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Sample records for aguda por hierro

  1. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  2. The sub-volcanic system of El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Becerril, L.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The main volcanotectonic structures of El Hierro are three rift zones, trending northeast, west, and south. Most of the eruptions in El Hierro within these zones are basaltic fissure eruptions fed by subvertical dykes. The dykes appear as close to collinear or slightly offset segments, their surface expressions being clusters of cinder cones and eruptive vents. Three large landslides, referred to as El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas, have eroded the areas between rift axes and provide exposures that make it possible to provide a three-dimensional view of the uppermost part of the sub-volcanic system. Here we report the results of a structural study of the sub-volcanic system as obtained through the analysis of dykes and eruptive vents. The data obtained from surface outcrops have been combined with data from subsurface water galleries. More than 600 eruptive vents and 625 dykes have been studied in detail to characterise the subvolcanic system of the island. Using cinder-cone and other eruptive-vent alignments it has been possible to infer 115 eruptive fissures with lengths that range from 40 m to 2200 m. NE-SW trending volcanic fissures and dykes are common on the entire island and predominate in the northeast rift zone. The main strike of the dykes and fissures in the south and west rift zones are approximately NNW-SSE and E-W, respectively. However, in the west rift zone, eruptive fissures display a fan distribution with directions that range from N43°E to N124°E. Volcanic fissures within the El Golfo landslide valley trend parallel to the head scarp, except those that are close to the head of the valley, many of which are perpendicular to the scarp. Dykes show a radial distribution in the head scarp of the El Golfo landslide. Three feeder-dykes directly connected with their lava flows have been identified in El Hierro. Feeder dykes are difficult to observe in the field but provide important information when their lengths and thicknesses can be measured

  3. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Ubide, Teresa; Sudo, Masafumi; Martí, Joan; Galindo, Inés; Galé, Carlos; Morales, Jose María; Yepes, Jorge; Lago, Marceliano

    2016-01-01

    New age data have been obtained to time constrain the recent Quaternary volcanism of El Hierro (Canary Islands) and to estimate its recurrence rate. We have carried out 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on samples spanning the entire volcanostratigraphic sequence of the island and 14C geochronology on the most recent eruption on the northeast rift of the island: 2280 ± 30 yr BP. We combine the new absolute data with a revision of published ages onshore, some of which were identified through geomorphological criteria (relative data). We present a revised and updated chronology of volcanism for the last 33 ka that we use to estimate the maximum eruptive recurrence of the island. The number of events per year determined is 9.7 × 10-4 for the emerged part of the island, which means that, as a minimum, one eruption has occurred approximately every 1000 years. This highlights the need of more geochronological data to better constrain the eruptive recurrence of El Hierro.

  4. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  5. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  6. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  7. Full-Vector Geomagnetic Field Records for the Late Quaternary from El Hierro and the Eifel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monster, M.; de Groot, L. V.; Dekkers, M. J.; van Galen, J. P.; Kuiper, K.; Langemeijer, J.; Wiarda, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight flows in the age range of c. 100 to c. 500 ka were sampled on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) and twelve in the Eifel (Germany). All sites from the Eifel had been previously dated, whereas the ages of the El Hierro flows were approximated by stratigraphic and directional coherency with a dated section c. 4 km to the north-east. Additionally, seven flows were dated using the ThermoFisher Helix multi-collector mass spectrometer at VU University Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The rocks were subjected to standard rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic experiments. Palaeodirections were obtained using both thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation techniques. Apart from two sites that appear to have been struck by lightning, all sites yielded reliable palaeodirections. Absolute palaeointensities were obtained using three different methods: IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen protocol and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier technique. Nineteen sites from El Hierro and all twelve sites from the Eifel passed the selection criteria for one or more of these methods, with the pseudo-Thellier technique having the highest success rate (c. 35% for El Hierro and 55% for the Eifel). The palaeointensities obtained for El Hierro were mostly between 20 and 40 μT and for the Eifel between 20 and 50 μT, both with a tendency to be somewhat low compared to the present-day field of c. 39 μT and c. 49 μT, respectively. The pseudo-Thellier and multispecimen methods generally yielded lower palaeointensities than IZZI-Thellier, but no clear trend was visible.

  8. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic bombs that degas at sea surface, boil seawater and sink when cooled and degassed. At the beginning of the eruption white coloured pumices enveloped in darker coloured spatters floated on land. These composite pumices show evidence of magma mingling with folds and undulations of the darker coloured magma within the white pumice suggesting magma mingling in a viscous regime. The white pumice is highly vesicular and resembles foam. Most of the vesicular structure is made of tightly packed, polygonal bubbles of uniform size (˜ 100 μm), suggesting a single event of homogeneous bubble nucleation. An earlier event of heterogeneous bubble nucleation is indicated by the presence of a few large bubbles developed around tiny quartz crystals. Both the darker and lighter coloured pumices are almost aphyric. A few olivine crystals with perfect euhedral morphology occur within the darker part. Rare olivines of same composition are also found in the white pumice glass but then display somewhat rounded outlines and hopper-type structure. Melt inclusions in olivines of the darker pumice are of the same composition as the enveloping mafic glass, whereas olivines in the mixing boundary layer have melt inclusions of less mafic composition. The whole-rock composition and slightly more evolved glass composition are of basanitc and alkali rhyolitic composition (at the limit of the trachyte field) according to the TAS classification. Such rhyolitic compositions are rare in the Canaries. Analyses of residual volatile concentration in the glasses show that the silicic glass is highly degassed (F: 511 ±222; Cl: 202 ±58; S: below detection limit; values in ppm,1SD, n=10), whereas the basanitic glass still has very high halogene concentrations (F: 1354 ±151; Cl: 1026 ±47; S: 362 ±29; 1SD, n=10). In-situ analysis of trace element compositions of the dark glasses reveal typical basanitic compositions with

  9. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  10. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  11. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-02-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary Islands). We compiled a new and unified regional seismic catalog and used long time-series of digital 3D surface displacements recorded by permanent GPS stations in the region. A joint regional- and local-scale analysis based on these data enabled us to identify signs of anomalous tectonic activity from 2003 onwards, whose intensity increased in 2007 and finally accelerated three months before the onset of the volcanic eruption on El Hierro in October 2011. Activity included the occurrence of regional extension and an uplift process affecting the southern Iberian Peninsula, NW Africa, and the Canary Islands. We interpret these observations as early signs of the geodynamic activity, which led to El Hierro eruption and the subsequent episodes of magma intrusion. Results point to the significant contribution of the mantle plume dynamics (i.e. external forces) in this renewed volcanic activity in the Canary Islands and emphasize the role of mantle dynamics in controlling regional tectonics.

  12. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  13. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  14. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  15. Felsic volcanism in a basic shield (El Hierro, Canary Islands). Implications in terms of volcanic hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Meletlidis, Stavros; Galindo Jiménez, Inés

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro, the southwesternmost and smallest island of the Canary Archipelago, is a complex basaltic shield volcano characterized by mainly effusive volcanism with both Strombolian and Hawaiian activity. Explosive felsic volcanism is not a common feature of the archipelago and, so far, it has only been reported on the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, where it has been responsible for the formation of large central volcanic complexes. The presence of felsic rocks on the other islands of the archipelago and specifically on El Hierro is mostly restricted to subvolcanic intrusions and a few lava flows, generally associated with the oldest parts of the islands. We hereby report the presence of a trachytic pumice deposit on the island of El Hierro, referred to here as the Malpaso Member. A detailed stratigraphic, lithological, and sedimentological study was carried out on the deposits of this explosive episode of felsic composition, which is the only one found on the Canary Islands apart from those of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Four different subunits were identified on the basis of their lithological and granulometrical characteristics. The products of the eruption correspond to a single eruptive event and cover an area of about 13 km2. This deposit originated from a base-surge-type explosive eruption with a subsequent radial emplacement of dilute PDC currents, was emplaced from the vent that would have been located in a similar position to the volcano of Tanganasoga. The low vesicularity of juvenile fragments and the morphological characteristics of the fine particles, as well as the high proportion of lithic fragments and the ash-rich nature of the deposit, suggest that magma/water interaction controlled the dynamics of the eruption. This study demonstrates that magmas from El Hierro could have the potential for producing an explosive eruption, in an environment in which the majority of the eruptions are basaltic and effusive in nature. Bearing in mind

  16. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  17. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  18. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  19. The Littoral Station of Aguda, in the North of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.

    1995-03-01

    The public authorities have recently approved the building of a Littoral Station in Aguda, a small fishing village on the Atlantic coast, 15 km south of the River Douro estuary in the municipal area of Vila Nova de Gaia. The internal structure of the building involves a Fishery Museum exhibiting ancient and modern gear, a Public Aquarium displaying the local marine fauna and flora and a Research and Educational Department for marine biology, aquaculture and fishery. The project was drawn up by the architect João Paulo Peixoto, in collaboration with local engineers, and the author. In Aguda there is an active, small-scale fishery, based on traditional methods handed down from generation to generation. The almost unstudied local marine fauna and flora is characterized by a high diversity of invertebrates and a rich abundance of fish stocks. Easy access to a variety of marine biotopes is guaranteed by means of the local fishing-fleet, thus supporting the Station's programme of education and research.

  20. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  1. Driving magma to the surface: The 2011-2012 El Hierro Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Martí, Joan; del-Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Albert, Helena; Lamolda, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    We reanalyzed the seismic and deformation data corresponding to the preeruptive unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011. We considered new information about the internal structure of the island. We updated the seismic catalog to estimate the full evolution of the released seismic energy and demonstrate the importance of nonlocated earthquakes. Using seismic data and GPS displacements, we characterized the shear-tensile type of the predominant fracturing and modeled the strain and stress fields for different time periods. This enabled us to identify a prolonged first phase characterized by hydraulic tensile fracturing, which we interpret as being related to the emplacement of new magma below the volcanic edifice on El Hierro. This was followed by postinjection unidirectional migration, probably controlled by the stress field and the distribution of the structural discontinuities. We identified the effects of energetic magmatic pulses occurring a few days before the eruption that induced shear seismicity on preexisting faults within the volcano and raised the Coulomb stress over the whole crust. We suggest that these magmatic pulses reflect the crossing of the Moho discontinuity, as well as changes in the path geometry of the dyke migration toward the surface. The final phase involved magma ascent through a prefractured crust.

  2. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  3. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  4. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d‑1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  5. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d−1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  6. Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S. E.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Burchardt, S.; Krumbholz, M.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Soler, V.; Arzilli, F.; Brun, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material (`xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

  7. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-05-09

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  8. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-22

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  9. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  10. Bone cadmium and lead in the ancient population from El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Galindo-Martín, L; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in 63 bone samples of the prehispanic population of the island El Hierro, comparing them with the values obtained on 98 prehispanic samples from Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, and La Palma, all of them in the Canary Islands, and with eight modern samples who served as controls. Prehispanic individuals from El Hierro showed the lowest bone Pb values of all the archipelago (0.72+/-1.01 mg/kg), significantly different (F=6.9, p<0.001) from the values obtained for the population of other islands such as Tenerife (4.87+/-5.36 mg/kg) or Fuerteventura (4.45+/-7.85 mg/kg) and also from those of the modern population (30.53+/-14.62 mg/kg). On the other hand, bone Cd, although slightly lower in the ancient population groups, was not significantly different when compared with the modern one. In addition, no differences were observed in bone Cd among the ancient population of the different islands. Bone lead but not cadmium kept an inverse significant relationship with the distance of the burial site both to south Spain (r=-0.31) and Atlantic Morocco (r=-0.28, p<0.001 in both cases).

  11. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  12. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data for ultramafic xenoliths from Hierro, Canary Islands: Melt infiltration processes in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Neumann, E.-R.

    1995-03-01

    We present here Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotopic data from harzburgite (group I) and dunite-pyroxenite (group II) suite mantle xenoliths from the island of Hierro, one of the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. A progressive leaching technique has been developed and applied to the whole-rock powder samples in order to identify and remove as far as possible any recent additions (host basalt and/or sea-water). Isotopic analyses of the leached residues show significant systematic differences between these two suites. Dunite-pyroxenite suite xenoliths (olivine pyroxenites, dunites and wehrlites) exhibit a relatively small range of isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70292 to 0.70315; 143Nd/144Nd from 0.51295 to 0.51302; 206Pb/204Pb from 19.18 to 19.40) compared to the harzburgite suite (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70295 to 0.70320; 143Nd/144Nd from 0.51285 to 0.51296; 206Pb/204Pb from 18.85 to 19.41). In all isotope correlation diagrams the leached dunite-pyroxenite suite xenoliths plot between the Hierro basalt field and a hypothetical depleted mantle suggesting that these xenoliths may have been strongly infiltrated by Hierro-type basalt. Progressive leaching of this suite of samples showed removal of a component with more enriched Sr (higher 87Sr/86Sr relative to depleted mantle) and Nd (lower 143Nd/144Nd) isotopic compositions that is probably host basalt glass. The leached harzburgite suite xenoliths extend to more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than Hierro-type basalt but always have more depleted Pb. This relationship can best be explained if this suite has been subject to infiltration by earlier magmas of the Canary Island suite (in particular, those from Gran Canaria show appropriate compositional ranges), although additional infiltration by Hierro basalt cannot be ruled out. The leaching experiments for this suite mostly show removal of a radiogenic Sr component only (? seawater) which supports the interpretation of early infiltration and subsequent

  13. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  14. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  15. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Fraile-Nuez, E; de Armas, D; González, A G; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Escánez, J

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10(th) 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  16. Parasite fauna of rodents (Murinae) from El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Feliu, Carlos; López, Mercedes; Gómez, María S; Torres, Jordi; Sánchez, Santiago; Miquel, Jordi; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Segovia, Juan M; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Montoliu, Isabel; Villa, Mercedes; Fernández-Álvarez, Angela; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Valladares, Basilio; Orós, Jorge; Foronda, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    The parasite fauna (protozoa, helminths and insects) of the two most widespread Murinae rodents in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) was studied. Faunistic, ecological, ecotoxicological data, as well as information on the biology of some nematode parasites of R. rattus are provided. The present work is unprecedented in the Canary Islands, and provides the first data on the parasite biodiversity in Murinae from the archipelago. Concerning to parasitofaunas stands out: a) impoverishment of biodiversity of helminths respect of which have the same hosts in other islands; b) increasing the number of species of Siphonaptera, even compared with flea species that parasitize the same hosts from continental biotopes.

  17. Radiopaque transverse lines (Harris lines) in the prehispanic population of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la Rosa, M; González-Reimers, E; Castilla-Garcia, A; Santolaria-Fernandez, F

    1994-03-01

    Harris lines were assessed in 48 right tibiae of prehispanic inhabitants of El Hierro (one of the Canary Islands), belonging to 23 adult females and 25 adult males. No Harris lines were detected in sixteen (33%) of the adult individuals (7 females = 30% and 9 males = 36%), these differences are not statistically significant. Female tibiae showed a slightly higher mean number of Harris lines at the distal end than male ones (2.091 +/- 1.9 in females vs 1.417 +/- in males). Ages at which Harris lines were formed show two peaks, a major one at the age of 2 years, and another one between 11 and 13, particularly in the females. Harris lines were more frequently observed at the proximal than at the distal end of the bone. No relation was found between the number of Harris lines and stature. The relative high number of lines detected in our population speak for several stressful episodes suffered during growth.

  18. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. PMID:23355953

  19. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  20. Characterization of the seismicity prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen; Gomis Moreno, Almudena; Hernández Yanes, Paula; Meletlidis, Stavros; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The last eruption of the Canary Islands started on 10 October 2011, 2 km south of El Hierro. This submarine eruption was the first fully monitored volcanic eruption in this archipelago and was preceded by various precursory signals, the most evident of which was the seismicity that started in July 2011. This seismicity includes almost 10,000 low-magnitude earthquakes located during 81 days before the eruption which revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the north of the island to the south at depths of between 10 and 17 km, the deeper events occurring further south. In this work we try to improve the quality of the seismic catalogue. We applied a relative location algorithm (hypoDD) to improve hypocentral locations. Tests performed to check the reliability of the results gave maximum uncertainties of 400 m in the relocations. Furthermore, new features were found, including the origin of the seismicity in the center of the island and the presence of two alternating seismogenic zones in the north of the island during the first month of activity. The first days of the unrest the seismic network was composed by only 2 seismic stations and almost no location was possible. We obtained information about location and magnitude of these events at the beginning of the seismic crisis by comparison of the waveforms by correlation with located earthquakes. We have also analyzed the baselevel seismicity of El Hierro from 1996 using digital data of a short period station. Manual revision of these data showed a considerably low number of earthquakes in the region before the unrest (less than one event per day).

  1. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  2. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  3. Osteoarthritis among the prehispanic population from La Gomera and El Hierro (Canary Islands): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Trujillo-Mederos, Aioze; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, Matilde; González-Reimers, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is still unclear, and several factors may play a role in its development, including joint trauma or microtrauma (usually related to lifestyle), local inflammation, loading charge, and genetics. Assessment of osteoarthritis among ancient populations is important, since it may yield information relative to life habits. Therefore, we have performed the present study in order to assess the prevalence of osteoarthritis among the prehispanic populations from La Gomera and El Hierro, two islands of the Canary Archipelago with a similar size and altitude which were colonized by individuals of North African origin about 2000 - 2500 years ago. The economy of these people was based on goat herding, shellfishing, and agriculture together with consumption of some wild vegetal species. However, despite a similar geographic environment and a similar economic pattern, prevalence of osteoarthritis was by far higher among the population from La Gomera (78.57 % vs 15.85 %, p < 0.001), and that of eburnation, 11.65 % and 1.05 %, respectively (p = 0.016); in contrast, the population of El Hierro was markedly more robust than that of La Gomera. Globally, a trend to an inverse relationship was observed between epiphyseal robusticity index and the presence of osteoarthritis, which was statistically significant when only men were analysed. However, after performing a multivariate analysis, the only factor that was independently related to the presence of osteoarthritis was the variable "island" (i.e., population group), suggesting that - possibly - genetic factors played a major role in the differences observed.

  4. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  5. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island.

  6. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo

    2017-07-01

    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  7. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  8. Analysis of surface deformation during the eruptive process of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Detection, Evolution and Forecasting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernandez-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; Martin, M.; Hurtado, R.; Pereda, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Cañada, L.; Ortiz, R.; Garcia, A.

    2012-04-01

    The surface deformation has been an essential parameter for the onset and evolution of the eruptive process of the island of El Hierro (October 2011) as well as for forecasting changes in seismic and volcanic activity during the crisis period. From GNSS-GPS observations the reactivation is early detected by analizing the change in the deformation of the El Hierro Island regional geodynamics. It is found that the surface deformation changes are detected before the occurrence of seismic activity using the station FRON (GRAFCAN). The evolution of the process has been studied by the analysis of time series of topocentric coordinates and the variation of the distance between stations on the island of El Hierro (GRAFCAN station;IGN network; and UCA-CSIC points) and LPAL-IGS station on the island of La Palma. In this work the main methodologies and their results are shown: •The location (and its changes) of the litospheric pressure source obtained by applying the Mogi model. •Kalman filtering technique for high frequency time series, used to make the forecasts issued for volcanic emergency management. •Correlations between deformation of the different GPS stations and their relationship with seismovolcanic settings.

  9. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika

    2013-04-01

    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  10. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  11. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  12. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalena Santana-Casiano, J.; González-Dávila, Melchor; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Important changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients were produced. As a result of the ongoing magmatic activity, the submarine eruption produced an unprecedented episode of severe acidification and fertilization. The findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem.

  13. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Arnoso Sampedro, José; González Montesinos, Fuensanta; Martí Molist, Joan

    2014-05-01

    Gravity changes occurring before the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the pre-eruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LCR gPhone-054. On September 15, 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 µGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, suggests that a lateral magma migration occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on October 10, 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on October 6-11, 2011, suggesting that an interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor was occurring. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 µGal, during the first three days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which suggests that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  14. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  15. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. It was observed dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. The findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. In January 2013, a new project, the VULCANO project, was iniciated to study the post-eruptive phase in the submarine volcanic area.

  16. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  17. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  18. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-02-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for territorial planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure qualitative and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted in the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where) and the temporal probability (when) of an eruption on the island. By studying the past eruptive behavior of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result is the first total qualitative volcanic hazard map of the island.

  19. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  20. Morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural characteristics of the blood cells of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silvestre, A; Marco, I; Rodriguez-Dominguez, M A; Lavín, S; Cuenca, R

    2005-04-01

    The object of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) by light and electron (TEM) microscopy, and cytochemical staining. Smears were prepared from blood from the ventral coccygeal vein of 10 healthy adult lizards (five males and five females) from the Giant Lizard of El Hierro Reproduction and Research Centre, Canary Islands, Spain. The cytochemical stains used were: benzidine peroxidase (BP), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (AP), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), toluidine blue (TB) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. Heterophils had granules that were heterogeneous in both size and electron density, and stained with BP, PAS and ANAE. Eosinophil granules were homogeneously electron-dense and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Basophils had both highly and moderately electron-dense granules, and stained with TB and ANAE. Azurophil granules were of low electron-density and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Azurophil cytoplasm was vacuolated on TEM. The cytoplasm of lymphocytes contained many ribosomes and was positive for AP. Monocytes had a large nucleus and a vacuolated cytoplasm but did not stain by any of the cytochemical methods used. Thrombocytes had a relatively large nucleus but little cytoplasm; they did not stain cytochemically. The blood cells of the giant lizards of El Hierro differ from those of other members of the Order Squamata both morphologically and cytochemically. The variation in cytochemical responses in the blood of reptiles makes it necessary to study species individually if meaningful clinical decisions are to be made.

  1. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands: chemical and isotopic evidence in dissolved gases of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Padrón, E.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.; Sumino, H.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the smallest of the Canary Islands and is located in the southwest extreme of the archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on October 10, 2011, followed by a green discolouration of seawater and strong degassing on October 12, 2011, indicating the occurrence of a submarine eruption at the south of El Hierro island. Further episodes of volcanic activity had occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. To provide additional information about the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, a chemical and isotopic study of the dissolved gases in the seawater affected by the eruptive event was conducted one week after the eruption started. Sea water samples were collected by the Ignacio Lozano Oceanographic Research Vessel (ICCM). Three vertical geochemical profiles of dissolved gases were carried out near the location of the submarine eruption. Depths of the sea water samples ranged from 10 to 400 meters. Dissolved CO2, He, N2, O2 and Ar as well as the isotopic composition of CO2, Ar and He were analyzed. Relatively high 3He/4He ratio were observed at most of the sea water samples reaching values up to 5.8 RA (RA the 3He/4He ratio on air) at 100 meters depth of the geochemical vertical profile closest to the eruption site, suggesting a significant volcanic-magmatic-hydrothermal discharge through the submarine eruption vent. Other dissolved gas geochemical parameters such as N2/36Ar, N2/O2 and CO2/O2 ratios clearly suggest a strong presence of a submarine volcanic plume around 100 meters depth associated to this submarine eruption. The He and CO2 isotopes systematics confirmed also clearly a

  2. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  3. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed.

  4. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  5. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  6. Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M.; Montero, María F.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1–V3 regions for Bacteria and V3–V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70–200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed

  7. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  8. Monitoring the volcanic unrest of El Hierro (Canary Islands) before the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.; Abella, R.; Brenes, B.; Cabrera Rodríguez, V. M.; Casas, B.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.; Felpeto, A.; de Villalta, M. Fernández; del Fresno, C.; García, O.; García-Arias, M. J.; García-Cañada, L.; Gomis Moreno, A.; González-Alonso, E.; Guzmán Pérez, J.; Iribarren, I.; López-Díaz, R.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Meletlidis, S.; Moreno, M.; Moure, D.; de Pablo, J. Pereda; Rodero, C.; Romero, E.; Sainz-Maza, S.; Sentre Domingo, M. A.; Torres, P. A.; Trigo, P.; Villasante-Marcos, V.

    2012-07-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south from El Hierro Island (Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. Earthquake migration from the north to the south of the island and acceleration of seismicity are in good correlation with changes in the deformation pattern as well as with some anomalies in geochemical and geomagnetic parameters. An earthquake of local magnitude 4.3 at 12 km depth (8 October 2011) and shallower seismicity a day after, preceded the onset of the eruption. This is the first time that a volcanic eruption is fully monitored in the Canary Islands. Data recorded during this unrest episode at El Hierro will contribute to understand reawakening of volcanic activity in this region and others of similar characteristics.

  9. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  10. Diffuse CO_{2} degassing monitoring of the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Norrie, Janice; Withoos, Yannick; García-Merino, Marta; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Even during repose periods, volcanoes release large amounts of gases from both visible (fumaroles, solfataras, plumes) and non-visible emanations (diffuse degassing). In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs, particularly in those volcanic areas where there are no visible volcanic-hydrothermal gas emissions. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. As CO2 travels upward by advective-diffusive transport mechanisms and manifests itself at the surface, changes in its flux pattern over time provide important information for monitoring volcanic and seismic activity. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island, the smallest and south westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago with an area of 278 km2. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become the most useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. The island experienced a volcano-seismic unrest that began in July 2011, characterized by the location of a large number of relatively small earthquakes (M<2.5) beneath El Hierro at depths between 8 and 15 km. On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption was confirmed during the afternoon of October 12, 2011 by visual observations off the coast of El Hierro, about 2 km south of the small village of La Restinga in the southernmost part of the island. During the pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep seated magmatic gases to the

  11. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David

    2015-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of soil CO2 degassing rate at El Hierro volcanic system and relation to the 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melían, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peréz, N. M.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events. On October 10, 2011, the seismic activity changed behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement suggesting the initial stage of an eruption. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of soil CO2 degassing rates at El Hierro volcanic system and its relation with the 2011 El Hierro volcanic unrest. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been investigated at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis during the summer periods with approximately 600 observation sites. From 2004 to 2009, a diffuse CO2 emission rate decreasing trend from 1434 to 358 t•d-1 (equivalent to background values) was observed, and this tendency changed from 2009 to 2010 reaching a diffuse CO2 emission rate of 970 t•d-1. Because of this observed tendency change on the diffuse CO2 emission rate is possible to think that the preliminary stages of the 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro did start by the middle of 2010 with aseismic magma rising in the upper mantle beneath El Hierro. Since July 2011 and due to the start of the seismic-volcanic crisis at El Hierro, 16 diffuse CO2 emission surveys have been undertaken until January 2012. Diffuse CO2 emission measurements were performed by means of portable NDIR sensors according to the accumulation chamber method. Observed soil CO2 efflux values for all the 2011-12 surveys have ranged from negligible values to 398 g•m-2•d-1. The diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere for the 2011-12 surveys was estimated between 138 and 2,143 t•d-1. On October 6, 2011, an increase tendency of diffuse CO2 emission rate from 380 to 990 t•d-1 was observed prior the occurrence of the first 4 magnitude type earthquake on October 8, 2011, and El Hierro submarine eruption on October 12, 2011. From October 15, 2011, an

  13. Formation of U-depleted rhyolite from a basanite at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Laporte, Didier; Carpentier, Marion; Devouard, Bertrand; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Marti, Joan

    2013-03-01

    Phonolite and trachyte are the felsic magmas of the alkaline magma suites, which characterize the Canary Islands. The October 2011 submarine eruption off El Hierro, the westernmost island, nevertheless, produced a small volume of rhyolitic magma. The rhyolite occurred as highly vesicular, white coloured pumices enveloped in and mingled with darker coloured basanitic pumice. The basanitic pumice is relatively crystal poor with a few euhedral olivines (mostly Fo77-79), clinopyroxenes and Fe-rich spinels, whereas very rare olivine of same composition is found together with equally rare Fe-sulphide and FeTi-rich oxides in the rhyolite. The Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium in the oxides permits to calculate an equilibrium temperature of 970-890 °C for the rhyolite, in agreement with quartz-melt equilibrium at ca. 930 °C. A striking mineralogical feature of the rhyolite is the presence of rounded to contorted grains of milky quartz, which are xenocrysts incorporated and partly dissolved into the magma. Analyses of residual volatile concentrations in the glasses show that the rhyolite melt was highly degassed, whereas the basanitic glass still has important halogen concentrations. Trace element patterns of the mafic glasses and their elevated incompatible element concentrations are typical of the western Canary Island basanites. In contrast, the trace element composition of the rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (e.g. Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart that can be explained by fractionation of accessory phases (1 % apatite, 1 % sphene and 0.1 % zircon). Surprisingly, low U concentration is presumably related to elevated oxygen fugacity in the rhyolite, causing U to be in a hexavalent state, and fluxing of F-rich gas leading to volatilization of UF6, known to emanate at low temperature. The results suggest that a gas

  14. Time-dependent deformation at elevated temperatures in basalt from El Hierro, Stromboli and Teide volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, P. M.; Fahrner, D.; Harnett, C. E.; Fazio, M.

    2014-12-01

    Time dependent deformation describes the process whereby brittle materials deform at a stress level below their short-term material strength (Ss), but over an extended time frame. Although generally well understood in engineering (where it is known as static fatigue or "creep"), knowledge of how rocks creep and fail has wide ramifications in areas as diverse as mine tunnel supports and the long term stability of critically loaded rock slopes. A particular hazard relates to the instability of volcano flanks. A large number of flank collapses are known such as Stromboli (Aeolian islands), Teide, and El Hierro (Canary Islands). Collapses on volcanic islands are especially complex as they necessarily involve the combination of active tectonics, heat, and fluids. Not only does the volcanic system generate stresses that reach close to the failure strength of the rocks involved, but when combined with active pore fluid the process of stress corrosion allows the rock mass to deform and creep at stresses far lower than Ss. Despite the obvious geological hazard that edifice failure poses, the phenomenon of creep in volcanic rocks at elevated temperatures has yet to be thoroughly investigated in a well controlled laboratory setting. We present new data using rocks taken from Stromboli, El Heirro and Teide volcanoes in order to better understand the interplay between the fundamental rock mechanics of these basalts and the effects of elevated temperature fluids (activating stress corrosion mechanisms). Experiments were conducted over short (30-60 minute) and long (8-10 hour) time scales. For this, we use the method of Heap et al., (2011) to impose a constant stress (creep) domain deformation monitored via non-contact axial displacement transducers. This is achieved via a conventional triaxial cell to impose shallow conditions of pressure (<25 MPa) and temperature (<200 °C), and equipped with a 3D laboratory seismicity array (known as acoustic emission, AE) to monitor the micro

  15. Improvements on the seismic catalog previous to the 2011 El Hierro eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Precursors from the submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011 included 10,000 low magnitude earthquakes and 5 cm crustal deformation within 81 days previous to the eruption onset on the 10th October. Seismicity revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the North to the South of the island and depths ranging from 10 and 17 km with deeper events occurring further South. The earthquakes of the seismic catalog were manually picked by the IGN almost in real time, but there has not been a subsequent revision to check for new non located events jet and the completeness magnitude for the seismic catalog have strong changes during the entire swarm due to the variable number of events per day. In this work we used different techniques to improve the quality of the seismic catalog. First we applied different automatic algorithms to detect new events including the LTA-STA method. Then, we performed a semiautomatic system to correlate the new P and S detections with known phases from the original catalog. The new detected earthquakes were also located using Hypoellipse algorithm. The resulting new catalog included 15,000 new events mainly concentrated in the last weeks of the swarm and we assure a completeness magnitude of 1.2 during the whole series. As the seismicity from the original catalog was already relocated using hypoDD algorithm, we improved the location of the new events using a master-cluster relocation. This method consists in relocating earthquakes towards a cluster of well located events instead of a single event as the master-event method. In our case this cluster correspond to the relocated earthquakes from the original catalog. Finally, we obtained a new equation for the local magnitude estimation which allow us to include corrections for each seismic station in order to avoid local effects. The resulting magnitude catalog has a better fit with the moment magnitude catalog obtained for the strong earthquakes of this series in previous studies

  16. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  17. Enhancement of sub-daily positioning solutions for surface deformation surveillance at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates, G.; García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.

