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Sample records for aguda por hierro

  1. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  2. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  3. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  4. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  5. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic bombs that degas at sea surface, boil seawater and sink when cooled and degassed. At the beginning of the eruption white coloured pumices enveloped in darker coloured spatters floated on land. These composite pumices show evidence of magma mingling with folds and undulations of the darker coloured magma within the white pumice suggesting magma mingling in a viscous regime. The white pumice is highly vesicular and resembles foam. Most of the vesicular structure is made of tightly packed, polygonal bubbles of uniform size (˜ 100 μm), suggesting a single event of homogeneous bubble nucleation. An earlier event of heterogeneous bubble nucleation is indicated by the presence of a few large bubbles developed around tiny quartz crystals. Both the darker and lighter coloured pumices are almost aphyric. A few olivine crystals with perfect euhedral morphology occur within the darker part. Rare olivines of same composition are also found in the white pumice glass but then display somewhat rounded outlines and hopper-type structure. Melt inclusions in olivines of the darker pumice are of the same composition as the enveloping mafic glass, whereas olivines in the mixing boundary layer have melt inclusions of less mafic composition. The whole-rock composition and slightly more evolved glass composition are of basanitc and alkali rhyolitic composition (at the limit of the trachyte field) according to the TAS classification. Such rhyolitic compositions are rare in the Canaries. Analyses of residual volatile concentration in the glasses show that the silicic glass is highly degassed (F: 511 ±222; Cl: 202 ±58; S: below detection limit; values in ppm,1SD, n=10), whereas the basanitic glass still has very high halogene concentrations (F: 1354 ±151; Cl: 1026 ±47; S: 362 ±29; 1SD, n=10). In-situ analysis of trace element compositions of the dark glasses reveal typical basanitic compositions with

  6. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  7. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  8. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  9. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  10. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  11. Soil gas radon and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 hours on October 10, followed on the afternoon of October 12 by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing indicating the initial stage of submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, El Hierro. Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn activities were continuously measured during the period of the recent volcanic unrest occurred at El Hierro, at two different geochemical stations, HIE02 and HIE03. Significant increases in soil 222Rn activity and 222Rn/220Rn ratio from the soil were observed at both stations prior the submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro, showing the highest increases before the eruption onset and the occurrence of the strongest seismic event (M=4.6). A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data corresponded closely to the seismic energy released during the volcanic unrest. The observed increases of 222Rn are related to the rock fracturing processes (seismic activity) and the magmatic CO2 outflow increase, as observed in HIE03 station. Under these results, we find that continuous soil radon studies are important for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil radon to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future

  12. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-22

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  13. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  14. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  15. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  16. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d‑1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  17. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  18. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  19. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d−1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  20. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  1. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  2. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  3. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Fraile-Nuez, E; de Armas, D; González, A G; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Escánez, J

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10(th) 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. PMID:23355953

  4. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. PMID:23355953

  5. Osteoarthritis among the prehispanic population from La Gomera and El Hierro (Canary Islands): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Trujillo-Mederos, Aioze; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, Matilde; González-Reimers, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is still unclear, and several factors may play a role in its development, including joint trauma or microtrauma (usually related to lifestyle), local inflammation, loading charge, and genetics. Assessment of osteoarthritis among ancient populations is important, since it may yield information relative to life habits. Therefore, we have performed the present study in order to assess the prevalence of osteoarthritis among the prehispanic populations from La Gomera and El Hierro, two islands of the Canary Archipelago with a similar size and altitude which were colonized by individuals of North African origin about 2000 - 2500 years ago. The economy of these people was based on goat herding, shellfishing, and agriculture together with consumption of some wild vegetal species. However, despite a similar geographic environment and a similar economic pattern, prevalence of osteoarthritis was by far higher among the population from La Gomera (78.57 % vs 15.85 %, p < 0.001), and that of eburnation, 11.65 % and 1.05 %, respectively (p = 0.016); in contrast, the population of El Hierro was markedly more robust than that of La Gomera. Globally, a trend to an inverse relationship was observed between epiphyseal robusticity index and the presence of osteoarthritis, which was statistically significant when only men were analysed. However, after performing a multivariate analysis, the only factor that was independently related to the presence of osteoarthritis was the variable "island" (i.e., population group), suggesting that - possibly - genetic factors played a major role in the differences observed.

  6. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  7. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  8. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  9. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island.

  10. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika

    2013-04-01

    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  11. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  12. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  13. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  14. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m‑2 d‑1) up to 457 g m‑2 d‑1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d‑1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m‑2 d‑1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d‑1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t

  15. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands: chemical and isotopic evidence in dissolved gases of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Padrón, E.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.; Sumino, H.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the smallest of the Canary Islands and is located in the southwest extreme of the archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on October 10, 2011, followed by a green discolouration of seawater and strong degassing on October 12, 2011, indicating the occurrence of a submarine eruption at the south of El Hierro island. Further episodes of volcanic activity had occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. To provide additional information about the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, a chemical and isotopic study of the dissolved gases in the seawater affected by the eruptive event was conducted one week after the eruption started. Sea water samples were collected by the Ignacio Lozano Oceanographic Research Vessel (ICCM). Three vertical geochemical profiles of dissolved gases were carried out near the location of the submarine eruption. Depths of the sea water samples ranged from 10 to 400 meters. Dissolved CO2, He, N2, O2 and Ar as well as the isotopic composition of CO2, Ar and He were analyzed. Relatively high 3He/4He ratio were observed at most of the sea water samples reaching values up to 5.8 RA (RA the 3He/4He ratio on air) at 100 meters depth of the geochemical vertical profile closest to the eruption site, suggesting a significant volcanic-magmatic-hydrothermal discharge through the submarine eruption vent. Other dissolved gas geochemical parameters such as N2/36Ar, N2/O2 and CO2/O2 ratios clearly suggest a strong presence of a submarine volcanic plume around 100 meters depth associated to this submarine eruption. The He and CO2 isotopes systematics confirmed also clearly a

  16. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed. PMID

  17. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  18. Neurosurgical experience with tumours of the pineal region at Clinica Puerta de Hierro.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Ramiro, J; Martínez, R; Bravo, G

    1992-01-01

    The clinicopathological experience with 50 cases of pineal region tumours at Clinica Puerta de Hierro is presented. In this series, 88% of the patients were evaluated by CT-scan. Pineal region tumours make up approximately 0.7% of the intracranial expansive processes in the Spanish population. The largest group of lesions appearing in this localization is that of the germinomas (38%), followed by nontumoural lesions (20%) and tumours generally considered to be of the vicinity, such as meningiomas, gliomas and metastases (18%), tumours of the pineal parenchyma (14%), and non-germinoma germinal tumours (10%). In our series, in addition to an intracranial hypertension syndrome, an ophthalmological and, to a minor degree, an endocrinological syndrome predominate in germ-cell tumours, with a cerebellar syndrome appearing in gliomas of the pineal region. All the patients in the series diagnosed as having a germinoma and treated by irradiation are alive, and free of disease, after follow-up ranging from 2 to 20 years (mean: 8 years). The experience obtained with the present series supports the opinion that, in radiosensitive tumours, surgical resection adds no therapeutic benefit to treatment with radiotherapy alone. We suggest that when dealing with a tumour of the pineal region, CT-scan and clinical assessment now permit an initial selection of patients susceptible to surgery as a first therapeutic option, indicating those patients who, because they are considered to have either a "probable germinoma" or a "tumour of uncertain diagnosis", should undergo stereotaxic biopsy or trial radiotherapy and, only when this has proved a failure, should be subjected to open surgery.

  19. Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M.; Montero, María F.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1–V3 regions for Bacteria and V3–V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70–200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed

  20. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    PubMed Central

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  1. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Santana-Casiano, J M; Arístegui, J; Alonso-González, I J; Hernández-León, S; Blanco, M J; Rodríguez-Santana, A; Hernández-Guerra, A; Gelado-Caballero, M D; Eugenio, F; Marcello, J; de Armas, D; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Montero, M F; Laetsch, D R; Vélez-Belchí, P; Ramos, A; Ariza, A V; Comas-Rodríguez, I; Benítez-Barrios, V M

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  2. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina

    2014-05-01

    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  3. Geochemical monitoring network at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and during 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, P. A.; Meletlidis, S.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Moure, D.; Rodero, C.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since 17 July 2011 an important increase in the number of seismic events located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) was detected by the seismic network of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (I.G.N.). This increment was interpreted as a precursory signal of a potential eruption, which in fact took place three months later (10th October 2011). In order to improve and complete the volcano monitoring network several geochemical parameters were measured since the beginning of the anomalous seismic activity. Measurements of CO2 diffuse flux through the soil were carried out in the major part of the island: the central zone, El Golfo (northern area) and the zone delimitated by the western rift. More than 450 measurements were accomplished during July, August, and September 2011. Analysis of the data revealed the existence of a spatial anomaly with relative high CO2 diffuse flux in the southwest part of the El Golfo area, close to the zone where the anomalous seismicity was located. This abnormal flux, almost aligned with the western limit of the seismic swarm, was not detected again in measurements accomplished on September in the same area. Between July and August, four geochemical stations were installed in three sub-horizontal galleries and in one well. Air and soil temperature were measured in all galleries and air 222Rn concentration was determined in the four stations. Two of the galleries were also equipped with a sensor in order to obtain measurements of CO2 concentration in the air. The sampling period for each parameter was established in ten minutes. Anomalous high 222Rn concentrations were detected in the station located in the well, apparently related to increases in the seismic accumulated energy and the GPS deformation rates. Taking into account the location of the earthquake epicentres and in order to study the evolution over the time of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater, four wells in the El Golfo area were regularly sampled since July 2011

  4. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was

  5. Ultramafic Volcanism Associated With the El Golfo Giant Lateral Collapse, El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.; Walter, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    It is firmly established that giant landslides play a key role in the evolution of ocean island volcanoes. On- and off-shore studies of e.g. Réunion Island, the Hawaiian, Canarian, and Cape Verdean archipelagoes confirm enormous landslide volumes up to thousands of km3 and runout distances frequently exceeding a hundred km [1]. Accelerated post-collapse volcanism has been witnessed at strato-volcanoes (e.g. Bezymianny, Mt. St. Helens), but may also be common for shield-volcanoes (Waianae, Oahu [2]; Teno, Tenerife [3]). The extent of this phenomenon and its consequences for the magmatic plumbing system of the volcanic edifice are poorly constrained. Between 15-134 ka, the El Golfo giant lateral collapse removed a 150-180 km3 sector of the volcanic edifice of El Hierro, the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. Although no major volcanic edifice has been established since the collapse, post-El Golfo landslide volcanic vents concentrate at the base of the collapse scarp while additonal eruptions occurred along the triaxial rift system of the island [4]. Whilst pre- collapse volcanics include relatively differentiated rocks (up to trachytes, SiO2 ~55 wt%, MgO ~1.5 wt% [4]), a drastic change in the volcanic regime is reflected in the post-collapse eruptions of crystal-rich (up to 60 volume %, with megacrysts up to 3 cm in size) lava flows and pyroclastics (basanites, ankaramites, and picrites, SiO2 <45 wt%, MgO = 6-15 wt%). Chemical thermobarometry [5] using augite and olivine (Fo 71-81) rims, fused groundmass, and whole rock compositions of post-collapse samples indicates that crystallisation mostly occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures and temperatures in the range of 7-13 kbar and 1150-1250°C, respectively. Most volcanics include several crystal populations, including complex normal and reverse zonation patterns. Narrow outer rims (last ~20 μm) of the augite and olivine crystals commonly show a sharp decrease in Mg# (from ~80 to ~70). We propose

  6. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  7. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  8. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  9. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  10. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  11. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  12. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  13. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  14. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance.

  15. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance. PMID:27056561

  16. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  17. Fractal Structure with a Resonance Pattern during El Hierro 2011-2012 Volcano-Seismic Crisis: A Possible New Prediction Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Roberto; Hernandez, Pedro; Perez, Nemesio

    2013-04-01

    A resonance pattern in the number of earthquakes profile has been observed during the recent 2011-2012 period of volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island, Canary Islands. This pattern has allowed us to predicting the ratio number of earthquakes and also offered a fractal profile. Some general mathematical functions have been deduced from the observed resonance phenomenon of the El Hierro submarine eruption related to the number of earthquakes. It is known that the resonance phenomenon occurring in nature usually denote a structure, symmetry or a subjacent law (Fermi et al., 1952; and later- about enhanced cross-sections symmetry in protons collisions), which, in this case, may be indicative of magmatic interactions showing a sequence not completely chaotic but cyclic provided with symmetries. Turbulent phenomena of the magma flow, at a very deep level (maybe convective), with a well-defined structure, may be becoming apparent with the resonances and fractal nature observed, since the number of the seismic movements of the crust may be a measurable conformational effect of the magma movements themselves. The resonance and fractal models allowed making predictions in cycles from a few weeks to months.

  18. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  19. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

  20. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.

