen-based disinfectants containing hydrogen peroxide plus either peracetic acid (Ox-Virin) or silver nitrate (Ox-Agua) were tested for their ability to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Oocysts were obtained from naturally infected goat kids and exposed to concentrations of 2, 5, and 10% Ox-Virin or 1, 3, and 5% Ox-Agua for 30, 60, and 120 min. In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide), and infectivity in neonatal BALB/c mice were used to assess the viability and infectivity of control and disinfectant-treated oocysts. Both disinfectants had a deleterious effect on the survival of C. parvum oocysts, since disinfection significantly reduced and in some cases eliminated their viability and infectivity. When in vitro assays were compared with an infectivity assay as indicators of oocyst inactivation, the excystation assay showed 98.6% inactivation after treatment with 10% Ox-Virin for 60 min, while the vital-dye assay showed 95.2% inactivation and the infectivity assay revealed 100% inactivation. Treatment with 3% Ox-Agua for 30 min completely eliminated oocyst infectivity for mice, although we were able to observe only 74.7% inactivation as measured by excystation assays and 24.3% with vital dyes (which proved to be the least reliable method for predicting C. parvum oocyst viability). These findings indicate the potential efficacy of both disinfectants for C. parvum oocysts in agricultural settings where soil, housing, or tools might be contaminated and support the argument that in comparison to the animal infectivity assay, vital-dye and excystation methods overestimate the viability of oocysts following chemical disinfection.

  19. Mapping disturbances in a mangrove forest using multi-date landsat TM imagery.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J M; Wang, J; Blanco-Correa, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the accounts of local fishermen, Landsat TM images (1986, 1993, 1999) were examined to assess potential losses in the mangrove forests of the Teacapán-Agua Brava lagoon system, Mexico. A binary change mask derived from image differencing of a band 4/3 ratio was employed to calculate any changes within this forested wetland. The results indicate that by 1986 approximately 18% (or 86 km2) of the mangrove area under study was either dead or in poor condition. The majority of this damage had occurred in the eastern section of the Agua Brava basin, which coincides, with the reports of the elderly fishermen. Examination of aerial photographs from 1970 revealed no adverse impacts in this area and would suggest, as postulated by the fishermen and other scientists, that modifications in environmental conditions following the opening of a canal, Cuautlá canal, in 1972 may have initiated the large-scale mortality. Although these areas of impact are still developing, the results from the satellite data indicate that the majority of the more recent changes are occurring elsewhere in the system. Obvious in the 1999 satellite data, but not so in the 1993, are large areas of mangrove degradation in the northern section of the Teacapán region. In the Agua Brava basin, the more recent transformations are appearing on the western side of the basin. Since long-term records of environmental conditions are absent, it is difficult to determine why these latest changes are occurring or even if the earlier losses were the result of the canal. Potential agents of change that have recently been observed include a hurricane, a second canal, and the uncontrolled expansion of the Cuautlá canal since 1994.

  20. Interpreting the response of a dryland river system to Late Quaternary climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, I.; Black, S.; Sellwood, B. W.

    2004-12-01

    A U-series calcrete chronology has been constructed for three Late Quaternary terrace units, termed the D1, D2 and D3 terraces in age descending order, from the Rio Aguas river system of the Sorbas basin, southeast Spain. The D1 terrace formed between 30,300±4400 year BP and 12,140±360 year BP, correlating well with the Last Glacial Maximum when rates of sediment supply would have increased greatly, because of higher rates of weathering, reduced vegetation cover and weak soil development. The D2 terrace formed between 12,800±1100 year BP and 9,600±530 year BP, correlating well with the Younger Dryas event. The D3 terrace could only be poorly constrained to the early Holocene and no unequivocal cause could be assigned to this period of aggradation. The sedimentology and geomorphology of the D2 terrace suggests, however, that the aggradation of this unit was a response to diapirism/karstic processes occurring within the underlying Messinian gypsum strata and the subsequent damming of the Aguas system. Therefore, despite its coincident occurrence with the Younger Dryas, aggradation of the D2 terrace is unrelated to climate change. The style of this response, controlled predominantly by the characteristics of the underlying bedrock, makes correlating the terrace record of the Aguas with other systems in the Mediterranean unreliable. This study, therefore, highlights the problems of correlating fluvial sequences in regions of variable tectonics, climatic history and bedrock geology and emphasises the need to properly understand the main controls on individual fluvial systems before any attempt is made to correlate their depositional histories.