    2013-06-01

    El Hierro Island in the Canary Archipelago recently experienced a submerged eruption a few kilometers off its southern shore, detected 2011 October 10 on the island's south-rift alignment. The seismic activity suddenly increased around mid 2011 July, and ground deformation was then detected on the only geodetic benchmark that is continuously observed by global navigation satellite systems techniques and provides public data access. Based on that information, several other global navigation satellite system signal receivers were deployed on the island to provide continuous observation. For data collected by these receivers, a processing strategy was applied to achieve millimeter-level half-hourly positioning solutions. Position updates every 24 h are satisfactory to determine tectonic-plates' velocities. Updates near 1 s or less are required to characterize seismic waves. In between, minute-level updates are well suited for monitoring active volcano's inflation or deflation, providing an optimal time resolution of the local ground deformation. In half-hourly positioning solutions, the heterogeneous satellites' distribution in their orbital planes gives different constraints during satellite-constellation revolution, which can bias the solutions. Also, several geophysical influences can bias the solutions, including those related to gravitational movements. These influences have mostly semi-diurnal periodicities and may be considered Gaussian colored noise on the position's time series. Daily solutions that average out these influences can be applied in active volcanoes, but they can impose some limitations because they average the daily deformation, and the update waiting time is not suitable when near real-time surveillance is mandatory. These semi-diurnal biases do need to be removed or minimized to achieve millimeter-level sub-daily positioning solutions, however, and to do so, a discrete Kalman filter was applied to enhance the half-hourly positioning solutions

  18. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    PubMed Central

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  19. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Magdalena Santana-Casiano, J.; González-Dávila, Melchor

    2014-05-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  20. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Santana-Casiano, J M; Arístegui, J; Alonso-González, I J; Hernández-León, S; Blanco, M J; Rodríguez-Santana, A; Hernández-Guerra, A; Gelado-Caballero, M D; Eugenio, F; Marcello, J; de Armas, D; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Montero, M F; Laetsch, D R; Vélez-Belchí, P; Ramos, A; Ariza, A V; Comas-Rodríguez, I; Benítez-Barrios, V M

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments.

  1. The magmatic plumbing system beneath El Hierro (Canary Islands): constraints from phenocrysts and naturally quenched basaltic glasses in submarine rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-05-01

    A thermobarometric and petrologic study of basanites erupted from young volcanic cones along the submarine portions of the three El Hierro rift zones (NE-Rift, NW-Rift and S-Ridge) has been performed to reconstruct magma plumbing and storage beneath the island. Mineral-melt thermobarometry applied to naturally quenched glass and clinopyroxene rims yields pressures ranging from 350 to 1070 MPa with about 80% of the calculated pressures being in the range of 600-800 MPa. This corresponds to a depth range of 19-26 km, implying that the main level of final crystal fractionation is within the uppermost mantle. No systematic dependence between sample locality and fractionation pressures could be observed. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystals in the rocks are complexly zoned and have, on an inter-sample as well as on an intra-sample scale, highly variable core and rim compositions. This can best be explained by mixing of multiply saturated (olivine, magnetite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite), moderately evolved magmas with more mafic magmas being either only saturated with olivine + spinel or with olivine + spinel + clinopyroxene. The inter-sample differences indicate derivation from small, isolated magma chambers which have undergone distinct fractionation and mixing histories. This is in contrast to oceanic intraplate volcanoes situated on plumes with high melt supply rates, e.g. Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where magma is mainly transported through a central conduit system and stored in a shallow magma chamber prior to injection into the rift zones. The plumbing system beneath El Hierro rather resembles the magma storage systems beneath, e.g. Madeira or La Palma, indicating that small, intermittent magma chambers might be a common feature of oceanic islands fed by plumes with relatively low fluxes, which results in only limited and periodic magma supply.

  2. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina

    2014-05-01

    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  3. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2017-02-01

    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  4. Geochemical monitoring network at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and during 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, P. A.; Meletlidis, S.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Moure, D.; Rodero, C.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since 17 July 2011 an important increase in the number of seismic events located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) was detected by the seismic network of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (I.G.N.). This increment was interpreted as a precursory signal of a potential eruption, which in fact took place three months later (10th October 2011). In order to improve and complete the volcano monitoring network several geochemical parameters were measured since the beginning of the anomalous seismic activity. Measurements of CO2 diffuse flux through the soil were carried out in the major part of the island: the central zone, El Golfo (northern area) and the zone delimitated by the western rift. More than 450 measurements were accomplished during July, August, and September 2011. Analysis of the data revealed the existence of a spatial anomaly with relative high CO2 diffuse flux in the southwest part of the El Golfo area, close to the zone where the anomalous seismicity was located. This abnormal flux, almost aligned with the western limit of the seismic swarm, was not detected again in measurements accomplished on September in the same area. Between July and August, four geochemical stations were installed in three sub-horizontal galleries and in one well. Air and soil temperature were measured in all galleries and air 222Rn concentration was determined in the four stations. Two of the galleries were also equipped with a sensor in order to obtain measurements of CO2 concentration in the air. The sampling period for each parameter was established in ten minutes. Anomalous high 222Rn concentrations were detected in the station located in the well, apparently related to increases in the seismic accumulated energy and the GPS deformation rates. Taking into account the location of the earthquake epicentres and in order to study the evolution over the time of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater, four wells in the El Golfo area were regularly sampled since July 2011

  5. Ultramafic Volcanism Associated With the El Golfo Giant Lateral Collapse, El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.; Walter, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    It is firmly established that giant landslides play a key role in the evolution of ocean island volcanoes. On- and off-shore studies of e.g. Réunion Island, the Hawaiian, Canarian, and Cape Verdean archipelagoes confirm enormous landslide volumes up to thousands of km3 and runout distances frequently exceeding a hundred km [1]. Accelerated post-collapse volcanism has been witnessed at strato-volcanoes (e.g. Bezymianny, Mt. St. Helens), but may also be common for shield-volcanoes (Waianae, Oahu [2]; Teno, Tenerife [3]). The extent of this phenomenon and its consequences for the magmatic plumbing system of the volcanic edifice are poorly constrained. Between 15-134 ka, the El Golfo giant lateral collapse removed a 150-180 km3 sector of the volcanic edifice of El Hierro, the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. Although no major volcanic edifice has been established since the collapse, post-El Golfo landslide volcanic vents concentrate at the base of the collapse scarp while additonal eruptions occurred along the triaxial rift system of the island [4]. Whilst pre- collapse volcanics include relatively differentiated rocks (up to trachytes, SiO2 ~55 wt%, MgO ~1.5 wt% [4]), a drastic change in the volcanic regime is reflected in the post-collapse eruptions of crystal-rich (up to 60 volume %, with megacrysts up to 3 cm in size) lava flows and pyroclastics (basanites, ankaramites, and picrites, SiO2 <45 wt%, MgO = 6-15 wt%). Chemical thermobarometry [5] using augite and olivine (Fo 71-81) rims, fused groundmass, and whole rock compositions of post-collapse samples indicates that crystallisation mostly occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures and temperatures in the range of 7-13 kbar and 1150-1250°C, respectively. Most volcanics include several crystal populations, including complex normal and reverse zonation patterns. Narrow outer rims (last ~20 μm) of the augite and olivine crystals commonly show a sharp decrease in Mg# (from ~80 to ~70). We propose

  6. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  7. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  8. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  9. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village. The Canary Government raised the alert level from green to yellow on 10 October (3 colour basis: green, yellow, and red). Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. During the whole eruptive period, The Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands and the Helicopter Unit of the Spanish Civil Guard have carried out regularly thermal surveys with a hand held FLIR Thermal Camera P65. The images have been collected taking care of avoiding solar reflection (with cloudy weather) or at times of the day without direct sun light. Air temperature and humidity were measured with a handled thermo-hygrometer every time before the thermal image collection, and measurements were always performed at two fixed heights: 2000 and 1000 feet, and images were collected as perpendicular as possible to the surface. Together with thermal images, digital photos of the surface have

  10. Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.

    2012-04-01

    On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an

  11. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  12. Different deformation patterns using GPS in the volcanic process of El Hierro (Canary Island) 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cañada, Laura; José García-Arias, María; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Lamolda, Héctor; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Ground deformation is one of the most important parameter in volcano monitoring. The detected deformations in volcanic areas can be precursors of a volcanic activity and contribute with useful information to study the evolution of an unrest, eruption or any volcanic process. GPS is the most common technique used to measure volcano deformations. It can be used to detect slow displacement rates or much larger and faster deformations associated with any volcanic process. In volcanoes the deformation is expected to be a mixed of nature; during periods of quiescence it will be slow or not present, while increased activity slow displacement rates can be detected or much larger and faster deformations can be measure due to magma intrusion, for example in the hours to days prior a eruption beginning. In response to the anomalous seismicity detected at El Hierro in July 2011, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) improved its volcano monitoring network in the island with continuous GPS that had been used to measure the ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest since summer 2011, submarine eruption (October 2011-March 2012) and the following unrest periods (2012-2013). The continuous GPS time series, together with other techniques, had been used to evaluate the activity and to detect changes in the process. We investigate changes in the direction and module of the deformation obtained by GPS and they show different patterns in every unrest period, very close to the seismicity locations and migrations.

  13. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  14. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  15. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  16. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  17. Crustal Deformation During the 2011 Volanic Crisis of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Revealed by Continuous GPS Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.; Barrancos Martinez, J.; Calvo, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, G. H.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez Rodriguez, N.; Suárez, J. M. P.

    2012-04-01

    Seismo-volcnic activity of El Hierro started in the middle of July of 2011 and resulted in the active submarine eruption after October 12 south off La Restinga, the southern tip of the island. We have been operating one continuous GPS site on the island since 2004. Responding to the activity, we quickly installed 5 more GPS sites. Including another site operated by the Canary Islands Cartograhical Service (GRAFCAN) for a cartographic purpose, we have been monitoring 7 GPS sites equipped with dual-frequency receivers. We present the result of our crustal deformation monitoring and the magmatic activity inferred from the deformation data. In accordance with the deformation pattern, we divide the volcanic activity in 2011 into 4 stages. The first stage is from the middle of July to middle of September, during which steady magmatic inflation is estimated at the center of the island. The inflated volume of the first stage is estimated to be about 1.3 X 107 m3 at the depth of about 5km. The second stage, which continued until the first submarine eruption on October 12, is characterized by the accelerated deformation due to the upward as well as southward migration of magma. Additional inflation of about 2.1 X 107 m3 occurred in the depth range of 1-2km. The third stage continued for about 3 weeks after the first submarine eruption. During this stage, submarine eruption continues while no significant surface deformation is observed. It is considered magma supply from a deeper magma chamber continued during this 3 weeks period. Therefore, the total inflation volume during the first two stages gives the minimum estimate for the total magma volume. Since the beginning of November 2011, many GPS sites started subsiding. However, this deflation pattern is quite different from those in the shallow inflation stages. Horizontal deformation during this 4th stage is not significant, implying that deflation is occurring below the moho.

  18. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance.

  19. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  20. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory, and the recent volcanic eruption of El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 years, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterise the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. Shortly after the publication of this method an eruption in the island of El Hierro took place for the first time in historical times, supporting our method and contributing towards the validation of

  1. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  2. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  3. Xenopumices from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Constraints on the plumbing system and magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Iribarren, I.; Felpeto, A.; Torres, P. A.; D'Oriano, C.

    2012-09-01

    Textures, petrography and geochemical compositions of products emitted during the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (15 October, 2011) off the coast of El Hierro have been investigated to get information on interaction mechanism between the first rising magma and the crust during the onset of the eruption as well as to get information on magma storage and plumbing systems beneath El Hierro volcano. Studied products consist of 5-50 cm bombs with an outer black to greenish, vesicular crust with bulk basanite composition containing pumiceous xenoliths (xenopumices). Our results show that xenopumices are much more heterogeneous that previously observed, since consist of a macro-scale mingling of a gray trachyte and white rhyolite. We interpreted xenopumices as resulting from the interaction (heating) between the basanitic magma feeding the eruption, a stagnant trachytic magma pocket/s and an associated hydrothermally altered halo with rhyolitic composition. Our findings confirm the importance of the study of the early products of an eruption since they can contain crucial information on the plumbing system geometry and the mechanism of magma ascent.

  4. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  5. Modelling framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes based on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data rate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The model presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  7. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  8. Insights into the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) from statistical analyses of earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; Díaz-Moreno, A.; Hernández, P.; Alguacil, G.; Posadas, A.; Pérez, N.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to gain insights into the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) by mapping the evolution of the seismic b-value. The El Hierro seismic sequence offers a rather unique opportunity to investigate the process of reawakening of an oceanic intraplate volcano after a long period of repose. The 2011-2012 eruption is a submarine volcanic event that took place about 2 km off of the southern coast of El Hierro. The eruption was accompanied by an intense seismic swarm and surface manifestations of activity. The earthquake catalogue during the period of unrest includes over 12 000 events, the largest with magnitude 4.6. The seismic sequence can be grouped into three distinct phases, which correspond to well-separated spatial clusters and distinct earthquake regimes. The estimated b-value is of 1.18 ± 0.03, and a magnitude of completeness of 1.3, for the entire catalogue. B is very close to 1.0, which indicates completeness of the earthquake catalogue with only minor departures from the linearity of Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution. The most straightforward interpretation of this result is that the seismic swarm reached its final stages, and no additional large magnitude events should be anticipated, similarly to what one would expect for non-volcanic earthquake sequences. The results, dividing the activity in different phases, illustrate remarkable differences in the estimate of b-value during the early and late stages of the eruption. The early pre-eruptive activity was characterized by a b-value of 2.25. In contrast, the b-value was 1.25 during the eruptive phase. Based on our analyses, and the results of other studies, we propose a scenario that may account for the observations reported in this work. We infer that the earthquakes that occurred in the first phase reflect magma migration from the upper mantle to crustal depths. The area where magma initially intruded into the crust, because of its transitional nature

  9. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.

  10. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  11. The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

  12. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  13. InSAR techniques for reliable deformation estimation in volcanic areas and a first glance of Tandem-DEM accuracy - test site El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, X.; Eineder, M.; Fritz, T.

    2013-12-01

    The accuracy and availability of deformation measurements using InSAR techniques is limited due to decorrelation effects, atmospheric disturbances and the SAR side-looking geometry (layover and shadowing). In this talk, we present our recent research and achievements on advanced InSAR techniques in order to retrieve reliable deformation signals from active volcanoes using high resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) images. Another highlight of this talk is the evaluation of an experimental TanDEM-X (TDX) RawDEM with a resolution of approximately 6 m in order to compensate the topographic phase. A volcanic test site which is currently highly active -El Hierro- has been selected to demonstrate the developed techniques: 1) PSI processing in volcanic areas using high resolution TSX images; 2) Mitigation of atmospheric delay distortions; 3) Fusion of multi-geometrical PSI clouds. In order to measure the deformation from 2011 to 2013 at El Hierro [1], two stacks of stripmap TSX Mission data have been acquired, one in ascending orbit and one in descending. Each stack has more than 25 scenes. More than 1.5 million PSs have been detected (SCR>3.0 dB). The stratified atmospheric delay for each acquisition has been integrated for the PSI reference network and, afterwards, interpolated and compensated for all PSs. A linear deformation model has been assumed for PSI processing. For the descending orbit stack, a relative deformation from -21.7 to 131.8 mm/y from Sep. 2011 to Jan. 2013 with respect to a reference point located on the northeast coast has been measured. On the one hand, the spatial variation of the deformation has a good agreement with the seismicity distribution [1]. On the other hand, the deformation magnitude agrees with in-situ GPS measurements [2]. In ascending orbit, the linear deformation rate varies from -22.8 to 90.9 mm/y. This different range of value is due to a scene acquired on Feb. 2010, which has been included in order to obtain the pre-seismic deformation

  14. Multi-level magmatic system of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) constrained by multi-satellite radar interferometry measurements during the 2011-2012 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Pepe, S.; Tiampo, K. F.; Tizzani, P.; Fernandez, J.; Sansosti, E.

    2012-12-01

    Starting from July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). During the following three months, seismic activity increased both in number of events and in magnitude, while expanding over a large area. In early October 2011 the process led to a submarine eruption, with some uncertainty about the location and timing of vent(s) opening. The site of the eruption was ~10 km from the initial and main earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral migration. Here, we conduct a multi-frequency, multi-sensor interferometric analysis of space-borne radar images acquired using three different satellites (Radarsat-2, ASAR-ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed). Radar interferometry is used to measure the deformation that occurred from December 2009 to July 2012. InSAR data fully captures both the pre-, co- and post-eruptive phases. Subsequently, elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic and eruptive activity. This study represents one of the first geodetically-constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of geodetic measurement of submarine volcanic activity to date. It reveals a complex magmatic system with multiple levels of stagnation, a deeper central system (~8.5 km depth) and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (~4 km depth). Before eruption, magma propagated ~5 km downrift towards the eruption fissure. From mid-November 2011 to early January 2012 the system was continuously recharged from source(s) deeper than 10 km, which contributed to a relatively atypical long duration for a basaltic eruption (~5 months). The submarine eruption finished on early March 2012. However, on June 24, 2012 the seismic activity resumed and intense ground deformation has been recorded. The anomalous seismicity continued for a month depicting a clear, but different migration path with respect

  15. New Features in the Subsurface Structure Model of El Hierro Island (Canaries) from Low-Frequency Microseismic Sounding: An Insight into the 2011 Seismo-Volcanic Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikov, A. V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Arnoso, J.; Stepanova, M. Yu; Benavent, M.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    To study the deep structure of El Hierro Island, Canarian Archipelago, we have used a microseismic sounding method (MSM) based on the fact that heterogeneities of the Earth's crust disturb the spectrum of the low-frequency microseismic field in their vicinity. So, at the Earth's surface, the spectral amplitudes of definite frequency f above the high-velocity heterogeneities are decreasing, and above the low-velocity ones they are increasing. Moreover, the frequency f is connected with the depth of a heterogeneity H and the velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves V R( f) through the relation H ≈ 0.4 V R( f)/ f. From these relations, the MSM lets us model the subsurface structure in a 3D context by inverting the amplitude-frequency spatial distribution of the microseismic field of low frequency. The validity of the method is shown through of numerical simulations and previous applications with known or verified solutions. This MSM is now used to invert the microseismic data registered in El Hierro Island. The obtained subsurface model reveals two large intrusive bodies beneath the island. Joint interpretation of microseismic and gravimetric data and their comparison with the available geological studies relate the central-eastern intrusive body to the early stage of the island formation. With respect to the western intrusive body, at the depths of 15-25 km, an area with lowest seismic velocities is identified, where we suggest that a modern magmatic reservoir is located. This reservoir could be associated with the recent submarine eruption in October 2011 and the accompanying seismic swarm, which started in July 2011. Several correlations between the shallowest structures identified by the gravity and MSM approaches are also found. Besides the numerical simulation and previous studies of this method, the correlation between gravity results, the MSM model, the geological information and the possible explanation of the features of the seismic swarm through

  16. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  17. [Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis. The results of the Clínica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) and the Hospital La Fe (Valencia)].

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Carrasco, M T; Morales, P; Ferreiro, M J; Borro, J M; Varela, A; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Estada, J A

    1999-05-01

    Retrospective analysis of cystic fibrosis patients who underwent pulmonary transplantation at Clínica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, and at Hospital La Fe, Valencia. Since the beginning of the programme and until March 1998, a total of 63 patients with cystic fibrosis were studied. Among transplanted patients, 18 were males and 16 females, with a mean age of 18.9 years. All patients underwent sequential bilateral pulmonary transplantation. After transplantation, the most common complication was bacterial pneumonia which affected all patients. Six patients had dehiscence or stenosis of the bronchial suture. Other specific complications of this condition by frequency were intestinal obstruction and diabetes mellitus. Six patients developed obliterans bronchiolitis and one of them underwent a repeat transplantation. Three out of the 34 patients died, and the likelihood of survival after one and three years was 94%. Respiratory function tests and PaO2 peaked at sixth post-transplantation month. Pulmonary transplantation is a therapeutic option to be considered for the patient with cystic fibrosis and severe involvement of his/her pulmonary disease.

  18. Applying fractal dimensions and energy-budget analysis to characterize fracturing processes during magma migration and eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-05-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  19. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  20. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  1. On the biology of Spiruroidea parasites of murine rodents on El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) with molecular characterization of Streptopharagus greenbergi Wertheim, 1993.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Isabel; Sánchez, Santiago; Villa, Mercedes; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Foronda, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the role of darkling beetles Pimelia laevigata costipennis and Hegeter amaroides (Tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of El Hierro (Canary Islands). Larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in P. l. costipennis, 7.8% in H. amaroides), Streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema type larva. The larval stages of S. greenbergi are described for the first time, and adult worms were obtained experimentally from an infected laboratory rat, allowing the identification of the species. Morphometric measurements of experimental adults match those of adults detected in naturally infected rats on the island. Molecular data for S. greenbergi, and the ITS nucleotide sequence of the genus Streptopharagus are also provided for the first time. After the isolation of S. greenbergi DNA and amplification of the ITS region, the ITS1 of this spirocercid was sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database.