  1. The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

  2. Processes of Compression-Expansion and Subsidence-Uplift detected by the Spatial Inclinometer (IESHI) in the El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates, G.; Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; García, A.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has undergone a submarine eruption a few kilometers to its southeast, detected October 10, on the rift alignment that cuts across the island. However, the seismicity level suddenly increased around July 17 and ground deformation was detected by the only continuously observed GNSS-GPS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems - Global Positioning System) benchmark FRON in the El Golfo area. Based on that information several other GNSS-GPS benchmarks were installed, some of which continuously observed as well. A normal vector analysis was applied to these collected data. The normal vector magnitude variation identified local extension-compression regimes, while the normal vector inclination showed the relative height variation between the three benchmarks that define the plan to which normal vector is analyzed. To accomplish this analysis the data was previously processed to achieve positioning solutions every 30 minutes using the Bernese GPS Software 5.0, further enhanced by a Discrete Kalman Filter, giving an overall millimeter level precision. These solutions were reached using the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid orbits and the double-differenced ionosphere-free combination. With this strategy the positioning solutions were attained in near real-time. Later with the IGS rapid orbits the data was reprocessed to provide added confidence to the solutions. Two triangles were then considered, a smaller one located in the El Golfo area within the historically collapsed caldera, and a larger one defined by benchmarks placed in Valverde, El Golfo and La Restinga, the town closest to the eruption's location, covering almost the entire Island's surface above sea level. With these two triangles the pre-eruption and post-eruption deformation suffered by El Hierro's surface will be further analyzed.

  3. New Features in the Subsurface Structure Model of El Hierro Island (Canaries) from Low-Frequency Microseismic Sounding: An Insight into the 2011 Seismo-Volcanic Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikov, A. V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Arnoso, J.; Stepanova, M. Yu; Benavent, M.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    To study the deep structure of El Hierro Island, Canarian Archipelago, we have used a microseismic sounding method (MSM) based on the fact that heterogeneities of the Earth's crust disturb the spectrum of the low-frequency microseismic field in their vicinity. So, at the Earth's surface, the spectral amplitudes of definite frequency f above the high-velocity heterogeneities are decreasing, and above the low-velocity ones they are increasing. Moreover, the frequency f is connected with the depth of a heterogeneity H and the velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves V R( f) through the relation H ≈ 0.4 V R( f)/ f. From these relations, the MSM lets us model the subsurface structure in a 3D context by inverting the amplitude-frequency spatial distribution of the microseismic field of low frequency. The validity of the method is shown through of numerical simulations and previous applications with known or verified solutions. This MSM is now used to invert the microseismic data registered in El Hierro Island. The obtained subsurface model reveals two large intrusive bodies beneath the island. Joint interpretation of microseismic and gravimetric data and their comparison with the available geological studies relate the central-eastern intrusive body to the early stage of the island formation. With respect to the western intrusive body, at the depths of 15-25 km, an area with lowest seismic velocities is identified, where we suggest that a modern magmatic reservoir is located. This reservoir could be associated with the recent submarine eruption in October 2011 and the accompanying seismic swarm, which started in July 2011. Several correlations between the shallowest structures identified by the gravity and MSM approaches are also found. Besides the numerical simulation and previous studies of this method, the correlation between gravity results, the MSM model, the geological information and the possible explanation of the features of the seismic swarm through

  4. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  6. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  7. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  8. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  9. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  10. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  11. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  12. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  13. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  14. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  16. Estimated CO2, SO2 and H2S emission to the atmosphere from the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of helicopter gas surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Pérez, N. M.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    An accurate estimation of SO2 emission rates is an important issue to elucidate the activity of volcanoes, moreover the monitoring of its temporal evolution might help to predict a possible eruption and thus, save the loss of human's lives in cities nearby volcanoes. In the lasts years new instruments have been developed and improved, in order to be more portable, cheaper and lighter. The miniDOAS consist of a small spectrometer with a lens for collecting scattered UV light, and are controlled/powered via USB with a laptop. Recently, new technical developments have allowed monitoring the emission of other gas species such as CO2, H2S, etc from volcanic plumes by means of portable multisensor system. With both devices we were able to evaluate the SO2 emission rates and the molar ratios of major volcanic gas components, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratios (CO2/SO2 and H2S/SO2) allowed us to estimate other volatiles emission rates. Between November 11, 2011, and January 16, 2012, and as a consequence of the submarine volcanic eruption started on October 10, 2011, south off shore El Hierro, Canary Islands, a regularly monitoring of the volcanic plume from the submarine volcano has been performed with remote sensors, always depending of helicopter availability. The instruments are mounted aboard on a helicopter belonged to the Helicopter Unit of Spanish Civil Guard. The SO2 flux measured during this period showed a maximum SO2 emission of 109 ± 19 t/d on November 6, just two days before the occurrence of a intense bubbling at the sea surface on November 8, producing a water, gas and ash column of about 15 meters over the sea surface. That day, CO2 and H2S emission also reached the maximum measured, with 5400 t/d and 3.6 t/d, respectively. Since then, SO2, CO2 and H2S emission rates have declined to values close to detection limit (~ 2 t/d for SO2). These results report the first SO2 emission rates measured

  17. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  18. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  3. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion.

  4. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  5. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  6. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  7. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells.

  8. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  9. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  10. Bioavailability of iron measurement in two nutrients multiple solutions by in vitro and in vivo;a comparative methodology between methods.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Freitas, Osvaldo; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: La biodisponibilidad de hierro presente en una formulación nutricional puede ser evaluada por in vitro y in vivo, ya que proporcionan para un estudio de línea cohesiva y proporcionado en la literatura. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar la biodisponibilidad de hierro con in vitro y in vivo, dirigida a un análisis comparativo de dos formulaciones de suplementos nutricionales (A y B). Métodos: Fueron utilizados dos métodos descritos en la literatura que para evaluar la biodiponibilidad de hierro. Uno que es la simulación de digestión humana y otro por los niveles de hierro sérico después de la ingestión de la formulación en los seres humanos. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos por la simulación in vitro de la digestión del tracto gastrointestinal humano fueron 0,70 ± 0,02 y 0,80 dialisibilidad 0,01% de hierro, respectivamente, para las formulaciones A y B. Los estudios in vivo, segú n se mide por las curvas de hierro en suero en seres humanos después de la ingestión de las formulaciones mostró coeficiente de variación Δ < 0, lo que indica que había una baja absorción de hierro. La biodisponibilidad de hierro a los dos multi-nutrientes soluciones fueron obtenidos por in vitro y in vivo mostraron que había una comparación de las metodologías utilizadas en soluciones acuosas de muchos nutrientes.

  11. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  12. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016.

  13. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  14. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations. PMID:26669712

  15. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  16. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  17. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  18. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  19. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  20. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  1. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  2. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  4. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  5. Structure and function of the PorB porin from disseminating Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Zeth, Kornelius; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Hurwitz, Robert; Kepp, Oliver; Rudel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains a large number of channel-forming proteins, porins, for the uptake of small nutrient molecules. Neisseria gonorrhoeae PorBIA (PorB of serotype A) are associated with disseminating diseases and mediate a rapid bacterial invasion into host cells in a phosphate-sensitive manner. To gain insights into this structure-function relationship we analysed PorBIA by X-ray crystallography in the presence of phosphate and ATP. The structure of PorBIA in the complex solved at a resolution of 3.3 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) displays a surplus of positive charges inside the channel. ATP ligand-binding in the channel is co-ordinated by the positively charged residues of the channel interior. These residues ligate the aromatic, sugar and pyrophosphate moieties of the ligand. Two phosphate ions were observed in the structure, one of which clamped by two arginine residues (Arg92 and Arg124) localized at the extraplasmic channel exit. A short β-bulge in β2-strand together with the long L3 loop narrow the barrel diameter significantly and further support substrate specificity through hydrogen bond interactions. Interestingly the structure also comprised a small peptide as a remnant of a periplasmic protein which physically links porin molecules to the peptidoglycan network. To test the importance of Arg92 on bacterial invasion the residue was mutated. In vivo assays of bacteria carrying a R92S mutation confirmed the importance of this residue for host-cell invasion. Furthermore systematic sequence and structure comparisons of PorBIA from Neisseriaceae indicated Arg92 to be unique in disseminating N. gonorrhoeae thereby possibly distinguishing invasion-promoting porins from other neisserial porins.

  6. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  7. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  8. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  9. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  10. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; de Queiroz, Daiane; Araújo França Costa, Renata; Lins da Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora; Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Evaluar el estado nutricional de hierro en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad y su relación con la deficiencia de vitamina A. Métodos: Estudio transversal, envolviendo 100 niños, residentes en nueve ciudades del estado de Paraíba, seleccionados por conveniencia para conformar dos grupos de estudio: niños con deficiencia de vitamina A (retinol sérico < 0,70 μmol/L; n = 50) y niños sin deficiencia de vitamina A (retinol sérico ≥ 0,70 μmol/L; n = 50). El estado nutricional de hierro fue evaluado a través de índices bioquímicos, hematológicos y hematimétricos. Los casos de infección subclínica (proteína C-reactiva ≥ 6 mg/L) fueron excluidos. Resultados: Los niños con deficiencia de vitamina A presentaron valores medios de hierro sérico estadísticamente inferiores a los valores correspondientes en niños sin deficiencia. Los otros índices del estado nutricional de hierro no mostraron diferencia estadística según la presencia/ ausencia de deficiencia de vitamina A. Conclusión: La interacción entre las carencias de hierro y de vitamina A estuvo evidenciada en los casos de deficiencia de hierro circulante (hierro sérico), sugiriendo insuficiencia en los mecanismos de transporte del mineral en niños con deficiencia de vitamina A.

  11. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  12. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  13. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  14. [PRE-OPERATIVE IRON DEFICIENCY IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Magali Sanchez, Angela María; Pampillón, Natalia; Abaurre, Mariela; Omelanczuk, Pablo Esteban

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la inflamación crónica inducida por la obesidad produce alteración de la homeostasis del hierro, llevando a deficiencia de hierro y a anemia de leve a moderada. Entre el 14 y el 43% de los pacientes pueden presentar déficit de hierro sin anemia antes de la cirugía. El tratamiento del déficit de hierro en el perioperatorio mejora el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En ciertas situaciones, puede el hierro enovenoso (el cual evita el bloqueo del hierro en enterocitos y macrófagos), ser una alternativa segura y efectiva. Objetivos: 1) Valorar la prevalencia de ferropenia en pacientes obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía bariátrica. 2) Evaluar si la suplementación de hierro parenteral en pacientes ferropénicos es eficaz a la hora de prevenir el descenso de hematocritos tras la cirugía. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, que incluyó 89 pacientes obesos mórbidos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Se dividió la población en el preoperatorio (pre OP) según la condición de ferropenia o ausencia de ferropenia, y se analizó la evolución postoperatoria (post OP). Los pacientes ferropénicos fueron suplementados con 500 mg de hierro carboximaltosa endovenoso (EV) y evaluados en el post OP. Resultados: veintitrés pacientes (25,8%) presentaron ferropenia en el pre OP y 6 (6,74%) anemia. El 74,2% (66 pacientes) no tuvieron ferropenia. El grupo sin ferropenia al mes de la cirugía presentó: hematocrito: 41,30% ± 3,77; hemoglobina: 13,64 g/l ± 1,25 y saturación de transferrina 30,55 %. Los pacientes con ferropenia en el pre OP presentaron: hematocrito: 40,40% ± 3,03; hemoglobina: 13,40 g/l ± 1,07; saturación de transferrina: 15,50% ± 4,18 y ferritina: 87,10 ng/ ml ± 81,23 . En el post OP se observó descenso de hematocrito: 38,40% ± 3,17 (p:0,034). En pacientes ferropénicos, sin aporte de hierro EV (n = 15), el hematocrito y hemoglobina fueron de 41,2% ± 2,5 y 13,7 g/l ± 0,9, respectivamente, con

  15. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  16. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  17. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  18. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  19. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  20. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  1. Sequence evolution of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis: evidence of positive Darwinian selection.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Maynard Smith, J; Spratt, B G

    1995-05-01

    Protein 1 (PI) is a major porin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis and is encoded by a single locus, porB. Alleles of the porB locus of N. gonorrhoeae are assigned to two homology groups, PI(A) and PI(B), on the basis of immunological and structural similarity. In a like manner, alleles of the porB locus of the closely related bacterium, N. meningitidis, are allocated into class 2 and class 3 homology groups. An individual strain of N. gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis expresses either one or other of these porin homology groups but never both, and the antigenic reactions of these highly diverse outer membrane proteins form part of the N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis serotyping schemes. A comparison of the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions per site between the two most divergent alleles of each of these four groups of porB alleles shows that PI(A) alleles have accumulated significantly more nonsynonymous substitutions per site than synonymous substitutions. In contrast the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions between alleles of class 2 and class 3 porins are not significantly different from random. We localize the regions of the PI(A) alleles with an excess of amino acid changes to the surface-exposed loops of these outer membrane proteins and suggest that positive Darwinian selection for diversity, driven by the human immune system, can most easily explain the allelic polymorphism and the pattern of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions.