  1. Molecular Characterization and Regulation of the aguBA Operon, Responsible for Agmatine Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying; Nishijyo, Takayuki; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 utilizes agmatine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source via two reactions catalyzed successively by agmatine deiminase (encoded by aguA; also called agmatine iminohydrolase) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (encoded by aguB). The aguBA and adjacent aguR genes were cloned and characterized. The predicted AguB protein (Mr 32,759; 292 amino acids) displayed sequence similarity (≤60% identity) to enzymes of the β-alanine synthase/nitrilase family. While the deduced AguA protein (Mr 41,190; 368 amino acids) showed no significant similarity to any protein of known function, assignment of agmatine deiminase to AguA in this report discovered a new family of carbon-nitrogen hydrolases widely distributed in organisms ranging from bacteria to Arabidopsis. The aguR gene encoded a putative regulatory protein (Mr 24,424; 221 amino acids) of the TetR protein family. Measurements of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase activities indicated the induction effect of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine on expression of the aguBA operon. The presence of an inducible promoter for the aguBA operon in the aguR-aguB intergenic region was demonstrated by lacZ fusion experiments, and the transcription start of this promoter was localized 99 bp upstream from the initiation codon of aguB by S1 nuclease mapping. Experiments with knockout mutants of aguR established that expression of the aguBA operon became constitutive in the aguR background. Interaction of AguR overproduced in Escherichia coli with the aguBA regulatory region was demonstrated by gel retardation assays, supporting the hypothesis that AguR serves as the negative regulator of the aguBA operon, and binding of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine to AguR would antagonize its repressor function. PMID:11673419

  2. Molecular characterization and regulation of the aguBA operon, responsible for agmatine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Y; Jiang, Y; Nishijyo, T; Itoh, Y; Lu, C D

    2001-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 utilizes agmatine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source via two reactions catalyzed successively by agmatine deiminase (encoded by aguA; also called agmatine iminohydrolase) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (encoded by aguB). The aguBA and adjacent aguR genes were cloned and characterized. The predicted AguB protein (M(r) 32,759; 292 amino acids) displayed sequence similarity (< or =60% identity) to enzymes of the beta-alanine synthase/nitrilase family. While the deduced AguA protein (M(r) 41,190; 368 amino acids) showed no significant similarity to any protein of known function, assignment of agmatine deiminase to AguA in this report discovered a new family of carbon-nitrogen hydrolases widely distributed in organisms ranging from bacteria to Arabidopsis. The aguR gene encoded a putative regulatory protein (M(r) 24,424; 221 amino acids) of the TetR protein family. Measurements of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase activities indicated the induction effect of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine on expression of the aguBA operon. The presence of an inducible promoter for the aguBA operon in the aguR-aguB intergenic region was demonstrated by lacZ fusion experiments, and the transcription start of this promoter was localized 99 bp upstream from the initiation codon of aguB by S1 nuclease mapping. Experiments with knockout mutants of aguR established that expression of the aguBA operon became constitutive in the aguR background. Interaction of AguR overproduced in Escherichia coli with the aguBA regulatory region was demonstrated by gel retardation assays, supporting the hypothesis that AguR serves as the negative regulator of the aguBA operon, and binding of agmatine and N-carbamoylputrescine to AguR would antagonize its repressor function.