  2. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  3. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.4361G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.4361G"><span>Magma storage and migration associated with the 2011-2012 El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> eruption: Implications for crustal magmatic systems at oceanic island volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>González, Pablo J.; Samsonov, Sergey V.; Pepe, Susi; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Fernández, José; Camacho, Antonio G.; Sansosti, Eugenio</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Starting in July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Island, a young oceanic island volcano. On 12 October 2011, the process led to the beginning of a submarine NW-SE fissural eruption at ~15 km from the initial earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral magma migration. Here we conduct a multifrequency, multisensor interferometric analysis of spaceborne radar images acquired using three different satellite systems (RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT, and COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation)). The data fully captures both the pre-eruptive and coeruptive phases. Elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic activity. This study represents the first geodetically constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of submarine volcanic activity to date. Geodetic results reveal two spatially distinct shallow (crustal) magma reservoirs, a deeper central source (9.5 ± 4.0 km), and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (4.5 ± 2.0 km). The deeper source was recharged, explaining the relatively long basaltic eruption, contributing to the observed island-wide uplift processes, and validating proposed active magma underplating. The shallowest source may be an incipient reservoir that facilitates fractional crystallization as observed at other Canary Islands. Data from this eruption supports a relationship between the depth of the shallow crustal magmatic systems and the long-term magma supply rate and oceanic lithospheric age. Such a relationship implies that a factor controlling the existence/depth of shallow (crustal) magmatic systems in oceanic island volcanoes is the lithosphere thermomechanical behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615418M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615418M"><span>A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43A0904J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43A0904J"><span>Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jernsletten, J. A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...22P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42...22P"><span>Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas <span class="hlt">por</span> Hipparcos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.</p> <p></p> <p>Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas <span class="hlt">por</span> Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854662"><span>Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) in Apiales - <span class="hlt">POR</span> 1 is missing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of <span class="hlt">PORs</span> within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two <span class="hlt">PORs</span> per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, <span class="hlt">PORs</span> can be divided into two major clades, <span class="hlt">POR</span> 1 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 <span class="hlt">PORs</span> from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) <span class="hlt">POR</span> sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both <span class="hlt">POR</span> 1 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> 2 clade. Three <span class="hlt">POR</span> 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345005','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345005"><span>Portable exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007/Skid E and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008/Skid F storage plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, O.D.</p> <p>1998-07-25</p> <p>This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters <span class="hlt">POR</span>-O07/Skid E and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007 or <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2585023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2585023"><span>Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia <span class="hlt">Aguda</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia <span class="hlt">Aguda</span> (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632974','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4632974"><span>Consequences of <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations and polymorphisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. <span class="hlt">POR</span> is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070833"><span>Consequences of <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations and polymorphisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M</p> <p>2011-04-10</p> <p>P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. <span class="hlt">POR</span> is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980022','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980022"><span>Structural Insights into the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including <span class="hlt">Por</span>K, <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, <span class="hlt">Por</span>M, <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and <span class="hlt">Por</span>P, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N, but was independent of <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, <span class="hlt">Por</span>M and <span class="hlt">Por</span>P. <span class="hlt">Por</span>L and <span class="hlt">Por</span>M were found to form a separate stable complex. <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that <span class="hlt">Por</span>N was required for the stable expression of <span class="hlt">Por</span>K, <span class="hlt">Por</span>L and <span class="hlt">Por</span>M. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped <span class="hlt">Por</span>K/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509186"><span>Structural Insights into the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including <span class="hlt">Por</span>K, <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, <span class="hlt">Por</span>M, <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and <span class="hlt">Por</span>P, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N, but was independent of <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, <span class="hlt">Por</span>M and <span class="hlt">Por</span>P. <span class="hlt">Por</span>L and <span class="hlt">Por</span>M were found to form a separate stable complex. <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the <span class="hlt">Por</span>K lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between <span class="hlt">Por</span>K and <span class="hlt">Por</span>N and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that <span class="hlt">Por</span>N was required for the stable expression of <span class="hlt">Por</span>K, <span class="hlt">Por</span>L and <span class="hlt">Por</span>M. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped <span class="hlt">Por</span>K/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412345B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412345B"><span>Estimated CO2, SO2 and H2S emission to the atmosphere from the 2011 El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of helicopter gas surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Pérez, N. M.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An accurate estimation of SO2 emission rates is an important issue to elucidate the activity of volcanoes, moreover the monitoring of its temporal evolution might help to predict a possible eruption and thus, save the loss of human's lives in cities nearby volcanoes. In the lasts years new instruments have been developed and improved, in order to be more portable, cheaper and lighter. The miniDOAS consist of a small spectrometer with a lens for collecting scattered UV light, and are controlled/powered via USB with a laptop. Recently, new technical developments have allowed monitoring the emission of other gas species such as CO2, H2S, etc from volcanic plumes by means of portable multisensor system. With both devices we were able to evaluate the SO2 emission rates and the molar ratios of major volcanic gas components, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratios (CO2/SO2 and H2S/SO2) allowed us to estimate other volatiles emission rates. Between November 11, 2011, and January 16, 2012, and as a consequence of the submarine volcanic eruption started on October 10, 2011, south off shore El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>, Canary Islands, a regularly monitoring of the volcanic plume from the submarine volcano has been performed with remote sensors, always depending of helicopter availability. The instruments are mounted aboard on a helicopter belonged to the Helicopter Unit of Spanish Civil Guard. The SO2 flux measured during this period showed a maximum SO2 emission of 109 ± 19 t/d on November 6, just two days before the occurrence of a intense bubbling at the sea surface on November 8, producing a water, gas and ash column of about 15 meters over the sea surface. That day, CO2 and H2S emission also reached the maximum measured, with 5400 t/d and 3.6 t/d, respectively. Since then, SO2, CO2 and H2S emission rates have declined to values close to detection limit (~ 2 t/d for SO2). These results report the first SO2 emission rates measured</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19266521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19266521"><span>Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)]* (<span class="hlt">por</span> = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] to olefins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); <span class="hlt">por</span> = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(<span class="hlt">por</span>)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)](*) and from [Co(H)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27630829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27630829"><span>The <span class="hlt">Por</span>X Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis <span class="hlt">Por</span>XY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the <span class="hlt">Por</span>L Subunit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, <span class="hlt">Por</span>Y, and <span class="hlt">Por</span>X encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the <span class="hlt">por</span>X and <span class="hlt">por</span>Y genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that <span class="hlt">Por</span>XY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of <span class="hlt">por</span>X in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, <span class="hlt">por</span>T, <span class="hlt">por</span>P, <span class="hlt">por</span>K, <span class="hlt">por</span>L, <span class="hlt">por</span>M, <span class="hlt">por</span>N, and <span class="hlt">por</span>Y. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of <span class="hlt">Por</span>Y interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like <span class="hlt">Por</span>X protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005315','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005315"><span>The <span class="hlt">Por</span>X Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis <span class="hlt">Por</span>XY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the <span class="hlt">Por</span>L Subunit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, <span class="hlt">Por</span>Y, and <span class="hlt">Por</span>X encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the <span class="hlt">por</span>X and <span class="hlt">por</span>Y genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that <span class="hlt">Por</span>XY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of <span class="hlt">por</span>X in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, <span class="hlt">por</span>T, <span class="hlt">por</span>P, <span class="hlt">por</span>K, <span class="hlt">por</span>L, <span class="hlt">por</span>M, <span class="hlt">por</span>N, and <span class="hlt">por</span>Y. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of <span class="hlt">Por</span>Y interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that <span class="hlt">Por</span>X interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like <span class="hlt">Por</span>X protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148579','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10148579"><span>System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007/Skid E and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008/Skid F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, O.D.</p> <p>1998-07-25</p> <p>The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007-SKID E and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075153"><span>Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the <span class="hlt">Por</span> secretion system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the <span class="hlt">Por</span> secretion system (<span class="hlt">Por</span>SS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including <span class="hlt">Por</span>K, <span class="hlt">Por</span>L, <span class="hlt">Por</span>M, <span class="hlt">Por</span>N, <span class="hlt">Por</span>O, <span class="hlt">Por</span>P, <span class="hlt">Por</span>Q, <span class="hlt">Por</span>T, <span class="hlt">Por</span>U, <span class="hlt">Por</span>V (PG27, LptO), <span class="hlt">Por</span>W and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (<span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB <span class="hlt">por</span>K (<span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20681723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20681723"><span>'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas</p> <p>2010-08-11</p> <p>The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(<span class="hlt">por</span>)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(<span class="hlt">por</span>) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012672"><span>Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a <span class="hlt">por</span>B <span class="hlt">por</span>C double mutant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">por</span>B-1 <span class="hlt">por</span>C-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the <span class="hlt">por</span>B-1 <span class="hlt">por</span>C-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing <span class="hlt">por</span>B-1 <span class="hlt">por</span>C-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">por</span>B-1 <span class="hlt">por</span>C-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28199365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28199365"><span>Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and <span class="hlt">Por</span>C porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and <span class="hlt">Por</span>A associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon <span class="hlt">Por</span>A mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and <span class="hlt">Por</span>C are mycoloylated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310785','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310785"><span>Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and <span class="hlt">Por</span>C porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and <span class="hlt">Por</span>A associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon <span class="hlt">Por</span>A mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, <span class="hlt">Por</span>H and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and <span class="hlt">Por</span>C are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8562214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8562214"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span> La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the <span class="hlt">Por</span> La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The <span class="hlt">Por</span> La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345016"><span>Acceptance test report for portable exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007/Skid E</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kriskovich, J.R.</p> <p>1998-07-24</p> <p>This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.652..587J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.652..587J"><span>Compton imaging with the <span class="hlt">Por</span>GamRays spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Por</span>GamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808435"><span>Bioavailability of iron measurement in two nutrients multiple solutions by in vitro and in vivo;a comparative methodology between methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Freitas, Osvaldo; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objetivos: La biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> presente en una formulación nutricional puede ser evaluada <span class="hlt">por</span> in vitro y in vivo, ya que proporcionan para un estudio de línea cohesiva y proporcionado en la literatura. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar la biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> con in vitro y in vivo, dirigida a un análisis comparativo de dos formulaciones de suplementos nutricionales (A y B). Métodos: Fueron utilizados dos métodos descritos en la literatura que para evaluar la biodiponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Uno que es la simulación de digestión humana y otro <span class="hlt">por</span> los niveles de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> sérico después de la ingestión de la formulación en los seres humanos. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos <span class="hlt">por</span> la simulación in vitro de la digestión del tracto gastrointestinal humano fueron 0,70 ± 0,02 y 0,80 dialisibilidad 0,01% de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, respectivamente, para las formulaciones A y B. Los estudios in vivo, segú n se mide <span class="hlt">por</span> las curvas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en suero en seres humanos después de la ingestión de las formulaciones mostró coeficiente de variación Δ < 0, lo que indica que había una baja absorción de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. La biodisponibilidad de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> a los dos multi-nutrientes soluciones fueron obtenidos <span class="hlt">por</span> in vitro y in vivo mostraron que había una comparación de las metodologías utilizadas en soluciones acuosas de muchos nutrientes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368239"><span>Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span>-null mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of <span class="hlt">POR</span>. <span class="hlt">POR</span> mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a <span class="hlt">POR</span>-siRNA expression plasmid, and <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span>-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in <span class="hlt">POR</span>-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in <span class="hlt">POR</span>-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3100902','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3100902"><span>Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span>-Null Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of <span class="hlt">POR</span>. <span class="hlt">POR</span> mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a <span class="hlt">POR</span>-siRNA expression plasmid, and <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic <span class="hlt">POR</span>-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in <span class="hlt">POR</span>-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in <span class="hlt">POR</span>-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345017','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345017"><span>Acceptance test report for portable exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008/Skid F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kriskovich, J.R.</p> <p>1998-07-24</p> <p>Portable Exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670660"><span>Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and <span class="hlt">POR</span> Deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel</p> <p>2015-12-16</p> <p>Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823339','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823339"><span>[Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene <span class="hlt">Por</span>B of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene <span class="hlt">Por</span>B of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the <span class="hlt">Por</span>B gene, and the <span class="hlt">Por</span>B gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-<span class="hlt">Por</span>B recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-<span class="hlt">Por</span>B was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the <span class="hlt">Por</span>B gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-<span class="hlt">Por</span>B was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-<span class="hlt">Por</span>B was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the <span class="hlt">Por</span>B protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26669712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26669712"><span>P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) Common Variant (<span class="hlt">POR</span>*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for <span class="hlt">POR</span>*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, <span class="hlt">POR</span> genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23123910"><span>Gliding motility and <span class="hlt">Por</span> secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the <span class="hlt">Por</span> secretion system (<span class="hlt">Por</span>SS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061445"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ441467','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ441467"><span>Successful Mnemonics for "<span class="hlt">por</span>"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mason, Keith</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "<span class="hlt">por</span>" and "para." (five references) (LB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943661','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943661"><span>Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span>B extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. <span class="hlt">Por</span>B, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by <span class="hlt">Por</span>B homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with <span class="hlt">Por</span>B from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048523','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048523"><span>An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of <span class="hlt">PORS</span> 15 and 16 Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koch, Kaelynn</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (<span class="hlt">PORS</span>) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. <span class="hlt">PORS</span> 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult <span class="hlt">PORS</span> problems and <span class="hlt">PORS</span> 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of <span class="hlt">PORS</span> problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in <span class="hlt">PORS</span> 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728078"><span>Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (<span class="hlt">Por</span>PV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (<span class="hlt">Por</span>PV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (<span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3120885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3120885"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span> Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the <span class="hlt">Por</span> secretion system (<span class="hlt">Por</span>SS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the <span class="hlt">Por</span>SS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317403"><span>In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis <span class="hlt">por</span> a: its expression and immunogenic properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named <span class="hlt">por</span>A which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. <span class="hlt">Por</span>A from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4170490','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4170490"><span>In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span> A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named <span class="hlt">por</span>A which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. <span class="hlt">Por</span>A from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324807"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=166458','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=166458"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span>A Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide <span class="hlt">Por</span>A is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene <span class="hlt">por</span>A. <span class="hlt">por</span>A was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032Δ<span class="hlt">por</span>A. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that <span class="hlt">por</span>A was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other <span class="hlt">Por</span>A-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The <span class="hlt">por</span>A deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to <span class="hlt">Por</span>A. PMID:12896997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963248"><span>Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C</p> <p>2010-12-07</p> <p>The oxy-globin models Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(<span class="hlt">Por</span>), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514328','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514328"><span>Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span>A genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A behaves as a putative adjuvant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein <span class="hlt">Por</span>A from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. <span class="hlt">Por</span>A mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When <span class="hlt">Por</span>A was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from <span class="hlt">Por</span>A-immunized mice were stimulated with <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>A protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of <span class="hlt">Por</span>A to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25750999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25750999"><span>Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span>A genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A behaves as a putative adjuvant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein <span class="hlt">Por</span>A from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. <span class="hlt">Por</span>A mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When <span class="hlt">Por</span>A was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from <span class="hlt">Por</span>A-immunized mice were stimulated with <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>A protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of <span class="hlt">Por</span>A to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that <span class="hlt">Por</span>A behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18451061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18451061"><span>Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal <span class="hlt">Por</span>B.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (<span class="hlt">Por</span>) was examined and compared to the related <span class="hlt">Por</span>B antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica <span class="hlt">Por</span>, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ441464','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ441464"><span>An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "<span class="hlt">por</span>" and "para".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guntermann, Gail</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "<span class="hlt">por</span>" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ511987','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=3&id=EJ511987"><span>The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "<span class="hlt">por</span>" and "para."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "<span class="hlt">por</span>" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...90S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...90S"><span>Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida <span class="hlt">por</span> Láser de radicales libres formados <span class="hlt">por</span> Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.</p> <p></p> <p>Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos <span class="hlt">por</span> radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida <span class="hlt">por</span> Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio <span class="hlt">por</span> LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371304"><span>Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the <span class="hlt">Por</span>Grow project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (<span class="hlt">Por</span>Grow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The <span class="hlt">Por</span>Grow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362451','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362451"><span>ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-004 skid B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, C.M.</p> <p>1997-05-06</p> <p>This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325420','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325420"><span>ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-005 skid C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, C.M.</p> <p>1997-06-27</p> <p>This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376429"><span>Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene. Sequencing of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a <span class="hlt">POR</span> variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325394"><span>ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-006 skid D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, C.M.</p> <p>1997-07-29</p> <p>This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829596"><span>A Lack of Significant Effect of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of <span class="hlt">POR</span>, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24089076"><span>P450 oxidoreductase *28 (<span class="hlt">POR</span>*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between <span class="hlt">POR</span> genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078486"><span>Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two <span class="hlt">POR</span> isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two Os<span class="hlt">PORs</span> have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21084761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21084761"><span>Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of <span class="hlt">por</span>, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of <span class="hlt">POR</span>, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of <span class="hlt">POR</span> for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196959"><span>Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in <span class="hlt">POR</span> dependence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R</p> <p>2013-12-27</p> <p>Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of <span class="hlt">POR</span> in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, <span class="hlt">POR</span> knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by <span class="hlt">POR</span> overexpression. Knocking out <span class="hlt">POR</span> had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> knock-outs. Thus, although <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873569"><span>Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in <span class="hlt">POR</span> Dependence*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of <span class="hlt">POR</span> in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, <span class="hlt">POR</span> knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by <span class="hlt">POR</span> overexpression. Knocking out <span class="hlt">POR</span> had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> knock-outs. Thus, although <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=193813','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=193813"><span>Comparison of Serologic and Genetic <span class="hlt">por</span>B-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the <span class="hlt">por</span>B genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire <span class="hlt">por</span>B alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16027004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16027004"><span>Improved purification of native meningococcal porin <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and studies on its structure/function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The outer membrane protein <span class="hlt">Por</span>B of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional <span class="hlt">Por</span>B trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101880','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101880"><span>Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Introducción La encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8166E..1MC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8166E..1MC"><span>Effect of SPM-based cleaning <span class="hlt">POR</span> on EUV mask performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning <span class="hlt">POR</span> and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning <span class="hlt">POR</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285815"><span>Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of <span class="hlt">POR</span> and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for <span class="hlt">POR</span>. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of <span class="hlt">POR</span>. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the <span class="hlt">POR</span> active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23554636"><span>Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, <span class="hlt">POR</span> and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the <span class="hlt">POR</span> expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to Bv<span class="hlt">POR</span> also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / Bv<span class="hlt">POR</span> significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262699"><span>[PRE-OPERATIVE IRON DEFICIENCY IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magali Sanchez, Angela María; Pampillón, Natalia; Abaurre, Mariela; Omelanczuk, Pablo Esteban</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Introducción: la inflamación crónica inducida <span class="hlt">por</span> la obesidad produce alteración de la homeostasis del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, llevando a deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y a anemia de leve a moderada. Entre el 14 y el 43% de los pacientes pueden presentar déficit de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> sin anemia antes de la cirugía. El tratamiento del déficit de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en el perioperatorio mejora el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En ciertas situaciones, puede el <span class="hlt">hierro</span> enovenoso (el cual evita el bloqueo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en enterocitos y macrófagos), ser una alternativa segura y efectiva. Objetivos: 1) Valorar la prevalencia de ferropenia en pacientes obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía bariátrica. 2) Evaluar si la suplementación de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> parenteral en pacientes ferropénicos es eficaz a la hora de prevenir el descenso de hematocritos tras la cirugía. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, que incluyó 89 pacientes obesos mórbidos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Se dividió la población en el preoperatorio (pre OP) según la condición de ferropenia o ausencia de ferropenia, y se analizó la evolución postoperatoria (post OP). Los pacientes ferropénicos fueron suplementados con 500 mg de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> carboximaltosa endovenoso (EV) y evaluados en el post OP. Resultados: veintitrés pacientes (25,8%) presentaron ferropenia en el pre OP y 6 (6,74%) anemia. El 74,2% (66 pacientes) no tuvieron ferropenia. El grupo sin ferropenia al mes de la cirugía presentó: hematocrito: 41,30% ± 3,77; hemoglobina: 13,64 g/l ± 1,25 y saturación de transferrina 30,55 %. Los pacientes con ferropenia en el pre OP presentaron: hematocrito: 40,40% ± 3,03; hemoglobina: 13,40 g/l ± 1,07; saturación de transferrina: 15,50% ± 4,18 y ferritina: 87,10 ng/ ml ± 81,23 . En el post OP se observó descenso de hematocrito: 38,40% ± 3,17 (p:0,034). En pacientes ferropénicos, sin aporte de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> EV (n = 15), el hematocrito y hemoglobina fueron de 41,2% ± 2,5 y 13,7 g/l ± 0,9, respectivamente, con</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23R.183S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23R.183S"><span>Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos <span class="hlt">por</span> tomografia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas <span class="hlt">por</span> um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada <span class="hlt">por</span> um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas <span class="hlt">por</span> um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23R.180R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BASBr..23R.180R"><span>Intermitência alfvênica gerada <span class="hlt">por</span> caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados <span class="hlt">por</span> flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas <span class="hlt">por</span> uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas <span class="hlt">por</span> fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25539497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25539497"><span>Geometry sensing through <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind <span class="hlt">POR</span>1, <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636900"><span>Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(ONO) in sublimed solids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C</p> <p>2007-08-20</p> <p>The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (<span class="hlt">Por</span> = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166907','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1166907"><span>Using the <span class="hlt">PORS</span> Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (<span class="hlt">PORS</span>) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004804"><span>Fabrication of <span class="hlt">por</span>-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on <span class="hlt">por</span>-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24921414"><span>Impact of PPARA and <span class="hlt">POR</span> polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in <span class="hlt">POR</span>, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either <span class="hlt">POR</span> or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for <span class="hlt">POR</span> and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25521355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25521355"><span><span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme <span class="hlt">POR</span> transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293521"><span>Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 C allele (<span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 TT vs <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26302122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26302122"><span>[Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla <span class="hlt">por</span> tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla <span class="hlt">por</span> tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......163T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......163T"><span>Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados <span class="hlt">por</span> el Radiofisico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez</p> <p></p> <p>Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12689798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12689798"><span>Mujeres felices <span class="hlt">por</span> ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices <span class="hlt">por</span> ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23727969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23727969"><span>Unidas <span class="hlt">por</span> la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Unidas <span class="hlt">por</span> la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21250499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21250499"><span>[Professor Frantisek <span class="hlt">Por</span> MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Professor Frantisek <span class="hlt">Por</span> MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. <span class="hlt">Por</span> attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. <span class="hlt">Por</span> continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. <span class="hlt">Por</span> practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1850G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1850G"><span>j<span class="hlt">POR</span>: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (j<span class="hlt">POR</span>.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use j<span class="hlt">POR</span> macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. j<span class="hlt">POR</span> provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The j<span class="hlt">POR</span> macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485255','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485255"><span>Functional <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 <span class="hlt">POR</span> exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&id=EJ1031141','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&id=EJ1031141"><span>Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá <span class="hlt">Por</span> Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Friedrich, Daniel S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá <span class="hlt">por</span> Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123203','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123203"><span>Functional <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin</p> <p>2015-06-30</p> <p>Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between <span class="hlt">POR</span> variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 <span class="hlt">POR</span> exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=argentina&pg=4&id=EJ1031141','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=argentina&pg=4&id=EJ1031141"><span>Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá <span class="hlt">Por</span> Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Friedrich, Daniel S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá <span class="hlt">por</span> Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126317"><span>Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">Por</span>) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that <span class="hlt">POR</span> early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing <span class="hlt">Por</span> mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-) embryos. E13.5 <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. <span class="hlt">Por</span>(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, <span class="hlt">POR</span> function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1362136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1362136"><span>Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos <span class="hlt">por</span> interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.