  2. Functional Expression of the PorAH Channel from Corynebacterium glutamicum in Cell-free Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Parthasarathi; Demange, Pascal; Saurel, Olivier; Tropis, Marielle; Daffé, Mamadou; Dötsch, Volker; Ghazi, Alexandre; Bernhard, Frank; Milon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    PorA and PorH are two small membrane proteins from the outer membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which have been shown to form heteromeric ion channels and to be post-translationally modified by mycolic acids. Any structural details of the channel could not be analyzed so far due to tremendous difficulties in the production of sufficient amounts of protein samples. Cell-free (CF) expression is a new and remarkably successful strategy for the production of membrane proteins for which toxicity, membrane targeting, and degradation are key issues. In addition, reaction conditions can easily be modified to modulate the quality of synthesized protein samples. We developed an efficient CF expression strategy to produce the channel subunits devoid of post-translational modifications. 15N-labeled PorA and PorH samples were furthermore characterized by NMR and gave well resolved spectra, opening the way for structural studies. The comparison of ion channel activities of CF-expressed proteins with channels isolated from C. glutamicum gave clear insights on the influence of the mycolic acid modification of the two subunits on their functional properties. PMID:21799011

  3. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  4. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  5. Iron status and dietary intakes of iron in normal-weight and obese young Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Tijerina-Sáenz, Alexandra; Martínez-Garza, Nancy E; Ramírez-López, Erik; Solís-Pérez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Báez, Adbel Z

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la obesidad se ha reportado como predictor de la deficiencia de hierro. En México, el 45,5% de las mujeres mayores de 20 años tienen obesidad, y la prevalencia de anemia es de 10,2% en mujeres de 20 a 29 años. Objetivo: investigar la relación entre índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa (%GC), ingesta dietética y reservas de hierro en mujeres jóvenes sanas con normopeso y obesidad. Métodos: ochenta y seis mujeres [normopeso (n = 46) y obesidad (n = 40)] completaron el estudio. La ingesta fue evaluada por un diario de registro de 8 días. La antropometría y obtención de sangre (hemoglobina, hematocrito, ferritina y transferrina) se consiguieron en la fase lútea del ciclo menstrual; se reportaron las características de la menstruación. Las reservas de hierro se determinaron según etapas de depleción. Pruebas de T y Mann-Whitney U se usaron para comparar variables entre grupos. La correlación de Pearson se usó para determinar relaciones entre variables. La razón de momios se utilizó para medir la asociación de IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética con las reservas de hierro. Resultados: los marcadores de hierro fueron similares entre grupos. Se encontró una relación positiva entre %GC y ferritina (r = 0,222; p = 0,032). La similitud en ingesta y periodos menstruales puede ser la razón de que existan reservas de hierro similares. El IMC, %GC e ingesta dietética no contribuyeron independientemente a las etapas de depleción de hierro. Conclusión: se sugiere guía dietética para esta población con el fin de evitar complicaciones por deficiencia de hierro.

  6. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  7. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  8. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on the blood cell count and iron kinetics in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula Renata Florêncio; Félix, Danielle dos Santos; Silva, Paulo César Dantas da; Pereira, Guêdijany Henrique; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: El Ácido -Lipóico (ALA) ha sido utilizado como recurso terapéutico para reducir daño oxidativo en la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS), pero aún no existen estudios in vivo que reporten sobre su mecanismo de acción en el metabolismo del hierro. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antioxidante del ácido Alfa- Lipóico sobre el hemograma y metabolismo del hierro en individuos hipertensos con o sin anemia. Métodos: Estudio clínico doble-ciego, randomizado y controlado con placebo. La muestra fue constituida por 60 individuos hipertensos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en grupo tratamiento (n = 32), que recibió 600 mg/día del ALA por doce semanas y grupo control (n = 28), que recibió el placebo por el mismo período. Fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención, los parámetros del hemograma, Hierro Sérico, Ferritina, Capacidad Latente de Enlace del hierro, Capacidad Total de Enlace del Hierro, Índice de Saturación de la Transferrina (ISI) y Transferrina. Para evaluar las alteraciones entre los grupos, se utilizó el teste t de Student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA, adoptándose el nivel de significación de 5%. Resultados: Después de la intervención, el suplemento con el ALA demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) con la reducción de los leucocitos totales, aumento del número de neutrófilos y reducciones en los niveles de Hierro Sérico e ISI. Conclusión: La administración oral del ALA como un adyuvante terapéutico, altera la respuesta hematológica del leucograma y reduce la absorción del hierro. Cabe senãlar que el mecanismo de quelación de metales por el ácido lipoico puede ser responsable de estos cambios y, en consecuencia, podría desencadenar una condicion de anemia ferropénica en individuos hipertensos.

  9. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  10. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  11. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  12. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  13. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  14. Population genetics of the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: different dynamics in different homology groups.

    PubMed

    Posada, D; Crandall, K A; Nguyen, M; Demma, J C; Viscidi, R P

    2000-03-01

    The porB locus codes for the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Alleles of this locus have been assigned to two homology groups based on close sequence and immunological relationships and are designated as either PIA or PIB. Several population parameters were estimated and compared among these two groups using a data set of 22 PIA sequences and 91 PIB sequences obtained from diverse geographic localities and from time periods spanning approximately 50 years. Recombination appears to be extensive in the porB gene. While the recombination rates are similar for the PIA and PIB sequences, the relative contribution of recombination to genetic diversity is higher for the PIA sequences. Alleles belonging to the PIB group show greater genetic diversity than do those in the PIA group. Although phylogenetic analysis did not reveal temporal or geographic clustering of sequences, estimates of gene flow and the fixation index suggested that PIB sequences exhibit population substructure based on geographic locality. Selection acts in these homology groups in a different way. While positive Darwinian selection is the dominant force driving the evolution of the PIA sequences, purifying selection operates also on the PIB sequences. These differences may be attributable to the greater propensity of PIA strains, as compared with PIB strains, to cause disseminated gonococcal infection, which would expose the former to intense selection pressure from the host immune system. The molecular evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae seems to be driven by the simultaneous action of selection and recombination, but under different rates and selection pressures for the PIA and PIB homology groups.

  15. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  17. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  18. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  19. Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains.

  20. Saturating mutagenesis of an essential gene: a majority of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae major outer membrane porin (PorB) is mutable.

    PubMed

    Chen, Adrienne; Seifert, H Steven

    2014-02-01

    The major outer membrane porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an essential protein that mediates ion exchange between the organism and its environment and also plays multiple roles in human host pathogenesis. To facilitate structure-function studies of porin's multiple roles, we performed saturating mutagenesis at the porB locus and used deep sequencing to identify essential versus mutable residues. Random mutations in porB were generated in a plasmid vector, and mutant gene pools were transformed into N. gonorrhoeae to select for alleles that maintained bacterial viability. Deep sequencing of the input plasmid pools and the output N. gonorrhoeae genomic DNA pools identified mutations present in each, and the mutations in both pools were compared to determine which changes could be tolerated by the organism. We examined the mutability of 328 amino acids in the mature PorB protein and found that 308 of them were likely to be mutable and that 20 amino acids were likely to be nonmutable. A subset of these predictions was validated experimentally. This approach to identifying essential amino acids in a protein of interest introduces an additional application for next-generation sequencing technology and provides a template for future studies of both porin and other essential bacterial genes.

  1. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  2. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  3. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  4. Iron (FeSo4) bioavailability in obese subjects submitted to bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Luciana; Pizzo, Juliana C; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Dutra-de-Oliveira, José Eduardo; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Barbosa Junior, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Obesos sometidos a cirugía bariátrica muestran la utilización de deterioro de hierro. Evaluar la biodisponibilidad del hierro en los obesos por el consumo de suplemento nutricional que contiene múltiples nutrientes antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Material y Métodos: El estudio incluyó a 14 voluntarios antes y después de la cirugía bariátrica que recibieron formulaciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes y medir las concentraciones séricas de hierro en ayunas y cada 1 hora después de la ingestión de formulaciones, con un total de cuatro horas. Resultados: Ferremia por el consumo de entre dos formulaciones de pre-y post-operatorios fueron: El ayuno 104.50 (70,00-363,00) mg / dl y 198.00 (38.00 a 617.00) mg / dl, 103.00 horas (63,00 a 305,00) mg / dl y 160.00 (11,00- 206,90) mg / dL, 2 horas 102.50 (62.00 a 150.00) mg / dL y 141.30 (10.00 a 412.20) mg / dl, 3 horas 97.00 (63.00 a 190.00) mg mg / dl y 153,00 (6,00 hasta 269,60) / dl , 4 horas 91,00 (58,00 a 163,00) mg / dl y 156.10 (40.00 a 250.50) mg / dl y no hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los dos períodos para los niveles de hierro suero. Los valores de la zona de las curvas en el suero fueron 453,50 ± 202,80 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,000 y 579,00 ± 380,30 mg / dl / hora, p = 0,007 y fue estadísticamente diferente entre los dos períodos. La biodisponibilidad del hierro en soluciones que contienen múltiples nutrientes se vio afectada antes y después de seis meses de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusión: Se encontró que los niveles se redujeron ferremia con la cirugía, que puede poner en peligro estos pacientes presentaron deficiencia de hierro.

  5. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  6. [Cerebral artery infarction presented as an unusual complication of acute middle otitis].

    PubMed

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la otitis media aguda es una inflamación del oído medio frecuente en la edad pediátrica. Aproximadamente 2 % de todos los casos desarrolla complicaciones intracraneales, más específicamente meningitis; por lo general, los infartos cerebrales originados por esta última son venosos. Rara vez se ha descrito la ocurrencia de un infarto arterial cerebral como complicación directa de la otitis media aguda. Caso clínico: niña de 12 meses de edad quien fue llevada a un servicio de urgencias por síndrome febril secundario a otitis media aguda y alteración del estado de conciencia. A la exploración física se identificó que estaba somnolienta, con anisocoria, midriasis en el ojo derecho y hemiparesia izquierda. Con la tomografía axial computarizada de cerebro se apreció un infarto arterial cerebral extenso. Los padres no autorizaron la craniectomía descompresiva y la paciente falleció a las 48 horas de su ingreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: a pesar de los recursos tecnológicos con los que se dispone actualmente, el infarto cerebral relacionado con la otitis media aguda tiene una evolución tórpida. Los signos neurológicos focalizadores y el deterioro progresivo deben apuntar a la ineficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano instaurado.

  7. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  8. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  9. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone.

  10. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  11. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  12. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  13. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  14. [Acute otitis media: could it be a sentinel indicator of health care?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Valle-Alvarado, Gabriel; Krug-Llamas, Ernesto; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la otitis media aguda es la enfermedad bacteriana más frecuente en los niños menores de cinco años, por lo que constituye una de las causas más comunes de consulta médica pediátrica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer el panorama epidemiológico de la otitis media aguda, con la finalidad de determinar la factibilidad de considerarla un indicador centinela de la atención médica. MÉTODOS: se recolectaron y analizaron todos los casos nuevos de otitis media aguda que se presentaron entre 2008 y 2011. Se determinaron proporciones, razones y tasas de incidencia, y se calcularon los límites para proporciones por prueba exacta de P-media. Resultados: en los niños menores de cinco años de edad se observó 20 % de los casos de otitis media no supurativa y 17 % de los casos de otitis media supurativa. En ese grupo de edad, aumentó la razón de casos de infecciones respiratorias agudas en relación con los de otitis media: 87:1 en 2008 a 53:1 en 2011.

  15. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  16. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  17. Neisserial porin (PorB) causes rapid calcium influx in target cells and induces apoptosis by the activation of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, A; Günther, D; Düx, F; Naumann, M; Meyer, T F; Rudel, T

    1999-01-01

    The porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an intriguing bacterial factor owing to its ability to translocate from the outer bacterial membrane into host cell membranes where it modulates the infection process. Here we report on the induction of programmed cell death after prolonged infection of epithelial cells with pathogenic Neisseria species. The underlying mechanism we propose includes translocation of the porin, a transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and subsequent activation of the Ca2+ dependent protease calpain as well as proteases of the caspase family. Blocking the porin channel by ATP eliminates the Ca2+ signal and also abolishes its pro-apoptotic function. The neisserial porins share structural and functional homologies with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). The neisserial porin may be an analogue or precursor of the ancient permeability transition pore, the putative central regulator of apoptosis. PMID:9889191

  18. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  19. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  20. [EFFICIENCY OF HAEMOGLOBIN REGENERATION IN THE NUTRITIONAL FERROPENIC ANAEMIA RECOVERY WITH GOAT MILK-BASED DIETS].