  3. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  4. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 76W. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    ABSCLUTELY C 2ABSTRACT ’comf ~ 2C~t~L. . .. 2 ACHIETILVE 2~~~i~ 2 AGUA ,I.- . . 2.L-LW At INC~t 2 ANSwERS -2£PINE 21 APPLIN0. .. A𔃼 ARCTIC 2 ~~R~~OW .. jsV...0040ASP-11 =am Age II*4*MSPI 1...1. ONJO ga 5" II PAS-tc**MSP- ... 9 O 1..c41201 .e’ *...OM31.efN3O, i. aa H~qP-I1*4HASP-It.....ON J B24.... . Oso go

  5. Is There Mahogany Obsidian in Northeastern Sonora, Mexico?

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Sean Gregory; Shackley, M. Steven

    2017-01-01

    A piece of mahogany obsidian came to the attention of the senior author during an excavation project near the town of Mata Ortiz, Chihuahua, Mexico in 2015. Because mahogany obsidian in northwestern Mexico is particularly rare, the question was raised, what obsidian source did this sample derive? Here, using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, we demonstrate it comes from the Agua Fria obsidian source in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Unfortunately, we do not know where this sample was collected from. We discuss these results and the significance of this find in this paper, but more investigation is certainly warranted.

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices.

  7. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las casas es responsable de aproximadamente 3000 muertes prematuras anuales entre adultos, con otro número desconocido de muertes entre niños debido a infecciones respiratorias. La contaminación del agua tiene como principales causas los desagües vertidos directamente a los ríos, minerales (arsénico) de varias fuentes, y fallas de las plantas de tratamiento. En el Perú, el cambio climático puede impactar en la frecuencia y severidad del fenómeno de El Niño oscilación del sur (ENSO) que se ha asociado con un incremento en los casos de enfermedades como cólera, malaria y dengue. El cambio climático incrementa la temperatura y puede extender las áreas afectadas por enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, además de tener efecto en la disponibilidad del agua y en la contaminación del aire. En conclusión, el Perú, pasa por una transición de factores de riesgo ambientales, donde coexisten riesgos tradicionales y modernos, y persisten los problemas infecciosos y crónicos, algunos de los cuales se asocian con problemas de contaminación de agua y de aire. PMID:25418656

  8. Fluid intake from beverages in Spanish adults; cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Fenández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Iglesia, Iris; Moreno, Luis A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los cuestionarios dietéticos, solamente evalúan la ingesta de bebidas calóricas. Sin embargo, no evalúan adecuadamente la ingesta total de líquidos o de agua. Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta total de líquidos procedente de diferentes tipos de bebidas, en adultos españoles. Métodos: 1.262 adultos (18-70 años) fueron seleccionados al azar en regiones españolas. La información sobre la cantidad y calidad de la ingesta diaria de líquidos se recogió mediante un registro de 24 horas específico para la evaluación de fluidos durante 7 días consecutivos. Resultados: La ingesta de agua a partir de diferentes bebidas estaba por debajo de las recomendaciones de la EFSA en el 50,4% de la población. La probabilidad de cumplir las recomendaciones de la EFSA para la ingesta de agua fue mayor en mujeres [OR: 2.48, IC95%: 1.81- 3.40], y participantes con mayor practica de actividad física (3-4 veces/semana [OR: 1,5, IC95%: 1.01-2.46]; 5 o más veces/semana [OR: 1.97, IC95%: 1.37-2.83]). Las mujeres consumían más bebidas calientes y refrescos light. El consumo de refrescos regulares y de bebidas alcohólicas fue mayor en los hombres. Un mayor porcentaje de hombres, jóvenes y participantes con IMC < 30 kg/m2 consumían azúcar procedente de bebidas, por encima de las recomendaciones de la OMS. Discusión: La mitad de la población estudiada no cumple las recomendaciones de la EFSA para la ingesta de fluidos. El agua embotellada o del grifo es la principal bebida consumida. Existen diferencias en el consumo de bebidas en relación a la edad y género. Una cuarta parte de la población estudiada consume un exceso de azúcar procedente de las bebidas.