</p> <p>2015-11-29</p> <p>El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, <span class="hlt">por</span> un lado, interactuan <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, <span class="hlt">por</span> el otro, no son acertadamente descritos <span class="hlt">por</span> el Modelo Estandar. <span class="hlt">Por</span> medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon <span class="hlt">por</span> medio del estudio de</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........95E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........95E"><span>Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento <span class="hlt">por</span> Induccion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel</p> <p></p> <p>Los generadores de calentamiento <span class="hlt">por</span> induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento <span class="hlt">por</span> induccion: La corriente <span class="hlt">por</span> la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido <span class="hlt">por</span> la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar <span class="hlt">por</span> debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control <span class="hlt">por</span> variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040346"><span>Iron status and dietary intakes of iron in normal-weight and obese young Mexican women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tijerina-Sáenz, Alexandra; Martínez-Garza, Nancy E; Ramírez-López, Erik; Solís-Pérez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Báez, Adbel Z</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Introducción: la obesidad se ha reportado como predictor de la deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. En México, el 45,5% de las mujeres mayores de 20 años tienen obesidad, y la prevalencia de anemia es de 10,2% en mujeres de 20 a 29 años. Objetivo: investigar la relación entre índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa (%GC), ingesta dietética y reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en mujeres jóvenes sanas con normopeso y obesidad. Métodos: ochenta y seis mujeres [normopeso (n = 46) y obesidad (n = 40)] completaron el estudio. La ingesta fue evaluada <span class="hlt">por</span> un diario de registro de 8 días. La antropometría y obtención de sangre (hemoglobina, hematocrito, ferritina y transferrina) se consiguieron en la fase lútea del ciclo menstrual; se reportaron las características de la menstruación. Las reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> se determinaron según etapas de depleción. Pruebas de T y Mann-Whitney U se usaron para comparar variables entre grupos. La correlación de Pearson se usó para determinar relaciones entre variables. La razón de momios se utilizó para medir la asociación de IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética con las reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Resultados: los marcadores de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> fueron similares entre grupos. Se encontró una relación positiva entre %GC y ferritina (r = 0,222; p = 0,032). La similitud en ingesta y periodos menstruales puede ser la razón de que existan reservas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> similares. El IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética no contribuyeron independientemente a las etapas de depleción de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Conclusión: se sugiere guía dietética para esta población con el fin de evitar complicaciones <span class="hlt">por</span> deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22825445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22825445"><span>The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica <span class="hlt">Por</span>B surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. <span class="hlt">Por</span>B is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica <span class="hlt">Por</span>B (published elsewhere as Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span>B (published elsewhere as Nme <span class="hlt">Por</span>B). Both <span class="hlt">Por</span>B types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. <span class="hlt">Por</span>B molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>B loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and N. meningitidis <span class="hlt">Por</span>B, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for <span class="hlt">Por</span>B interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of <span class="hlt">Por</span>B surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified <span class="hlt">Por</span>B in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica <span class="hlt">Por</span>B induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for <span class="hlt">Por</span>B in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..438A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..438A"><span>Thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin island (Republic of Tuva, Russia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aleksyutina, Daria; Motenko, Rimma; Buldovich, Sergey; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Prosuncov, Kirill</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We investigated current permafrost state, thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin Island (Tere-Hol Lake, south-east part of Tuva republic, Russia). Rocks of the island are represented by dispersing grounds in permafrost state. The architectural monument <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin fortress (the middle of the VIII century) located at the island can be destructed due to thawing of frozen rocks resulted by water level rising in the surrounding <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin lake. Seasonally thawed layer on the island varies from 1.1 to 1.8 meters based on drilling observations from 13 drill holes the. Measured in the field the thermal conductivity indicates the low values in seasonally thawed layer (from 0.14 to 0.19 Wm-1K-1). Twenty most typical for the studied area frozen handsamples were collected from several holes in the depth interval from 1.5 to 10.15 meters. The humidity of sampled specimens varies from 13 to 270 percents and density varies from 1.21 to 2.17 g/cm3. Investigations of grain-size composition, thermal properties and liquid phase composition were undertaken using laboratory methods. The grain-size composition of <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin grounds varies from clays to gritstones and gravelites with clay-silt matrix. Phase composition of water in the frozen grounds was studied by contact and cryoscopic methods. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter). Based on obtained data computer model allowed to forecast the evolution of permafrost at the island and predict the destiny of <span class="hlt">Por</span>-Bajin monument. This work was supported by grant from President of the Russian Federation NSh - 4078.2008.5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819071"><span>Encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introducción La encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato <span class="hlt">por</span> lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni <span class="hlt">por</span> laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23197402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23197402"><span>The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus <span class="hlt">por</span> aqua workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus <span class="hlt">por</span> aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617577"><span>Effect of alpha lipoic acid on the blood cell count and iron kinetics in hypertensive patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendes, Paula Renata Florêncio; Félix, Danielle dos Santos; Silva, Paulo César Dantas da; Pereira, Guêdijany Henrique; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>Introducción: El Ácido -Lipóico (ALA) ha sido utilizado como recurso terapéutico para reducir daño oxidativo en la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS), pero aún no existen estudios in vivo que reporten sobre su mecanismo de acción en el metabolismo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antioxidante del ácido Alfa- Lipóico sobre el hemograma y metabolismo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en individuos hipertensos con o sin anemia. Métodos: Estudio clínico doble-ciego, randomizado y controlado con placebo. La muestra fue constituida <span class="hlt">por</span> 60 individuos hipertensos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en grupo tratamiento (n = 32), que recibió 600 mg/día del ALA <span class="hlt">por</span> doce semanas y grupo control (n = 28), que recibió el placebo <span class="hlt">por</span> el mismo período. Fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención, los parámetros del hemograma, <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Sérico, Ferritina, Capacidad Latente de Enlace del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, Capacidad Total de Enlace del <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>, Índice de Saturación de la Transferrina (ISI) y Transferrina. Para evaluar las alteraciones entre los grupos, se utilizó el teste t de Student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA, adoptándose el nivel de significación de 5%. Resultados: Después de la intervención, el suplemento con el ALA demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) con la reducción de los leucocitos totales, aumento del número de neutrófilos y reducciones en los niveles de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> Sérico e ISI. Conclusión: La administración oral del ALA como un adyuvante terapéutico, altera la respuesta hematológica del leucograma y reduce la absorción del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Cabe senãlar que el mecanismo de quelación de metales <span class="hlt">por</span> el ácido lipoico puede ser responsable de estos cambios y, en consecuencia, podría desencadenar una condicion de anemia ferropénica en individuos hipertensos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376364"><span>The Sangre <span class="hlt">Por</span> Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Sangre <span class="hlt">Por</span> Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431996','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431996"><span>Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno <span class="hlt">por</span> Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno <span class="hlt">por</span> Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado <span class="hlt">por</span> el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados <span class="hlt">por</span> los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado <span class="hlt">por</span> las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28383967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28383967"><span>Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (<span class="hlt">PORS</span> v1.0).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (<span class="hlt">PORS</span>) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The <span class="hlt">PORS</span> demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the <span class="hlt">PORS</span> were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18191311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18191311"><span>The <span class="hlt">Por</span>B porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola</p> <p>2008-02-06</p> <p>Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) <span class="hlt">Por</span>B, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The <span class="hlt">Por</span>B porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme <span class="hlt">Por</span>B. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme <span class="hlt">Por</span>B and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac <span class="hlt">Por</span>B was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme <span class="hlt">Por</span>B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161063','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161063"><span>Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (<span class="hlt">PORs</span>), one (<span class="hlt">POR</span> A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (<span class="hlt">POR</span> B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that <span class="hlt">POR</span> A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks <span class="hlt">POR</span> A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, <span class="hlt">POR</span> B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in <span class="hlt">POR</span> A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by <span class="hlt">POR</span> B and does not require <span class="hlt">POR</span> A. PMID:12242369</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464600"><span>CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) gene, assigned as <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25331433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25331433"><span>Flavobacterium johnsoniae <span class="hlt">Por</span>V is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis <span class="hlt">por</span>U and <span class="hlt">por</span>V have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae <span class="hlt">por</span>U and <span class="hlt">por</span>V were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a <span class="hlt">por</span>V deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the <span class="hlt">por</span>V mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the <span class="hlt">por</span>V mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The <span class="hlt">por</span>V mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. <span class="hlt">Por</span>U was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22445027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22445027"><span>Polymorphisms of <span class="hlt">POR</span>, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Premature adrenarche (PA) refers to an earlier than normal increase in adrenocortical androgen production. The pathogenesis of PA remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms at P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), or 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) genes could contribute to the polygenic pathogenesis of PA. We performed a case-control study on the polymorphisms rs1057868 at <span class="hlt">POR</span>, rs182420 at SULT2A1, and rs12086634 at HSD11B1. The study cohort comprised 73 prepubertal children with PA (defined by clinical signs) and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from a Finnish Caucasian population. Genotype distributions and clinical and metabolic phenotypes were determined. The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between the study groups. No variant was associated with alterations in serum adrenal steroid concentrations. The minor C variant at SULT2A1 was associated with higher serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (T/T, n=64 vs T/C&C/C, n=33; mean 94 vs 116 nmol/L; P=.001) and a trend for lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/dehydroepiandrosterone ratios in the controls (P=.06), and with higher plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the PA subjects (T/T, n=42 vs T/C&C/C, n=31; 4.0 vs 4.6 mmol/L; P<.001). The minor G variant at HSD11B1 was associated with lower plasma triglyceride concentration in the controls (T/T, n=65 vs T/G&G/G, n=32; 0.61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at <span class="hlt">POR</span>, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5022105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5022105"><span>The <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498776"><span>The <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 <span class="hlt">POR</span> SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401563"><span>Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis <span class="hlt">por</span>A gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis <span class="hlt">por</span>A gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal <span class="hlt">por</span>A pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3464565','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3464565"><span>Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) in Nanodiscs*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different <span class="hlt">POR</span> conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891242"><span>Monitoring shifts in the conformation equilibrium of the membrane protein cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) in nanodiscs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité</p> <p>2012-10-05</p> <p>Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm(2) patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different <span class="hlt">POR</span> conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121618','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121618"><span>Structural and functional probing of <span class="hlt">Por</span>Z, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase <span class="hlt">Por</span>U during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, <span class="hlt">Por</span>Z, which is essential for surface exposure of <span class="hlt">Por</span>U and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">Por</span>Z revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that <span class="hlt">Por</span>Z is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of <span class="hlt">Por</span>U. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22719896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22719896"><span>Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of <span class="hlt">POR</span>, six full-length mutants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in <span class="hlt">POR</span> completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of <span class="hlt">POR</span> increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-<span class="hlt">POR</span> (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the <span class="hlt">POR</span>-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3373556','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3373556"><span>Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of <span class="hlt">POR</span>, six full-length mutants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in <span class="hlt">POR</span> completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of <span class="hlt">POR</span> increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-<span class="hlt">POR</span> (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of <span class="hlt">POR</span> (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific <span class="hlt">POR</span> mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the <span class="hlt">POR</span>-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SNEA....1...34V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SNEA....1...34V"><span>Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados <span class="hlt">por</span> Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores <span class="hlt">por</span> meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto <span class="hlt">por</span> oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa <span class="hlt">por</span> parte dos participantes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227094"><span>The genetic polymorphisms of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and CYP3A5*3 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shuai-Bing; Xue, Ling; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Li-Yan</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The aims of this study were to assess the influence of the polymorphism of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) as well as other relevant genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1) on individual variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and perform population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations and clinical details were retrospectively collected from 83 renal recipients. CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 C3435T were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and CYP3A4*22 were genotyped by sequencing method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM program. The significant influences of CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D) were observed in 83 renal recipients. Subgroup analysis showed that <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphisms significantly decreased tacrolimus C0/D by 1.50 - 1.84-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who were CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers, n = 46), while similar results could not be obtained from CYP3A5 non-expressers (CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers, n = 37). Additionally, population pharmacokinetic analysis identified that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-<span class="hlt">POR</span> was the only covariant for the apparent clearance of tacrolimus (CL/F). The study demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 C>T mutation could decrease the C0/D of tacrolimus in renal recipients who were CYP3A5 expressers. The population pharmacokinetic model showed that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-<span class="hlt">POR</span> was associated with the CL/F of tacrolimus which might provide references for personalized use of tacrolimus in clinic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17338521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17338521"><span>Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(ONO) in sublimed solids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C</p> <p>2007-03-28</p> <p>Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>) (<span class="hlt">Por</span> = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(<span class="hlt">Por</span>)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4304752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4304752"><span>Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of <span class="hlt">Por</span>M, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Por</span>M is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of <span class="hlt">Por</span>M was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24602276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24602276"><span>Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae <span class="hlt">por</span>A mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M</p> <p>2014-02-27</p> <p>We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis <span class="hlt">por</span>A gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal <span class="hlt">por</span>A pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343M"><span>"Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo <span class="hlt">por</span> inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose</p> <p></p> <p>Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo <span class="hlt">por</span> inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12671453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12671453"><span>Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil <span class="hlt">por</span> Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil <span class="hlt">por</span> Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11019766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11019766"><span>Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the <span class="hlt">Por</span> La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Por</span> La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12057617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12057617"><span>Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A OMV vaccine in UK infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Longworth, Emma; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Balmer, Paul; Dawson, Maureen; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth; Cartwright, Keith</p> <p>2002-06-07</p> <p>To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A OMV vaccine at ages 2-4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12-18 months. A control group had received a single dose of the same vaccine at age 12-18 months. As previously reported, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titres increased after each of the first three doses, with a significant increase observed from 6 months post third dose to 1 month post fourth dose. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI), against strain H44/76 OMVs, increased from 1 month post first dose to 1 month post third dose. Significant increases in GMAI were observed at 6 months post third dose and again following the fourth dose. At 32-42 months of age, though the SBA titres had returned to post first dose levels, the GMAI remained elevated. No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274361"><span>Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil</p> <p>2006-02-15</p> <p>The enzyme <span class="hlt">POR</span> [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932321"><span>Examination of <span class="hlt">P-OR</span> bridging bond orders in phosphate monoesters using (18)O isotope shifts in 31P NMR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorensen-Stowell, Kerensa; Hengge, Alvan C</p> <p>2005-06-10</p> <p>Evidence indicates that phosphate monoesters undergo hydrolysis by a loose transition state with extensive bond fission to the leaving group. It has been proposed that part of the high dependence of the rate on the leaving group pKa (betalg = -1.23) arises from weaker ester bonds in the reactants as the pKa of the leaving group decreases, on the basis of X-ray structures and calculations. In contrast, IR and Raman studies suggest that the leaving group has little effect on the length of the <span class="hlt">P-OR</span> bridging bond in solution. To gather additional data on this issue, we have used (18)O isotopic shifts in 31P NMR to monitor the bond order of P-O bonds in a range of phosphate esters with different leaving groups. Using this technique, we have been able to evaluate whether significant changes are observed in the P-O bond orders for the bridging and nonbridging positions of methyl, ethyl, phenethyl, propargyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate using [(16)O(18)O] labeled species in deuterium oxide. The results indicate that the bridging and nonbridging bond orders to phosphorus in phosphate monoesters are not significantly altered by differences in the pKa of the leaving group or by the counterion of the phosphate ester dianion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246966"><span><span class="hlt">P(O)R</span>2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using <span class="hlt">P(O)R</span>2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28656666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28656666"><span>Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R</p> <p>2017-06-28</p> <p>Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101100.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101100.pdf"><span>Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. <span class="hlt">POR</span> FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425794.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425794.pdf"><span>El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad <span class="hlt">por</span> genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.</p> <p></p> <p>"El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad <span class="hlt">por</span> Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20861330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20861330"><span>Recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to <span class="hlt">Por</span>A prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-<span class="hlt">Por</span>A) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, <span class="hlt">Por</span>A provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3877821','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3877821"><span>Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF <span class="hlt">POR</span>1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of <span class="hlt">POR</span> stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with <span class="hlt">POR</span> isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize <span class="hlt">POR</span> proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished <span class="hlt">POR</span> protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced <span class="hlt">POR</span> accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates <span class="hlt">POR</span> accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of <span class="hlt">POR</span>. PMID:24151298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658827"><span>The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lunde, Ingrid; Bremer, Sara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Mohebi, Beata; Dahl, Miriam; Bergan, Stein; Åsberg, Anders; Christensen, Hege</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Several studies have demonstrated an association between the CYP3A5 genotype and Tac dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4, PPARA, and <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene variants have been shown to influence CYP3A metabolism. The present study investigated potential associations between CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*22, PPARA c.209- 1003G>A and c.208+3819A>G, and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 alleles and dose-adjusted concentrations (C/D) of Tac and CsA in 177 renal transplant patients early post-transplant. All patients (n=177) were genotyped for CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, PPARA c.209-1003G>A, and PPARA c.208+3819A>G using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis with allelespecific hybridization probes or PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods. Drug concentrations and administered doses were retrospectively collected from patient charts at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway. One steady-state concentration was collected for each patient. We confirmed a significant impact of the CYP3A5*3 allele on Tac exposure. Patients with <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and PPARA variant alleles demonstrated 15 % lower (P=0.04) and 19 % higher (P=0.01) Tac C0/D respectively. CsA C2/D was 53 % higher among CYP3A4*22 carriers (P=0.03). The results support the use of pre-transplant CYP3A5 genotyping to improve initial dosing of Tac, and suggest that Tac dosing may be further individualized by additional <span class="hlt">POR</span> and PPARA genotyping. Furthermore, initial CsA dosing may be improved by pre-transplant CYP3A4*22 determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969897"><span>Compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene: Antley-bixler syndrome phenotype in three sibling fetuses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tzetis, Maria; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Sofocleous, Christalena; Kosma, Konstantina; Mitrakos, Anastasios; Tzannatos, Christina; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is an exceptionally rare craniosynostosis syndrome that can be accompanied by disordered steroidogenesis, and is mainly caused by mutations in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report the prenatal and postmortem findings of three sibling fetuses with ABS as a result of compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem examination were performed in three sibling fetuses with termination of pregnancy at 22, 23, and 17 weeks of gestation, respectively. Molecular analysis of fetus 2 and 3 included (a) bidirectional sequencing of exon 8 of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene after amplification of the specific locus by polymerase chain reaction, to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and (b) high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) positive single nucleotide polymorphism array CGH (aCGH) analysis to detect copy number variants (CNVs), copy neutral areas of loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy. The diagnosis of ABS was suggested by the postmortem examination findings. The combination of the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene molecular analysis and aCGH revealed a compound heterozygous genotype of a maternal SNV (p.A287P) and a paternal CNV (NC_000007.13:g.(?_75608488)_(75615534_?)del). To the best of our knowledge, these sibling fetuses add to the few reported cases of ABS, caused by a combination of a SNV and a CNV in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene. The detailed description of the pathologic and radiographic findings of second trimester fetuses affected with ABS adds novel knowledge concerning the early ABS phenotype, in lack of previous relevant reports. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:536-541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071654','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3071654"><span>Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH <span class="hlt">por</span> Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas <span class="hlt">por</span> el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454356"><span>Results of Mujeres Felices <span class="hlt">por</span> ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices <span class="hlt">por</span> ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23808436"><span>Iron (FeSo4) bioavailability in obese subjects submitted to bariatric surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Barbosa Junior, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objetivo: Obesos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica muestran la utilización de deterioro de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Evaluar la biodisponibilidad del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en los obesos <span class="hlt">por</span> el consumo de suplemento nutricional que contiene múltiples nutrientes antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Material y Métodos: El estudio incluyó a 14 voluntarios antes y después de la cirugía bariátrica que recibieron formulaciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes y medir las concentraciones séricas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en ayunas y cada 1 hora después de la ingestión de formulaciones, con un total de cuatro horas. Resultados: Ferremia <span class="hlt">por</span> el consumo de entre dos formulaciones de pre-y post-operatorios fueron: El ayuno 104.50 (70,00-363,00) mg / dl y 198.00 (38.00 a 617.00) mg / dl, 103.00 horas (63,00 a 305,00) mg / dl y 160.00 (11,00- 206,90) mg / dL, 2 horas 102.50 (62.00 a 150.00) mg / dL y 141.30 (10.00 a 412.20) mg / dl, 3 horas 97.00 (63.00 a 190.00) mg mg / dl y 153,00 (6,00 hasta 269,60) / dl , 4 horas 91,00 (58,00 a 163,00) mg / dl y 156.10 (40.00 a 250.50) mg / dl y no hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los dos períodos para los niveles de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> suero. Los valores de la zona de las curvas en el suero fueron 453,50 ± 202,80 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,000 y 579,00 ± 380,30 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,007 y fue estadísticamente diferente entre los dos períodos. La biodisponibilidad del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en soluciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes se vio afectada antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusión: Se encontró que los niveles se redujeron ferremia con la cirugía, que puede poner en peligro estos pacientes presentaron deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27311799"><span>An approach to personalized cell therapy in chronic complete paraplegia: The Puerta de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> phase I/II clinical trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaquero, Jesús; Zurita, Mercedes; Rico, Miguel A; Bonilla, Celia; Aguayo, Concepcion; Montilla, Jesús; Bustamante, Salvador; Carballido, Joaquin; Marin, Esperanza; Martinez, Francisco; Parajon, Avelino; Fernandez, Cecilia; Reina, Laura De</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Cell transplantation in patients suffering spinal cord injury (SCI) is in its initial stages, but currently there is confusion about the results because of the disparity in the techniques used, the route of administration, and the criteria for selecting patients. We conducted a clinical trial involving 12 patients with complete and chronic paraplegia (average time of chronicity, 13.86 years; SD, 9.36). The characteristics of SCI in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated for a personalized local administration of expanded autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) supported in autologous plasma, with the number of MSCs ranging from 100 × 10(6) to 230 × 10(6). An additional 30 × 10(6) MSCs were administered 3 months later by lumbar puncture into the subarachnoid space. Outcomes were evaluated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery through clinical, urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Cell transplantation is a safe procedure. All patients experienced improvement, primarily in sensitivity and sphincter control. Infralesional motor activity, according to clinical and neurophysiological studies, was obtained by more than 50% of the patients. Decreases in spasms and spasticity, and improved sexual function were also common findings. Clinical improvement seems to be dose-dependent but was not influenced by the chronicity of the SCI. Personalized cell therapy with MSCs is safe and leads to clear improvements in clinical aspects and quality of life for patients with complete and chronically established paraplegia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210488','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210488"><span>Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and <span class="hlt">por</span>-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of <span class="hlt">por</span>-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the <span class="hlt">por</span>-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25545241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25545241"><span>Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>A protein: a comparison in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant <span class="hlt">Por</span>A P1.7-2,4 (r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different <span class="hlt">Por</span>A serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the r<span class="hlt">Por</span>A, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11483265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11483265"><span>IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A OMV vaccine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K</p> <p>2001-08-14</p> <p>The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The <span class="hlt">Por</span>A outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different <span class="hlt">Por</span>A OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their <span class="hlt">Por</span>A serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3792995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3792995"><span>Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long <span class="hlt">Por</span>ACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known <span class="hlt">por</span>H and <span class="hlt">por</span>A genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the <span class="hlt">PorA/Por</span>H type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RELEA...9....7D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RELEA...9....7D"><span>Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿<span class="hlt">Por</span> Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: <span class="hlt">Por</span> Quê?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene <span class="hlt">por</span> qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505106"><span>[Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with <span class="hlt">POR</span> and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, <span class="hlt">POR</span> and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, <span class="hlt">POR</span> and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, <span class="hlt">POR</span> and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...25P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAA...40...25P"><span>Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr <span class="hlt">por</span> Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.</p> <p></p> <p>La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr <span class="hlt">por</span> Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso <span class="hlt">por</span> el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes <span class="hlt">por</span> segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170814','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170814"><span>Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección <span class="hlt">por</span> el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados <span class="hlt">por</span> el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección <span class="hlt">por</span> el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar <span class="hlt">por</span> VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección <span class="hlt">por</span> el VHC y sin infección <span class="hlt">por</span> el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24739669"><span>CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genetic variants influence the required dose of tacrolimus in heart transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lesche, Dorothea; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Setoud, Raschid; Oberhänsli, Markus; Carrel, Thierry; Fiedler, Georg M; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Mohacsi, Paul; Sistonen, Johanna</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>After heart transplantation (HTx), the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of immunosuppressive drugs represents a major therapeutic challenge due to the narrow therapeutic window between over-immunosuppression causing toxicity and under-immunosuppression leading to graft rejection. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants, data in the context of HTx are scarce. We thus assessed the role of genetic variation in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, <span class="hlt">POR</span>, NR1I2, and ABCB1 acting jointly in immunosuppressive drug pathways in tacrolimus (TAC) and ciclosporin (CSA) dose requirement in HTx recipients. Associations between 7 functional genetic variants and blood dose-adjusted trough (C0) concentrations of TAC and CSA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after HTx were evaluated in cohorts of 52 and 45 patients, respectively. Compared with CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3 genotype), CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*3 or *1/*1 genotype) required around 2.2- to 2.6-fold higher daily TAC doses to reach the targeted C0 concentration at all studied time points (P ≤ 0.003). Additionally, the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 variant carriers showed higher dose-adjusted TAC-C0 concentrations at all time points resulting in significant differences at 3 (P = 0.025) and 6 months (P = 0.047) after HTx. No significant associations were observed between the genetic variants and the CSA dose requirement. The CYP3A5*3 variant has a major influence on the required TAC dose in HTx recipients, whereas the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 may additionally contribute to the observed variability. These results support the importance of genetic markers in TAC dose optimization after HTx.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966131"><span>Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, <span class="hlt">POR</span>, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the <span class="hlt">POR</span>. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, <span class="hlt">POR</span>, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288674"><span>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli</p> <p>2017-03-14</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in <span class="hlt">POR</span> gene maybe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758852"><span>[Acute otitis media: could it be a sentinel indicator of health care?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Valle-Alvarado, Gabriel; Krug-Llamas, Ernesto; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCCIÓN: la otitis media <span class="hlt">aguda</span> es la enfermedad bacteriana más frecuente en los niños menores de cinco años, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que constituye una de las causas más comunes de consulta médica pediátrica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer el panorama epidemiológico de la otitis media <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, con la finalidad de determinar la factibilidad de considerarla un indicador centinela de la atención médica. MÉTODOS: se recolectaron y analizaron todos los casos nuevos de otitis media <span class="hlt">aguda</span> que se presentaron entre 2008 y 2011. Se determinaron proporciones, razones y tasas de incidencia, y se calcularon los límites para proporciones <span class="hlt">por</span> prueba exacta de P-media. Resultados: en los niños menores de cinco años de edad se observó 20 % de los casos de otitis media no supurativa y 17 % de los casos de otitis media supurativa. En ese grupo de edad, aumentó la razón de casos de infecciones respiratorias <span class="hlt">agudas</span> en relación con los de otitis media: 87:1 en 2008 a 53:1 en 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23273968"><span>Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M</p> <p>2013-02-04</p> <p>An improved nonavalent <span class="hlt">Por</span>A native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several <span class="hlt">Por</span>A subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12189787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12189787"><span>A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and <span class="hlt">por</span>ó and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either <span class="hlt">por</span>ó (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or <span class="hlt">por</span>ó plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1876173','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1876173"><span>A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae <span class="hlt">por</span>A Pseudogene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae <span class="hlt">por</span>A pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae <span class="hlt">por</span>A pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061630','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061630"><span>Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas <span class="hlt">por</span> Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas <span class="hlt">por</span> Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia <span class="hlt">por</span> PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones <span class="hlt">por</span> E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974086"><span>Effect of CYP3A4*22, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); <span class="hlt">POR</span> [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24448396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24448396"><span>Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas <span class="hlt">POR</span> 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor <span class="hlt">POR</span> 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and <span class="hlt">POR</span> A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104034"><span>Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24532681"><span>Unique combined penA/mtrR/<span class="hlt">por</span>B mutations and NG-MAST strain types associated with ceftriaxone and cefixime MIC increases in a 'susceptible' Neisseria gonorrhoeae population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thakur, S D; Starnino, S; Horsman, G B; Levett, P N; Dillon, J R</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and <span class="hlt">por</span>B are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (<span class="hlt">Por</span>B; <span class="hlt">por</span>B) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for <span class="hlt">Por</span>B (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in <span class="hlt">Por</span>B. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/<span class="hlt">por</span>B mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/<span class="hlt">por</span>B mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and <span class="hlt">por</span>B and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........78M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........78M"><span>Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica <span class="hlt">por</span> seleccion natural</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morales Ramos, Egda M.