    PubMed

    Serrano Reina, José Antonio; Nestares Pleguezuelo, Teresa; Muñoz Alférez, Ma José; Díaz Castro, Javier; López Aliaga, Ma Inmaculada

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: a pesar de la alta incidencia de anemia ferropénica y de los efectos beneficiosos derivados del consumo de leche de cabra, poco se conoce, en realidad, acerca de la recuperación de la anemia mediante una dieta equilibrada acompañada de la ingesta de leche de cabra. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar, en ratas con anemia ferropénica nutricional, los efectos de dietas elaboradas a base de leche de cabra, en comparación con la de vaca, suministradas durante 30 días, sobre la recuperación de la anemia y la eficacia de regeneración de la hemoglobina. Material y métodos: se han utilizado 40 ratas macho Wistar albina recién destetadas divididas al azar en dos grupos experimentales y alimentadas ad libitum durante 40 días con dieta AIN-93G con contenido normal de hierro (grupo control, 45 mg/kg dieta), o bajo (grupo anémico, 5 mg/kg dieta). Se toman muestras de sangre de la vena caudal para el control hematológico de la anemia. Posteriormente, cada uno de los dos grupos experimentales (control y ferrodeficiente) fueron alimentados durante 30 días con dietas elaboradas a base de leche de cabra o vaca. Al finalizar el período experimental y previa anestesia, las ratas se desangran por canulación de la aorta abdominal, y la sangre obtenida se recoge en un tubo con EDTA como anticoagulante para la posterior determinación de los parámetros hematológicos y la eficacia de regeneración de la hemoglobina. Resultados y discusión: tras el consumo de una dieta con bajo contenido en hierro durante 40 días, las ratas eran anémicas, con una concentración de hemoglobina, hematocrito, hierro sérico, volumen corpuscular medio (VCM), ferritina sérica y saturación de la transferrina bajos (p < 0,001), mientras que los niveles de plaquetas y la capacidad total de unión al hierro (TIBC) estaban elevados (p < 0,001), hallazgos consistentes con la anemia inducida experimentalmente en ratas. La eficacia de regeneración de la hemoglobina era mayor

  1. Population genetics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-prevalence community using a hypervariable outer membrane porB and 13 slowly evolving housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Viscidi, Raphael P; Demma, James C; Zenilman, Jonathan; Crandall, Keith A

    2005-09-01

    Baltimore, Md., is an urban community with a high prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Due to partially protective immune responses, introduction of new strains from other host populations, and exposure of N. gonorrhoeae to antibiotics, the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the circulating strains can fluctuate over time. Understanding the overall genetic diversity and population structure of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for informing public health interventions to eliminate this pathogen. We studied gonococci population genetics in Baltimore by analyzing a hypervariable and strongly selected outer membrane porB gene and 13 slowly evolving and presumably neutral housekeeping genes (abcZ, adk, aroE, fumC, gdh, glnA, gnd, pdhC, pgm, pilA, ppk, pyrD, and serC) in 204 isolates collected in 1991, 1996, and 2001 from male and female patients of two public sexually transmitted diseases clinics. Genetic diversity (), recombination (C), growth (g), population structure, and adaptive selection under codon-substitution and amino acid property models were estimated and compared between these two gene classes. Estimates of the F(ST) fixation index and the chi(2) test of sequence absolute frequencies revealed significant temporal substructuring for both gene types. Baltimore's N. gonorrhoeae populations have increased since 1991 as indicated by consistent positive values of g. Female patients showed similar or lower levels of and C than male patients. Within the MLST housekeeping genes, levels of and C ranged from 0.001-0.013 and 0.000-0.018, respectively. Overall recombination seems to be the dominant force driving evolution in these populations. All loci showed amino acid sites and physicochemical properties under adaptive (or positive-destabilizing) selection, rejecting the generally assumed hypothesis of stabilizing selection for these MLST genes. Within the porB gene, protein I B showed higher and C values than protein I A. Directional positive selection possibly

  2. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h−1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone: association with genetic polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Robert; Fredlund, Hans; Nicholas, Robert; Unemo, Magnus

    2007-06-01

    The recent emergence and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefixime and ceftriaxone have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of different polymorphisms in the penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), and ponA genes of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Eighteen gonococcal isolates with reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cef(i)) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cef(i) isolates (n = 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 mug/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 mug/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned five different serovars and six divergent NG-MAST sequence types. Eleven isolates (61%) with higher MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone contained a nearly identical penA mosaic allele and previously described polymorphisms in mtrR (a single nucleotide [A] deletion in the promoter), penB (mutations in porB1b encoding loop 3 of PorB1b), and ponA (ponA1 polymorphism). The remaining seven Cef(i) isolates (39%), which had somewhat lower MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone, contained an aspartic acid insertion (Asp-345a) in PBP 2 in conjunction with alterations of 4 to 10 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region of the transpeptidase domain of penA. In conclusion, an unambiguous association between penA mosaic alleles, in conjunction with genetic polymorphisms in mtrR, porB1b, and ponA, and greater reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone was identified.

  5. [Vitamin and minerals consumed food group by Chilean university students].

    PubMed

    Durán Aguero, Samuel; Reyes García, Susanne; Gaete, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La etapa universitaria es un proceso en el cual las personas pasan por periodos prolongados de inactividad física y horarios irregulares de comidas, lo que conlleva al incremento en el consumo de alimentos procesados y de comida rápida. Objetivo: Fue determinar el aporte vitaminas y minerales por grupo de alimentos en la alimentación de estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Se trabajó con una muestra de 654 estudiantes universitarios chilenos (18-24 años, 54% mujeres), a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario de frecuencia semanal de consumo de alimentos, la información recolectada se clasificó en 12 grupos representativos de cada conjunto de alimentos y se determinó la ingesta de vitaminas y minerales. Resultados: Los principales resultados fueron: (a) las mujeres presentaron menor ingesta de la mayoría de micronutrientes que los hombres; (b) el ácido pantotenico, la vitamina B12 y E, el calcio, magnesio y el hierro son los nutrientes que presentaron ingestas promedio inferiores a las recomendaciones diarias; (c) el consumo de pan es fundamental para el aporte de vitaminas del complejo B, hierro, cobre y selenio. Conclusión: En la dieta habitual de los estudiantes universitarios chilenos, el pan constituye un elemento fundamental para el aporte dietario de vitaminas del complejo B, hierro, cobre y selenio; así como los lácteos para el calcio; las carnes y pescado para la vitamina B12 y el zinc; las verduras para la vitamina A y las frutas para la vitamina C.

  6. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  7. Evolution of sensitivity to fosfomycin in bacteria isolated in 1973, 1974 and 1975 in the Servicio de Microbiologia y Epidemiologia of the 'Clinica Puerta de Hierro', Madrid.

    PubMed

    Dámaso, D; Moreno-López, M; Martínez-Beltrán, J

    1977-01-01

    The bacteriostatic activity of fosfomycin was studied in vitro against 1,243 clinical isolations of gram-positive cocci and 4,086 isolations of gram-negative bacilli that were obtained in 1973, 1974 and in the period from January to May of 1975. MIC was determined by the agar diffusion method, quantifying it by means of the standard curve that was worked out with the strain of E. coli NCTC 10,418. A slight increase in resistance was observed in the gram-positive cocci: 64 mug/ml were inhibitory for 63% of the 249 isolations obtained in 1973, 59.1% of the 716 isolations obtained in 1974, and 57.5% of the 278 isolations from 1975. A slight loss of sensitivity was also observed in the gram-negative bacilli: the aforementioned concentration of fosfomycin inhibited 36% of the 742 isolations from 1973, 33.6% of the 2,387 isolations from 1974 and 32.6% of the 957 isolations from 1975. 933 g of this antibiotic were consumed in our hospital in 1973, 4,203 g in 1974 and 957 g in 1975. The consumption rate per patient per year was 0.15, 0.72 and 0.20 g, respectively. In conclusion, although no change was observed in the sensitivity of some bacterial strains to fosfomycin, the overall study indicates a slight decrease in the sensitivity, although it does not apparently have any relationship to the consumption of fosfomycin in our hospital.

  8. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  9. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  10. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  11. HRM confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by G→A (position 857) mutation detection in the 16S rRNA gene before sequencing and after porA confirmation.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Volker; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny

    2012-05-01

    A total of 2273 specimens submitted to the Austin Hospital Pathology Service for Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening between September 1, 2009 and May 11, 2011 were used in this study. Specimens were simultaneously screened and confirmed with a previously published real time PCR assay for the opa gene (extra primers were included to increase sensitivity) and the porA gene respectively. The opa gene screen and initial porA gene confirmation yielded an N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate of 0.88% (20/2273) and 0.49% (11/2191) for specimens and patients respectively. A 16S rDNA High Resolution Melt confirmatory PCR was developed subsequently; this reduced the N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate to 0.35% (8/2273) and 0.27% (6/2191) for specimens and patients respectively (not altered by 16S sequencing). The higher rate of secondary confirmation (16S HRM) in patients compared with samples was due to the detection of species other than N. gonorrhoeae detected by the initial screening and confirmation test. This underlines the importance of performing the secondary confirmatory test that has been developed in this study.

  12. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  13. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  14. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  15. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  16. Metabolic disorders of liver and iron in diabetic and non-diabetic patients BMI < 35 or > 35 before gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Garcíacaballero, Manuel; Reyes-Ortiz, Alexander; Martínez-Moreno, José Manuel; Toval-Mata, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La presencia de anormalidades en las vías metabólicas del hierro y el funcionamiento del hígado pueden producir resistencia a la insulina o síndrome metabólico. Por lo tanto, es importante examinar esas alteraciones que pueden conducir al desarrollo de enfermedades. El estado nutricional es otro factor importante que está íntimamente ligada a la diabetes y la obesidad. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 131 pacientes (78 pacientes no diabéticos y 53 diabéticos), 37 pacientes IMC ≤35 (3 IMC < 25, 18 IMC 25-29,9, 16 IMC 30-34,9) y 94 pacientes IMC ≥35 (81 IMC 35-49,9 y 13 de IMC ≥50). Los sujetos fueron sometidos a estudios de laboratorio relacionadas con el funcionamiento del hígado y el metabolismo del hierro. Se determinó también el estado nutricional en nuestros pacientes. Resultados: El hierro estuvo alterado en 14% de los pacientes IMC >35 y los diabéticos alcanzaron 3% a 25%. La vitamina B12 fue baja en 4% de los no diabéticos IMC > 35, y alta en el 6% de los diabéticos IMC < 35. El 6% de los diabéticos IMC < 35 tenía hiperbilirrubinemia. Las transaminasas estuvieron elevadas en pacientes IMC > 35, pero exacerbados en los diabéticos. GGT se eleva del 41% al 47% en BMI > 35. ALP estuvo elevada en el 25% de los diabéticos. Las proteínas séricas totales y la albúmina estuvieron alterados en los diabéticos causando desnutrición leve. 90% de los pacientes tenían una nutrición normal y 10% desnutrición leve. Conclusiones: El metabolismo hepático y del hierro están estrechamente relacionadas con el inicio de la obesidad y la diabetes. Si hay un aumento de peso, los riesgos metabólicos acumulados se elevan. La presencia de la diabesidad y el aumento de la duración de la diabetes empeoran el metabolismo. El estado nutricional se altera en la obesidad, pero es peor con la adición de la diabetes.

  17. [Clinical features of acute leukemia and its relationship to the season of the year].

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Sánchez, Adrián; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian; Palmeros-Morgado, Goujon; Mendoza-García, Emma; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en 2009, 17.9 % de la morbilidad hospitalaria por tumores malignos en México correspondió a neoplasias hematooncológicas, principalmente a leucemias agudas. Algunos estudios sugieren un patrón estacional al presentarse más casos durante el verano. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estimar la relación entre los diferentes subtipos de leucemia aguda, la edad de presentación y la estación del año. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, que se llevó a cabo con los registros de enero de 2006 a abril de 2012 en un servicio de hematología; se incluyeron únicamente los pacientes con diagnósticos de novo de leucemia aguda, estratificada según la clasificación de la Asociación Franco-Américo-Británica. El análisis de temporalidad se realizó con el modelo periódico de Edward.

  18. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  19. [Acute gastroenteritis by Cambylobacter spp: a retrospective study of a paediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Teresa; Couto, Catarina; Romão, Patrícia; Melo, Isabel Saraiva de; Braga, Manuela; Diogo, José; Calhau, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A infeção por Campylobacter é a principal causa de gastroenterite aguda bacteriana pediátrica na União Europeia.Objetivos: Conhecer a prevalência de isolamento deste agente nas crianças admitidas na urgência com gastroenterite aguda que realizaram coprocultura, caracterizando a microbiologia, epidemiologia, clínica, terapêutica e complicações associadas.Material e Métodos: Casuística por consulta dos processos dos doentes admitidos na Urgência Pediátrica dum hospital distrital, durante 30 meses, com o diagnóstico de gastroenterite aguda e isolamento em coprocultura de Campylobacter.Resultados: Das 216 coproculturas efetuadas, 98 (45%) foram positivas. Identificámos Campylobacter spp. em 49 (50%) doentes. Destes, 30 (61%) eram do género feminino. A mediana de idades foi 23 meses. Catorze doentes tinham idade inferior a um ano, 25 entre um e cinco anos e 10 idade superior a cinco anos. Verificámos diarreia aquosa em cinco (10%) doentes, diarreia com sangue em 44 (90%), sangue e muco em 14 (29%), febre em 23 (47%), dor abdominal em 14 (29%) e vómitos em 11 (22%). Registámos um caso de sépsis. Internámos cinco doentes. Oito doentes foram medicados com azitromicina.Discussão: Esta é a maior casuística nacional publicada de gastroenterite aguda a Campylobacter em idade pediátrica e a primeira no sul do país. Campylobacter foi a principal bactéria identificada, associada maioritariamente a doença auto-limitada. Contudo, há a considerar formas de infeção graves. O aumento da resistência às quinolonas é preocupante.Conclusão: A utilização criteriosa da coprocultura permite a identificação etiológica na gastrenterite aguda bacteriana. O crescente aumento dos casos de Campylobacter diagnosticados reforça a necessidade de maior controlo das medidas de higiene na manipulação dos alimentos.

  20. [Isolated bacteria from nasal cultures. Are they important in patients with acute leukemia?].