  9. Aldouronate utilization in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2: Physiological and enzymatic evidence for coupling of extracellular depolymerization and intracellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nong, Guang; Rice, John D; Chow, Virginia; Preston, James F

    2009-07-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from decaying sweet gum wood, secretes a multimodular glycohydrolase family GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) anchored to the cell surface. The gene encoding XynA1 is part of a xylan utilization regulon that includes an aldouronate utilization gene cluster with genes encoding a GH67 alpha-glucuronidase (AguA), a GH10 endoxylanase (XynA2), and a GH43 arabinofuranosidase/beta-xylosidase (XynB). Here we show that this Paenibacillus sp. strain is able to utilize methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX(1)), an aldobiuronate product that accumulates during acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, and methylglucuronoxylotriose (MeGAX(3)), the product of the extracellular XynA1 acting on methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAX(n)). The average rates of utilization of MeGAX(n), MeGAX(1), and MeGAX(3) were 149.8, 59.4, and 54.3 microg xylose equivalents.ml(-1).h(-1), respectively, and were proportional to the specific growth rates on the substrates. AguA was active with MeGAX(1) and MeGAX(3), releasing 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronate alpha-1,2 linked to a nonreducing terminal xylose residue. XynA2 converted xylotriose, generated by the action of AguA on MeGAX(3), to xylose and xylobiose. The ability to utilize MeGAX(1) provides a novel metabolic potential for bioconversion of acid hydrolysates of lignocellulosics. The 2.8-fold-greater rate of utilization of polymeric MeGAX(n) than that of MeGAX(3) indicates that there is coupling of extracellular depolymerization, assimilation, and intracellular metabolism, allowing utilization of lignocellulosics with minimal pretreatment. Along with adjacent genes encoding transcriptional regulators and ABC transporter proteins, the aguA and xynA2 genes in the cluster described above contribute to the efficient utilization of aldouronates derived from dilute acid and/or enzyme pretreatment protocols applied to the conversion of hemicellulose to biofuels and chemicals.

  10. Contenedores: Aspectos tecnicos, biologicos y economicos

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    La elección del contenedor es una de las consideraciones más importantes al establecer un nuevo vivero o empezar a producir una especie nueva. El tipo y tamaño de contenedor no sólo determina la cantidad de agua y nutrientes minerales que están disponibles para el crecimiento de una planta, sino que también afecta otros aspectos operativos del vivero, como el tamaño de...

  11. A Directory of European, Middle Eastern, and N. African Coastal Ground Control Points for Mapping Satellite Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-15

    SANGUINAIRES C. DI MURO LONGITUDE + E. -W 11.109 9.i|05 8.933 8.725 8.533 8.595 8.652 LATITUDE N ^42.240 ^3.028 i|2.546 i(2.591 il2.372 ill...F-1 Z-3 *F-1 Z-3 47 SACLANTCEN SM-170 I. RACHGOUN 0 R 0 C C 0 C. DE AGUA C. TRES FORCAS S P A I I. DE ALBORAN W.TIP 0 R 0 C C 0 MORRO