</p> <p></p> <p>La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) <span class="hlt">por</span> seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos <span class="hlt">por</span> el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido <span class="hlt">por</span> la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB <span class="hlt">por</span> seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal <span class="hlt">por</span> encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas <span class="hlt">por</span> 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y <span class="hlt">por</span> 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAAA...45...38C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002BAAA...45...38C"><span>Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados <span class="hlt">por</span> radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados <span class="hlt">por</span> radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094348"><span>Weight of ABCB1 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J</p> <p>2017-01-17</p> <p>Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two <span class="hlt">POR</span> genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433464"><span>Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, <span class="hlt">POR</span> and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein <span class="hlt">POR</span> and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686732','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686732"><span>IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, <span class="hlt">Por</span> p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, <span class="hlt">Por</span> p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2493220','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2493220"><span>Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered <span class="hlt">Por</span>B PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Typing of the <span class="hlt">por</span>B variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain <span class="hlt">por</span>B VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 <span class="hlt">por</span>B1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some <span class="hlt">Por</span>B PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4176920','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4176920"><span>Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección <span class="hlt">por</span> Helicobacter pylori1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección <span class="hlt">por</span> Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados <span class="hlt">por</span> dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22387382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22387382"><span>A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(<span class="hlt">por</span>)(O)(OAc) complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(<span class="hlt">por</span>) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpA..91..360M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpA..91..360M"><span>A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(<span class="hlt">por</span>)(O)(OAc) complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(<span class="hlt">por</span>) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24465960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24465960"><span>Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630545"><span>Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa <span class="hlt">por</span> la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa <span class="hlt">por</span> la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...57D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003cnam.conf...57D"><span>Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada <span class="hlt">por</span> la acción de fotones o electrones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.</p> <p></p> <p>Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada <span class="hlt">por</span> la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando <span class="hlt">por</span> lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27439448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27439448"><span>The P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) rs2868177 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6*6 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Li-Chen; Liu, Fang-Qun; Yang, Li; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Hai-Ying; Tao, Ran; Cao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Di; Tang, Jie</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P450 oxidoreductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) gene were correlated with interindividual variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity. Thirty-six healthy volunteers who tested CYP2B6 and <span class="hlt">POR</span> polymorphisms were enrolled in the study. CYP2B6 activity was measured by bupropion hydroxylation with LC/MS/MS. The ratio of hydroxybupropion versus bupropion (AUC_hyd/AUC_bup) in terms of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was used to represent the CYP2B6 activity. The volunteers carrying CYP2B6*1/*1 showed a significantly higher mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than those CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 variants (15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 9.25 ± 1.92, P = 0.008 and 15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 8.21 ± 1.74, P = 0.006, respectively). <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs2868177 (6593 A > G) AA homozygotes showed a significantly lower mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than that of <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs2868177 AG heterozygotes or GG homozygotes (8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 12.15 ± 2.97, P = 0.005 and 8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 17.59 ± 3.25, P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs2868177 AG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes showed a significantly increased mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup than AA homozygotes in the CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*6 carriers (16.40 ± 2.01 vs. 12.40 ± 1.45, P = 0.006 and 10.65 ± 1.47 vs. 6.54 ± 1.25, P = 0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a strong correlation between the genetic variations (<span class="hlt">POR</span> rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6) and AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup was found (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup among different <span class="hlt">POR</span> *28 genotypes (P > 0.05). <span class="hlt">POR</span> rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6 variants contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity, which may affect the disposition and interaction of other CYP2B6 substrate drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768705"><span>Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (<span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J</p> <p>2014-08-08</p> <p>The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (<span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">Por</span>PV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25322286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25322286"><span>Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuypers, Dirk R J; de Loor, Henriette; Naesens, Maarten; Coopmans, Tamara; de Jonge, Hylke</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In a cohort of 298 de-novo renal recipients treated with a standard tacrolimus loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg, the combined effects of the CYP3A5*1, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28, and CYP3A4*22 genotypes on early tacrolimus exposure (C0), dose requirements, and achievement of the therapeutic target, C0, were examined. The incidence of clinical events (e.g. acute rejection, diabetes mellitus) was compared between genotypes. Fast metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/<span class="hlt">POR</span>*28T carriers) had two-fold to three-fold higher tacrolimus dose requirements compared with slow metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3/CYP3A4*22 carriers) and needed significantly more time to achieve the target tacrolimus C0 of a minimum 10 ng/ml (3.3±1.7 vs. 1.34±0.75 days; P<0.0001). No differences in acute rejection incidence and time to first rejection were observed. Slow metabolizers more frequently had tacrolimus C0 above the target range early after transplantation (70 vs. 13% on day 3); however, this did not translate into a higher incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus or graft dysfunction. Multivariate analyses identified the CYP3A5*1/<span class="hlt">POR</span>*28/CYP3A4*22 genotype combination as the single strongest determinant of tacrolimus dose requirements throughout the first year, explaining between 24-40% of its variability, whereas recipient age, hematocrit, and delayed graft function were additional nongenetic determinants of tacrolimus dose. Combining the CYP3A5*1, <span class="hlt">POR</span>*28 and CYP3A4*22 genotypes allows partial differentiation of early tacrolimus dose requirements and the time to reach therapeutic target concentrations after transplantation, but without obvious clinical implications. Larger prospective studies need to address the clinical relevance of early combined genotype-based tacrolimus dosing in de-novo renal recipients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/832509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/832509"><span>Evolution of sensitivity to fosfomycin in bacteria isolated in 1973, 1974 and 1975 in the Servicio de Microbiologia y Epidemiologia of the 'Clinica Puerta de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>', Madrid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dámaso, D; Moreno-López, M; Martínez-Beltrán, J</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The bacteriostatic activity of fosfomycin was studied in vitro against 1,243 clinical isolations of gram-positive cocci and 4,086 isolations of gram-negative bacilli that were obtained in 1973, 1974 and in the period from January to May of 1975. MIC was determined by the agar diffusion method, quantifying it by means of the standard curve that was worked out with the strain of E. coli NCTC 10,418. A slight increase in resistance was observed in the gram-positive cocci: 64 mug/ml were inhibitory for 63% of the 249 isolations obtained in 1973, 59.1% of the 716 isolations obtained in 1974, and 57.5% of the 278 isolations from 1975. A slight loss of sensitivity was also observed in the gram-negative bacilli: the aforementioned concentration of fosfomycin inhibited 36% of the 742 isolations from 1973, 33.6% of the 2,387 isolations from 1974 and 32.6% of the 957 isolations from 1975. 933 g of this antibiotic were consumed in our hospital in 1973, 4,203 g in 1974 and 957 g in 1975. The consumption rate per patient per year was 0.15, 0.72 and 0.20 g, respectively. In conclusion, although no change was observed in the sensitivity of some bacterial strains to fosfomycin, the overall study indicates a slight decrease in the sensitivity, although it does not apparently have any relationship to the consumption of fosfomycin in our hospital.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372482"><span>Characterisation by multilocus sequence and <span class="hlt">por</span>A and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and <span class="hlt">por</span>A and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and <span class="hlt">por</span>A and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/<span class="hlt">por</span>A 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/<span class="hlt">por</span>A 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/<span class="hlt">por</span>A 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27305509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27305509"><span>[Microbiología, sensibilidad antibiótica y factores asociados a bacteriemia en la prostatitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferré, C; Llopis, F; Jacob, J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with acute prostatitis presenting to the Emergency Department, the microbiological findings, antibiotic susceptibility, and bacteraemia associated factors. Observational and cohort study with prospective follow-up including patients with acute prostatitis presenting to the Emergency Department from January-December 2012. Data were collected for demographic variables, comorbidities, microbiological findings, antibiotic treatment and outcome. Two hundred and forty one episodes of acute prostatitis were included. Mean age was 62.9 ± 16 years, a history of prostate adenoma was reported in 54 cases (22.5%) and prior manipulation of the lower urinary tract in 40 (17%). Mean symptoms duration was 3.38 ± 4.04 days, voiding symptoms were present in 176 cases (73%) and fever in 154 (64%). Seventy patients (29%) were admitted to the hospital and 3 died. From 216 urine cultures, 128 were positive (59%) and 24 (17.6%) out of 136 blood cultures. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen (58.6% of urine cultures and 64% of blood cultures) with resistant strains to fluoroquinolones, cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin/clavulanic in 27.7%, 22.9% and 27.7% of cases respectively. In the univariate analysis, only chills were associated to bacteraemia (p=0.013). At 30-day follow-up, patients with bacteraemia returned more frequently to the Emergency Department (p=0.037) and were more often admitted to the hospital (p=0.003). Patients with acute prostatitis discharged from the Emergency Department need clinical follow-up and monitoring of microbiological findings in order to assure an adequate antibiotic treatment. Return to Emergency Department and admission to the hospital were significantly more frequent among patients with bacteraemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42....5C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAAA...42....5C"><span>Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas <span class="hlt">por</span> análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.</p> <p></p> <p>Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior <span class="hlt">por</span> las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262527','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262527"><span>Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro <span class="hlt">por</span> crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) <span class="hlt">por</span> 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e <span class="hlt">por</span> 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3923609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3923609"><span>La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias <span class="hlt">por</span> país de origen y estatus legal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección <span class="hlt">por</span> el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente <span class="hlt">por</span> estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RELEA..11....7I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RELEA..11....7I"><span>The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía <span class="hlt">Por</span> Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia <span class="hlt">Por</span> Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas <span class="hlt">por</span> los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24951989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24951989"><span>Metabolic disorders of liver and iron in diabetic and non-diabetic patients BMI < 35 or > 35 before gastric bypass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcíacaballero, Manuel; Reyes-Ortiz, Alexander; Martínez-Moreno, José Manuel; Toval-Mata, José Antonio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Introducción: La presencia de anormalidades en las vías metabólicas del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y el funcionamiento del hígado pueden producir resistencia a la insulina o síndrome metabólico. <span class="hlt">Por</span> lo tanto, es importante examinar esas alteraciones que pueden conducir al desarrollo de enfermedades. El estado nutricional es otro factor importante que está íntimamente ligada a la diabetes y la obesidad. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 131 pacientes (78 pacientes no diabéticos y 53 diabéticos), 37 pacientes IMC ≤35 (3 IMC < 25, 18 IMC 25-29,9, 16 IMC 30-34,9) y 94 pacientes IMC ≥35 (81 IMC 35-49,9 y 13 de IMC ≥50). Los sujetos fueron sometidos a estudios de laboratorio relacionadas con el funcionamiento del hígado y el metabolismo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Se determinó también el estado nutricional en nuestros pacientes. Resultados: El <span class="hlt">hierro</span> estuvo alterado en 14% de los pacientes IMC >35 y los diabéticos alcanzaron 3% a 25%. La vitamina B12 fue baja en 4% de los no diabéticos IMC > 35, y alta en el 6% de los diabéticos IMC < 35. El 6% de los diabéticos IMC < 35 tenía hiperbilirrubinemia. Las transaminasas estuvieron elevadas en pacientes IMC > 35, pero exacerbados en los diabéticos. GGT se eleva del 41% al 47% en BMI > 35. ALP estuvo elevada en el 25% de los diabéticos. Las proteínas séricas totales y la albúmina estuvieron alterados en los diabéticos causando desnutrición leve. 90% de los pacientes tenían una nutrición normal y 10% desnutrición leve. Conclusiones: El metabolismo hepático y del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> están estrechamente relacionadas con el inicio de la obesidad y la diabetes. Si hay un aumento de peso, los riesgos metabólicos acumulados se elevan. La presencia de la diabesidad y el aumento de la duración de la diabetes empeoran el metabolismo. El estado nutricional se altera en la obesidad, pero es peor con la adición de la diabetes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758856"><span>[Clinical features of acute leukemia and its relationship to the season of the year].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santoyo-Sánchez, Adrián; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian; Palmeros-Morgado, Goujon; Mendoza-García, Emma; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCCIÓN: en 2009, 17.9 % de la morbilidad hospitalaria <span class="hlt">por</span> tumores malignos en México correspondió a neoplasias hematooncológicas, principalmente a leucemias <span class="hlt">agudas</span>. Algunos estudios sugieren un patrón estacional al presentarse más casos durante el verano. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estimar la relación entre los diferentes subtipos de leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, la edad de presentación y la estación del año. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, que se llevó a cabo con los registros de enero de 2006 a abril de 2012 en un servicio de hematología; se incluyeron únicamente los pacientes con diagnósticos de novo de leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, estratificada según la clasificación de la Asociación Franco-Américo-Británica. El análisis de temporalidad se realizó con el modelo periódico de Edward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25575589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25575589"><span>One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and <span class="hlt">Por</span>B from Neisseria meningitidis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and <span class="hlt">Por</span>B from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409209"><span>[Acute gastroenteritis by Cambylobacter spp: a retrospective study of a paediatric emergency department].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soares, Ana Teresa; Couto, Catarina; Romão, Patrícia; Melo, Isabel Saraiva de; Braga, Manuela; Diogo, José; Calhau, Paulo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introdução: A infeção <span class="hlt">por</span> Campylobacter é a principal causa de gastroenterite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> bacteriana pediátrica na União Europeia.Objetivos: Conhecer a prevalência de isolamento deste agente nas crianças admitidas na urgência com gastroenterite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> que realizaram coprocultura, caracterizando a microbiologia, epidemiologia, clínica, terapêutica e complicações associadas.Material e Métodos: Casuística <span class="hlt">por</span> consulta dos processos dos doentes admitidos na Urgência Pediátrica dum hospital distrital, durante 30 meses, com o diagnóstico de gastroenterite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> e isolamento em coprocultura de Campylobacter.Resultados: Das 216 coproculturas efetuadas, 98 (45%) foram positivas. Identificámos Campylobacter spp. em 49 (50%) doentes. Destes, 30 (61%) eram do género feminino. A mediana de idades foi 23 meses. Catorze doentes tinham idade inferior a um ano, 25 entre um e cinco anos e 10 idade superior a cinco anos. Verificámos diarreia aquosa em cinco (10%) doentes, diarreia com sangue em 44 (90%), sangue e muco em 14 (29%), febre em 23 (47%), dor abdominal em 14 (29%) e vómitos em 11 (22%). Registámos um caso de sépsis. Internámos cinco doentes. Oito doentes foram medicados com azitromicina.Discussão: Esta é a maior casuística nacional publicada de gastroenterite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> a Campylobacter em idade pediátrica e a primeira no sul do país. Campylobacter foi a principal bactéria identificada, associada maioritariamente a doença auto-limitada. Contudo, há a considerar formas de infeção graves. O aumento da resistência às quinolonas é preocupante.Conclusão: A utilização criteriosa da coprocultura permite a identificação etiológica na gastrenterite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> bacteriana. O crescente aumento dos casos de Campylobacter diagnosticados reforça a necessidade de maior controlo das medidas de higiene na manipulação dos alimentos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463170"><span>Evaluating <span class="hlt">Por</span> Nuestra Salud: A Feasibility Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marshall, Brenda; Gonzales, Gustavo; Kernan, William</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This feasibility study evaluated the impact of a culturally consistent diabetes educational program, led by a Latino pastor, on Latino community diabetes knowledge levels. Latino adults were recruited from two churches serving Latino populations, one identified as intervention, the other as nonintervention. Both churches received the American Diabetes Association's booklets on diabetes education, "Four Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life." The intervention group also received weekly reviews of the booklet's information from the church pastor, who was educated about diabetes by a Latino family nurse practitioner. Pre- and postintervention levels of diabetes knowledge were measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire. Mean changes in the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ-24) survey from pretest to posttest indicated a significant increase in knowledge in both groups. Only the grades for the participants from the pastor-led group, however, moved from failure in knowledge to high levels of passing. One hundred percent of intervention group participants reported having read the literature. This pilot study supports the feasibility of a local Latino pastor, as a culturally consistent diabetes educator, to increase Latino parishioner's knowledge of diabetes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24878082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24878082"><span>[Isolated bacteria from nasal cultures. Are they important in patients with acute leukemia?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barranco-Lampón, Gilberto; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto; Cabrera-Osuna, Silvia; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Ventura, Yanet; Gutiérrez-Romero, Mario; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfos; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCCIÓN: la colonización nasal <span class="hlt">por</span> Staphylcoccus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus es frecuente y se ha relacionado con bacteremia en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. En la investigación que se presenta, los objetivos fueron determinar la frecuencia de cepas que colonizan la mucosa nasal en pacientes en tratamiento de leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span> y su relación con los cultivos de sangre periférica. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, retrolectivo de cultivos nasales obtenidos durante cuatro semanas. La relación con los hemocultivos se estableció mediante chi cuadrada; se calculó razón de momios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4692298','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4692298"><span>Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (<span class="hlt">Por</span>A, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the <span class="hlt">Por</span>A antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19759227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19759227"><span>Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, <span class="hlt">por</span>A, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and <span class="hlt">por</span>A against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2772635','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2772635"><span>Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, <span class="hlt">por</span>A, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and <span class="hlt">por</span>A against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378575"><span>Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in <span class="hlt">por</span>B but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The <span class="hlt">por</span>B gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20726527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20726527"><span>Unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorin 2: identification of the [FeIV=O Por•]+ and [FeIV=O <span class="hlt">Por</span>](Tyr38•) intermediates and their role(s) in substrate oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Rahul; Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann; Ivancich, Anabella</p> <p>2010-10-19</p> <p>We have identified a novel enzymatic reaction for nitrophorin 2 (NP2), a heme protein previously characterized as a nitric oxide carrier in the saliva of the Rhodnius prolixus insect. NP2 exhibited levels of peroxidase activity comparable to those of the bifunctional peroxidases (KatGs), despite their heme pocket structural differences (heme ruffling, Tyr38 and Tyr85 in hydrogen bonding interactions with the propionates in NP2). The intermediates of the peroxidase-like reaction of NP2 were identified by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The EPR spectrum consistent with an [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was detected at pH <7. At pH ≥ 7, the change from a strong to a weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction for the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was accompanied by the subsequent formation of an [Fe(IV)=O <span class="hlt">Por</span>](Tyr•) intermediate. Tyr38 was shown to be the unique naturally occurring radical site in NP2. The Y38F mutant stabilized the radical on the tyrosine in hydrogen-bonding interaction with the other heme propionate (Tyr85). Kinetic studies using stopped-flow electronic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species reacts with histamine and norepinephrine in a peroxidase-like manner. Our findings demonstrate that NP2 has pH-dependent dual function: at the acidic pH of the insect saliva the protein behaves as a NO carrier, and, if exposed to the higher pH of the tissues and capillaries of the host, NP2 is able to bind histamine or it can efficiently inactivate norepinephrine through a peroxidase-like reaction, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, the unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of NP2 is concluded to be a key biological function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27600740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27600740"><span>[Pure neural leprosy. Diagnostic aspects of a clinical case].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Ezsol-Lendvai, S; Rodriguez-Vazquez, M; Agudo-Mena, J L; Godes-Medrano, B</p> <p>2016-09-16</p> <p>Introduccion. La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa causada <span class="hlt">por</span> la bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Presenta especial avidez <span class="hlt">por</span> la piel y los troncos nerviosos, y, de hecho, ambos se afectan en la mayor parte de los infectados. Se trasmite <span class="hlt">por</span> exposicion con enfermos y en ocasiones <span class="hlt">por</span> reactivacion. Una posibilidad inhabitual es la lepra neural pura, caracterizada <span class="hlt">por</span> neuropatia, pero sin lesiones en la piel. Se describe un paciente con lepra neural pura y se revisan los aspectos diagnosticos. Caso clinico. Varon de 40 años, inmigrante, diagnosticado y tratado de lepra 20 años antes. Acudio <span class="hlt">por</span> parestesias y disestesias dolorosas en las manos y las piernas sin lesiones en la piel. Se demostro mononeuritis multiple <span class="hlt">aguda</span> con principal afectacion de cubitales. La enfermedad, tipificada como tuberculoide paucibacilar, se trato y en pocas semanas la mejoria fue evidente. Conclusiones. En este caso de lepra neural pura <span class="hlt">por</span> reactivacion, el diagnostico temprano permitio un rapido tratamiento. Es recomendable la evaluacion de la neuropatia integrada con criterios clinicos, electrofisiologicos y ecograficos. De este modo se consigue una alta sensibilidad y especialmente una precocidad en el diagnostico y la instauracion del tratamiento, y <span class="hlt">por</span> consecuencia una mejor recuperacion funcional.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561608','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561608"><span>Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan <span class="hlt">por</span> vía aérea*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban <span class="hlt">por</span> vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375242"><span>Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, <span class="hlt">por</span>A, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, <span class="hlt">Por</span>A, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside <span class="hlt">Por</span>A P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and <span class="hlt">Por</span>A. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and <span class="hlt">por</span>A were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23897141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23897141"><span>[Acute optic neuropathy: differential diagnoses].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buompadre, María Celeste</p> <p>2013-09-06</p> <p>Introduccion. La alteracion funcional del nervio optico se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> un deficit en la agudeza visual, en la vision cromatica y en el campo visual, defecto pupilar aferente y, en algunos casos, edema del nervio o atrofia y palidez. Objetivo. Describir el espectro de neuropatias opticas <span class="hlt">agudas</span>, su clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento, con mayor interes en aquellas de presentacion en la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. La neuritis optica puede ser monofasica, recurrente o el componente de un cuadro desmielinizante polisintomatico. El objetivo del tratamiento es reducir el numero y la gravedad de los ataques y prevenir discapacidad. La infecciosa es secundaria a diferentes microorganismos (bacterias, virus, hongos y protozoos). El tratamiento depende de la etiologia. La isquemica anterior no arteritica o idiopatica es la forma mas frecuente y es secundaria a enfermedad de pequeños vasos (ciliares posteriores). La neuropatia optica hereditaria o de Leber representa una causa importante de afectacion visual cronica y se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> la afectacion selectiva de las celulas ganglionares de la retina. Hasta el momento, la terapia solo es de apoyo. En el papiledema asociado a hipertension endocraneal, la agudeza visual generalmente se conserva pero existe aumento de la mancha ciega. El tratamiento se basa en disminuir la hipertension y el factor etiologico si existe. Conclusiones. Las neuropatias opticas <span class="hlt">agudas</span> constituyen un amplio grupo de entidades, de etiologia diversa y con un pronostico visual variable. La presencia de signos del examen neurologico, fondo de ojo y neuroimagenes pueden orientar hacia el diagnostico y tratamiento oportuno.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27986205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27986205"><span>Costo- Efectividad Del Uso Profiláctico Del Factor Estimulante De Colonias De Granulocitos En Adultos Con Leucemia Linfoblástica <span class="hlt">Aguda</span> en Colombia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casadiego Rincón, Elkin Javier; Díaz Rojas, Jorge Augusto; Bermúdez, Carlos Daniel; Martínez, Víctor Prieto</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>To assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) compared with no use of it, during the induction phase of chemotherapy in Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in Colombia. A decision tree with a time horizon of 30 days was built under colombian health system perspective including only direct costs. The costs of procedures and medications were taken from official sources and an institution of national reference of oncology services. The safety and effectiveness data were taken from the literature and two Colombian cohorts with patients older than 15 years. The unit of outcome was the proportion of deaths avoided. Base-case results on a clinical trial indicate that using factor is a dominant strategy. The variable that most impacted the outcome was the incidence of febrile neutropenia. Considering a threshold of $22.228 USD in 80% of cases using factor was cost effective. However, the use of factor is not cost-effective for the country for incidences of febrile neutropenia > 48%. It was not possible to establish cost-effectiveness of pegfilgrastim because no information was found. As per Colombian data, the use of prophylactic factor under chemotherapeutic induction in adults with ALL, turns out to be not cost effective. The difference in the results suggests the need of a careful extrapolation of information from clinical trials (ideal world) for developing economic evaluations in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482696','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482696"><span>Measuring the Behavior and Response to Sound of Beaked Whales Using Recording Tags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>led by Alberto Brito of the University of La Laguna. His team of biology graduate students maintain a field station in the island of El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ...in the Canary Island field site of El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> (Figs. 3, 4). In analyzing identification photos, the Italian group have confirmed sightings of several...specie. The exceptional sighting rate of both species in El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> makes this one of the densest coastal populations of beaked whales known</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA480993','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA480993"><span>Acoustic Detection, Behavior, and Habitat Use of Deep-Diving Odontocetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Blainville’s beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris, and Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris, off the island of El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> in the Canary Islands...vocalizations to compare with the buoy recordings. We will also continue a seasonal photo-identification study of the El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> beaked whales to build... <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ), and April 2008 (pilot whales in Tenerife). Due to the late arrival of funds, we opted for a short field season with beaked whales in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817493"><span>Etiological agents and antimicrobial susceptibility in hospitalized children with acute pyelonephritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Martins, Tânia; Teixeira, Ana; Pinto, Helena; Botelho-Moniz, Edgar; Caldas-Afonso, Alberto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introdução: A resistência aos antimicrobianos, provocada pela utilização de antibióticos continua a ser um importante problema de saúde pública e uma preocupação para os profissionais de saúde. O nosso objetivo foi conhecer a prevalência local dos uropatógenos e o seu perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobiannos na pielonefrite <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo nas crianças internadas <span class="hlt">por</span> pielonefrite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> no internamento de Pediatria de um hospital do norte de Portugal entre 1994-2012. Os agentes etiológicos e o seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foram avaliados em quatro períodos de tempo (G1: 1994-1997, G2: 2002; G3: 2007; G4: 2012). Resultados: Avaliámos 581 doentes, 66% do sexo feminino, com idade mediana de 22 meses. A Escherichia coli foi o principal uropatógeno e a sua prevalência manteve-se estável durante os últimos 18 anos. Verificou-se um aumento da sensibilidade à amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico de 71% no G1 para 81,5% no G4 (p = 0,001) e uma diminuição da taxa de resistência de 8,7% no G1 para 2,8% G4 (p = 0,008). A sua sensibilidade às cefalosporinas de segunda e terceira geração e nitrofurantoína foi superior a 90% (p = ns). A taxa de resistência ao cotrimoxazol aumentou de 22 % para 26 % (p = 0,008). Discussão: A Escherichia coli continua a ser o uropatogénio mais frequente responsável <span class="hlt">por</span> pielonefrite <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, motivo pelo qual o seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos determina a escolha da antibioticoterapia empírica. Conclusões: A amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico mantém-se como escolha de primeira linha para o tratamento empírico da pielonefrite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> em regime de internamento.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319830"><span>[ANTIOXIDANT DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL) IN DECOMPENSATED DIABETIC PATIENTS].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Introducción: las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) tienen un importante efecto protector cardiovascular mediado <span class="hlt">por</span> su función durante el transporte reverso del colesterol, así como <span class="hlt">por</span> otras actividades, incluyendo una significativa acción antiinflamatoria y antioxidante. La funcionalidad antiinflamatoria y antioxidante de las HDL está alterada en los pacientes diabéticos crónicos estables, aunque no existe mayor información en caso de una crisis hiperglicémica. Objetivo: determinar si durante un estado de descompensación diabética <span class="hlt">aguda</span> las partículas de HDL exhiben un deterioro de su función antioxidante y si esta logra recuperarse una vez resuelto el cuadro agudo. Métodos: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL se midió mediante un ensayo de fluorescencia in vitro en muestras plasmáticas de pacientes diabéticos con descompensación <span class="hlt">aguda</span> obtenidas tanto al ingreso, alcanzada la resolución intrahospitalaria del evento agudo, así como en un control ambulatorio post-hospitalización. Como comparación, se analizaron partículas de HDL de algunos sujetos sanos como condición control. Resultados: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL en pacientes con descompensación diabética <span class="hlt">aguda</span> fue significativamente menor a la observada en el grupo control sano, y esta se fue recuperando progresivamente hasta normalizarse en el momento del control ambulatorio. La crisis hiperglicémica también demostró una baja actividad plasmática de la enzima antioxidante paraoxonasa- 1, la cual aumentó significativamente en el control ambulatorio. Conclusión: las partículas de HDL presentes en pacientes con una descompensación diabética <span class="hlt">aguda</span> presentan una reducción significativa y reversible de su capacidad antioxidante, probablemente como consecuencia de una alteración en la actividad de la paraoxonasa-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319853"><span>[TEEN MOTHER AND NEWBORN NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN A GROUP OF TEENAGERS OF THE CITY OF MEDELLIN].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Introducción: en los países en vía de desarrollo, entre ellos Colombia, el embarazo adolescente es un problema de salud pública <span class="hlt">por</span> sus consecuencias sociales, de salud y nutrición para el binomio madre-hijo. Objetivo: evaluar las características demográficas, socioeconómicas, de seguridad alimentaria, de salud y el estado nutricional en un grupo de gestantes adolescentes y sus recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal con 294 embarazadas adolescentes en el tercer trimestre de gestación del programa de control prenatal de la Red Pública Hospitalaria de Medellín-Colombia, durante 2011-2012. Se buscó la asociación del índice de masa corporal materno, estado nutritivo del <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y peso al nacer del neonato con variables explicativas. Resultados: los ingresos económicos mensuales inferiores a un salario mínimo se asociaron con bajo peso materno y con recién nacidos pequeños para la edad gestacional. El bajo peso gestacional se presentó en mayor proporción en las gestantes de 15 años o menos y con una edad ginecológica inferior a cinco años. La prevalencia de anemia fue baja en el primer trimestre y aumentó significativamente al final del embarazo; 90% presentaron reservas inadecuadas de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. El bajo peso al nacer se asoció con la presencia de infecciones y el bajo peso materno en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Conclusión: la gestación adolescente es un problema complejo que se asocia con efectos negativos en el estado nutricional, de salud y social de la mujer y su recién nacido.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27238780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27238780"><span>[In Process Citation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Bingsong; Li, Yijun; Wu, Xiaolu; Liu, Qingqing; Tang, Xue; Wang, Zuo</p> <p>2016-03-25</p> <p>Objetivos: oligoelementos como zinc (Zn), <span class="hlt">hierro</span> (Fe) y cobre (Cu) tienen una influencia significativa en el mantenimiento de la función inmune y del metabolismo normales; modulan la función immune e influyen en la susceptibilidad del organismo ante infecciones. Pero la relación entre trazas de estos elementos y la bronconeumonía resultó incierta. Métodos: en este estudio fueron incluidos 28 niños con bronconeumonía y 46 niños sanos agrupados <span class="hlt">por</span> edad. Se determinaron los niveles de Zn, Cu, Fe, calcio (Ca) y/o magnesio (Mg) en el suero de los niños con bronconeumonía y sin ella mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: los resultados muestran que varios niveles de microelementos como Zn, Ca, Mg y Fe en el grupo con bronconeumonía son menores que en el grupo control. En el grupo de niños con bronconeumonía el nivel de Ca en el suero está asociado positivamente con el zinc (Zn) (p < 0,05) y el <span class="hlt">hierro</span> (Fe) (p < 0,05), mientras que hay una correlación positiva entre el cobre (Cu) y el calcio (Ca) (p < 0,05), magnesio (mg) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: el nivel de oligoelemento en el suero puede estar asociado con el riesgo de bronconeumonía entre los niños.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624086"><span>[Neurological complications in the population of children with leukaemia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Cayuelas, Elena; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Pascual-Gázquez, Juan F; Martínez-Salcedo, Eduardo; Alarcón-Martínez, Helena; Bermúdez-Cortés, Mar; Fuster-Soler, José L; Pérez-Fernández, Virginia</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Introduccion. La leucemia es el cancer mas frecuente en edad pediatrica. Su tasa de curacion es del 80% con quimioterapia intensiva, que mejora la supervivencia, pero que tambien aumenta la frecuencia de efectos adversos, incluyendo los neurologicos. Objetivos. Describir la frecuencia y caracteristicas de las complicaciones neurologicas (CN) en pacientes con leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span> linfoide (LAL) y leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span> mieloide (LAM), e identificar los factores asociados a su presencia, la tasa de morbilidad neurologica y la supervivencia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de las CN presentes durante el tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con LAL y LAM entre 1997 y 2012 <span class="hlt">por</span> la unidad de oncohematologia infantil. Variables analizadas: datos demograficos, diagnostico oncologico, tratamiento y CN. Resultados. Se incluyo un total de 157 pacientes, 145 sin infiltracion de sistema nervioso central al diagnostico y ocho con infiltracion (tasa de CN del 14 y 12%, respectivamente). Las CN mas frecuentes fueron: neuropatias (31%), alteracion del nivel de conciencia (27%), convulsiones (22%) y cefalea (12%). Un 40% de los pacientes con CN ha presentado secuelas, pero ninguno ha fallecido como consecuencia de la CN. Se han detectado mas CN en el grupo de edad menor de 6 años con LAL de alto grado, en niveles de gravedad mas altos y en pacientes que habian recibido trasplante de precursores hematopoyeticos, todas ellas con diferencias estadisticamente significativas. Conclusiones. Las complicaciones neurologicas son frecuentes en los pacientes con leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, en especial en aquellos con estadio de riesgo alto (sobre todo si son menores de 6 años) y trasplante de precursores hematopoyeticos. La mortalidad asociada es baja.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667858"><span>[The Importance of Early Referral in Pediatric Acute Liver Failure].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jerónimo, Mónica; Moinho, Rita; Pinto, Carla; Carvalho, Leonor; Gonçalves, Isabel; Furtado, Emanuel; Farela Neves, José</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introdução: A falência hepática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> é uma doença rara associada a elevada morbilidade e mortalidade apesar do aumento da sobrevida devido ao transplante hepático. Em 2008, decorreu em Portugal uma reunião sobre esta patologia em pediatria, resultando num consenso de atuação que salientou a importância da abordagem multidisciplinar e referenciação precoce para um centro de transplantação hepática. Objetivos: Caracterizar as admissões <span class="hlt">por</span> falência hepática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> no Serviço de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos do centro português com transplante hepático pediátrico. Comparar resultados antes (A) e depois de 2008 (B). Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospetivo de 20 anos (1994-2014). Critérios de inclusão: idade < 18 anos e falência hepática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (INR ≥ 2 sem resposta à vitamina K e necrose hepatocelular). Excluíram-se as crianças com doença hepática crónica. Resultados: Incluíram-se 50 crianças com idade mediana de 24,5 meses. A causa mais comum de falência hepática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> abaixo dos 2 anos foi metabólica (34,6%) e acima infeciosa (29,2%). Foram submetidos a transplante hepático 46%, tendo sobrevivido 78%. A mortalidade global foi 34%. A mediana do tempo de referenciação foi 7 dias no período A (n = 35) e 2 no B (n = 15; p = 0,006). A mediana do risco de mortalidade prevista pelo PRISM foi 14,7% no período A e 6,5% no B (p = 0,019). A mortalidade foi 37% vs 26% no período A e B respetivamente (p = 0,474).Discussão e Conclusões: A mortalidade global foi sobreponível à de outros centros europeus, sendo o transplante hepático a opção terapêutica mais eficaz. Após 2008 o tempo de referenciação e a gravidade dos casos na admissão reduziram, ainda sem tradução significativa na mortalidade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482208','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482208"><span>Current Collapse Induced in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors by Bias Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-08-25</p> <p>structure where the traps causing current collapse can be passivated by forming H-defect complexes. <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> et al.7 have shown, for example, that deep...Lett. 75, 4016 ~1999!. 