    PubMed

    Barranco-Lampón, Gilberto; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto; Cabrera-Osuna, Silvia; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Ventura, Yanet; Gutiérrez-Romero, Mario; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfos; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la colonización nasal por Staphylcoccus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus es frecuente y se ha relacionado con bacteremia en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. En la investigación que se presenta, los objetivos fueron determinar la frecuencia de cepas que colonizan la mucosa nasal en pacientes en tratamiento de leucemia aguda y su relación con los cultivos de sangre periférica. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, retrolectivo de cultivos nasales obtenidos durante cuatro semanas. La relación con los hemocultivos se estableció mediante chi cuadrada; se calculó razón de momios.

  1. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  2. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  4. Construction and Functional Activities of Chimeric Mouse-Human Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against the Neisseria meningitidis PorA P1.7 and P1.16 Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Terje E.; Ihle, Øistein; Beckstrøm, Karen Johanne; Herstad, Tove K.; Kolberg, Jan; Høiby, E. Arne; Aase, Audun

    2003-01-01

    We studied the in vitro protective activities of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG3, and IgM antibodies against group B meningococci by constructing sets of chimeric mouse-human antibodies (chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM, respectively) with identical binding regions against the P1.7 and P1.16 epitopes on PorA. This was done by cloning the V genes of three mouse hybridoma antibodies and subsequently transfecting vectors containing the homologous heavy- and light-chain genes into NSO cells. Cell clones secreting intact human chIgG1, chIgG3, or chIgM antibodies originating from three parent mouse antibodies were isolated. The functional affinities appeared to be similar for all human isotypes and surprisingly also for the pentameric chIgM antibody. chIgG1 exhibited greater serum bactericidal activity (SBA) than chIgG3, while chIgG3 was more efficient in inducing a respiratory burst (RB) associated with opsonophagocytosis than chIgG1 was. On the other hand, chIgM exhibited SBA similar to that of chIgG1, but it exhibited much higher RB activity than chIgG3 and chIgG1 exhibited. The antibodies against the P1.16 epitope were more efficient in terms of SBA than the antibodies against the P1.7 epitope were; thus, 10- to 40-fold-lower concentrations of antibodies against P1.16 than of antibodies against P1.7 were needed to induce SBA. On the other hand, antibodies against these epitopes were equally effective in inducing RB. Our results revealed differences in the functional activities of human chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM antibodies against meningococci, which might influence their protective effects against meningococcal disease. PMID:14500492

  5. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  6. [Acute optic neuropathy: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Buompadre, María Celeste

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. La alteracion funcional del nervio optico se caracteriza por un deficit en la agudeza visual, en la vision cromatica y en el campo visual, defecto pupilar aferente y, en algunos casos, edema del nervio o atrofia y palidez. Objetivo. Describir el espectro de neuropatias opticas agudas, su clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento, con mayor interes en aquellas de presentacion en la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. La neuritis optica puede ser monofasica, recurrente o el componente de un cuadro desmielinizante polisintomatico. El objetivo del tratamiento es reducir el numero y la gravedad de los ataques y prevenir discapacidad. La infecciosa es secundaria a diferentes microorganismos (bacterias, virus, hongos y protozoos). El tratamiento depende de la etiologia. La isquemica anterior no arteritica o idiopatica es la forma mas frecuente y es secundaria a enfermedad de pequeños vasos (ciliares posteriores). La neuropatia optica hereditaria o de Leber representa una causa importante de afectacion visual cronica y se caracteriza por la afectacion selectiva de las celulas ganglionares de la retina. Hasta el momento, la terapia solo es de apoyo. En el papiledema asociado a hipertension endocraneal, la agudeza visual generalmente se conserva pero existe aumento de la mancha ciega. El tratamiento se basa en disminuir la hipertension y el factor etiologico si existe. Conclusiones. Las neuropatias opticas agudas constituyen un amplio grupo de entidades, de etiologia diversa y con un pronostico visual variable. La presencia de signos del examen neurologico, fondo de ojo y neuroimagenes pueden orientar hacia el diagnostico y tratamiento oportuno.

  7. Etiological agents and antimicrobial susceptibility in hospitalized children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Martins, Tânia; Teixeira, Ana; Pinto, Helena; Botelho-Moniz, Edgar; Caldas-Afonso, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A resistência aos antimicrobianos, provocada pela utilização de antibióticos continua a ser um importante problema de saúde pública e uma preocupação para os profissionais de saúde. O nosso objetivo foi conhecer a prevalência local dos uropatógenos e o seu perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobiannos na pielonefrite aguda. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo nas crianças internadas por pielonefrite aguda no internamento de Pediatria de um hospital do norte de Portugal entre 1994-2012. Os agentes etiológicos e o seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foram avaliados em quatro períodos de tempo (G1: 1994-1997, G2: 2002; G3: 2007; G4: 2012). Resultados: Avaliámos 581 doentes, 66% do sexo feminino, com idade mediana de 22 meses. A Escherichia coli foi o principal uropatógeno e a sua prevalência manteve-se estável durante os últimos 18 anos. Verificou-se um aumento da sensibilidade à amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico de 71% no G1 para 81,5% no G4 (p = 0,001) e uma diminuição da taxa de resistência de 8,7% no G1 para 2,8% G4 (p = 0,008). A sua sensibilidade às cefalosporinas de segunda e terceira geração e nitrofurantoína foi superior a 90% (p = ns). A taxa de resistência ao cotrimoxazol aumentou de 22 % para 26 % (p = 0,008). Discussão: A Escherichia coli continua a ser o uropatogénio mais frequente responsável por pielonefrite aguda, motivo pelo qual o seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos determina a escolha da antibioticoterapia empírica. Conclusões: A amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico mantém-se como escolha de primeira linha para o tratamento empírico da pielonefrite aguda em regime de internamento.

  8. [ANTIOXIDANT DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL) IN DECOMPENSATED DIABETIC PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) tienen un importante efecto protector cardiovascular mediado por su función durante el transporte reverso del colesterol, así como por otras actividades, incluyendo una significativa acción antiinflamatoria y antioxidante. La funcionalidad antiinflamatoria y antioxidante de las HDL está alterada en los pacientes diabéticos crónicos estables, aunque no existe mayor información en caso de una crisis hiperglicémica. Objetivo: determinar si durante un estado de descompensación diabética aguda las partículas de HDL exhiben un deterioro de su función antioxidante y si esta logra recuperarse una vez resuelto el cuadro agudo. Métodos: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL se midió mediante un ensayo de fluorescencia in vitro en muestras plasmáticas de pacientes diabéticos con descompensación aguda obtenidas tanto al ingreso, alcanzada la resolución intrahospitalaria del evento agudo, así como en un control ambulatorio post-hospitalización. Como comparación, se analizaron partículas de HDL de algunos sujetos sanos como condición control. Resultados: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL en pacientes con descompensación diabética aguda fue significativamente menor a la observada en el grupo control sano, y esta se fue recuperando progresivamente hasta normalizarse en el momento del control ambulatorio. La crisis hiperglicémica también demostró una baja actividad plasmática de la enzima antioxidante paraoxonasa- 1, la cual aumentó significativamente en el control ambulatorio. Conclusión: las partículas de HDL presentes en pacientes con una descompensación diabética aguda presentan una reducción significativa y reversible de su capacidad antioxidante, probablemente como consecuencia de una alteración en la actividad de la paraoxonasa-1.

  9. [Neurological complications in the population of children with leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cayuelas, Elena; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Pascual-Gázquez, Juan F; Martínez-Salcedo, Eduardo; Alarcón-Martínez, Helena; Bermúdez-Cortés, Mar; Fuster-Soler, José L; Pérez-Fernández, Virginia

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. La leucemia es el cancer mas frecuente en edad pediatrica. Su tasa de curacion es del 80% con quimioterapia intensiva, que mejora la supervivencia, pero que tambien aumenta la frecuencia de efectos adversos, incluyendo los neurologicos. Objetivos. Describir la frecuencia y caracteristicas de las complicaciones neurologicas (CN) en pacientes con leucemia aguda linfoide (LAL) y leucemia aguda mieloide (LAM), e identificar los factores asociados a su presencia, la tasa de morbilidad neurologica y la supervivencia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de las CN presentes durante el tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con LAL y LAM entre 1997 y 2012 por la unidad de oncohematologia infantil. Variables analizadas: datos demograficos, diagnostico oncologico, tratamiento y CN. Resultados. Se incluyo un total de 157 pacientes, 145 sin infiltracion de sistema nervioso central al diagnostico y ocho con infiltracion (tasa de CN del 14 y 12%, respectivamente). Las CN mas frecuentes fueron: neuropatias (31%), alteracion del nivel de conciencia (27%), convulsiones (22%) y cefalea (12%). Un 40% de los pacientes con CN ha presentado secuelas, pero ninguno ha fallecido como consecuencia de la CN. Se han detectado mas CN en el grupo de edad menor de 6 años con LAL de alto grado, en niveles de gravedad mas altos y en pacientes que habian recibido trasplante de precursores hematopoyeticos, todas ellas con diferencias estadisticamente significativas. Conclusiones. Las complicaciones neurologicas son frecuentes en los pacientes con leucemia aguda, en especial en aquellos con estadio de riesgo alto (sobre todo si son menores de 6 años) y trasplante de precursores hematopoyeticos. La mortalidad asociada es baja.

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingsong; Li, Yijun; Wu, Xiaolu; Liu, Qingqing; Tang, Xue; Wang, Zuo

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: oligoelementos como zinc (Zn), hierro (Fe) y cobre (Cu) tienen una influencia significativa en el mantenimiento de la función inmune y del metabolismo normales; modulan la función immune e influyen en la susceptibilidad del organismo ante infecciones. Pero la relación entre trazas de estos elementos y la bronconeumonía resultó incierta. Métodos: en este estudio fueron incluidos 28 niños con bronconeumonía y 46 niños sanos agrupados por edad. Se determinaron los niveles de Zn, Cu, Fe, calcio (Ca) y/o magnesio (Mg) en el suero de los niños con bronconeumonía y sin ella mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: los resultados muestran que varios niveles de microelementos como Zn, Ca, Mg y Fe en el grupo con bronconeumonía son menores que en el grupo control. En el grupo de niños con bronconeumonía el nivel de Ca en el suero está asociado positivamente con el zinc (Zn) (p < 0,05) y el hierro (Fe) (p < 0,05), mientras que hay una correlación positiva entre el cobre (Cu) y el calcio (Ca) (p < 0,05), magnesio (mg) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: el nivel de oligoelemento en el suero puede estar asociado con el riesgo de bronconeumonía entre los niños. PMID:27238780

  11. [TEEN MOTHER AND NEWBORN NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN A GROUP OF TEENAGERS OF THE CITY OF MEDELLIN].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: en los países en vía de desarrollo, entre ellos Colombia, el embarazo adolescente es un problema de salud pública por sus consecuencias sociales, de salud y nutrición para el binomio madre-hijo. Objetivo: evaluar las características demográficas, socioeconómicas, de seguridad alimentaria, de salud y el estado nutricional en un grupo de gestantes adolescentes y sus recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal con 294 embarazadas adolescentes en el tercer trimestre de gestación del programa de control prenatal de la Red Pública Hospitalaria de Medellín-Colombia, durante 2011-2012. Se buscó la asociación del índice de masa corporal materno, estado nutritivo del hierro y peso al nacer del neonato con variables explicativas. Resultados: los ingresos económicos mensuales inferiores a un salario mínimo se asociaron con bajo peso materno y con recién nacidos pequeños para la edad gestacional. El bajo peso gestacional se presentó en mayor proporción en las gestantes de 15 años o menos y con una edad ginecológica inferior a cinco años. La prevalencia de anemia fue baja en el primer trimestre y aumentó significativamente al final del embarazo; 90% presentaron reservas inadecuadas de hierro. El bajo peso al nacer se asoció con la presencia de infecciones y el bajo peso materno en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Conclusión: la gestación adolescente es un problema complejo que se asocia con efectos negativos en el estado nutricional, de salud y social de la mujer y su recién nacido.

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingsong; Li, Yijun; Wu, Xiaolu; Liu, Qingqing; Tang, Xue; Wang, Zuo

    2016-03-25

    Objetivos: oligoelementos como zinc (Zn), hierro (Fe) y cobre (Cu) tienen una influencia significativa en el mantenimiento de la función inmune y del metabolismo normales; modulan la función immune e influyen en la susceptibilidad del organismo ante infecciones. Pero la relación entre trazas de estos elementos y la bronconeumonía resultó incierta. Métodos: en este estudio fueron incluidos 28 niños con bronconeumonía y 46 niños sanos agrupados por edad. Se determinaron los niveles de Zn, Cu, Fe, calcio (Ca) y/o magnesio (Mg) en el suero de los niños con bronconeumonía y sin ella mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: los resultados muestran que varios niveles de microelementos como Zn, Ca, Mg y Fe en el grupo con bronconeumonía son menores que en el grupo control. En el grupo de niños con bronconeumonía el nivel de Ca en el suero está asociado positivamente con el zinc (Zn) (p < 0,05) y el hierro (Fe) (p < 0,05), mientras que hay una correlación positiva entre el cobre (Cu) y el calcio (Ca) (p < 0,05), magnesio (mg) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: el nivel de oligoelemento en el suero puede estar asociado con el riesgo de bronconeumonía entre los niños.