  12. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvinet, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, E.; Juárez-Camarena, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008) and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  13. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    confusion entre "infiltration" et "recharge". C'est ainsi que la loi laisse entendre que l'infiltration à partir des lits de rivières le long du champ captant central favorise la recharge de cette zone. En réalité, les différences de perméabilité entre les alluvions du lit et les dépôts sous-jacents remplissant le bassin peuvent provoquer un écoulement sous-jacent. En outre, même si une recharge par l'eau de la rivière Colorado se produit dans cette zone, la nappe sera progressivement salifiée. Les restrictions imposées par la loi quant à l'utilisation de l'eau de la station centrale d'Arizona affectent les quatre outils réglementaires du Code des eaux souterraines de l'Arizona de 1980, en ce qu'ils concernent la zone de gestion active de Tucson: (a) l'augmentation de l'approvisionnement (b) les conditions requises pour les prélèvements d'eau souterraine et les autorisations; (c) les conditions requises pour le plan de gestion, en particulier la pérennité du concessionnaire et les résultats en matière de qualité de l'eau et (d) la condition que tous les nouveaux districts aient recours à des ressources en eau renouvelables à la place de l'eau souterraine. Les demandes concernant la mise en oeuvre de la loi ont conduit jusqu'à l'arrêt des activités normales des instances politiques. Resumen El Acta de Protección de los Usuarios de Agua de Tucson, Arizona (EE.UU.) de 1995 (el Acta) se aprobó a raíz de las quejas de los usuarios de agua de Tucson que recibían agua tratada por el Proyecto de Arizona Central (CAP). Las consecuencias del Acta demuestran las incertidumbres y dificultades que se producen cuando se le pide al público que vote sobre temas muy técnicos. Los requerimientos de recarga del Acta desprecian incertidumbres hidrogeológicas al confundir entre "infiltración" y "recarga". Así, el Acta dice que la infiltración en los canales de los arroyos a lo largo del Campo de Producción Central aumentará la recarga a dicho campo. De

  14. Mass Spectral Investigation on Toxins. I. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Hepatotoxins from Freshwater Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometric Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    flos- aguae S-23-g-1l (8 lug) F1 The results from the amino acid analysis using the Llqui-Mat Analyzer are listed in Table 2. The elution times of the...ABERDEEN UNCLASSIFIED T KRISHNAMURTHY ET AL SEP 86 F/G 6/20 EEEEEEEEEII 1. i~ sb * 12.2jW 54* m3 aŖ IIL11111 .41 I11_L6 YqOCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART...findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorizing documents

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 2. Volume 1. Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    Figure 2-1 shows rivers in the vicinity of the base, the Agua Fria, the Salt, and the Gila. The rivers near Luke AFB are dry most of the year and flow only...of air outside of and far enough away from the van to exclude its exhausts. The results are shown in Appendix 0-1. Contaminant concentrations were...level of radioactivity, unless radioactive contaminants such as volcanic ash or granite wash are present, as in the valley where Luke AFB is located. High

  16. Study of the ethiological agent of gnathostomosis in Nayarit, Mexico.

    PubMed

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis; Akahane, Hiroshige; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Koga, Masataka; Messina-Robles, Maud; Alvarez-Guerrero, César

    2002-06-01

    In order to clarify the specific identity of the etiological agent of human gnathostomosis in Nayarit State, Mexico, morphological and molecular studies were conducted on advanced third stage larvae obtained from human and fish tissue. Cathorops fuerthii from Agua Brava lagoons complex, was the only fish species found to be infected among four species surveyed. Morphological variability does not allow specific identification of the larvae. Internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced for six larvae (five from fish, one from human tissue). Low divergence in the sequences of Nayarit larvae and Gnathostoma binucleatum (0.24% or less) indicate that the larvae examined belong to this species.

  17. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  18. PGE distribution in massive sulfide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Tornos, Fernando

    2007-02-01

    We present the first platinum group elements (PGE) data on seven massive sulfide deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), one of the world largest massive sulfide provinces. Some of these deposits can contain significant PGE values. The highest PGE values were identified in the Cu-rich stockwork ores of the Aguas Teñidas Este (Σ PGE 350 ppb) and the Neves Corvo (Σ PGE 203 ppb) deposits. Chondrite normalized PGE patterns and Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in the IPB massive, and stockwork ores are consistent with the leaching of the PGE from the underlying rock sequence.