7 A. <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> , S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1499 ~2000!. 8 S. J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA441195','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA441195"><span>Development and Field testing of the DTAG for Deep-Diving Odontocetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-12</p> <p>34Resident and reproductive populations of beaked whales in El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> , Canary Islands", European Research on Cetaceans 19th, France, April 2005. Aguilar... <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> (Canary Islands)", European Research on Cetaceans 18th, Sweden, 2004. Tregenza N.J.C., Johnson M., Aguilar de Soto N., "Automated detection of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25354507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25354507"><span>[Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinez-Cayuelas, E; Herraiz-Martinez, M; Villacieros-Hernandez, L; Cean-Cabrera, L; Martinez-Salcedo, E; Alarcon-Martinez, H; Domingo-Jimenez, R; Perez-Fernandez, V</p> <p>2014-11-16</p> <p>Introduccion. Las convulsiones febriles son una de las causas mas frecuentes de consulta. Hasta ahora, los pacientes con convulsiones febriles complejas (CFC) deben ingresar, dado el mayor porcentaje de epilepsia y complicaciones <span class="hlt">agudas</span> descrito clasicamente. En la actualidad hay estudios que apoyan ser menos invasivos en el abordaje de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas de los pacientes ingresados <span class="hlt">por</span> CFC y proponer un nuevo protocolo de actuacion. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis retrospectivo de historias clinicas de ingresados <span class="hlt">por</span> CFC (enero de 2010-diciembre de 2013). Se ofrecen datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, pruebas complementarias y evolucion. Resultados. Las CFC suponian un 4,2% de los ingresos de neuropediatria (n = 67). Edad media al evento: 25 meses. El 47% tenia antecedentes familiares patologicos, y el 31%, antecedentes personales de convulsion febril previa. En el 54% de los pacientes, la CFC duro menos de cinco minutos; hubo recurrencia, la mayoria con un total de dos crisis y durante el primer dia (las CFC <span class="hlt">por</span> recurrencia son las mas frecuentes). De las pruebas complementarias realizadas, ninguna de ellas sirvio como apoyo diagnostico en el momento agudo. Durante su seguimiento, cinco pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Los pacientes con antecedentes familiares de convulsiones febriles presentan mayor riesgo de epilepsia o recurrencia (p = 0,02), sin diferencias significativas respecto a la edad, numero de crisis, intervalo de fiebre, estado epileptico o tipo de CFC. Conclusiones. Las CFC no asocian mayores complicaciones <span class="hlt">agudas</span>; las exploraciones complementarias no permiten discriminar precozmente a los pacientes de riesgo. Su ingreso podria evitarse en ausencia de otros signos clinicos y limitarse a casos seleccionados.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204086"><span>[Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel</p> <p>2015-08-16</p> <p>Introduccion. La intoxicacion <span class="hlt">por</span> monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion <span class="hlt">por</span> monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion <span class="hlt">aguda</span> porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones <span class="hlt">por</span> monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados <span class="hlt">por</span> monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos <span class="hlt">por</span> 100.000 habitantes y año.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268098"><span>URINARY LOSS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY HOSPITAL SERVICE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Souza Santos, Roberta Deh; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Introducción/objetivos: la deficiencia de micronutrientes puede contribuir a un menor control de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la excreción urinaria de micronutrientes en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: los pacientes con diabetes y los controles fueron evaluados <span class="hlt">por</span> la ingesta de alimentos, la antropometría, la pérdida urinaria de micronutrientes y comparados <span class="hlt">por</span> Mann Whitney no paramétrico (p < 0,05). Resultados: fueron evaluados nueve sujetos diabéticos (52 ± 14 años con un IMC de 30 ± 11 kg/m² y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC) de 99 ± 25 cm) y nueve sujetos control (51 ± 16 años, IMC 26 ± 5 kg/m² y CA total de 90 ± 13 cm). La excreción de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> más alta se observó en el grupo diabético y la mayor excreción de magnesio en el grupo de control. Conclusiones: el tipo 2 de pacientes diabéticos estudiados aquí no mostraron un aumento en la excreción de micronutrientes en la orina en comparación con los controles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nino+AND+4&pg=4&id=ED204045','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nino+AND+4&pg=4&id=ED204045"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span> los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.</p> <p></p> <p>Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=EJ181762','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=EJ181762"><span>On the Use of "<span class="hlt">Por</span>" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>De Mello, George</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=EJ173737','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=EJ173737"><span>La busqueda textual <span class="hlt">por</span> computadora (Textual Search by Computer)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davison, Ned J.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED147580','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED147580"><span><span class="hlt">POR</span> FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1971</p> <p></p> <p>A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED204045','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED204045"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span> los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.</p> <p></p> <p>Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12337558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12337558"><span>[The right to avoid pregnancy] [<span class="hlt">POR</span>, ENG translation included].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-21</p> <p>Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA539843','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA539843"><span>Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, <span class="hlt">Por</span> Ahora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28112708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28112708"><span>Are perioperative statins beneficial for cardiac surgery?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bravo-Soto, Gonzalo A; Llovet-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel</p> <p>2017-01-16</p> <p>La cirugía cardiaca conlleva una alta morbimortalidad debido a múltiples causas tales como fibrilación auricular, infarto al miocardio, insuficiencia renal <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, accidente vascular encefálico, entre otros. <span class="hlt">Por</span> otra parte, las estatinas son una familia de medicamentos que ha demostrado disminución de eventos cardiovasculares, principalmente debido a su efecto clínico en el perfil lipídico. Sin embargo, se ha propuesto un efecto pleiotrópico, incluyendo un mecanismo antiinflamatorio agudo, cuyo real impacto clínico es controvertido. En este contexto, se ha planteado que el uso de estatinas perioperatorias podría disminuir la morbimortalidad en cirugía cardiaca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960056"><span>[Scorpionism causing severe acute flaccid paralysis. Case report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Vázquez-Solís, Ma Guadalupe; Zamora-López, Xochitl Xitlalli; Arias-Corona, Fernando; Palomera-Ávila, Francisco Miguel; Pulido-Galaviz, Carlos; Pacifuentes-Orozco, Adán</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: el alacranismo es un problema de salud pública en diversas regiones del mundo, siendo México el país que tiene mayor número de casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas oscilan desde sintomatología local hasta cuadros graves con repercusiones a nivel cardiovascular, respiratorio y neurológico, e incluso la muerte. No existen reportes de parálisis flácida como una manifestación del cuadro clínico <span class="hlt">por</span> picadura del alacrán del género Centruroides, familia Buthidae, especie altamente tóxica, endémica y causante de altos índices de morbimortalidad en nuestra región. Caso clínico: documentamos un caso de alacranismo grave, provocado <span class="hlt">por</span> escorpión de la familia Buthidae del género Centruroides, que causó parálisis flácida <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, posterior a resolución de otras manifestaciones severas. Solo existe un reporte de caso de alacranismo que produce parálisis flácida <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en la literatura médica, pero relacionado con el escorpión de la familia Parabuthus, endémico de Sudáfrica, el cual no es endémico en México. Conclusiones: conocer esta complicación, nueva para nuestra región, permitirá maximizar esfuerzos para diagnosticar y manejar oportunamente esta entidad con la aplicación temprana de faboterápico específico y soporte vital avanzado.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545675"><span>CHRONIC ENTERITIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ASSOCIATED COMPLICATIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Kyriakos, Georgios; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Introducción: la radiacion de los tumores de la cavidad pelvica puede provocar mucositis a nivel intestinal. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia, los factores de riesgo y las complicaciones de la enteritis radica cronica en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal sobre 150 pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica durante el ano 2008 debido a un cancer de prostata, cervix, endometrio o recto. Se interrogo a los pacientes sobre la presencia de sintomas sugestivos de enteritis y sobre cambios en el peso habitual y modificaciones en su dieta. Los parametros considerados como posibles factores de riesgo de enteritis cronica (sexo, edad, tratamiento antitumoral, enteritis <span class="hlt">aguda</span> previa y tipo de tumor) se analizaron con metodos univariantes y multivariantes. Resultados: el estudio incluyo finalmente a 100 pacientes, el 84% varones, con una mediana de edad de 72,3 anos. Se encontro una prevalencia de enteritis radica cronica del 20%, en la mayoria de grado 1 (45%). <span class="hlt">Por</span> otra parte, el 10% referian una perdida de peso ≥ 5 kg, el 3% habian requerido hospitalizacion debido a diarrea incoercible o a obstruccion intestinal, y el 11% habian modificado su patron de alimentacion habitual, reduciendo principalmente el consumo de verduras, legumbres y dulces. Se encontro asociacion entre la enteritis radica cronica y el sexo masculino, la edad, la enteritis radica <span class="hlt">aguda</span> previa y la quimioterapia, pero solo esta resulto asociarse de forma independiente con el desarrollo de enteritis radica cronica despues del analisis multivariante (OR = 3,59 [95% CI 1,20–10,73]). Conclusión: la enteritis cronica es una entidad frecuente en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica, sobre todo cuando se asocia con quimioterapia. La tasa de complicaciones <span class="hlt">por</span> esta patologia es baja, pero un numero importante de pacientes realiza modificaciones en su dieta habitual para aliviar o evitar la sintomatologia derivada</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177426"><span>[Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada <span class="hlt">por</span> la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró <span class="hlt">por</span> debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 <span class="hlt">por</span> mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 <span class="hlt">por</span> mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron <span class="hlt">por</span> debajo de los indicadores (< 1 <span class="hlt">por</span> mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada <span class="hlt">por</span> la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones <span class="hlt">agudas</span> de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199704"><span>A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two <span class="hlt">Por</span>As and stabilized OpcA expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D</p> <p>2011-02-04</p> <p>This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second <span class="hlt">Por</span>A (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA593654','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA593654"><span>Photoionization Spectroscopy of Deep Defects Responsible for Current Collapse in Nitride-Based Field Effect Transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-10-24</p> <p>are quite similar to the results of photocapacitance measurements of MOCVD-grown p+–n and n-type GaN Schottky diodes reported by <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> et al [28...defect by <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> et al, while the 3.22 eV threshold was identified as an unintentional shallow acceptor, such as Mg or C, in agreement with the...transition is associated with the photoneutralization of residual ionized shallow acceptors in the GaN layer, as explained in section 4.1. <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> et</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA260807','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA260807"><span>Numerical Simulations of Columbus’ Atlantic Crossings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hierro</span> , around 27.7°N, so he must have thought he sailed almost due westward. One can argue that the 1.70 difference in latitude between his 26°N and the...36 27.7*N of <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> is just about equal to the 1.50 difference between the north coast of Hispanola and Grand Turk. If Columbus really first landed...Spain to the Indies circa 1533 and says to navigate from <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> one should sail 800 leagues on course W by SW (258 3/40) to arrive at LaDeseada, Guadalupe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4138820"><span>Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas <span class="hlt">por</span> Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. <span class="hlt">Por</span> el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25670044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25670044"><span>[Spanish translation and validation of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) to assess balance and postural control in adult post-stroke patients].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Girabent-Farrés, Monserrat; Cánovas-Vergé, David; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda M; Germán-Romero, Ana; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat</p> <p>2015-02-16</p> <p>Introduccion. En los ultimos años, la Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) se ha convertido en la escala mas utilizada para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos que han sufrido un ictus, especialmente en la fase <span class="hlt">aguda</span> y subaguda. Objetivo. Traducir y validar la PASS para la poblacion española como instrumento de valoracion del equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus. Pacientes y metodos. Se tradujo al español la version original francesa de la PASS; dicha version fue consensuada <span class="hlt">por</span> un equipo de expertos. Posteriormente se hizo una retrotraduccion al frances y se envio al autor de la escala, el cual aprobo dicha version. Seguidamente se evaluo la fiabilidad intra e interobservador; para ello se llevaron a cabo cuatro mediciones a 60 pacientes postictus, a partir de una videograbacion. Dos de estas mediciones fueron realizadas <span class="hlt">por</span> el mismo observador, y la tercera y cuarta, <span class="hlt">por</span> un segundo y tercer observadores. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de la escala reflejan un indice de fiabilidad del 0,999; tambien muestran una fiabilidad superior a 0,90 en cada uno de los items, tanto en las comparaciones intraobservador como interobservador, y una consistencia interna del 0,94. Conclusion. La version española de la PASS es valida y fiable para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312318"><span>[Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada <span class="hlt">por</span> hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan <span class="hlt">por</span> dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta <span class="hlt">por</span> abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span>; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ArMiS..58..579U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ArMiS..58..579U"><span>A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / <span class="hlt">Por</span>ównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uilhoorn, Frits E.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano <span class="hlt">por</span>ównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu <span class="hlt">por</span>ównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282049"><span>[Variability in the in-hospital management of acute myocardial infarction in Spain. IBERICA Study (Investigación, Búsqueda Específica y Registro de Isquemia Coronaria <span class="hlt">Aguda</span>)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiol, M; Cabadés, A; Sala, J; Marrugat, J; Elosua, R; Vega, G; José Tormo Díaz, M; Segura, A; Aldasoro, E; Moreno-Iribas, C; Muñiz, J; Hurtado de Saracho, I; García, J</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Introduction and objective. Although some in-hospital studies have described the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients in Spain, none has been able to guarantee the exhaustiveness of patient registry. This study sought to determine the clinical characteristics and in-hospital management of patients with MI in eight Spanish population registries.Methods. The IBERICA study is a population-based MI registry carried out in the 25 to 74 year-old population, in eight Spanish regions in 1997. A standardized methodology was used to register and investigate all MI arriving alive to a hospital. Clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors prevalence, pharmacological treatment, invasive and non-invasive procedures performed and complications at 28 days of evolution were recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed and the variation coefficient (VC) was calculated.Results. In 1997, 4,041 MI patients were registered, 79.9% were men with a mean age of 61.1 years. Although 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) were not admitted to the coronary care unit, a large variability existed among different areas (VC = 53%). There was a high variability in the utilization and performance of non-invasive and invasive procedures among regions, as well as in the use of pharmacological treatment. Only the use of antiaggregants (91.5%) and thrombolytic therapy (41.8%) showed a low variability (VC < 10%). Twenty-eight day mortality was 16.2% (95% CI: 15.1-17.4%) with a high variability being observed among the different regions (VC = 20.6%).Conclusion. Patient characteristics vary among the different Spanish regions. The differences in management and prognosis suggest a lack of equality in the health care provided to MI patients in the different regions in Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA15017.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA15017.html"><span>NASA Satellite Tracks Underwater Volcanic Eruption in Canary Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-02</p> <p>In July 2011, volcanic tremors began on the Island of El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> in the Canary Islands; by September, many tourists evacuated the resort island, fearing a volcanic eruption. This image is from NASA Terra spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889652"><span>[Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25641281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25641281"><span>[Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: critical analysis of 520 cases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teixeira, João Araújo; Ribeiro, Carlos; Moreira, Luís M; de Sousa, Fabiana; Pinho, André; Graça, Luís; Maia, José Costa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>IntroduçÉo: Apesar do cepticismo com que inicialmente foi encarada, a colecistectomia laparoscópica é hoje a técnica de eleiçÉo na colecistite <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Torna-se, <span class="hlt">por</span>ém, importante avaliar os seus resultados, em comparaçÉo com a colecistectomia clássica, uma vez que esta última ainda é seguida <span class="hlt">por</span> alguns cirurgiões em determinadas situações.Material e Métodos: No nosso estudo foram incluídos 520 doentes com colecistites <span class="hlt">agudas</span> operados no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital de S. JoÉo, entre 2007 e 2013, dos quais 412 (79,2%) <span class="hlt">por</span> laparoscopia e 108 (20,8%) <span class="hlt">por</span> via aberta, com uma incidência de conversÉo de 10,7%. Procedeu-se ao estudo relativo às doenças coexistentes, leucocitose, tempo decorrido entre o diagnóstico na urgência e a cirurgia, classificaçÉo ASA, complicações intra e pós-operatórias, mortalidade, reintervenções, lesÉo biliar e estadia hospitalar. Os doentes convertidos foram incluídos no grupo das colecistectomias laparoscópicas. A análise estatística baseou-se em processos descritivos e a avaliaçÉo das diferenças entre grupos foi realizada com base no teste exato de Fisher, sendo considerados valores significativos para p < 0,05.Resultados: Colecistectomia laparoscópica versus Colecistectomia aberta: Mortalidade: 0,7% vs 3,7% (p = 0,0369); Complicações per-operatórias: 3,6% vs 12,9% (p = 0,0006); Complicações pós-operatórias cirúrgicas: 7,7% vs 17,5% (p = 0,0055); Pós-operatórias médicas: 4,3% vs 5,5% (p = 0,6077); LesÉo da via biliar principal: 0,9% vs 1,8% (p = 0,6091); Reintervenções: 2,9% vs 5,5% (p = 0,2315); Internamento hospitalar inferior ou igual a quatro dias: 64,8% vs 18,5% (p < 0,0001). Na colecistectomia laparoscópica houve 10,7% de conversões: nas precoces (intervenções realizadas antes das 96 h após o diagnóstico na urgência) esta taxa foi de 8,8% e nas tardias (após aquele período de tempo mas no mesmo internamento) de 13,7% (p = 0,1425); Complicações nos doentes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24021076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24021076"><span>[Influenza-like illness. Therapeutic experience in family medicine].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz-Cortés, Gerardo; García-Zavala, Guadalupe Ulises; Estrada-Andrade, María Elena</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: la influenza es una enfermedad respiratoria muy contagiosa. Se debe iniciar el tratamiento antiviral en las primeras 48 horas para evitar la neumonía. El objetivo de este informe es describir la experiencia en el tratamiento de la enfermedad tipo influenza en una unidad de medicina familiar. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de pacientes que acudieron a urgencias con enfermedad tipo influenza (fiebre de 38 °C, cefalea y tos, acompañadas de otro síntoma) y que fueron contactados <span class="hlt">por</span> vía telefónica. Los datos se expresan en media ± desviación estándar. Resultados: de 537 consultas <span class="hlt">por</span> infecciones respiratorias <span class="hlt">agudas</span>, 1.3 % reunió los criterios de enfermedad tipo influenza; 85.7 % era del sexo masculino. El promedio de la edad fue de 18 ± 24.21 años. La atención inicial ocurrió a las 19.14 horas después de que se iniciaron los síntomas. Todos los pacientes recibieron oseltamivir y zanamivir; 14.3 % presentó neumonía. El 100 % se restableció. No hubo enfermedades concomitantes. Conclusiones: existe un protocolo para el manejo de la enfermedad tipo influenza que hace posible el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos de los pacientes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25760721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25760721"><span>[Hemorrhagic colloid cyst of the third ventricle: fulminant deterioration].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Gómez, Debora; Joanes, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Vanaclocha, Vicente</p> <p>2015-03-16</p> <p>Introduccion. Los quistes coloides son tumores benignos del tercer ventriculo. La mayoria permanecen asintomaticos. Sin embargo, algunos pacientes pueden desarrollar desde cefaleas intermitentes hasta un deterioro agudo e incluso muerte subita. Existen varias teorias <span class="hlt">por</span> las que se produciria una muerte subita en estos pacientes, entre las que se incluyen el rapido crecimiento del quiste, su rotura, la alteracion del control cardiovascular reflejo mediado <span class="hlt">por</span> el hipotalamo y, rara vez, el sangrado del quiste, con solo 15 casos descritos en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Varon de 45 años, con hipertension arterial como unico antecedente de interes, que sufre un deterioro brusco del nivel de consciencia a causa de una hidrocefalia <span class="hlt">aguda</span> debida a un quiste coloide hemorragico del tercer ventriculo. Se implanto un drenaje ventricular externo en cada lado e ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde se certifico la muerte encefalica. Tras la extirpacion del quiste mediante abordaje transcortical frontal, se confirmo el diagnostico de quiste coloide con restos de material hemolizado subagudo. Conclusion. La hemorragia en los quistes coloides es excepcional y puede producirse en pacientes tanto sintomaticos como asintomaticos, lo que dificulta, de forma extraordinaria, el reconocimiento de esta complicacion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624088"><span>[Therapeutic plasma exchange: applications in neurology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Láinez-Andrés, José M; Gascón-Giménez, Francisco; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Santonja, José M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Introduccion. El recambio plasmatico es una tecnica utilizada en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades neurologicas de base autoinmune desde los años ochenta, especialmente en situaciones <span class="hlt">agudas</span>. En los ultimos años se han publicado nuevos datos sobre su empleo en numerosas entidades con base autoinmune, ampliando, con ello, el espectro de utilizacion. Objetivo. Actualizar las indicaciones de esta tecnica en el tratamiento de las enfermedades neurologicas. Desarrollo. Se ha realizado una revision exhaustiva de todos los articulos publicados desde los años ochenta sobre la eficacia del recambio plasmatico en el tratamiento de las diferentes enfermedades neurologicas. Tambien se ha efectuado un analisis detallado de las recomendaciones y evidencias de la utilizacion de este procedimiento <span class="hlt">por</span> parte de las diferentes sociedades cientificas. Conclusiones. El recambio plasmatico ha demostrado ser una alternativa eficaz con evidencia cientifica de primer nivel en enfermedades como el sindrome de Guillain-Barre, la polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatoria cronica o la miastenia grave. Ha mostrado ser eficaz en el tratamiento de episodios desmielinizantes agudos sin respuesta a otras terapias, en los brotes de neuromielitis optica y en otras enfermedades del sistema nervioso central producidas <span class="hlt">por</span> anticuerpos. En los estudios comparativos con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, la eficacia de ambas terapias es similar. Es preciso seguir realizando estudios comparativos para conocer mejor los mecanismos y establecer indicaciones prioritarias y comparar la relacion coste-eficacia de ambos procedimientos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24677153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24677153"><span>[Gorlin syndrome in the paediatric age].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roncalés-Samanes, P; Peña-Segura, J L; Fernando-Martínez, R; Fuertes-Rodrigo, C; García-Oguiza, A; López-Pisón, J</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Introduccion. El sindrome de Gorlin (SG) es un trastorno de herencia autosomica dominante asociado a mutaciones en el gen PTCH1, cuya principal caracteristica es la aparicion de carcinomas basocelulares, unido a anomalias esqueleticas, queratoquistes odontogenicos y tumores intracraneales. Caso clinico. Niña de 3 años y 10 meses, ingresada <span class="hlt">por</span> ataxia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Destacan como antecedentes personales retraso psicomotor y como antecedentes familiares la sospecha de SG en la madre <span class="hlt">por</span> quiste maxilar. En la exploracion, se aprecia macrocefalia con frente prominente e hipertelorismo, asi como nevo. Se solicita estudio genetico de SG, en el que se detecta la mutacion c.930delC en el exon 6 del gen PTCH1 en heterocigosis. Conclusiones. En el SG hay un aumento de la susceptibilidad al desarrollo de carcinomas basocelulares y es preciso un estrecho control dermatologico. Es necesario un seguimiento neurologico clinico y de imagen, mediante resonancia magnetica, para el diagnostico precoz de tumores intracraneales, fundamentalmente el meduloblastoma. Tambien son caracteristicos los queratoquistes odontogenicos, otras alteraciones cutaneas, fibromas cardiacos y ovaricos, asi como anomalias esqueleticas, que precisan controles clinicos y de imagen periodicos, y tratamiento en caso de ser necesarios, pero debe evitarse la radiacion. El SG es un trastorno poco frecuente, que se debe sospechar ante la presencia de alteraciones caracteristicas. Es necesario un seguimiento multidisciplinar, asi como establecer un protocolo de actuacion, para un temprano diagnostico y tratamiento de las complicaciones potencialmente graves derivadas de esta enfermedad.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377982"><span>[Cluster headache in pediatric population: four case reports and review of the literature].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alfaro-Iznaola, C; Natera-de Benito, D; Rodriguez-Diaz, R; Taboas-Pereira, M A; Cuadrado-Martin, M; Ballesteros-Garcia, M M</p> <p>2016-07-16</p> <p>Introduccion. La cefalea en racimos es una cefalea primaria de origen trigeminoautonomico cuyo inicio en la infancia es infrecuente. Se presentan cuatro casos en los que el inicio de la sintomatologia se produjo entre los 2 y los 13 años. Casos clinicos. Se incluyen tres varones y una niña con inicio a los 2, 7, 13 y 12 años, respectivamente. Los cuatro pacientes cumplen los criterios propuestos <span class="hlt">por</span> la tercera edicion de la Clasificacion Internacional de las Cefaleas ICHD-III (beta). Conclusiones. A pesar de ser poco frecuente durante la edad pediatrica, la cefalea en racimos debe formar parte del diagnostico diferencial de un niño que consulta <span class="hlt">por</span> cefalea. Subrayamos la importancia de conocer sus criterios diagnosticos para evitar el retraso diagnostico que se ha descrito con frecuencia. En nuestros pacientes, el tratamiento con verapamilo resulto mas eficaz que el tratamiento con flunaricina. Los tratamientos con mejor respuesta en fase <span class="hlt">aguda</span> fueron la oxigenoterapia y los triptanes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813489"><span>[Acute respiratory distress syndrome: case series, two years at an intensive care unit].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taborda, Lúcia; Barros, Filipa; Fonseca, Vitor; Irimia, Manuel; Carvalho, Ramiro; Diogo, Cláudia; Ramos, Armindo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introdução: A Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória <span class="hlt">Aguda</span> apresenta incidência e mortalidade significativas em Cuidados Intensivos, justificando estudos adicionais, nomeadamente para definição de novas abordagens terapêuticas. Os autores propuseram-se caracterizaros casos duma Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos em dois anos.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a um estudo observacional retrospectivo dos casos admitidos numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, cumprindo os critérios diagnósticos da American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS, tendo sido excluídos os não ventilados invasivamente. Pesquisados e submetidos a tratamento estatístico: dados demográficos, etiologia do Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória <span class="hlt">Aguda</span>, comorbilidades, Índices de Gravidade, PaO2/FiO2, modalidades e parâmetros ventilatórios, compliance pulmonar, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, corticoterapia, terapêuticas de resgate, complicações, duração do internamento, óbitos.Resultados: Obtiveram-se 40 doentes, com uma mediana de 72,5 anos (amplitude interquartil 22) e um ratio feminino:masculino ≈1:1,86. Cinquenta e cinco <span class="hlt">por</span> cento dos Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória <span class="hlt">Aguda</span> tiveram etiologia pulmonar. A média do PaO2/ FiO2 mínimo foi 88mm Hg (IC 95%: 78,5-97,6). A média da PEEP máxima aplicada foi 12,4 cmH2O (Desvio Padrão 4,12) e a médiado Volume Corrente máximo utilizado foi 8,2 mL/Kg peso ideal (IC 95%: 7,7-8,6). A mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva foi 10. Em 47,5% dos doentes foram administrados corticóides. Em 52,5% foi executado recrutamento alveolar. A complicação mais frequente foi a Pneumonia Associada a Ventilação (20%). A mediana da duração do internamento foi 10,7 dias (amplitude interquartil10,85). Faleceram 60% dos doentes. A probabilidade de outcome favorável ‘não óbito na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos’ foi 4,4x superior nos doentes sob corticoterapia e 11x superior nos doentes com idade < 65 anos</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849756"><span>[Serum Erythropoietin as Prognostic Marker in Myelodysplastic Syndromes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortesão, Emília; Tenreiro, Rita; Ramos, Sofia; Pereira, Marta; César, Paula; Carda, José P; Gomes, Marília; Rito, Luís; Magalhães, Emília; Gonçalves, Ana C; Silva, Nuno C E; Geraldes, Catarina; Pereira, Amélia; Ribeiro, Letícia; Nascimento Costa, José M; Ribeiro, Ana B Sarmento</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introdução: A síndrome mielodisplásica é uma doença heterogénea caracterizada <span class="hlt">por</span> displasia, medula hipercelular, citopenias e risco de evolução para leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Outros factores de prognóstico, nomeadamente, fibrose medular, elevação da enzima desidrogenase do lactato e 2-microglobulina têm sido descritos, contudo, a decisão terapêutica baseia-se no score do International Prognostic Scoring System. Material e Métodos: Este trabalho teve como objectivo analisar a relevãncia da eritropoietina sérica ao diagnóstico, em doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo, avaliando o seu impacto na sobrevivência global e a sua implementação como factor de prognóstico. Recolhemos dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 102 doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo diagnosticada entre outubro/2009 e março/2014. A análise de sobrevivência foi efectuada recorrendo à metodologia de Kaplan-Meier, de acordo com os valores de eritropoietina. Resultados: A amostra, de 102 doentes, apresenta uma mediana de idades de 74 anos e relação masculino/feminino igual a 0,8. Os doentes com o subtipo citopenia refratária com displasia unilinha apresentam, em média, valores de eritropoietina significativamente mais baixos, em oposição aos doentes com o subtipo 5q- que apresentam a média de eritropoietina sérica mais elevada (p < 0,05). Onze doentes evoluíram para leucemia <span class="hlt">aguda</span>; estes têm, em média, eritropoietina sérica superior (p < 0,05). Adicionalmente, a eritropoietina sérica acima do limite superior da normalidade associa-se a menor sobrevivência (p = 0,0336). Após ajuste do modelo de regressão de Cox, o valor preditivo da eritropoietina para a sobrevivência global manteve-se (p < 0,001). Em análise multivariada, a eritropoietina sérica demonstrou ser um factor de prognóstico independente (p < 0,001). Discussão: A eritropoietina sérica é um factor preditivo de resposta à terapêutica com eritropoietina subcut'nea, sendo que os doentes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27832233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27832233"><span>Lack of association between viral load and severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souza, Ana Paula Duarte de; Leitão, Lidiane Alves de Azeredo; Luisi, Fernanda; Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Coutinho, Sandra Eugênia; Silva, Jaqueline Ramos da; Mattiello, Rita; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio Condessa; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period) by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study) by quantitative real-time PCR. We screened for three human viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Of 110 samples evaluated by direct immunofluorescence, 56 (50.9%) were positive for a single virus, and 16 (14.5%) were positive for two or more viruses. Among those 72 samples, the most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by influenza. Of 56 samples evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, 24 (42.8%) were positive for a single virus, and 1 (1.7%) was positive for two viruses. Among those 25 samples, the most prevalent virus was again respiratory syncytial virus, followed by human rhinovirus. Coinfection did not influence the length of the hospital stay or other outcome s. In addition, there was no association between respiratory syncytial virus load and the length of hospitalization. Neither coinfection nor respiratory syncytial viral load appears to influence the outcomes of acute bronchiolitis in infants. Investigar a correlação entre a carga viral do vírus sincicial respiratório e o tempo de internação hospitalar em lactentes com episódios de sibilância <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Este foi um estudo transversal de dois anos envolvendo lactentes de até 12 meses de idade com bronquiolite no momento da internação em um hospital terciário. Para a identificação dos vírus respiratórios foram coletadas secreções nasofaríngeas. As amostras foram analisadas (<span class="hlt">por</span> todo o período do estudo) <span class="hlt">por</span> imunofluorescência direta e (no segundo ano</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED462721','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=6&id=ED462721"><span>See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo <span class="hlt">por</span> Internet: Ideas <span class="hlt">por</span> padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moss, Jeanette</p> <p></p> <p>Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345010"><span>Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids <span class="hlt">POR</span>-007/Skid E and <span class="hlt">POR</span>-008/Skid F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, O.D.</p> <p>1998-07-25</p> <p>This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jovenes&id=ED462721','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jovenes&id=ED462721"><span>See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo <span class="hlt">por</span> Internet: Ideas <span class="hlt">por</span> padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moss, Jeanette</p> <p></p> <p>Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063901"><span>[Appendicovesical fistula treated with elective laparoscopic surgery].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Muñoz-Najar, Alejandro; Carrión-Álvarez, Lucía; Medina-García, Manuel; García-González, María Dolores; Pereira-Pérez, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: la fístula apendicovesical es una complicación infrecuente de la apendicitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en estadio avanzado y representa un tipo poco habitual de fístula enterovesical. La laparotomía exploradora ha sido durante muchos años pieza clave para el diagnóstico y su tratamiento efinitivo, pero actualmente el abordaje laparoscópico se está imponiendo entre diferentes grupos experimentados. Caso clínico: aportamos un nuevo caso de fístula apendicovesical en una mujer de 45 años de edad remitida del servicio de Urología <span class="hlt">por</span> disuria y leucocituria permanente; finalmente, el diagnóstico se estableció mediante técnica de imagen (tomografía computada) y se resolvió <span class="hlt">por</span> laparoscopia. Este caso se suma a los 115 casos descritos hasta ahora en la bibliografía y a los cuatro tratados mediante laparoscopia. Discusión: los métodos de imagen convencionales no son fiables para el diagnóstico de fístula enterovesical. La mayoría de los casos de fístula apendicovesical son secundarios a una apendicitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span> no evidenciada y evolucionada. En la mayor parte de las publicaciones consultadas la laparotomía es una herramienta de diagnóstico de la fístula apendicovesical y, en pocos artículos, se describe la laparoscopia como alternativa diagnóstica y terapéutica. En la bibliografía sólo se encontraron tres artículos que hacen referencia al abordaje laparoscópico con fines terapéuticos. Conclusión: ante la sospecha de comunicación entre el tubo digestivo y el aparato urinario, la tomografía computada es el método diagnóstico de elección, sobre todo si se sospecha una fístula apendicovesical. El abordaje laparoscópico de la fístula apendicovesical puede confirmar el diagnóstico radiológico a la vez que constituye una opción quirúrgica definitiva.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24160223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24160223"><span>[A short-term training program reduced acute phase proteins in premenopausal women with metabolic syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fornieles, Gabriel; Camacho-Molina, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Díaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Pareja, Antonia; Ordonez, Francisco J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Fundamento y objetivo: Actualmente se acepta la importancia del estatus proinflamatorio en la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico. De hecho, ha sido propuesto como diana terapéutica en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes. <span class="hlt">Por</span> consiguiente este estudio pretende reducir los niveles plasmáticos de reactantes de fase <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante un corto programa de entrenamiento. Material y método: Un total de 135 mujeres jóvenes adultas (38,4 ± 3,3 años) con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. El grupo de intervención se sometió a un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico de 12 semanas, con 3 sesiones/ semana en el que duración e intensidad de la parte principal se incrementaron progresivamente. Los niveles plasmáticos de proteína C-reactiva (PCR) y fibrinógeno se determinaron mediante nefelometría y HPLC respectivamente. También se evaluaron el fitness cardiovascular mediante prueba de esfuerzo máxima e índices de distribución de masa grasa. Este protocolo fue aprobado <span class="hlt">por</span> un Comité de Ética Institucional. Resultados: Tras completar el programa, se observo una mejora significativa del fitness cardiovascular además de una reducción también significativa de los niveles de fibrinógeno y PCR. Asimismo, se encontraron correlaciones entre niveles de reactantes e índices de distribución de masa grasa, siendo la de mayor fuerza de asociación la establecida entre PCR y perímetro cintura. Conclusión: Un programa de 12 semanas consiguió reducir los niveles de reactantes de fase <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Futuros estudios longitudinales son necesarios para conocer el impacto del efecto anti-inflamatorio del ejercicio en el manejo de estos pacientes a medio/largo plazo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27795221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27795221"><span>[Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by piroxicam].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bissinger, Ingrid; Matute-Turizo, Gustavo; Mejía-Barreneche, María Natalia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: Entre 62 y 90% de los casos de pustulosis exantemática generalizada <span class="hlt">aguda</span> son causados <span class="hlt">por</span> medicamentos. Su inicio es rápido con pústulas generalizadas, fiebre, conteo de neutrófilos en sangre mayor de 7000; la resolución de las pústulas es espontánea en menos de 15 días. Se describe un caso asociado a piroxicam. Caso clínico: Hombre de 36 años de edad con eritema inicial en tórax y abdomen, acompañado de ardor, sin fiebre, que posteriormente se extendió a antebrazos, brazos y muslos; con edema de cara. Una semana antes había consumido piroxicam <span class="hlt">por</span> dolor lumbar; al momento de su hospitalización recibía antihistamínicos, esteroides tópicos y sistémicos. El hemoleucograma mostró leucocitos de 8920, eosinófilos de 600, neutrófilos de 6600, IgE sérica total de 188 mg/L, proteína C reactiva de 2.9 mg/L, sin compromiso hepático, renal ni pulmonar. Se inició tratamiento con antihistamínicos y ranitidina intravenosos, solución salina, vaselina tópica más mupirocina tópica y esteroides sistémicos. Al segundo día de hospitalización, los neutrófilos aumentaron a 9000 y la proteína C reactiva a 3.3 mg/L. La puntuación para validar pustulosis exantemática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en el paciente fue de 8, indicativa de diagnóstico definitivo. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico diferencial debe establecerse principalmente con psoriasis pustulosa. El pronóstico en general es bueno, como sucedió con el caso informado.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24067589"><span>[Pertussis predictors in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreno, Laura; Montanaro, Patricia; Bujedo, Elizabeth; Cámara, Jorge; Abilar, C; Terzoni, M; Romano, M; Marqués, Inés; Quiroga, Daniel; Orecchini, Alejandra; Jacome, Javier; Ferrero, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes. La tos ferina o coqueluche, producida <span class="hlt">por</span> Bordetella pertussis (BP) representa un problema re-emergente en nuestro medio. Aunque suele considerarse que la enfermedad es relativamente fácil de identificar, las infecciones <span class="hlt">por</span> Virus Respiratorio Sincicial (VRS) pueden presentarse con síntomas similares en los lactantes siendo difícil su discriminación. Objetivo. Comparar síntomas clínicos y estudios complementarios al ingreso en lactantes hospitalizados con infección respiratoria <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (IRA) <span class="hlt">por</span> BP y <span class="hlt">por</span> VSR a fin de establecer marcadores que posibiliten su predicción clínica temprana. Material y método. Estudio observacional, analítico, transversal de casos cruzados, comparando menores de 6 meses internados <span class="hlt">por</span> IRA y sospecha de coqueluche (2007-2012) en los que se identificó BP (PCR y cultivo) y/o VRS (inmunofluorescencia en secreciones nasales); se excluyeron los pacientes con coinfecciones. Se realizó un análisis bivariado mediante el cálculo de OR con IC95%. Se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Las variables en estudio fueron: edad, sexo, tos en accesos, cianosis, vómitos, apneas, sibilancias y hemograma completo con fórmula leucocitaria Resultados. Se incluyeron 174 lactantes; 72 (41%) BP y 102 (59%) VRS. Edad 2±1 mes (Rango:1-6). En ambos grupos se documentó tos y sibilancias (OR:1,2 (0,9-1,5) p:0,1 y OR:0,9 (0,8-1,06) p:0,2, respectivamente). Cianosis (87% vs. 6%;OR:14,8 p<0,01), apnea (38% vs. 3%;OR:13,4 p<0,01) y vómitos (26% vs. 5%;OR:3,4 p<0,01) fueron más frecuentes en lactantes con BP. El recuento absoluto de linfocitos fue significativamente mayor en niños con BP (9387±6317 vs. 5127±2766;p<0,01). <span class="hlt">Por</span> curva ROC se identificó a 9000 cel/ml como el mejor punto para diferenciar BP de VSR (abc= 0,73; IC95%:0,64-0,81). Conclusiones. En lactantes menores de 6 meses con IRA la presencia al ingreso de apnea, cianosis y linfocitosis predicen significativamente coqueluche permitiendo diferenciarlos de aquellos con</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561020"><span>[Clinical features of patients with influenza-like illness who went to a third level center in the winter of 2013-2014].