  13. [The Importance of Early Referral in Pediatric Acute Liver Failure].

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Mónica; Moinho, Rita; Pinto, Carla; Carvalho, Leonor; Gonçalves, Isabel; Furtado, Emanuel; Farela Neves, José

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A falência hepática aguda é uma doença rara associada a elevada morbilidade e mortalidade apesar do aumento da sobrevida devido ao transplante hepático. Em 2008, decorreu em Portugal uma reunião sobre esta patologia em pediatria, resultando num consenso de atuação que salientou a importância da abordagem multidisciplinar e referenciação precoce para um centro de transplantação hepática. Objetivos: Caracterizar as admissões por falência hepática aguda no Serviço de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos do centro português com transplante hepático pediátrico. Comparar resultados antes (A) e depois de 2008 (B). Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospetivo de 20 anos (1994-2014). Critérios de inclusão: idade < 18 anos e falência hepática aguda (INR ≥ 2 sem resposta à vitamina K e necrose hepatocelular). Excluíram-se as crianças com doença hepática crónica. Resultados: Incluíram-se 50 crianças com idade mediana de 24,5 meses. A causa mais comum de falência hepática aguda abaixo dos 2 anos foi metabólica (34,6%) e acima infeciosa (29,2%). Foram submetidos a transplante hepático 46%, tendo sobrevivido 78%. A mortalidade global foi 34%. A mediana do tempo de referenciação foi 7 dias no período A (n = 35) e 2 no B (n = 15; p = 0,006). A mediana do risco de mortalidade prevista pelo PRISM foi 14,7% no período A e 6,5% no B (p = 0,019). A mortalidade foi 37% vs 26% no período A e B respetivamente (p = 0,474).Discussão e Conclusões: A mortalidade global foi sobreponível à de outros centros europeus, sendo o transplante hepático a opção terapêutica mais eficaz. Após 2008 o tempo de referenciação e a gravidade dos casos na admissão reduziram, ainda sem tradução significativa na mortalidade.

  14. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  15. [Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cayuelas, E; Herraiz-Martinez, M; Villacieros-Hernandez, L; Cean-Cabrera, L; Martinez-Salcedo, E; Alarcon-Martinez, H; Domingo-Jimenez, R; Perez-Fernandez, V

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. Las convulsiones febriles son una de las causas mas frecuentes de consulta. Hasta ahora, los pacientes con convulsiones febriles complejas (CFC) deben ingresar, dado el mayor porcentaje de epilepsia y complicaciones agudas descrito clasicamente. En la actualidad hay estudios que apoyan ser menos invasivos en el abordaje de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas de los pacientes ingresados por CFC y proponer un nuevo protocolo de actuacion. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis retrospectivo de historias clinicas de ingresados por CFC (enero de 2010-diciembre de 2013). Se ofrecen datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, pruebas complementarias y evolucion. Resultados. Las CFC suponian un 4,2% de los ingresos de neuropediatria (n = 67). Edad media al evento: 25 meses. El 47% tenia antecedentes familiares patologicos, y el 31%, antecedentes personales de convulsion febril previa. En el 54% de los pacientes, la CFC duro menos de cinco minutos; hubo recurrencia, la mayoria con un total de dos crisis y durante el primer dia (las CFC por recurrencia son las mas frecuentes). De las pruebas complementarias realizadas, ninguna de ellas sirvio como apoyo diagnostico en el momento agudo. Durante su seguimiento, cinco pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Los pacientes con antecedentes familiares de convulsiones febriles presentan mayor riesgo de epilepsia o recurrencia (p = 0,02), sin diferencias significativas respecto a la edad, numero de crisis, intervalo de fiebre, estado epileptico o tipo de CFC. Conclusiones. Las CFC no asocian mayores complicaciones agudas; las exploraciones complementarias no permiten discriminar precozmente a los pacientes de riesgo. Su ingreso podria evitarse en ausencia de otros signos clinicos y limitarse a casos seleccionados.

  16. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Introduccion. La intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion aguda porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones por monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados por monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos por 100.000 habitantes y año.

  17. URINARY LOSS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY HOSPITAL SERVICE.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Souza Santos, Roberta Deh; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian

    2015-08-01

    Introducción/objetivos: la deficiencia de micronutrientes puede contribuir a un menor control de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la excreción urinaria de micronutrientes en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: los pacientes con diabetes y los controles fueron evaluados por la ingesta de alimentos, la antropometría, la pérdida urinaria de micronutrientes y comparados por Mann Whitney no paramétrico (p < 0,05). Resultados: fueron evaluados nueve sujetos diabéticos (52 ± 14 años con un IMC de 30 ± 11 kg/m² y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC) de 99 ± 25 cm) y nueve sujetos control (51 ± 16 años, IMC 26 ± 5 kg/m² y CA total de 90 ± 13 cm). La excreción de hierro más alta se observó en el grupo diabético y la mayor excreción de magnesio en el grupo de control. Conclusiones: el tipo 2 de pacientes diabéticos estudiados aquí no mostraron un aumento en la excreción de micronutrientes en la orina en comparación con los controles.

  18. CHRONIC ENTERITIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ASSOCIATED COMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Kyriakos, Georgios; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la radiacion de los tumores de la cavidad pelvica puede provocar mucositis a nivel intestinal. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia, los factores de riesgo y las complicaciones de la enteritis radica cronica en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal sobre 150 pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica durante el ano 2008 debido a un cancer de prostata, cervix, endometrio o recto. Se interrogo a los pacientes sobre la presencia de sintomas sugestivos de enteritis y sobre cambios en el peso habitual y modificaciones en su dieta. Los parametros considerados como posibles factores de riesgo de enteritis cronica (sexo, edad, tratamiento antitumoral, enteritis aguda previa y tipo de tumor) se analizaron con metodos univariantes y multivariantes. Resultados: el estudio incluyo finalmente a 100 pacientes, el 84% varones, con una mediana de edad de 72,3 anos. Se encontro una prevalencia de enteritis radica cronica del 20%, en la mayoria de grado 1 (45%). Por otra parte, el 10% referian una perdida de peso ≥ 5 kg, el 3% habian requerido hospitalizacion debido a diarrea incoercible o a obstruccion intestinal, y el 11% habian modificado su patron de alimentacion habitual, reduciendo principalmente el consumo de verduras, legumbres y dulces. Se encontro asociacion entre la enteritis radica cronica y el sexo masculino, la edad, la enteritis radica aguda previa y la quimioterapia, pero solo esta resulto asociarse de forma independiente con el desarrollo de enteritis radica cronica despues del analisis multivariante (OR = 3,59 [95% CI 1,20–10,73]). Conclusión: la enteritis cronica es una entidad frecuente en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica, sobre todo cuando se asocia con quimioterapia. La tasa de complicaciones por esta patologia es baja, pero un numero importante de pacientes realiza modificaciones en su dieta habitual para aliviar o evitar la sintomatologia derivada

  19. [Scorpionism causing severe acute flaccid paralysis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Vázquez-Solís, Ma Guadalupe; Zamora-López, Xochitl Xitlalli; Arias-Corona, Fernando; Palomera-Ávila, Francisco Miguel; Pulido-Galaviz, Carlos; Pacifuentes-Orozco, Adán

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el alacranismo es un problema de salud pública en diversas regiones del mundo, siendo México el país que tiene mayor número de casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas oscilan desde sintomatología local hasta cuadros graves con repercusiones a nivel cardiovascular, respiratorio y neurológico, e incluso la muerte. No existen reportes de parálisis flácida como una manifestación del cuadro clínico por picadura del alacrán del género Centruroides, familia Buthidae, especie altamente tóxica, endémica y causante de altos índices de morbimortalidad en nuestra región. Caso clínico: documentamos un caso de alacranismo grave, provocado por escorpión de la familia Buthidae del género Centruroides, que causó parálisis flácida aguda, posterior a resolución de otras manifestaciones severas. Solo existe un reporte de caso de alacranismo que produce parálisis flácida aguda en la literatura médica, pero relacionado con el escorpión de la familia Parabuthus, endémico de Sudáfrica, el cual no es endémico en México. Conclusiones: conocer esta complicación, nueva para nuestra región, permitirá maximizar esfuerzos para diagnosticar y manejar oportunamente esta entidad con la aplicación temprana de faboterápico específico y soporte vital avanzado.

  20. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  1. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  2. [Spanish translation and validation of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) to assess balance and postural control in adult post-stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Girabent-Farrés, Monserrat; Cánovas-Vergé, David; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda M; Germán-Romero, Ana; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. En los ultimos años, la Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) se ha convertido en la escala mas utilizada para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos que han sufrido un ictus, especialmente en la fase aguda y subaguda. Objetivo. Traducir y validar la PASS para la poblacion española como instrumento de valoracion del equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus. Pacientes y metodos. Se tradujo al español la version original francesa de la PASS; dicha version fue consensuada por un equipo de expertos. Posteriormente se hizo una retrotraduccion al frances y se envio al autor de la escala, el cual aprobo dicha version. Seguidamente se evaluo la fiabilidad intra e interobservador; para ello se llevaron a cabo cuatro mediciones a 60 pacientes postictus, a partir de una videograbacion. Dos de estas mediciones fueron realizadas por el mismo observador, y la tercera y cuarta, por un segundo y tercer observadores. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de la escala reflejan un indice de fiabilidad del 0,999; tambien muestran una fiabilidad superior a 0,90 en cada uno de los items, tanto en las comparaciones intraobservador como interobservador, y una consistencia interna del 0,94. Conclusion. La version española de la PASS es valida y fiable para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus.

  3. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  4. [Variability in the in-hospital management of acute myocardial infarction in Spain. IBERICA Study (Investigación, Búsqueda Específica y Registro de Isquemia Coronaria Aguda)].

    PubMed

    Fiol, M; Cabadés, A; Sala, J; Marrugat, J; Elosua, R; Vega, G; José Tormo Díaz, M; Segura, A; Aldasoro, E; Moreno-Iribas, C; Muñiz, J; Hurtado de Saracho, I; García, J

    2001-04-01

    Introduction and objective. Although some in-hospital studies have described the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients in Spain, none has been able to guarantee the exhaustiveness of patient registry. This study sought to determine the clinical characteristics and in-hospital management of patients with MI in eight Spanish population registries.Methods. The IBERICA study is a population-based MI registry carried out in the 25 to 74 year-old population, in eight Spanish regions in 1997. A standardized methodology was used to register and investigate all MI arriving alive to a hospital. Clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors prevalence, pharmacological treatment, invasive and non-invasive procedures performed and complications at 28 days of evolution were recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed and the variation coefficient (VC) was calculated.Results. In 1997, 4,041 MI patients were registered, 79.9% were men with a mean age of 61.1 years. Although 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) were not admitted to the coronary care unit, a large variability existed among different areas (VC = 53%). There was a high variability in the utilization and performance of non-invasive and invasive procedures among regions, as well as in the use of pharmacological treatment. Only the use of antiaggregants (91.5%) and thrombolytic therapy (41.8%) showed a low variability (VC < 10%). Twenty-eight day mortality was 16.2% (95% CI: 15.1-17.4%) with a high variability being observed among the different regions (VC = 20.6%).Conclusion. Patient characteristics vary among the different Spanish regions. The differences in management and prognosis suggest a lack of equality in the health care provided to MI patients in the different regions in Spain.