  19. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Marandi, Andres; Vaikmäe, Rein

    , qui renferme des eaux souterraines salines dans sa partie supérieure altérée et fissurée, et est hydrauliquement connecté avec l'aquifère supérieur du Cambrien-Vendien, est la deuxième importante source d'ions. Le soubassement fracturé et le matériel argileux de l'altération, renferme l'eau souterraine de type Ca-Cl, caractérisée par un haut TDS (2-20 g/l). A cause de la mobilisation intensive de l'eau les échanges d'eau souterraine est sont accélérés et la zone d'influence des pompages augmentent. Les études chimiques et isotopiques indiquent une contribution croissante du drainage des eaux du soubassement cristallin. L'intrusion d'eaux salées de la mer dans le système aquifère n'est pas un phénomène évident. El origen del incremento en salinidad en un sistema de acuíferos Cámbrico-Vendiano en la Península Kopli, norte de Estonie Monitoreo a largo plazo de un sistema de acuíferos confinados, de edad Cámbrico-Vendiano, que se utiliza como fuente de abastecimiento industrial en la Península Kopli, al norte de Estonie, revela cambios notables en la composición química del agua subterránea. Un incremento de 1.5 a 3 veces en TDS y en concentraciones de iones mayores en agua subterránea explotada ha sido ocasionado por bombeo fuerte. Las fuentes principales de carga disuelta en el agua subterránea Cámbrico-Vendiano son la lixiviación de la roca encajonante y los procesos geoquímicos que ocurren en la zona saturada. Basamento cristalino subyacente, que aloja agua subterránea salada en la parte superior intemperizada y fisurada, y está conectado hidráulicamente con el sistema acuífero Cámbrico-Vendiano sobreyacente, es la segunda fuente importante de iones. El basamento fracturado y su corteza de intemperismo arcillosa alojan agua subterránea de tipo Ca-Cl la cual se caracteriza por valores altos de TDS (2-20 g/l). Debido a extracción intensiva se ha acelerado el intercambio de agua subterránea y se ha incrementado el área de

  20. Aldouronate Utilization in Paenibacillus sp. Strain JDR-2: Physiological and Enzymatic Evidence for Coupling of Extracellular Depolymerization and Intracellular Metabolism ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; Chow, Virginia; Preston, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from decaying sweet gum wood, secretes a multimodular glycohydrolase family GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) anchored to the cell surface. The gene encoding XynA1 is part of a xylan utilization regulon that includes an aldouronate utilization gene cluster with genes encoding a GH67 α-glucuronidase (AguA), a GH10 endoxylanase (XynA2), and a GH43 arabinofuranosidase/β-xylosidase (XynB). Here we show that this Paenibacillus sp. strain is able to utilize methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX1), an aldobiuronate product that accumulates during acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, and methylglucuronoxylotriose (MeGAX3), the product of the extracellular XynA1 acting on methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAXn). The average rates of utilization of MeGAXn, MeGAX1, and MeGAX3 were 149.8, 59.4, and 54.3 μg xylose equivalents·ml−1·h−1, respectively, and were proportional to the specific growth rates on the substrates. AguA was active with MeGAX1 and MeGAX3, releasing 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronate α-1,2 linked to a nonreducing terminal xylose residue. XynA2 converted xylotriose, generated by the action of AguA on MeGAX3, to xylose and xylobiose. The ability to utilize MeGAX1 provides a novel metabolic potential for bioconversion of acid hydrolysates of lignocellulosics. The 2.8-fold-greater rate of utilization of polymeric MeGAXn than that of MeGAX3 indicates that there is coupling of extracellular depolymerization, assimilation, and intracellular metabolism, allowing utilization of lignocellulosics with minimal pretreatment. Along with adjacent genes encoding transcriptional regulators and ABC transporter proteins, the aguA and xynA2 genes in the cluster described above contribute to the efficient utilization of aldouronates derived from dilute acid and/or enzyme pretreatment protocols applied to the conversion of hemicellulose to biofuels and chemicals. PMID:19395566