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albarrán-Sánchez, Alejandra; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Huerta-Montiel, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Angélica; Herrera-Landero, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, José Luis; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Elia; Palmas-Pineda, Lorena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: el Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, <span class="hlt">por</span> sus siglas en inglés) registró, entre octubre de 2013 y abril de 2014, el pico más alto de casos relacionados con la influenza AH1N1. No todos los casos sospechosos de influenza resultan positivos, pero todos les generan costos a las instituciones. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las características de la población que acude con sospecha de influenza al Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI durante una nueva epidemia. Métodos: estudio transversal de casos admitidos al servicio de Urgencias del hospital mencionado <span class="hlt">por</span> sospecha de influenza de acuerdo con las guías de práctica clínica. Con base en estas se analizaron los factores asociados a la severidad de la infección. Resultados: se registraron 109 pacientes con promedio de 44 años edad; el 78 % de ellos tenía menos de 60 años; el 62 % fueron mujeres; 75 % tenía <span class="hlt">por</span> lo menos un factor de riesgo como obesidad (26 %) o hipertensión (27 %). Solo 65 pacientes tuvieron prueba confirmatoria, 33.8 % fueron diagnóstico positivo y 21 % de ellos fallecieron. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de casos confirmados de influenza es baja. Los factores asociados a mortalidad en los casos confirmados son la presencia de hipertensión, de leucocitosis y la presentación clínica de insuficiencia respiratoria <span class="hlt">aguda</span> grave (IRAG).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24008935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24008935"><span>[High performance of an implantable Holter monitor in the detection of concealed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke and a suspected embolic mechanism].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rojo-Martinez, Esther; Sandín-Fuentes, María; Calleja-Sanz, Ana I; Cortijo-García, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Rubio-Sanz, Jerónimo; Arenillas-Lara, Juan F</p> <p>2013-09-16</p> <p>Introduccion. El holter implantable permite detectar fibrilacion auricular paroxistica (FAP) oculta en pacientes con ictus criptogenico, pero se desconoce que algoritmo de seleccion tiene un mayor rendimiento y la duracion optima de monitorizacion. Objetivo. Conocer la frecuencia y el tiempo hasta detectar la FAP mediante un holter implantable Reveal XT ® en pacientes con ictus criptogenico seleccionados <span class="hlt">por</span> sospecha elevada de embolismo cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Criterios de seleccion: ausencia de etiologia del ictus tras el estudio completo incluyendo un ecocardiograma transesofagico, monitorizacion ECG y holter de 24 horas, asi como confirmacion de oclusion <span class="hlt">aguda</span> embolica de la arteria intracraneal <span class="hlt">por</span> duplex transcraneal o bien alta sospecha de embolismo <span class="hlt">por</span> caracteristicas de neuroimagen. Tras implantar el holter Reveal XT se formo a los pacientes para que emprendieran transmisiones todos los meses o ante sintomas. Se reviso la informacion online mensualmente y se realizaron visitas clinicas en las unidades de Neurologia y Cardiologia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 101 pacientes con ictus criptogenico y al menos un mes de seguimiento: edad media de 67 años, 54 mujeres (53,5%). Tiempo medio de seguimiento: 281 ± 212 dias. Se detecto FAP oculta en 34 pacientes (33,7%) y falsos positivos en 23 (22,8%). Mediana desde el implante hasta la deteccion de la arritmia: 102 dias (rango: 26-240 dias). En un 70% de los pacientes se registraron multiples episodios de FAP. El 75% de los eventos se detectaron durante los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion. Conclusiones. El algoritmo de seleccion de pacientes con ictus criptogenico segun sospecha de embolismo cerebral se asocio a una elevada frecuencia (33,7%) de FAP oculta con holter implantable. Uno de cada cuatro eventos sucedio tras los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23897158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23897158"><span>[Metabolic myopathies].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael</p> <p>2013-09-06</p> <p>Objetivo. Revisar las miopatias metabolicas manifestadas solamente <span class="hlt">por</span> crisis de mialgias, calambres y rigidez musculares con dificultad para contraer los musculos afectados y el examen neurologico normal entre las crisis en niños y adolescentes. Desarrollo. Estas miopatias metabolicas se deben a deficits enzimaticos heredados en forma autosomica recesiva del metabolismo de los carbohidratos y lipidos. El resultado final es una reduccion del trifosfato de adenosina principalmente a traves de la fosforilacion oxidativa mitocondrial con disminucion de la energia disponible para la contraccion muscular. Las secundarias a trastornos del metabolismo de los carbohidratos se producen <span class="hlt">por</span> ejercicios de alta intensidad y breves (< 10 min) y las secundarias a trastornos de los lipidos, <span class="hlt">por</span> ejercicios de baja intensidad y prolongados (> 10 min). Los deficits enzimaticos en el primer grupo son de miofosforilasa (glucogenosis V), fosfofructocinasa muscular (glucogenosis VII), fosfoglicerato mutasa 1 (glucogenosis X) y beta enolasa (glucogenosis XIII), y en el segundo, de carnitina palmitol transferasa tipo II y de acil-CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena muy larga. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas diferenciales de los pacientes en cada grupo y dentro de cada grupo permitiran el diagnostico clinico presuntivo inicial en la mayoria y solicitar solamente los examenes necesarios para corroborar el diagnostico. El tratamiento de las crisis consiste en hidratacion, glucosa y alcalinizacion de la orina. Las medidas preventivas son evitar el tipo de ejercicio que induce las crisis y el ayuno. No existe cura o tratamiento especifico. El pronostico es bueno con la excepcion de casos raros de insuficiencia renal <span class="hlt">aguda</span> debido a la elevacion sanguinea de la mioglobina producto de una rabdomiolisis grave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335675"><span>Effect of L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and adipocitokines levels in head and neck cancer non diabetic patients after surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, R</p> <p>2014-10-10</p> <p>Introducción: Alguntos trabajos han encontrado que la L-arginina induce efectos beneficiosos sobre la resistencia a la insulina, tanto en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 como en individuos sanos. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar si la suplementación enteral de L-arginina (20 g <span class="hlt">por</span> día) en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello puede modificar la resistencia a la insulina, los niveles de leptina y adiponectina después de la cirugía. Material y métodos: Tras la cirugía 82 pacientes fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos grupos: grupo I recibió un enterales suplementos de dieta con una dosis alta de arginina (20 g <span class="hlt">por</span> día) y el grupo II recibió una fórmula enteral sin arginina. En el momento basal y el día 10 tras la cirugia, se registraron los siguientes parámetros: glucosa, proteína C reactiva, insulina, HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment), leptina y adiponectina. Resultados: Los valores de peso, índice de masa corporal, la masa grasa y la masa libre de grasa se mantuvieron sin cambios durante la intervención nutricional <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en ambos grupos. Los niveles de insulina UI/L (-0,21 + / -0,18) y HOMA (-0,07 + / -0,13) disminuyeron en el grupo de arginina. Los niveles de adiponectina (1,8 + / -2.3ng/ml) aumentaron en el grupo de arginina. Conclusión: La nutrición enteral con L-arginina a corto plazo en los pacientes afectados <span class="hlt">por</span> cáncer de cabeza y cuello y tras cirugía es capaz de mejorar la resistencia a la insulina y los niveles de adiponectina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125063"><span>[Acute pancreatitis and afferent loop syndrome. Case report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: el síndrome de asa aferente se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> la obstrucción mecánica del asa aferente luego de la reconstrucción tipo Billroth II o en Y de Roux, en la mayoría de los casos secundaria a gastrectomía distal o subtotal. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 76 años de edad, con antecedentes de: colecistectomía, adenocarcinoma gástrico seis años previos, gastrectomía subtotal y reconstrucción en Y de Roux. Inició con dolor abdominal, náusea y vómito; abdomen distendido, sin datos de irritación peritoneal. Amilasa 1246 U/L, lipasa 3381 U/L. La tomografía computada abdominal mostró dilatación y engrosamiento de la pared del asa aferente y el páncreas con incremento de tamaño. Se le diagnosticó pancreatitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, originada <span class="hlt">por</span> síndrome de asa aferente. Conclusiones: el síndrome de asa aferente aparece en 0.3 a 1% de los casos de pacientes con reconstrucción Billroth II, a consecuencia de la obstrucción mecánica del asa aferente, con mortalidad incluso de 57%. La obstrucción del intestino aferente <span class="hlt">por</span> acumulación de secreción biliar, pancreática e intestinal incrementa la presión, que resulta en dilatación del asa aferente de la vía biliar y del conducto de Wirsung, lo que desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria que finaliza en un cuadro de pancreatitis. Su manifestación severa se relaciona con el grado y duración de la obstrucción.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125065"><span>[Experience in kidney transplantation without blood transfusion: kidney transplantation transfusion-free in Jehovah's Witnesses. First communication in Mexico].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Navarrete, Liliana Stefany; Hernández-Jiménez, Jesús Diego; Jiménez-López, Luis Alfredo; Budar-Fernández, Luis Filadelfo; Méndez-López, Marco Tulio; Martínez-Mier, Gustavo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: los Testigos de Jehová rechazan la transfusión sanguínea, pero aceptan el trasplante de órganos, albúmina, inmunoglobulina, vacunas y factores de coagulación. Casos clínicos: comunicamos tres casos de pacientes (dos masculinos y uno femenino) a quienes se realizó trasplante renal en Testigos de Jehová sin transfusión sanguínea, con edad promedio de 31.33 años e índice de masa corporal promedio de 20.99 kg/m(2). Los tres pacientes recibieron diálisis peritoneal pre trasplante <span class="hlt">por</span> un promedio de 52.3 meses. Se realizaron dos trasplantes de donante vivo y uno de fallecido, con isquemia fría de 23 horas. Los donantes fueron dos femeninos y uno masculino, con edad promedio de 34.33 años. Los tres pacientes recibieron eritropoyetina y <span class="hlt">hierro</span> dextrán pretrasplante y en el transoperatorio se utilizó una máquina de recuperación celular. Las concentraciones de hemoglobina, hematócrito, glóbulos rojos, creatinina sérica y filtración glomerular a 24 meses postrasplante permanecieron estables. La inducción se realizó con basiliximab y la inmunosupresión inicial con inhibidores de calcineurina. Uno de los pacientes tuvo como complicación un hematoma perirrenal que ameritó reintervención a los 20 días postrasplante. A 5, 26 y 36 meses postrasplante los tres pacientes están vivos y con injerto funcional. Conclusión: es posible realizar trasplantes renales sin transfusión sanguínea en Testigos de Jehová, con supervivencia global aceptable y sin episodios de rechazo agudo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27533259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27533259"><span>Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>ásicas, estratificada <span class="hlt">por</span> sexo e faixa etária nas regiões brasileiras de 2004 a 2011. As informações das declarações de óbito foram obtidas no site do DATASUS, codificadas conforme a Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde, 10ª Revisão: 1) do Capítulo IX: I20 a I24 para DIC <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, I25 para DIC crônica, e I50 para IC; e 2) do Capítulo XVIII, para causas mal definidas (CMD). A MP <span class="hlt">por</span> IC aumentou com a idade nos dois sexos e em todas as regiões, as mais altas porcentagens sendo encontradas entre as mulheres mais idosas. Entre os homens, as mais altas porcentagens foram observadas na região Centro-Oeste até a nona década; entre os mais idosos, <span class="hlt">por</span>ém, as mais altas porcentagens foram identificadas na região Sul. Entre as mulheres, as regiões não diferiram até a faixa etária de 70-79 anos, embora a região Centro-Oeste tenha liderado dos 50 aos 79 anos; entretanto, a partir dos 80 anos, a região Sul apresentou a mais alta MP <span class="hlt">por</span> IC. Em todas as regiões brasileiras e nos dois sexos, a MP <span class="hlt">por</span> DIC <span class="hlt">aguda</span> aumentou até a faixa etária de 60-69 anos, a partir da qual diminuiu. Entre os homens, a região Sudeste apresentou as mais altas porcentagens na faixa etária de 50-59 anos, enquanto as mulheres tiveram menor MP <span class="hlt">por</span> DIC <span class="hlt">aguda</span> em comparação aos homens em todas as regiões. Nos dois sexos, a MP <span class="hlt">por</span> DIC crônica aumentou com a idade nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, mas não nas demais, enquanto a região Sul apresentou a mais alta MP entre todas as regiões para todas as faixas etárias. Diferenças regionais foram mais marcantes nas idades mais avançadas, especialmente quando excluídas as mortes <span class="hlt">por</span> CMD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759788"><span>UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souza, Gleim Dias de; Souza, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; Cuenca, Ronaldo Máfia; Jerônimo, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; Souza, Guilherme Medeiros de; Vilela, Vinícius Martins</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p> morfologia pancreática e peripancreática. O entendimento dos diversos subtipos da doença e identificação de suas possíveis complicações requer familiaridade com a terminologia padrão, a qual permite comunicação efetiva entre os diversos membros da equipe multidisciplinar. Demonstrar terminologia e os parâmetros para identificação das diferentes classificações da doença a partir do consenso internacional para as pancreatites <span class="hlt">agudas</span> (Classificação de Atlanta 2012. Busca e análise de artigos no "Portal de Periódicos da CAPES" com descritores "pancreatite <span class="hlt">aguda</span>" e "Revisão de Atlanta". : Foram selecionados 23 artigos que continham descrições radiológicas, manejo ou dados estatísticos relacionados à doença. Dados estatísticos adicionais foram obtidos no sistema Datasus e Censo Demográfico 2010. O critério de diagnóstico radiológico adotado foi o do Colégio Americano de Radiologia. A "Classificação da pancreatite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> - 2012: revisão da classificação de Atlanta e definições <span class="hlt">por</span> consenso internacional" tenta eliminar a inconsistência e divergências a partir da determinação de uniformidade para os achados radiológicos, em especial à terminologia relacionada às coleções de fluidos. Termos mais abrangentes como "abscesso pancreático" e "flegmão" entraram em desuso e a evolução da coleção de fluidos pode ser descrita como: "coleções peripancreáticas <span class="hlt">agudas</span>", "coleções necróticas <span class="hlt">agudas</span>", "pseudocisto" e "necrose pancreática murada ou isolada". A tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética representam as melhores técnicas com cortes sequenciais disponíveis para diagnóstico. A adequação da terminologia é ponto crítico e deve permitir o manejo do paciente <span class="hlt">por</span> múltiplos profissionais, estratificação de risco e adequação de tratamento.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28244797"><span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García de Lorenzo Y Mateos, Abelardo</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Ante cualquier agresión, el organismo pone en marcha una respuesta inflamatoria, mediada <span class="hlt">por</span> factores humorales y celulares, que tiende a limitar el proceso y a conseguir la curación. En algunos casos, ya sea <span class="hlt">por</span> la intensidad o duración de la noxa,ya <span class="hlt">por</span> una inadecuada respuesta del huésped secundaria a polimorfismos genéticos, malnutrición u otras causas, se produce un estado de hiperactivación de las células inflamatorias, con liberación de células inmaduras y activación de monocitos y macrófagos, que liberan poderosos mediadores proinflamatorios e inducen un estado de inflamación sistémica generalizada. Numerosos procesos pueden dar lugar a esta respuesta inflamatoria (sepsis, traumatismos, quemaduras, pancreatitis, etc.) con activación de los sistemas leucocitarios, endoteliales, de la coagulación y de la respuesta neuroendocrina, lo que genera un complejo entramado de mediadores (citocinas, moléculas de adhesión y factores de crecimiento, entre otros). Clínicamente, la respuesta se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> inflamación, anorexia, inmovilidad, aumento en la permeabilidad vascular que condiciona la aparición de edema, vasodilatación que se acompaña de hipotensión, taquicardia e incremento del gasto cardiaco. <span class="hlt">Por</span> otro lado, la respuesta metabólica al estrés forma parte de ese mecanismo de adaptación, que el organismo genera para sobrevivir a la enfermedad <span class="hlt">aguda</span> aumentando el aporte de sustratos energéticos a los tejidos vitales. Como resultado de esa compleja respuesta metabólica, el control de la utilización de los sustratos energéticos está solo parcialmente regulado <span class="hlt">por</span> su disponibilidad, debido a que al estar alterados los mecanismos de producción energética, el organismo busca sustratos alternativos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545693"><span>[BEHAVIOR OF HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION, HEMATOCRIT AND OXYGEN SATURATION IN COLOMBIAN UNIVERSITY POPULATION AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trompetero González, Andrea Catalina; Cristancho Mejía, Edgar; Benavides Pinzón, William Fernando; Serrato Roa, Mauricio; Landinez Macias, María Paula; Rojas, Joel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Introducción: el desarrollo de la presente investigación se basa en el creciente interés <span class="hlt">por</span> comprender las adaptaciones a la hipoxia crónica, principalmente en el rango altitudinal denominado de alturas intermedias (1.500- 3.000 m.s.n.m), con la necesidad de establecer parámetros de normalidad en las variables [Hb], Hct y SO2 con fines diagnósticos y de caracterización de la población. Objetivos: analizar el comportamiento de la [Hb], el Hct y la SaO2 a diferentes alturas intermedias (970 m.s.n.m, 1.520 m.s.n.m, 1.728 m.s.n.m, 1.923 m.s.n.m, 2.180 m.s.n.m y 2.600 m.s.n.m) con el fin de aportar conocimiento sobre la fisiología de la altura y al campo clínico para apoyar el diagnóstico de anemia. Métodos: sujetos clínicamente sanos, con nivel bajo de actividad física y reporte de consumo de alimentos con contenido de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Total de 264 participantes de ambos géneros entre 18 y 30 años. Las muestras se obtuvieron de sangre de la vena antecubital y del lóbulo de la oreja y fueron analizadas en un radiómetro. Se realizó un análisis estadístico no paramétrico. Resultados: con el incremento de la altitud los valores de [Hb] y Hct se incrementaron, mientras la SO2 descendió. Los hombres presentaron valores más altos que las mujeres en [Hb] y Hct, relacionado con valores más bajo de SO2 que las mujeres. Discusión: no se evidenció un umbral de las variables, quizás <span class="hlt">por</span> la pequeña distancia entre las alturas. Los valores reportados fueron similares pero no iguales a otros estudios, lo que podría deberse a la diversidad genética entre poblaciones. Conclusiones: este estudio permite obtener los primeros valores de caracterización de la población estudiada. Todas las alturas estuvieron <span class="hlt">por</span> encima del punto de corte para el diagnóstico de anemia ([Hb] 12 g/dl).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BAAA...56..383L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BAAA...56..383L"><span>Evolución de una protuberancia observada <span class="hlt">por</span> el HASTA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.</p> <p></p> <p>Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED356104.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED356104.pdf"><span>Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso <span class="hlt">por</span> Paso.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edwards, Patricia</p> <p></p> <p>This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=escuela&pg=3&id=EJ322799','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=escuela&pg=3&id=EJ322799"><span>The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "<span class="hlt">Por</span> la Verdad y la Justicia."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fidler, Geoffrey C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=ED556844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=ED556844"><span>Luchando <span class="hlt">por</span> una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Navarro, Elvia Lorena</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ricardo&pg=3&id=EJ176628','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ricardo&pg=3&id=EJ176628"><span>Language and La Academia, If English Works, <span class="hlt">Por</span> Que Se Emplea Espanol?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jonz, Jon G.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5242337','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5242337"><span>Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado <span class="hlt">por</span> Mujeres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CaJPh..93..232L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CaJPh..93..232L"><span>Phantom of RAMSES (<span class="hlt">POR</span>): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371305"><span>The <span class="hlt">Por</span>Grow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millstone, E; Lobstein, T</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944232','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944232"><span>Producao d Dijatos <span class="hlt">por</span> Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murilo Santana Rangel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb<sup>-1</sup> of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10<sup>-6</sup>, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28111528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28111528"><span>Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado <span class="hlt">por</span> Mujeres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+benefits+AND+health+AND+well&pg=6&id=ED407058','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+benefits+AND+health+AND+well&pg=6&id=ED407058"><span>Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos <span class="hlt">por</span> tres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.</p> <p></p> <p>The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371312"><span>Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (<span class="hlt">Por</span>Grow) in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Medio.&pg=2&id=ED235686','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Medio.&pg=2&id=ED235686"><span>Ensenando El Espanol <span class="hlt">por</span> Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Segal, Bertha</p> <p></p> <p>A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilidad&id=EJ563303','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilidad&id=EJ563303"><span>Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad <span class="hlt">por</span> Cambio Conceptual).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castro, Cesar Saenz</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=justicia&pg=2&id=EJ322799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=justicia&pg=2&id=EJ322799"><span>The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "<span class="hlt">Por</span> la Verdad y la Justicia."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fidler, Geoffrey C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58...93C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58...93C"><span>Pulsaciones excitadas <span class="hlt">por</span> la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=7&id=EJ237768','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=7&id=EJ237768"><span>Mexico Visto <span class="hlt">Por</span> Sus Ninos (Mexico as Seen by Her Children).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Today's Education, 1980</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>"Mexico as Seen by Her Children," a book authored by Mexican children, and the educational project built around it is an example of bicultural cooperation between the Mexican and United States governments. (CJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=2&id=EJ1030404','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=2&id=EJ1030404"><span>"<span class="hlt">Por</span> Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=7&id=EJ176628','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&pg=7&id=EJ176628"><span>Language and La Academia, If English Works, <span class="hlt">Por</span> Que Se Emplea Espanol?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jonz, Jon G.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&id=EJ861993','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Por&id=EJ861993"><span>Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "<span class="hlt">Por</span>" and "Para"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lam, Yvonne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469308.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469308.pdf"><span>Abuso sexual <span class="hlt">por</span> parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goorian, Brad</p> <p></p> <p>This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cord+AND+umbilical&id=ED407058','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cord+AND+umbilical&id=ED407058"><span>Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos <span class="hlt">por</span> tres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.</p> <p></p> <p>The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439499.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439499.pdf"><span>El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion <span class="hlt">por</span> Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=ED556844','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&pg=4&id=ED556844"><span>Luchando <span class="hlt">por</span> una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Navarro, Elvia Lorena</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=penguin&pg=7&id=ED418418','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=penguin&pg=7&id=ED418418"><span>El Libro de la Escritura <span class="hlt">por</span> Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Padgett, Ron</p> <p></p> <p>Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=332742','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=332742"><span>Intoxicação experimental <span class="hlt">por</span> Niedenzuella stannea (Malpighiaceae) em ovinos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Niedenzuella stannea a sodium monofluoroacetate-containing plant cause of sudden death in cattle in southern Mato Grosso State. This study describes the toxicity and clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by N. stannea in sheep. Fruits, mature leaves and young leaves of the pla...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=libros&pg=6&id=ED418418','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=libros&pg=6&id=ED418418"><span>El Libro de la Escritura <span class="hlt">por</span> Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Padgett, Ron</p> <p></p> <p>Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152101"><span><span class="hlt">Por</span> Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473624.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED473624.pdf"><span>Renovando la Esperanza <span class="hlt">por</span> una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6456','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6456"><span>Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada <span class="hlt">por</span> tempestade de raios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+accion&id=ED235686','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+accion&id=ED235686"><span>Ensenando El Espanol <span class="hlt">por</span> Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Segal, Bertha</p> <p></p> <p>A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/797499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/797499"><span>Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster <span class="hlt">POR</span>-005 skid C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>KRISKOVICH, J.R.</p> <p>1999-07-08</p> <p>The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilidad&id=EJ563303','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=probabilidad&id=EJ563303"><span>Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad <span class="hlt">por</span> Cambio Conceptual).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castro, Cesar Saenz</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297644','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297644"><span>PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES <span class="hlt">POR</span> PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703059"><span>[Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. A rare cause of ischaemic stroke].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>del Saz-Saucedo, Pablo; Alfaya-Muñoz, Laura Blanca; Recio-Bermejo, Marta; Lara-Medina, Francisco Javier; García-Chiclano, Amalia; Ortega-León, Teresa; Rueda-Medina, Ignacio; Domínguez-Fernández, María José; Madrid-Muñiz, Carmen; Franco-Huerta, María</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Introduccion. La epiteliopatia pigmentaria placoide multifocal posterior <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (EPPMPA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara, generalmente de etiologia indeterminada, de la coriocapilar, el epitelio pigmentario y la retina externa. Afecta predominantemente a pacientes jovenes y en algunos casos puede involucrar al sistema nervioso central en forma de ictus o de meningoencefalitis. Presentamos el caso clinico de una mujer joven con EPPMPA complicada con ictus e hipertension intracraneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 16 anos que comienza con cefalea intensa sugestiva de hipertension intracraneal, asi como con un deficit agudo hemisferico izquierdo. La resonancia magnetica craneal ponia de manifiesto lesiones embolicas o vasculiticas en diferentes territorios. No se evidenciaron datos de meningoencefalitis en el estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo, pero si de hipertension intracraneal asociada. La presencia de lesiones muy especificas en el polo ocular posterior permitio el diagnostico de EPPMPA complicada con ictus isquemico, probablemente <span class="hlt">por</span> mecanismo vasculitico. Un amplio estudio etiologico fue negativo para identificar un factor desencadenante claro del proceso. Se inicio tratamiento corticoideo con buena evolucion clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. La EPPMPA es una entidad rara que generalmente entrana buen pronostico; sin embargo, en algunos casos puede complicarse con afectacion del sistema nervioso central, y el ictus isquemico secundario a vasculitis es la complicacion mas grave. Ante un paciente joven con ictus que presente sintomatologia visual y lesiones coriorretinianas, debe considerarse la EPPMPA en su diagnostico etiologico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25036450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25036450"><span>[Lung eosinophilic syndrome: clinical presentation and cases report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Egea, N; Merlo, A; Esponda, L; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: El síndrome de eosinofilia pulmonar se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> un grupo de patologías que presentan afección clínico – radiológica pulmonar con eosinofilia periférica o en parénquima pulmonar en su evolución. Materiales y métodos: Se describen las características de presentaciones clínico-radiológicas y evolutivas de pacientes atendidos entre 2007 y 2010 en Hospital Rawson. Resultados: Sobre 8 casos, se observó mayor número de casos en mujeres. Los signos y síntomas principales fueron tos, disnea, fiebre y sibilancias. Los hallazgos radiológicos más prevalentes fueron patrón alveolar y alveolointersticial. En la TAC el más frecuente fue el patrón en vidrio esmerilado. La eosinofilia periférica presentó valores entre 550 y 10.000 cel/mm3. Los pacientes fueron abdordados inicialmente como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el 62% de los casos. Los diagnósticos principales realizados fueron neumonía eosinofílica <span class="hlt">aguda</span> y crónica, ambas con respuesta a esteroides. Conclusiones: El síndrome de eosinofilias pulmonares comparte características clínico-radiológicas comunes con entidades de mayor prevalencia, particularmente NAC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000908"><span>[Knowledge of cerebrovascular disease in the population of Zaragoza].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perez-Lazaro, C; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Velazquez-Benito, A; Bellosta-Diago, E; Tejero-Juste, C; Iniguez-Martinez, C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduccion. El ictus es una de las principales causas de invalidez y mortalidad en nuestra sociedad, con importantes repercusiones socioeconomicas y sanitarias. La asistencia precoz puede mejorar el pronostico de los pacientes. Actualmente, existen tratamientos en fase <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, que consiguen reperfundir el tejido isquemico en riesgo y revertir la sintomatologia, pero son pocos los pacientes que se benefician, <span class="hlt">por</span> el retraso en su atencion, debido a la falta de reconocimiento de los sintomas y la escasa percepcion de gravedad. Objetivo. Analizar el conocimiento de la poblacion de nuestra area de salud sobre el ictus. Sujetos y metodos. La muestra analizada ha sido la poblacion del sector III de la provincia de Zaragoza, con seleccion aleatoria. La herramienta utilizada ha sido una encuesta telefonica estructurada (total de 583). Resultados. Un 63,5% de los encuestados desconoce los sintomas del ictus, y un 48%, los factores de riesgo vascular. Solo un 9% reconoce al menos dos sintomas y dos factores de riesgo. En cuanto a la actitud, un 56% actuaria correctamente frente a un 44% que no. El analisis multivariante mostro que los factores mas relacionados con el conocimiento fueron el nivel cultural y la edad joven. Vivir en un pueblo y sexo femenino se relacionaron con la mejor actitud. Conclusiones. El conocimiento del ictus es escaso, con una baja percepcion de urgencia. Los factores que implican un mejor conocimiento son la edad joven y el nivel cultural alto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25795959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25795959"><span>Tissue effects of glutamine in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Hernando-Martín, Mercedes; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Cordido, Fernando; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Introducción: El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos de la administración de glutamina sobre la regresión tumoral y sobre el tejido sano en pacientes con cáncer rectal que recibieron quimiorradioterapia. Material y métodos: Se incluyó 10 pacientes con cáncer rectal operado después de quimiorradioterapia, un subgrupo de un ensayo clínico que comparó glutamina con placebo en la prevención de enteritis <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Un patólogo experto analizó las muestras de tumor y tejido sano, buscando datos de regresión tumoral, mucífagos y daño <span class="hlt">por</span> radiación. Resultados: No hubo diferencias entre placebo y glutamina en el grado de regresión tumoral. Todos los pacientes con glutamina presentaron mucífagos, frente al 28,6% con placebo (p = 0,038). El daño sobre tejido sano fue similar en los pacientes con glutamina y placebo, y entre aquellos con y sin enteritis. Conclusión: La glutamina no ejerce un efecto protector frente a la quimiorradioterapia sobre el tumor o el tejido rectal sano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881615"><span>[Posterior reversible encephalopathy in a case of late-onset eclampsia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castrillo-Sanz, Ana; Mendoza, Amelia; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Raúl; Zamora, M Isabel; Morollón, Noemí; Rodríguez-Sanz, M Fernanda; Duarte, Jacinto</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Introduccion. El sindrome de encefalopatia posterior reversible (SEPR) es un sindrome clinico-radiologico de presentacion <span class="hlt">aguda</span> o subaguda que se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> la presencia de cefalea, vomitos, crisis epilepticas, trastornos visuales y alteracion del nivel de conciencia asociado a lesiones localizadas fundamentalmente en la sustancia blanca de regiones posteriores cerebrales. Caso clinico. Mujer de 32 años que desarrollo un SEPR en el periodo posparto secundario a eclampsia tardia. La paciente presento 10 dias despues del parto un cuadro clinico consistente en cefalea, crisis epilepticas, ceguera y deterioro del nivel de conciencia. El estudio de imagen con resonancia magnetica confirmo la afectacion de la sustancia blanca de predominio posterior. Conclusiones. Aunque la eclampsia es una entidad tipica del embarazo y puerperio inmediato, es necesario recordar que tambien puede producirse de forma tardia tras el parto y que puede ser la causa de otros sindromes, como el SEPR. Aunque en estos casos el pronostico suele ser favorable, el tratamiento debe ser precoz, efectuando un rapido control de la tension arterial y las convulsiones con el fin de evitar un daño cerebral permanente. Es necesario considerar siempre este sindrome en mujeres con crisis epilepticas u otros sintomas neurologicos durante el posparto.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25245876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25245876"><span>[Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Introduccion. La poliomielitis es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyos sintomas iniciales son fiebre, cansancio, cefalea, vomitos, rigidez de cuello y dolores en los miembros. En muchos casos, las secuelas son paralisis irreversibles, y puede producirse la muerte si hay afectacion bulbar o respiratoria. Se describe tambien un conjunto de sintomas, llamado sindrome pospolio, que aparece años despues de la infeccion <span class="hlt">aguda</span>. Objetivo. Analizar el abordaje que la literatura, el cine y la television han hecho de la poliomielitis. Desarrollo. Los escritores y los directores de cine y television han mostrado interes <span class="hlt">por</span> la poliomielitis y la han reflejado de manera correcta y realista, tanto en las obras de ficcion como en las biograficas o de tipo documental. Nemesis, Secreto de hermanas, Que el cielo la juzgue u Oscura son algunos ejemplos de obras literarias. El cine ha mostrado la poliomielitis desde su epoca silente con titulos como The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Amor sublime o Las sesiones. Tambien la television ha reflejado esta enfermedad y sus secuelas en series como Hospital Central, Anatomia de Grey, House o Amar en tiempos revueltos, y en telefilmes como El asunto, Eleanor y Roosevelt o Warm Springs. Conclusiones. La poliomielitis se ha mostrado en la literatura, el cine y la television de forma realista, presentando la sintomatologia, las secuelas, y el impacto personal, familiar y social de esta enfermedad.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23629748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23629748"><span>[Detection of vascular risk factors and unknown atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalised in the stroke unit].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiménez-Caballero, Pedro E; López-Espuela, Fidel; Portilla-Cuenca, Juan C; Jiménez-Gracia, M Antonia; Casado-Naranjo, Ignacio</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Introduccion. Existe una serie de factores de riesgo cerebrovascular modificables, como son la hipertension arterial, la diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y la fibrilacion auricular, cuyo reconocimiento y control es fundamental para disminuir la aparicion de enfermedades cerebrovasculares. En ocasiones, el ictus puede ser el sintoma de presentacion de estos factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de los pacientes que ingresan en la unidad de ictus de nuestro hospital <span class="hlt">por</span> enfermedad cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">aguda</span> –accidente isquemico transitorio e ictus isquemico– para conocer el porcentaje de pacientes con hipertension arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y fibrilacion auricular no diagnosticadas previamente. Resultados. Se selecciono a 186 pacientes, de los que 24 presentaban hipertension arterial no conocida (12,9%); 11, diabetes mellitus no conocida (5,9%); 49, hipercolesterolemia no conocida (26,3%); 15, hipertrigliceridemia no conocida (8,1%), y 22 tenian fibrilacion auricular no conocida (11,8%). En total, 96 pacientes (51,6%) tenian alguno de estos factores de riesgo cerebrovascular. La existencia de un factor de riesgo no diagnosticado previamente era mayor en el medio rural, en los sujetos que no habian fallecido a los seis meses y en los ataques isquemicos transitorios respecto a los ictus isquemicos. Conclusiones. Mas de la mitad de los sujetos que sufren un evento cerebrovascular tienen un factor de riesgo que no se ha diagnosticado previamente. Se deben realizar campanas para implementar la deteccion de estos factores, asi como incidir en el control de estos para disminuir la aparicion y recidiva de patologia vascular.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25335674"><span>[Nutrition-related risk factors in autonomous non-institutionalized adult elderly people].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montejano Lozoya, A Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa M; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; Sanjuan Quiles, Angela; Ferrer Ferrándiz, Esperanza</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Objetivos: Determinar factores asociados al riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos no institucionalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados. Los participantes fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales (provincia de Valencia) seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado <span class="hlt">por</span> bloques. Criterios de inclusión: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, poseer autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a los centros sociales y colaborar voluntariamente en el estudio. Se usa el MNA para la valoración nutricional y se recogen factores asociados al estado nutricional en una encuesta adhoc. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos estudiados, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,67% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3±6,57 años. El 23,33% presentan riesgo de malnutrición. Los factores independientes asociados al riesgo de malnutrición, con el odds de prevalencia ajustada, son: no poseer estudios (OR=2,29), sentir soledad (OR=2,34), mantener dietas controladas (OR=0,55), un apetito escaso (OR=2,56), número de fracciones en la ingesta diaria (OR=0,66), sufrir xerostomía (OR=1,72), tener dificultades para deglutir (OR=2,30), el número de enfermedades crónicas (OR=1,38) y haber sufrido enfermedades <span class="hlt">agudas</span> en el último año (OR=2,03). Un incremento en el IMC se asocia a un buen estado nutricional (OR=0,85). Estos factores nos han permitido clasificar correctamente a un 80% de los pacientes encuestados. Conclusiones: Tener numerosas enfermedades crónicas, haber sufrido enfermedades <span class="hlt">agudas</span> recientes, mantener dietas sin control, sufrir xerostomía y dificultad para deglutir, comer pocas veces al día y con escaso apetito, sentirse solo y no tener estudios son factores que, permiten predecir el riesgo de malnutrición en los adultos mayores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312322"><span>[Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Two-case-report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carranza-Martínez, Ixchel; Cornejo-López, Gilberto; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: el pseudomixoma peritoneal se caracteriza <span class="hlt">por</span> la diseminación celular intraperitoneal de un tumor adenomucinoso; el apéndice cecal es la etiología más frecuente. Objetivo: reportar la experiencia de un grupo de Cirugía General y revisar la bibliografía. Casos clínicos: 1: paciente femenina de 74 años de edad, que cuatro días previos inició con dolor abdominal tipo cólico en el mesogastrio y fosa iliaca derecha, evacuaciones diarreicas y fiebre. A su ingreso al hospital se la encontró con datos de irritacion peritoneal y resistencia muscular, leucocitosis de 14,500 células <span class="hlt">por</span> mm3, neutrófilos 89%, bandas 1%. Se diagnosticó: apendicitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span> y se programó para laparoscopia diagnóstica, con distensión importante de asas, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que se decidió convertir a laparotomía. Caso 2: paciente masculino de 73 años de edad; el padecimiento actual se inició con dolor intermitente en la fosa iliaca derecha e hipogastrio, de un año de evolución. Al cuadro se agregaron: disnea, estreñimiento alternado con periodos de diarrea, plenitud gástrica, y pirosis. A la exploración física se encontró un tumor palpable en el mesogastrio y ambas fosas iliacas. <span class="hlt">Por</span> eso se le realizó la laparotomía exploradora. En ambos casos el diagnóstico se estableció en el transoperatorio con el hallazgo de múltiples implantes tumorales mucinosos multilobulados diseminados en la cavidad peritoneal, el diagnóstico se confirmó con el reporte histopatológico de pseudomixoma peritoneal. Conclusiones: el pseudomixoma peritoneal es una neoplasia poco frecuente y de difícil diagnóstico, caracterizada <span class="hlt">por</span> producción copiosa de ascitis mucinosa y de múltiples implantes tumorales en la serosa de las vísceras intracavitarias. El tratamiento ideal es la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal perioperatoria o la quimioterapia postoperatoria, o ambas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312312"><span>[Appendiceal carcinoid tumors. Evaluation of long-term outcomes in a tertiary level].