  5. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  6. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    El embarazo representa un desafío desde el punto de vista nutricional, debido a que las necesidades de nutrientes están aumentadas y una alteración en su ingesta puede afectar la salud materno-fetal. Estados deficitarios en micronutrientes están relacionados con preeclampsia, retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, aborto y anomalías congénitas. Actualmente, la dieta de muchas madres gestantes es insuficiente en micronutrientes, siendo necesaria su suplementación. Se recomienda la suplementación con ácido fólico en dosis de 400 μg/día, y de 5 mg en embarazadas de riesgo, debiendo comenzar al menos 1 mes antes de la concepción y durante las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, y prolongarla durante todo el embarazo en madres con riesgo nutricional. Es importante vigilar la dosis adecuada de ácido fólico para prevenir los posibles efectos adversos derivados de su acumulación plasmática no metabolizada. Un elevado porcentaje de gestantes presenta anemia ferropénica, estando recomendado el uso intermitente de suplementos con hierro (menor alteración gastrointestinal y estrés oxidativo); no recomendándose en madres no anémicas (con hemoglobina > 13,5 g/L). Dado que la absorción de calcio está aumentada hasta un 40% en gestación, no se recomienda su suplementación en madres con ingestas adecuadas (3 lácteos/día), debiéndose reservar su uso a madres con ingestas insuficientes y/o que tengan alto riesgo de preeclampsia. Respecto al iodo, existen posicionamientos contradictorios por parte de distintos grupos de trabajo, estableciéndose la suplementación con yoduro potásico en mujeres que no alcanzan las ingestas recomendadas con su dieta (3 raciones de leche y derivados lácteos + 2 g de sal yodada). Dado que la vitamina A y D pueden ser tóxicas para la madre y el feto, no está recomendada su suplementación excepto en casos de deficiencia. Aunque la administración de suplementos con varios micronutrientes puede repercutir favorablemente en el

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    El embarazo representa un desafío desde el punto de vista nutricional, debido a que las necesidades de nutrientes están aumentadas y una alteración en su ingesta puede afectar la salud materno-fetal. Estados deficitarios en micronutrientes están relacionados con preeclampsia, retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, aborto y anomalías congénitas. Actualmente, la dieta de muchas madres gestantes es insuficiente en micronutrientes, siendo necesaria su suplementación. Se recomienda la suplementación con ácido fólico en dosis de 400 μg/día, y de 5 mg en embarazadas de riesgo, debiendo comenzar al menos 1 mes antes de la concepción y durante las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, y prolongarla durante todo el embarazo en madres con riesgo nutricional. Es importante vigilar la dosis adecuada de ácido fólico para prevenir los posibles efectos adversos derivados de su acumulación plasmática no metabolizada. Un elevado porcentaje de gestantes presenta anemia ferropénica, estando recomendado el uso intermitente de suplementos con hierro (menor alteración gastrointestinal y estrés oxidativo); no recomendándose en madres no anémicas (con hemoglobina > 13,5 g/L). Dado que la absorción de calcio está aumentada hasta un 40% en gestación, no se recomienda su suplementación en madres con ingestas adecuadas (3 lácteos/día), debiéndose reservar su uso a madres con ingestas insuficientes y/o que tengan alto riesgo de preeclampsia. Respecto al iodo, existen posicionamientos contradictorios por parte de distintos grupos de trabajo, estableciéndose la suplementación con yoduro potásico en mujeres que no alcanzan las ingestas recomendadas con su dieta (3 raciones de leche y derivados lácteos + 2 g de sal yodada). Dado que la vitamina A y D pueden ser tóxicas para la madre y el feto, no está recomendada su suplementación excepto en casos de deficiencia. Aunque la administración de suplementos con varios micronutrientes puede repercutir favorablemente en el

  9. [Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  10. Changes on metabolic parameters induced by acute cannabinoid administration (CBD, THC) in a rat experimental model of nutritional vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    El Amrani, Loubna; Porres, Jesús M; Merzouki, Abderrahmane; Louktibi, Abdelaziz; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La deficiencia en vitamina A está asociada a la malnutrición, malabsorción de este nutriente, metabolismo alterado de vitaminas por enfermedad hepática, o enfermedades crónicas debilitantes como VIH, cáncer o infección. La administración de cannabis ha sido descrita como una terapia eficaz en el tratamiento sintomático de determinadas manifestaciones de la deficiencia nutricional en vitamina A y de diversas enfermedades crónicas debilitantes. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo era estudiar el efecto de la administración de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) y cannabidiol (CBD) sobre las concentraciones plasmáticas y hepáticas de retinol y sobre parámetros bioquímicos relacionados con el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico (colesterolemia, trigliceridemia, glucemia) en un modelo experimental de rata deficiente en vitamina A. Métodos: El modelo experimental de deficiencia en vitamina A se desarrolló durante un periodo experimental de 50 días en los que las ratas consumieron una dieta libre en vitamina A. La administración de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) (10 mg/kg peso corporal) y cannabidiol (CBD) (5 mg/kg peso corporal) se llevo a cabo por vía intraperitoneal 2 horas antes del sacrificio de los animales al final del periodo experimental. Resultados: La deficiencia nutricional en vitamina A causó un descenso significativo en el contenido plasmático y hepático de retinol y en parámetros bioquímicos de metabolismo glucídico, lipídico y mineral. La administración intraperitoneal aguda de tetrahidrocannabinol y cannabidiol no mejoró los índices de estado nutricional de vitamina A en ratas deficientes o control. Sin embargo, tuvo un efecto significativo sobre parámetros bioquímicos específicos como la glucemia, colesterolemia y trigliceridemia. Conclusión: Bajo nuestras condiciones experimentales, el efecto de la administración de cannabinoides sobre determinadas manifestaciones de la deficiencia en vitamina A parece estar

  11. [Therapeutic plasma exchange: applications in neurology].

    PubMed

    Láinez-Andrés, José M; Gascón-Giménez, Francisco; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Santonja, José M

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El recambio plasmatico es una tecnica utilizada en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades neurologicas de base autoinmune desde los años ochenta, especialmente en situaciones agudas. En los ultimos años se han publicado nuevos datos sobre su empleo en numerosas entidades con base autoinmune, ampliando, con ello, el espectro de utilizacion. Objetivo. Actualizar las indicaciones de esta tecnica en el tratamiento de las enfermedades neurologicas. Desarrollo. Se ha realizado una revision exhaustiva de todos los articulos publicados desde los años ochenta sobre la eficacia del recambio plasmatico en el tratamiento de las diferentes enfermedades neurologicas. Tambien se ha efectuado un analisis detallado de las recomendaciones y evidencias de la utilizacion de este procedimiento por parte de las diferentes sociedades cientificas. Conclusiones. El recambio plasmatico ha demostrado ser una alternativa eficaz con evidencia cientifica de primer nivel en enfermedades como el sindrome de Guillain-Barre, la polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatoria cronica o la miastenia grave. Ha mostrado ser eficaz en el tratamiento de episodios desmielinizantes agudos sin respuesta a otras terapias, en los brotes de neuromielitis optica y en otras enfermedades del sistema nervioso central producidas por anticuerpos. En los estudios comparativos con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, la eficacia de ambas terapias es similar. Es preciso seguir realizando estudios comparativos para conocer mejor los mecanismos y establecer indicaciones prioritarias y comparar la relacion coste-eficacia de ambos procedimientos.

  12. [Gorlin syndrome in the paediatric age].

    PubMed

    Roncalés-Samanes, P; Peña-Segura, J L; Fernando-Martínez, R; Fuertes-Rodrigo, C; García-Oguiza, A; López-Pisón, J

    2014-04-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Gorlin (SG) es un trastorno de herencia autosomica dominante asociado a mutaciones en el gen PTCH1, cuya principal caracteristica es la aparicion de carcinomas basocelulares, unido a anomalias esqueleticas, queratoquistes odontogenicos y tumores intracraneales. Caso clinico. Niña de 3 años y 10 meses, ingresada por ataxia aguda. Destacan como antecedentes personales retraso psicomotor y como antecedentes familiares la sospecha de SG en la madre por quiste maxilar. En la exploracion, se aprecia macrocefalia con frente prominente e hipertelorismo, asi como nevo. Se solicita estudio genetico de SG, en el que se detecta la mutacion c.930delC en el exon 6 del gen PTCH1 en heterocigosis. Conclusiones. En el SG hay un aumento de la susceptibilidad al desarrollo de carcinomas basocelulares y es preciso un estrecho control dermatologico. Es necesario un seguimiento neurologico clinico y de imagen, mediante resonancia magnetica, para el diagnostico precoz de tumores intracraneales, fundamentalmente el meduloblastoma. Tambien son caracteristicos los queratoquistes odontogenicos, otras alteraciones cutaneas, fibromas cardiacos y ovaricos, asi como anomalias esqueleticas, que precisan controles clinicos y de imagen periodicos, y tratamiento en caso de ser necesarios, pero debe evitarse la radiacion. El SG es un trastorno poco frecuente, que se debe sospechar ante la presencia de alteraciones caracteristicas. Es necesario un seguimiento multidisciplinar, asi como establecer un protocolo de actuacion, para un temprano diagnostico y tratamiento de las complicaciones potencialmente graves derivadas de esta enfermedad.

  13. [Cluster headache in pediatric population: four case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Iznaola, C; Natera-de Benito, D; Rodriguez-Diaz, R; Taboas-Pereira, M A; Cuadrado-Martin, M; Ballesteros-Garcia, M M

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. La cefalea en racimos es una cefalea primaria de origen trigeminoautonomico cuyo inicio en la infancia es infrecuente. Se presentan cuatro casos en los que el inicio de la sintomatologia se produjo entre los 2 y los 13 años. Casos clinicos. Se incluyen tres varones y una niña con inicio a los 2, 7, 13 y 12 años, respectivamente. Los cuatro pacientes cumplen los criterios propuestos por la tercera edicion de la Clasificacion Internacional de las Cefaleas ICHD-III (beta). Conclusiones. A pesar de ser poco frecuente durante la edad pediatrica, la cefalea en racimos debe formar parte del diagnostico diferencial de un niño que consulta por cefalea. Subrayamos la importancia de conocer sus criterios diagnosticos para evitar el retraso diagnostico que se ha descrito con frecuencia. En nuestros pacientes, el tratamiento con verapamilo resulto mas eficaz que el tratamiento con flunaricina. Los tratamientos con mejor respuesta en fase aguda fueron la oxigenoterapia y los triptanes.

  14. [Hemorrhagic colloid cyst of the third ventricle: fulminant deterioration].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Debora; Joanes, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Vanaclocha, Vicente

    2015-03-16

    Introduccion. Los quistes coloides son tumores benignos del tercer ventriculo. La mayoria permanecen asintomaticos. Sin embargo, algunos pacientes pueden desarrollar desde cefaleas intermitentes hasta un deterioro agudo e incluso muerte subita. Existen varias teorias por las que se produciria una muerte subita en estos pacientes, entre las que se incluyen el rapido crecimiento del quiste, su rotura, la alteracion del control cardiovascular reflejo mediado por el hipotalamo y, rara vez, el sangrado del quiste, con solo 15 casos descritos en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Varon de 45 años, con hipertension arterial como unico antecedente de interes, que sufre un deterioro brusco del nivel de consciencia a causa de una hidrocefalia aguda debida a un quiste coloide hemorragico del tercer ventriculo. Se implanto un drenaje ventricular externo en cada lado e ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde se certifico la muerte encefalica. Tras la extirpacion del quiste mediante abordaje transcortical frontal, se confirmo el diagnostico de quiste coloide con restos de material hemolizado subagudo. Conclusion. La hemorragia en los quistes coloides es excepcional y puede producirse en pacientes tanto sintomaticos como asintomaticos, lo que dificulta, de forma extraordinaria, el reconocimiento de esta complicacion.

  15. [Influenza-like illness. Therapeutic experience in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cortés, Gerardo; García-Zavala, Guadalupe Ulises; Estrada-Andrade, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la influenza es una enfermedad respiratoria muy contagiosa. Se debe iniciar el tratamiento antiviral en las primeras 48 horas para evitar la neumonía. El objetivo de este informe es describir la experiencia en el tratamiento de la enfermedad tipo influenza en una unidad de medicina familiar. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de pacientes que acudieron a urgencias con enfermedad tipo influenza (fiebre de 38 °C, cefalea y tos, acompañadas de otro síntoma) y que fueron contactados por vía telefónica. Los datos se expresan en media ± desviación estándar. Resultados: de 537 consultas por infecciones respiratorias agudas, 1.3 % reunió los criterios de enfermedad tipo influenza; 85.7 % era del sexo masculino. El promedio de la edad fue de 18 ± 24.21 años. La atención inicial ocurrió a las 19.14 horas después de que se iniciaron los síntomas. Todos los pacientes recibieron oseltamivir y zanamivir; 14.3 % presentó neumonía. El 100 % se restableció. No hubo enfermedades concomitantes. Conclusiones: existe un protocolo para el manejo de la enfermedad tipo influenza que hace posible el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos de los pacientes.

  16. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: case series, two years at an intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Barros, Filipa; Fonseca, Vitor; Irimia, Manuel; Carvalho, Ramiro; Diogo, Cláudia; Ramos, Armindo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda apresenta incidência e mortalidade significativas em Cuidados Intensivos, justificando estudos adicionais, nomeadamente para definição de novas abordagens terapêuticas. Os autores propuseram-se caracterizaros casos duma Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos em dois anos.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a um estudo observacional retrospectivo dos casos admitidos numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, cumprindo os critérios diagnósticos da American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS, tendo sido excluídos os não ventilados invasivamente. Pesquisados e submetidos a tratamento estatístico: dados demográficos, etiologia do Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda, comorbilidades, Índices de Gravidade, PaO2/FiO2, modalidades e parâmetros ventilatórios, compliance pulmonar, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, corticoterapia, terapêuticas de resgate, complicações, duração do internamento, óbitos.Resultados: Obtiveram-se 40 doentes, com uma mediana de 72,5 anos (amplitude interquartil 22) e um ratio feminino:masculino ≈1:1,86. Cinquenta e cinco por cento dos Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda tiveram etiologia pulmonar. A média do PaO2/ FiO2 mínimo foi 88mm Hg (IC 95%: 78,5-97,6). A média da PEEP máxima aplicada foi 12,4 cmH2O (Desvio Padrão 4,12) e a médiado Volume Corrente máximo utilizado foi 8,2 mL/Kg peso ideal (IC 95%: 7,7-8,6). A mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva foi 10. Em 47,5% dos doentes foram administrados corticóides. Em 52,5% foi executado recrutamento alveolar. A complicação mais frequente foi a Pneumonia Associada a Ventilação (20%). A mediana da duração do internamento foi 10,7 dias (amplitude interquartil10,85). Faleceram 60% dos doentes. A probabilidade de outcome favorável ‘não óbito na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos’ foi 4,4x superior nos doentes sob corticoterapia e 11x superior nos doentes com idade < 65 anos