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; García-Ruiz, Salud; Rubio-Chaves, Carolina; Bustos-Jiménez, Manuel; Docobo-Durantez, Fernando; Padillo-Ruiz, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: los tumores apendiculares se encuentran en cerca de 1% de las apendicectomías y representan 0.5% de las neoplasias intestinales. El tipo de tumor más frecuente es el carcinoide apendicular, que casi siempre es un hallazgo durante la apendicectomía <span class="hlt">por</span> otro motivo. Su pronóstico es excelente y la supervivencia es mayor de 95% a cinco años de la intervención. Objetivo: reportar una serie de casos y analizar la supervivencia media a cinco años posteriores a la identificación el tumor. Material y métodos: análisis retrospectivo (1990-2010) de pacientes con tumor carcinoide apendicular intervenidos en el servicio de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo del Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, España. Se analizaron: la supervivencia a cinco años, la necesidad de tratamiento complementario y las pruebas para seguimiento en la consulta. Resultados: se encontraron 42 pacientes intervenidos <span class="hlt">por</span> tener un tumor carcinoide apendicular. En 38 pacientes la operación fue de urgencia, la mayoría <span class="hlt">por</span> sospecha de apendicitis <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, sin que en ninguno se hubiera establecido el diagnóstico de tumor carcinoide antes de la operación. El síntoma predominante al ingreso fue el dolor abdominal. El tratamiento quirúrgico fue: apendicectomía en 34 pacientes (12 <span class="hlt">por</span> laparoscopia), en el intraoperatorio siete pacientes requirieron resecciones colónicas mayores debido a la afectación del colon; sólo uno requirió la reintervención para completar la hemicolectomía derecha. Al momento del diagnóstico dos pacientes tenían enfermedad diseminada (metástasis hepáticas). La supervivencia a cinco años fue superior a 95%, sin recidivas o tratamiento posterior de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el tumor carcinoide apendicular difícilmente se diagnostica antes del procedimiento quirúrgico. La apendicectomía suele ser suficiente aunque en algunos pacientes las resecciones colónicas son necesarias <span class="hlt">por</span> diseminación. La supervivencia a 5 años es</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319825"><span>[SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND ADEQUACY OF PRENATAL CARE ASSOCIATED PERINATAL MORTALITY IN COLOMBIAN PREGNANT WOMEN].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Introducción: el adecuado seguimiento clínico y el cumplimiento de los requerimientos nutricionales, son aspectos esenciales para el adecuado desarrollo fetal y la culminación exitosa del embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre los factores sociodemográficos y el seguimiento prenatal asociados a la mortalidad perinatal en gestantes de Colombia. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal secundario a la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010) y la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud (ENDS 2010), en 14.754 mujeres gestantes de entre 13 y 44 años de edad. Los factores sociodemográficos: sexo del recién nacido, región geográfica (atlántica, oriental, central, pacífica, Bogotá, territorios nacionales), nivel socioeconómico- Sisbén (I al VI) y área geográfica (cabecera municipal, centro poblado, población dispersa), el seguimiento prenatal (control de peso, altura uterina, presión arterial, fetocardia, bioquímica sanguínea, análisis de orina) y la suplementación con <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, calcio y ácido fólico se recogieron a través de una encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión logística binaria simple y multivariable. Resultados: de las variables sociodemográficas, residir en centros poblados, región oriental o pacífica, y pertenecer al nivel Sisbén I, son las que mostraron mayor frecuencia de muerte perinatal, con valores de 1,7%, 1,5%, 1,4% y 1,4%, respectivamente. Tras ajustar <span class="hlt">por</span> sexo del recién nacido, área, región geográfica y puntaje de Sisbén, se encontró que un inadecuado seguimiento en el control del peso (OR 5,12), la presión arterial (OR 5,18), la bioquímica sanguínea (OR 2,19) y la suplementación con <span class="hlt">hierro</span> (OR 2,09), calcio (OR 1,73) y ácido fólico (OR 2,73) se asociaron como factores predisponentes a la mortalidad perinatal. Conclusiones: la mortalidad perinatal</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27982372"><span>Use of medicines and other products for therapeutic purposes among children in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Mengue, Sotero Serrate</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>átrica brasileira e testar se fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos e médicos estão associados ao uso. Estudo transversal de base populacional (Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - PNAUM), incluindo 7.528 crianças com 12 anos ou menos de idade, residentes na zona urbana do território brasileiro. O uso de medicamentos para tratar doenças crônicas ou <span class="hlt">agudas</span> foi referido pelo principal cuidador da criança presente na entrevista domiciliar. Associações entre as variáveis independentes e o uso de medicamentos foram investigadas <span class="hlt">por</span> meio de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de uso global de medicamentos foi de 30,7% (IC95% 28,3-33,1). A prevalência de uso de medicamentos para doenças crônicas foi de 5,6% (IC95% 4,7-6,7) e para condições <span class="hlt">agudas</span>, 27,1% (IC95% 24,8-29,4). Os fatores significativamente associados com o uso global foram ter no máximo cinco anos de idade, residir na região Nordeste, ter plano de saúde e utilizar serviços de saúde nos últimos 12 meses (consultas de emergência e internações). Associaram-se ao uso de medicamentos para doenças crônicas: idade ≥ 2 anos, regiões Sudeste e Sul e utilização de serviços de saúde. Para o uso de medicamentos em condições <span class="hlt">agudas</span>, foram identificados os seguintes fatores associados: ≤ 5 anos, Norte, Nordeste ou Centro-Oeste, plano de saúde e uma ou mais consultas de emergência. Os medicamentos com maior prevalência de uso pelas crianças menores de dois anos foram paracetamol, ácido ascórbico e dipirona; nas crianças com 2 ou mais anos, foram dipirona, paracetamol e amoxicilina. O uso de medicamentos na população infantil é substancial, principalmente no tratamento de condições médicas <span class="hlt">agudas</span>. As crianças usuárias de medicamentos para doenças crônicas apresentam perfil demográfico diferente das usuárias de medicamentos para condições <span class="hlt">agudas</span>, em relação ao sexo, à idade e à região geográfica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25177848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25177848"><span>[Adverse effects with ambulatory intravenous immunoglobulin administration in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen A; Galguera-Sauceda, Angélica; Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice G; Campos-Romero, Freya; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Amaya-Mejía, Adela; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy; O'Farril-Romanillos, Patricia; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficiencia primaria sintomática más frecuente, afecta a 1 <span class="hlt">por</span> cada 25,000 a 75,000 sujetos. Se distingue <span class="hlt">por</span> la ausencia o disminución de anticuerpos. Su tratamiento consiste en el reemplazo de anticuerpos con inmunoglobulina humana y la vía de administración más frecuente es la intravenosa, a dosis de 400 a 800 mg/kg de peso/dosis cada tres a cuatro semanas. Los efectos adversos asociados con la administración de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IgIV) ocurren incluso en 25% de todas las infusiones realizadas, las reacciones severas afectan a menos de 1% de los pacientes. Entre las reacciones adversas severas están la insuficiencia renal <span class="hlt">aguda</span>, que sobreviene 1 a 10 días después del inicio de tratamiento con IgIV. En nuestro centro elaboramos e implementamos un esquema ambulatorio para la aplicación de IgIV que permite su administración en un promedio de 3 h, sin efectos adversos graves. Objetivos: describir los efectos adversos y evaluar la frecuencia de insuficiencia renal secundaria a la aplicación ambulatoria de IgIV en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo en el que participaron pacientes adultos con diagnóstico definitivo de inmunodeficiencia común variable, que recibían IgIV a dosis de sustitución cada tres semanas, a quienes se realizó exploración física, somatometría, determinación sérica de creatinina, albúmina y urea, depuración de creatinina en orina de 24 horas, cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular <span class="hlt">por</span> la fórmula CKD-EPI y evaluación de la función renal inmediata, así como la asociada con la administración acumulada de IgIV a través del cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular. Los resultados se analizaron con estadística descriptiva para el reporte de los efectos en la función renal y la dosis acumulada de IgIV. Resultados: se determinó la frecuencia de reacciones adversas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177442"><span>[Acute silicosis. An infrequent pneumoconiosis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Soto-de la Fuente, Andrés Eduardo; Soto-Vera, Eduardo Andrés; Leo-Méndez, Rodolfo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: la silicosis <span class="hlt">aguda</span> fue descrita inicialmente en 1900 <span class="hlt">por</span> Betts. Se le denomina también silicoproteinosis alveolar. Es una forma infrecuente de neumoconiosis producida al utilizar chorro de arena (sandblast) para pulir. Caso clínico: masculino de 27 años, trabajó 4 años en un expendio de vidrios, esmerilándolos <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de chorro de arena. Padecimiento de 4 años con disnea de esfuerzos rápidamente progresiva hasta mínimos esfuerzos, tos seca, emetizante y disneizante, con expectoración hialina 50 ml diarios, pérdida de 20 kg de peso en 1 año y dolor torácico generalizado de tipo pungitivo intenso. Frecuencia respiratoria 36X´ frecuencia cardiaca 120X´, estertores crepitantes basales bilaterales. En la telerradiografía de tórax se observa festón de Mengeaux en hemidiafragma derecho y en el vértice derecho, opacidades redondeadas entre 3 y 10 mm de diámetro tipo 2/2 r/r de la Clasificación de la OIT, 2000. En el pulmón izquierdo las opacidades confluyen formando un silicoma tipo B e imágenes en panal de abeja. Silueta cardiaca deshilachada y cardiomegalia grado 1. Fallece a los 5 años de iniciado su padecimiento. Conclusiones: se deben prohibir estas operaciones o aplicar programa de higiene industrial con uso de respirador autónomo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822708"><span>[Assessing the profile and nutritional intake of an Ibero-American group of nutrition postgraduate students].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elío, Iñaki; Domínguez, Irma; Calderón, Rubén; García, Agueda; Fernández, Federico; Gracia, Santos; Dzul, Luis; Battino, Maurizio; Solano, Héctor Antonio</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: Los hábitos alimentarios tienen una gran influencia sobre la salud de las personas, <span class="hlt">por</span> ello es de suma importancia profundizar en su estudio para comprobar su adaptación a las recomendaciones actuales y poder realizar políticas de educación nutricional y/o suplementación ajustadas a la realidad. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con la colaboración de estudiantes de postgrado. Los participantes se seleccionaron mediante muestreo no probabilístico accidental enviando vía mail la información del estudio, realizado mediante un cuestionario sobre sus características socio-demográficas y un registro dietético de 3 días. La muestra estuvo formada <span class="hlt">por</span> n = 50 participantes. Los registros dietéticos de 3 días se valoraron con el software NutrIber y los datos obtenidos fueron tratados mediante el software estadístico SPSS 15. Resultados y discusión: El perfil de los estudiantes es de 80% mujeres y 20% hombres, con edad media de 33,7 ± 9,32 AÑOs, e índice de masa corporal de 22,91 ± 4,07. Todos los grupos presentan un consumo excesivo de proteínas y lípidos y deficitario en glúcidos. En cuanto a los micronutrientes es destacable que ningún grupo cubre las ingestas recomendadas de yodo, y que ningún grupo de mujeres cubre las recomendaciones de ingesta de fibra, ácido fólico ni <span class="hlt">hierro</span>. Conclusiones: Son necesarios más estudios para confirmar los resultados hallado, sin embargo, se puede concluir que las poblaciones urbanas de Latinoamérica cada vez se acercan más al modelo de dieta occidental, rica en proteínas y grasas y pobre en glúcidos, fibra y micronutrientes, lo que es indicativo de dietas pobres en cereales integrales, frutas y verduras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528366"><span>Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos <span class="hlt">por</span> completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262747"><span>[ACCEPTANCE OF PULP FRUIT BEVERAGES FORTIFIED WITH FERROUS FUMARATE; AN ALTERNATIVE SUPPLEMENT FOR A HEALTH PROGRAM].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morales Guerrero, Josefina Consuelo; García Zepeda, Rodrigo Antonio; Sánchez Vargas, Elena</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Introducción: la desnutrición y la deficiencia de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> son problemas de salud pública en varios países, México no es la excepción, y la mayor prevalencia se presenta en el medio rural. Una forma de atenderla es a través de la suplementación. El suplemento que se seleccione debe ser aceptado sensorialmente <span class="hlt">por</span> el consumidor final para que la intervención sea exitosa. Objetivos: elaborar un suplemento multivitamínico para el programa “Salud y Nutrición para Pueblos Indígenas” y evaluar su aceptación en la población infantil urbana y rural. Métodos: se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas del producto a desarrollar y el método de elaboración y de preparación para su consumo. La aceptación se evaluó en niños de entre 6 a 24 meses de edad, con una prueba de caritas, y en los infantes de 6 a 12 meses se corroboró con el registro del volumen consumido. Para determinar las diferencias en la aceptación <span class="hlt">por</span> edad y género en la misma población y para establecer diferencias entre poblaciones se aplicó una Ji cuadrada. Resultados: los suplementos, en los tres sabores evaluados, cumplieron con la concentración de vitaminas y nutrimentos inorgánicos establecidos en el programa citado. El 80% de los niños aceptaron los suplementos multivitamínicos (SM) en sus tres sabores. La edad de los niños fue el factor que más influyó en la aceptación. Conclusión: los SM desarrollados en este estudio son una alternativa al suplemento que actualmente proporciona el PSNPI, para los niños mayores a seis meses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528350"><span>Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Introducción: El mantenimiento de unos adecuados estilos de vida, es de gran importancia para la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con el embarazo durante las primeras etapas. <span class="hlt">Por</span> ello, es necesario conocer el estado de salud general de las mujeres en edad fértil, y poder proporcionar un asesoramiento adecuado con el objetivo de mantener o mejorar su estado nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los estilos de vida de las mujeres en edad fértil que planean un embarazo y estudiar las diferencias entre mujeres primíparas y multíparas en dichos estilos de vida. Métodos: Este estudio transversal incluyó un total de 4.471 mujeres españolas en edad fértil que está planeando un embarazo. La información se recogió, a través de un cuestionario, <span class="hlt">por</span> profesionales de oficinas de farmacia. Resultados: El perfil de las mujeres reclutadas en edad fértil que planean un embarazo fue de poco más de treinta años (31,4 ± 4,8 años) y el 72,5% estaba buscando a su primer bebé. Ellas tenían una buena percepción tanto de su estado nutricional como de salud, y una dieta equilibrada pero con algunos hábitos no saludables. Cabe destacar que las mujeres primíparas presentaban menor riesgo de complicaciones relacionadas con salud pero eran mayores consumidoras de tabaco y alcohol, y menos consumidoras de leche fortificada, yodo y suplementos de <span class="hlt">hierro</span> (p < 0,05), que las mujeres multíparas. Además, la población examinada mostró un patrón más sedentario en las mujeres primíparas en comparación con las mujeres multíparas, relativo a las horas / día tumbada, sentada y de pie. Conclusión: Las diferencias entre ambos grupos (primíparas y multíparas) ofrecen una gran oportunidad para promover hábitos saludables entre las mujeres en edad fértil, de acuerdo con el perfil de paridad, con el objetivo de prevenir estilos de vida no adecuados en embarazos futuros.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/aml.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/aml.html"><span>Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) KidsHealth > For Parents > Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) ... Treatment Coping en español Leucemia mieloide <span class="hlt">aguda</span> About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24951981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24951981"><span>High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duarte Moreira Alves, Raquel; Boroni Moreira, Ana Paula; Silva Macedo, Viviane; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia; Bressan, Josefina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: Las pruebas sugieren que el consumo de frutos secos puede mejorar el metabolismo energético. Propósito: Este estudio tenía <span class="hlt">por</span> finalidad comparar los efectos de la ingesta <span class="hlt">aguda</span> de cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico y cacahuetes convencionales sobre el apetito, el consumo de alimentos y el metabolismo energético in hombres con sobrepeso y obesos. Métodos: Se distribuyó a 71 individuos (29,8 ± 2,4 kg/m2) a los grupos: control (CT, n = 24); cacahuetes convencionales (CVP, n = 23); cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico (HOP, n = 24). Los individuos consumieron 56 g de cacahuetes (CVP y HOP) o control (CT) tras un ayuno nocturno. Posteriormente, se evaluó el metabolismo energético a lo largo de 200 minutes, durante los cuales se analizaron la termogénesis inducida <span class="hlt">por</span> la dieta (TID) y la oxidación de sustratos. La sensación de apetito se registró durante 3 horas. Se realizaron los análisis estadísticos con el programa SAS considerando un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: El consumo de energía posprandial y la TID fueron significativamente superiores en el HOP que el CVP. La oxidación de sustratos no difirió entre los grupos. Sólo el HOP presentó una puntuación <span class="hlt">por</span> debajo de 100, lo que indicaba una compensación incompleta. El CT y el CVP mostraron una compensación calórica completa (puntuaciones > 100). Con respecto a la sensación de apetito, el grupo CVP se mostró menos “lleno” que los grupos HOP y CT. A las 3 horas, la puntuación de saciedad del CVP volvió a la situación basal, mientras que en los grupos HOP y CT permanecía significativamente superior. Las puntuaciones de hambre volvieron a la situación basal in los grupos CVP y CT y se mantuvieron significativamente <span class="hlt">por</span> debajo a las del grupo HOP. Conclusión: Los cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico contribuyen a una mayor TID, mayor sensación de plenitud y una compensation incompleta del consumo de energía en comparación con los cacahuetes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25724222"><span>[Mexican guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Ortega-Martell, José Antonio; Beirana-Palencia, Angélica María; Rojo-Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Morales-Sánchez, Martha Alejandra; Solorio-Gómez, Héctor; Alonzo-Romero Pareyón, María Lourdes; Vargas-Correa, Jorge Bernardo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Blancas-Espinosa, Roberto; Esquer-Flores, Joaquín; Gómez-Vera, Javier; Guzmán-Perea, María Graciela; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Maldonado-García, César Alfonso; Martínez-Villarreal, José Darío; Matta-Campos, Juan José; Medina-Segura, Elías; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca; Salgado-Gama, Juan Ignacio; Stone-Aguilar, Héctor; Sienra-Monge, Juan José Luis; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Mendoza-López, Enrique; Amaya-Guerra, Mario; Lemini-López, Alicia; Blanco-Montero, Andrés; Chavarría-Jiménez, María Teresa; Guerrero-Michaus, Martha Graciela; Martínez-Pérez, Albina; Ramírez-Segura, Ruth Ivonne Mireya; Montes-Narváez, Gabriel; Olvera-Salinas, Jorge; Rosas-Sumano, Ana Beatriz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: la urticaria es una enfermedad que padece una quinta parte de la población en algún momento de su vida. Las guías internacionales recientes han propuesto unos cambios de fondo en su diagnóstico y tratamiento, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que había la necesidad de crear una guía nacional y multidisciplinaria, con base amplia en los gremios de especialistas y médicos de primer contacto en México. Material y método: un grupo interdisciplinario de expertos clínicos y algunos expertos en metodología determinó los objetivos y alcances de la Guía de Práctica Clínica Basada en Evidencia con el instrumento SCOPE. Se decidió llevar a cabo la adaptación y transculturización de guías internacionales para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de urticaria. Con el instrumento AGREE-II se seleccionaron las tres guías de alta calidad, como guías base (Zuberbier 2014, Sánchez-Borges 2012, Powell 2007) para formular y contestar la preguntas clínicas clave, en el contexto cultural y económico mexicano, según el método de desarrollo de recomendaciones GRADE. Resultados: mediante un proceso formal de discusión y votación durante varias juntas de expertos, se terminó la redacción de la forma final de la guía, con especial cuidado de lograr un ajuste a las realidades, valores y preferencias de los pacientes de México. Se hace hincapié en la administración de antihistamínicos vía oral de segunda generación, como tratamiento de primera elección. Conclusión: este documento es una Guía de Práctica Clínica Basada en Evidencia para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de urticaria <span class="hlt">aguda</span> y crónica, basada en tres guías internacionales de alta calidad. Se desarrolló <span class="hlt">por</span> un grupo multidisciplinario. Los cuadros y algoritmos hacen a la guía amigable para su uso <span class="hlt">por</span> médicos de primer contacto y <span class="hlt">por</span> especialistas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739292','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739292"><span>Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas <span class="hlt">por</span> curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve <span class="hlt">por</span> 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada <span class="hlt">por</span> 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado <span class="hlt">por</span> curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas <span class="hlt">agudas</span> observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005LPI....36.1014J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005LPI....36.1014J"><span>Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jernsletten, J. A.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12470938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12470938"><span>Phylogeography of pipistrelle-like bats within the Canary Islands, based on mtDNA sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pestano, J; Brown, R P; Suárez, N M; Fajardo, S</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Evolution of three Canary Island Vespertilionid bat species, Pipistrellus kuhlii, Pipistrellus maderensis, and Hypsugo savii was studied by comparison of approximately 1 kbp of mtDNA (from cytochrome b and 16S rRNA genes) between islands. mtDNA reveals that both P. kuhlii and P. maderensis exist in sympatry on Tenerife (and possibly other islands). Their morphological similarity explains why their co-occurrence had not been detected previously. Levels of sequence divergence are quite low within P. maderensis. Haplotypes were either identical or separated by </=2 mutational steps on two of the islands (La Gomera and El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span>). However there is sufficient between-island divergence between haplotypes from Tenerife, La Palma, and La Gomera/El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> to suggest that they could represent three evolutionary significant units (ESU). H. savii has an overlapping island distribution but a contrasting phylogeographical pattern. Most significantly, sequence divergence is greatest between La Gomera and El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> (>/=12 mutational steps) indicating colonization of the latter from the former sometime during the last approximately 1.2 Ma, with low subsequent gene flow. Unlike P. maderensis the El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> population alone appears to represent an ESU. The H. savii haplotypes detected in Gran Canaria and Tenerife are identical or separated by 1 mutational step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA542167','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA542167"><span>Acoustic Detection, Behavior, and Habitat Use of Deep-Diving Odontocetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-30</p> <p>Biologia Marina, Alicante, Sept. 2010. Escanez A., Guerra A., Gonzalez A., Landeira J., Vicente A., Arranz P., Aguilar N., "Cefalopodos...mesopelagicos capturados en las islas de El <span class="hlt">Hierro</span> u Tenerife durante la campana Zifiocal-I", Sociedad Iberico de Estudios de Biologia Marina, Alicante, Sept</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HydJ....8..161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HydJ....8..161S"><span>Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.</p> <p></p> <p> pyrite et dans les sulfates dissous et la corrélation entre les concentrations en sulfates, en fer et en arsenic dissous laissent penser que l'oxydation des sulfures est le processus dominant contrôlant la libération de l'arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Cependant, les oxy-hydroxydes contenant de l'arsenic sont susceptibles d'être une autre source d'arsenic si des conditions réductrices apparaissent ou s'ils sont transportés dans l'aquifère sous forme de colloïdes. L'analyse des données provenant de puits montre que l'intersection entre le SCH et les niveaux statiques des puits domestiques est fortement corrélée à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Des données de terrain et de laboratoire conduisent à penser que la contamination en arsenic la plus forte est causée par l'interaction localisée aux forages entre l'air, l'eau et les sulfures. Bien que la contamination en arsenic soit causée par l'oxydation de sulfures présents naturellement, elle est influencée par les fluctuations du niveau piézométrique causées par les pompages du captage municipal ou par les variations climatiques, ce qui peut conduire au déplacement des zones géographiques où se produisent les contaminations. Resumen Se han medido concentraciones de arsénico muy altas (de hasta 12000μg/L) en las aguas subterráneas de un acuífero confinado, en areniscas, localizado en la parte oriental de Wisconsin (EEUU). La fuente principal de arsénico es un horizonte de cementación secundaria (SCH) con un alto contenido en sulfuros, y con una gran variabilidad en espesor, morfología y concentraciones de As. El arsénico aparece en piritas y marcasitas, además de en oxihidróxidos de <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, pero no como una fase independiente de arsenopiritas. El hecho que la marca isotópica de piritas y sulfatos disueltos sea muy similar, y que exista una gran correlación entre las concentraciones de sulfato disuelto, <span class="hlt">hierro</span> y arsénico sugiere que la oxidación de</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424728.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424728.pdf"><span>Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido <span class="hlt">por</span> sus Fundamentos y <span class="hlt">por</span> las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sierra, Josu</p> <p></p> <p>This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099552"><span>Association between the concentration of fine particles in the atmosphere and acute respiratory diseases in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nascimento, Antônio Paula; Santos, Jane Meri; Mill, José Geraldo; Souza, Juliana Bottoni de; Reis, Neyval Costa; Reisen, Valdério Anselmo</p> <p>2017-01-12</p> <p>To analyze the association between fine particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere and hospital care by acute respiratory diseases in children. Ecological study, carried out in the region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, in the winter (June 21 to September 21, 2013) and summer (December 21, 2013 to March 19, 2014). We assessed data of daily count for outpatient care and hospitalization by respiratory diseases (ICD-10) in children from zero to 12 years in three hospitals in the Region of Grande Vitória. For collecting fine particulate matter, we used portable samplers of particles installed in six locations in the studied region. The Generalized Additive Model with Poisson distribution, fitted for the effects of predictor covariates, was used to evaluate the relationship between respiratory outcomes and concentration of fine particulate matter. The increase of 4.2 µg/m3 (interquartile range) in the concentration of fine particulate matter increased in 3.8% and 5.6% the risk of medical care or hospitalization, respectively, on the same day and with six-day lag from the exposure. We identified positive association between outpatient care and hospitalizations of children under 12 years due to acute respiratory diseases and the concentration of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Analisar a associação entre a concentração de material particulado fino na atmosfera e atendimento hospitalar <span class="hlt">por</span> doenças respiratórias <span class="hlt">agudas</span> em crianças. Estudo ecológico, realizado na Região da Grande Vitória, ES, no inverno (21 de junho a 21 de setembro de 2013) e no verão (21 de dezembro de 2013 a 19 de março de 2014). Foram avaliados dados de contagem diária de atendimentos ambulatoriais e hospitalizações <span class="hlt">por</span> doenças respiratórias (CID-10) em crianças de zero a 12 anos em três hospitais da Região da Grande Vitoria. Para a coleta de material particulado fino foram utilizados amostradores portáteis de partículas instalados em seis locais na regi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28489169"><span>MORTALITY OF URGENCY VERSUS ELECTIVE VIDEOLAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Felício, Saulo José Oliveira; Matos, Ediriomar Peixoto; Cerqueira, Antonio Maurício; Farias, Kurt Wolfgang Schindler Freire de; Silva, Ramon de Assis; Torres, Mateus de Oliveira</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Surgical approach is still controversial in patients with acute cholecystitis: to treat clinically the inflammatory process and operate electively later or to operate immediately on an emergency basis? To test the hypothesis that urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis has a higher mortality than elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From the data available in Datasus, mortality was compared between patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis and in urgency. Calculations were made of the relative reduction in risk of death, absolute reduction of risk of death and number needed to treat. From 2009 to 2014 in Brazil, there were 250.439 laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 74.6% were electives. Mortality in the emergency group was 4.8 times higher compared to the elective group (0.0023% vs. 0.00048%). Despite the relative reduction in risk of death (RRR) was 83%, in the calculation of absolute risk was found 0.0018 and number needed to treat of 55,555. Despite the relative risk reduction for mortality was high comparing elective vs. urgent basis, the absolute risk reduction was minimal, since this outcome is very low in both groups, suggesting that mortality should not have much influence on surgical decision. Continua controversa a conduta nos pacientes com colecistite <span class="hlt">aguda</span>: compensar o processo inflamatório e operar eletivamente ou operar imediatamente em caráter de urgência? Testar a hipótese de que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica de urgência <span class="hlt">por</span> colecistite <span class="hlt">aguda</span> apresenta maior mortalidade que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva. A partir dos dados disponíveis no Datasus, foi comparada a mortalidade entre os pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva <span class="hlt">por</span> colelitíase e a de urgência. Foram realizados cálculos da redução relativa de risco de morte, redução absoluta do risco de morte e número necessário para tratar . De 2009 a 2014 no Brasil, foram realizadas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26913800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26913800"><span>[First report of complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 isolated in Argentina].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cardozo Tomas, Agustina; Ghietto, Lucia Maria; Insfran, Constanza; Wasinger, Nicolas; Marchesi, Ariana; Adamo, Maria Pilar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes. El Bocavirus humano (HBoV) es un parvovirus descripto <span class="hlt">por</span> primera vez en 2005, asociado a cuadros leves y graves de infección respiratoria <span class="hlt">aguda</span> (IRA), una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población infantil en todo el mundo. Al presente se han identificado 4 genotipos, nombradas HBoV1 a 4, de los cuales el primero es el que se asocia a IRA con predominancia. Objetivo. Obtener el genoma completo de HBoV respiratorio aislado localmente. Métodos. Se diseñaron primers para fragmentos superpuestos del genoma completo de HBoV, empleando las herramientas informáticas ClustalW y NCBI Primer-Blast. Los fragmentos se amplificaron <span class="hlt">por</span> PCR convencional y se secuenciaron mediante tecnología capilar BigDye Terminator. La edición de las secuencias y análisis filogenético se realizó con el programa MEGA v6. Resultados. Se obtuvo la secuencia genómica completa de HBoV1 cepa 307AR09, aislada de secreción respiratoria de paciente pediátrico con bronquiolitis. La misma fue depositada en la base de datos GenBank con número de acceso KJ634207. El análisis filogenético con secuencias genómicas completas de los 4 genotipos obtenidas en distintas regiones del mundo muestra similitud cercana al 100% con la secuencia original descubierta en Suecia (DQ000495), así como el agrupamiento de los 4 genotipos en 2 clusters de alta homología interna: HBoV1-HBoV3 y HBoV2-HBoV4. Conclusiones. Se aportan datos locales para futuros desarrollos tecnológicos destinados tanto a la investigación como al diseño de métodos diagnósticos para la práctica médica. <span class="hlt">Por</span> otra parte, los resultados sustentan la propuesta de redistribución taxonómica de los 4 genotipos en 2 especies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751790"><span>[Undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma/ malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated a gouty tophus. a case report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szlabi, Susana; Flores, Jorge O; Diller, Ana L de; Cabrera, Marta</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Antecedentes: La gota es una enfermedad metabólica <span class="hlt">por</span> depósito de cristales de ácido úrico, que compromete articulaciones y tejidos blandos tanto en sus etapas <span class="hlt">agudas</span> como crónicas. Constituye un suceso poco común la aparición de un tumor en el sitio propio de la lesión. Objetivo: presentar un caso de asociación infrecuente entre tofo gotoso y sarcoma. Material y métodos: hombre de 83 años que consultó <span class="hlt">por</span> tumoración en codo izquierdo de aproximadamente 40 años de evolución, que comenzó a doler espontáneamente. Con la presunción diagnóstica de tofo gotoso se trató quirúrgicamente. La lesión recidivó a los 60 días, se realizó reintervención y radioterapia <span class="hlt">por</span> diagnóstico de tumor mesenquimal maligno asociado a tofo gotoso. A los 10 meses desarrolló metástasis ganglionar homolateral, falleció antes de los 2 años de la consulta inicial. Resultados: El diagnóstico de la primer biopsia fue tofo gotoso. En el material de reintervención se diagnosticó tofo gotoso asociado a neoplasia mesenquimal fusocelular de alto grado; la inmunohistoquímica reveló: vimentina +/+, MYO D1 -/-, ASMA -/-, FVIII -/-, A1ATT -/-, CD68-/-, S100-/- con resultado diagnóstico final de sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado de alto grado. Conclusión: Es infrecuente que los tofos gotosos se asocien a otras enfermedades y menos que lo hagan a tumores. En la bibliografía se han reportado tres casos previos concurrentes con neoplasias, las cuales fueron angiosarcoma, tumor de células gigantes y fibrohistiocitoma maligno. Estos últimos tienen una alta tendencia a recidivar y poseen capacidad de dar metástasis, especialmente a pulmones y ganglios regionales. Palabras clave: tofo gotoso, fibrohistiocitoma maligno, sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623611"><span>Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina <span class="hlt">por</span> vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática <span class="hlt">aguda</span> en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis <span class="hlt">por</span> metotrexate <span class="hlt">por</span> lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617535"><span>Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E</p> <p>2014-10-19</p> <p>Antecedentes: El inicio de la alimentación complementaria temprana coincide con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad especialmente en los niños, lo cual se debe entre otras causas a los cambios en los patrones de alimentación que se han experimentado. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños mexicanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de los estudios que evaluaron las prácticas alimentarias en menores de 2 años en México en Medline, Lilacs y de forma manual con los siguientes términos: alimentación complementaria, alimentación suplementaria, México, ablactación y destete. Se recabó la edad de inicio de la alimentación complementaria, tipo de alimento consumido, frecuencia de consumo de los alimentos y motivo <span class="hlt">por</span> el que iniciaban la alimentación complementaria. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo de la información recolectada y los datos en las gráficas son mostrados como proporciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 7 estudios que mostraron que los niños inician la alimentación complementaria antes de los 6 meses predominantemente con frutas, aunque también consumieron jugos industrializados, refrescos y frituras. El consumo de estos productos aumenta con el crecimiento de los niños, aunado a un bajo consumo de alimentos con proteína de alto valor biológico, especialmente las carnes rojas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de los estudios incluidos mostraron que los menores reciben alimentos con alta densidad energética, mientras que es bajo el consumo de aquellos que aportan proteína animal y <span class="hlt">hierro</span> en particular, lo que puede contribuir a problemas de salud como sobrepeso, obesidad, desnutrición y anemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019240"><span>[In Process Citation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane</p> <p>2016-02-16</p> <p>Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del <span class="hlt">hierro</span>, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, <span class="hlt">por</span> lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58..331G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BAAA...58..331G"><span>La trama celeste: <span class="hlt">por</span> qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, B.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467566.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467566.pdf"><span>Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento <span class="hlt">por</span> plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton</p> <p></p> <p>Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28737863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28737863"><span>Tendencia de los egresos hospitalarios <span class="hlt">por</span> enfermedades infecciosas intestinales en niños en Argentina, 2005-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Degiuseppe, Juan I</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level. Specific hospital discharge rates were estimated, and seasonal behavior and trends were analyzed in relation to this event. In Argentina, 2 521 729 patients under age 5 were discharged in this period; of these, 9.0% were diagnosed with intestinal infectious disease. Children under age 1 accounted for a third of hospitalizations; two annual peaks (summer and winter) were observed in the seasonality analysis. Overall, a downward trend was observed, with a mild increase in the 2007-2009 period. Rates were up to 3 or 4 times higher in Northwest and Northeast Argentina than in the Pampa region. Hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in the public subsector account for approximately 10% of all discharges of children under age 5. This event shows a seasonal pattern, with a slightly downward trend over the past years in spite of its heterogeneous distribution across the different Argentine regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...94D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003BAAA...46...94D"><span>Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación <span class="hlt">por</span> tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.</p> <p></p> <p>We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469304.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469304.pdf"><span>Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables <span class="hlt">por</span> el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lashway, Larry</p> <p></p> <p>This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociedades&id=EJ525246','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociedades&id=EJ525246"><span>Os Atores da Mobilizacao <span class="hlt">por</span> Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1183466','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1183466"><span>Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (<span class="hlt">POR</span>) null mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229385','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229385"><span>Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida <span class="hlt">por</span> cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..132F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..132F"><span>Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje <span class="hlt">por</span> el periastro en 2014.6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..254Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BAAA...57..254Z"><span>Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada <span class="hlt">por</span> el remanente de una colisión</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7011853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7011853"><span>Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905622"><span>[Gastos hospitalarios <span class="hlt">por</span> neumonía neumocóccica invasora en adultos en un hospital general en Chile].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alarcón, Álvaro; Lagos, Isabel; Fica, Alberto</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Pneumococcal infections are important for their morbidity and economic burden, but there is no economical data from adults patients in Chile. Estimate direct medical costs of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia among adult patients hospitalized in a general hospital and to evaluate the sensitivity of ICD 10 discharge codes to capture infections from this pathogen. Analysis of hospital charges by components in a group of patients admitted for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, correction of values by inflation and conversion from CLP to US$. Data were collected from 59 patients admitted during 2005-2010, mean age 71.9 years. Average hospital charges for those managed in general wards reached 2,756 US$, 8,978 US$ for those managed in critical care units (CCU) and 6,025 for the whole group. Charges were higher in CCU (p < 0.001), and patients managed in these units generated 78.3% of the whole cost (n = 31; 52.5% from total). The median cost in general wards was 1,558 US$, and 3,993 in CCU. Main components were bed occupancy (37.8% of charges), and medications (27.4%). There were no differences associated to age, comorbidities, severity scores or mortality. No single ICD discharge code involved a S. pneumoniae bacteremic case (0% sensitivity) and only 2 cases were coded as pneumococcal pneumonia (3.4%). Mean hospital charges (~6,000 US dollars) or median values (~2,400 US dollars) were high, underlying the economic impact of this condition. Costs were higher among patients managed in CCU. Recognition of bacteremic pneumococcal infections by ICD 10 discharge codes has a very low sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mobilization+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ525246','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mobilization+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ525246"><span>Os Atores da Mobilizacao <span class="hlt">por</span> Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10539232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10539232"><span>Padres Trabajando <span class="hlt">por</span> la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=espanol&pg=5&id=ED482574','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=espanol&pg=5&id=ED482574"><span>En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED157375.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED157375.pdf"><span>Evaluacion de que consister y <span class="hlt">por</span> que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.</p> <p></p> <p>A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=best+AND+workout&id=ED482574','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=best+AND+workout&id=ED482574"><span>En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol <span class="hlt">por</span> medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skill