  17. [Serum Erythropoietin as Prognostic Marker in Myelodysplastic Syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cortesão, Emília; Tenreiro, Rita; Ramos, Sofia; Pereira, Marta; César, Paula; Carda, José P; Gomes, Marília; Rito, Luís; Magalhães, Emília; Gonçalves, Ana C; Silva, Nuno C E; Geraldes, Catarina; Pereira, Amélia; Ribeiro, Letícia; Nascimento Costa, José M; Ribeiro, Ana B Sarmento

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A síndrome mielodisplásica é uma doença heterogénea caracterizada por displasia, medula hipercelular, citopenias e risco de evolução para leucemia aguda. Outros factores de prognóstico, nomeadamente, fibrose medular, elevação da enzima desidrogenase do lactato e 2-microglobulina têm sido descritos, contudo, a decisão terapêutica baseia-se no score do International Prognostic Scoring System. Material e Métodos: Este trabalho teve como objectivo analisar a relevãncia da eritropoietina sérica ao diagnóstico, em doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo, avaliando o seu impacto na sobrevivência global e a sua implementação como factor de prognóstico. Recolhemos dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 102 doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo diagnosticada entre outubro/2009 e março/2014. A análise de sobrevivência foi efectuada recorrendo à metodologia de Kaplan-Meier, de acordo com os valores de eritropoietina. Resultados: A amostra, de 102 doentes, apresenta uma mediana de idades de 74 anos e relação masculino/feminino igual a 0,8. Os doentes com o subtipo citopenia refratária com displasia unilinha apresentam, em média, valores de eritropoietina significativamente mais baixos, em oposição aos doentes com o subtipo 5q- que apresentam a média de eritropoietina sérica mais elevada (p < 0,05). Onze doentes evoluíram para leucemia aguda; estes têm, em média, eritropoietina sérica superior (p < 0,05). Adicionalmente, a eritropoietina sérica acima do limite superior da normalidade associa-se a menor sobrevivência (p = 0,0336). Após ajuste do modelo de regressão de Cox, o valor preditivo da eritropoietina para a sobrevivência global manteve-se (p < 0,001). Em análise multivariada, a eritropoietina sérica demonstrou ser um factor de prognóstico independente (p < 0,001). Discussão: A eritropoietina sérica é um factor preditivo de resposta à terapêutica com eritropoietina subcut'nea, sendo que os doentes

  18. [A short-term training program reduced acute phase proteins in premenopausal women with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fornieles, Gabriel; Camacho-Molina, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Díaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Pareja, Antonia; Ordonez, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: Actualmente se acepta la importancia del estatus proinflamatorio en la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico. De hecho, ha sido propuesto como diana terapéutica en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes. Por consiguiente este estudio pretende reducir los niveles plasmáticos de reactantes de fase aguda en mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante un corto programa de entrenamiento. Material y método: Un total de 135 mujeres jóvenes adultas (38,4 ± 3,3 años) con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. El grupo de intervención se sometió a un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico de 12 semanas, con 3 sesiones/ semana en el que duración e intensidad de la parte principal se incrementaron progresivamente. Los niveles plasmáticos de proteína C-reactiva (PCR) y fibrinógeno se determinaron mediante nefelometría y HPLC respectivamente. También se evaluaron el fitness cardiovascular mediante prueba de esfuerzo máxima e índices de distribución de masa grasa. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética Institucional. Resultados: Tras completar el programa, se observo una mejora significativa del fitness cardiovascular además de una reducción también significativa de los niveles de fibrinógeno y PCR. Asimismo, se encontraron correlaciones entre niveles de reactantes e índices de distribución de masa grasa, siendo la de mayor fuerza de asociación la establecida entre PCR y perímetro cintura. Conclusión: Un programa de 12 semanas consiguió reducir los niveles de reactantes de fase aguda en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Futuros estudios longitudinales son necesarios para conocer el impacto del efecto anti-inflamatorio del ejercicio en el manejo de estos pacientes a medio/largo plazo.

  19. [Appendicovesical fistula treated with elective laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz-Najar, Alejandro; Carrión-Álvarez, Lucía; Medina-García, Manuel; García-González, María Dolores; Pereira-Pérez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la fístula apendicovesical es una complicación infrecuente de la apendicitis aguda en estadio avanzado y representa un tipo poco habitual de fístula enterovesical. La laparotomía exploradora ha sido durante muchos años pieza clave para el diagnóstico y su tratamiento efinitivo, pero actualmente el abordaje laparoscópico se está imponiendo entre diferentes grupos experimentados. Caso clínico: aportamos un nuevo caso de fístula apendicovesical en una mujer de 45 años de edad remitida del servicio de Urología por disuria y leucocituria permanente; finalmente, el diagnóstico se estableció mediante técnica de imagen (tomografía computada) y se resolvió por laparoscopia. Este caso se suma a los 115 casos descritos hasta ahora en la bibliografía y a los cuatro tratados mediante laparoscopia. Discusión: los métodos de imagen convencionales no son fiables para el diagnóstico de fístula enterovesical. La mayoría de los casos de fístula apendicovesical son secundarios a una apendicitis aguda no evidenciada y evolucionada. En la mayor parte de las publicaciones consultadas la laparotomía es una herramienta de diagnóstico de la fístula apendicovesical y, en pocos artículos, se describe la laparoscopia como alternativa diagnóstica y terapéutica. En la bibliografía sólo se encontraron tres artículos que hacen referencia al abordaje laparoscópico con fines terapéuticos. Conclusión: ante la sospecha de comunicación entre el tubo digestivo y el aparato urinario, la tomografía computada es el método diagnóstico de elección, sobre todo si se sospecha una fístula apendicovesical. El abordaje laparoscópico de la fístula apendicovesical puede confirmar el diagnóstico radiológico a la vez que constituye una opción quirúrgica definitiva.

  20. [Pertussis predictors in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Montanaro, Patricia; Bujedo, Elizabeth; Cámara, Jorge; Abilar, C; Terzoni, M; Romano, M; Marqués, Inés; Quiroga, Daniel; Orecchini, Alejandra; Jacome, Javier; Ferrero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes. La tos ferina o coqueluche, producida por Bordetella pertussis (BP) representa un problema re-emergente en nuestro medio. Aunque suele considerarse que la enfermedad es relativamente fácil de identificar, las infecciones por Virus Respiratorio Sincicial (VRS) pueden presentarse con síntomas similares en los lactantes siendo difícil su discriminación. Objetivo. Comparar síntomas clínicos y estudios complementarios al ingreso en lactantes hospitalizados con infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) por BP y por VSR a fin de establecer marcadores que posibiliten su predicción clínica temprana. Material y método. Estudio observacional, analítico, transversal de casos cruzados, comparando menores de 6 meses internados por IRA y sospecha de coqueluche (2007-2012) en los que se identificó BP (PCR y cultivo) y/o VRS (inmunofluorescencia en secreciones nasales); se excluyeron los pacientes con coinfecciones. Se realizó un análisis bivariado mediante el cálculo de OR con IC95%. Se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Las variables en estudio fueron: edad, sexo, tos en accesos, cianosis, vómitos, apneas, sibilancias y hemograma completo con fórmula leucocitaria Resultados. Se incluyeron 174 lactantes; 72 (41%) BP y 102 (59%) VRS. Edad 2±1 mes (Rango:1-6). En ambos grupos se documentó tos y sibilancias (OR:1,2 (0,9-1,5) p:0,1 y OR:0,9 (0,8-1,06) p:0,2, respectivamente). Cianosis (87% vs. 6%;OR:14,8 p<0,01), apnea (38% vs. 3%;OR:13,4 p<0,01) y vómitos (26% vs. 5%;OR:3,4 p<0,01) fueron más frecuentes en lactantes con BP. El recuento absoluto de linfocitos fue significativamente mayor en niños con BP (9387±6317 vs. 5127±2766;p<0,01). Por curva ROC se identificó a 9000 cel/ml como el mejor punto para diferenciar BP de VSR (abc= 0,73; IC95%:0,64-0,81). Conclusiones. En lactantes menores de 6 meses con IRA la presencia al ingreso de apnea, cianosis y linfocitosis predicen significativamente coqueluche permitiendo diferenciarlos de aquellos con

  1. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  2. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  3. [Metabolic myopathies].

    PubMed

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Objetivo. Revisar las miopatias metabolicas manifestadas solamente por crisis de mialgias, calambres y rigidez musculares con dificultad para contraer los musculos afectados y el examen neurologico normal entre las crisis en niños y adolescentes. Desarrollo. Estas miopatias metabolicas se deben a deficits enzimaticos heredados en forma autosomica recesiva del metabolismo de los carbohidratos y lipidos. El resultado final es una reduccion del trifosfato de adenosina principalmente a traves de la fosforilacion oxidativa mitocondrial con disminucion de la energia disponible para la contraccion muscular. Las secundarias a trastornos del metabolismo de los carbohidratos se producen por ejercicios de alta intensidad y breves (< 10 min) y las secundarias a trastornos de los lipidos, por ejercicios de baja intensidad y prolongados (> 10 min). Los deficits enzimaticos en el primer grupo son de miofosforilasa (glucogenosis V), fosfofructocinasa muscular (glucogenosis VII), fosfoglicerato mutasa 1 (glucogenosis X) y beta enolasa (glucogenosis XIII), y en el segundo, de carnitina palmitol transferasa tipo II y de acil-CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena muy larga. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas diferenciales de los pacientes en cada grupo y dentro de cada grupo permitiran el diagnostico clinico presuntivo inicial en la mayoria y solicitar solamente los examenes necesarios para corroborar el diagnostico. El tratamiento de las crisis consiste en hidratacion, glucosa y alcalinizacion de la orina. Las medidas preventivas son evitar el tipo de ejercicio que induce las crisis y el ayuno. No existe cura o tratamiento especifico. El pronostico es bueno con la excepcion de casos raros de insuficiencia renal aguda debido a la elevacion sanguinea de la mioglobina producto de una rabdomiolisis grave.

  4. [High performance of an implantable Holter monitor in the detection of concealed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke and a suspected embolic mechanism].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Martinez, Esther; Sandín-Fuentes, María; Calleja-Sanz, Ana I; Cortijo-García, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Rubio-Sanz, Jerónimo; Arenillas-Lara, Juan F

    2013-09-16

    Introduccion. El holter implantable permite detectar fibrilacion auricular paroxistica (FAP) oculta en pacientes con ictus criptogenico, pero se desconoce que algoritmo de seleccion tiene un mayor rendimiento y la duracion optima de monitorizacion. Objetivo. Conocer la frecuencia y el tiempo hasta detectar la FAP mediante un holter implantable Reveal XT ® en pacientes con ictus criptogenico seleccionados por sospecha elevada de embolismo cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Criterios de seleccion: ausencia de etiologia del ictus tras el estudio completo incluyendo un ecocardiograma transesofagico, monitorizacion ECG y holter de 24 horas, asi como confirmacion de oclusion aguda embolica de la arteria intracraneal por duplex transcraneal o bien alta sospecha de embolismo por caracteristicas de neuroimagen. Tras implantar el holter Reveal XT se formo a los pacientes para que emprendieran transmisiones todos los meses o ante sintomas. Se reviso la informacion online mensualmente y se realizaron visitas clinicas en las unidades de Neurologia y Cardiologia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 101 pacientes con ictus criptogenico y al menos un mes de seguimiento: edad media de 67 años, 54 mujeres (53,5%). Tiempo medio de seguimiento: 281 ± 212 dias. Se detecto FAP oculta en 34 pacientes (33,7%) y falsos positivos en 23 (22,8%). Mediana desde el implante hasta la deteccion de la arritmia: 102 dias (rango: 26-240 dias). En un 70% de los pacientes se registraron multiples episodios de FAP. El 75% de los eventos se detectaron durante los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion. Conclusiones. El algoritmo de seleccion de pacientes con ictus criptogenico segun sospecha de embolismo cerebral se asocio a una elevada frecuencia (33,7%) de FAP oculta con holter implantable. Uno de cada cuatro eventos sucedio tras los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion.

  5. [Acute pancreatitis and afferent loop syndrome. Case report].

    PubMed

    Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el síndrome de asa aferente se caracteriza por la obstrucción mecánica del asa aferente luego de la reconstrucción tipo Billroth II o en Y de Roux, en la mayoría de los casos secundaria a gastrectomía distal o subtotal. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 76 años de edad, con antecedentes de: colecistectomía, adenocarcinoma gástrico seis años previos, gastrectomía subtotal y reconstrucción en Y de Roux. Inició con dolor abdominal, náusea y vómito; abdomen distendido, sin datos de irritación peritoneal. Amilasa 1246 U/L, lipasa 3381 U/L. La tomografía computada abdominal mostró dilatación y engrosamiento de la pared del asa aferente y el páncreas con incremento de tamaño. Se le diagnosticó pancreatitis aguda, originada por síndrome de asa aferente. Conclusiones: el síndrome de asa aferente aparece en 0.3 a 1% de los casos de pacientes con reconstrucción Billroth II, a consecuencia de la obstrucción mecánica del asa aferente, con mortalidad incluso de 57%. La obstrucción del intestino aferente por acumulación de secreción biliar, pancreática e intestinal incrementa la presión, que resulta en dilatación del asa aferente de la vía biliar y del conducto de Wirsung, lo que desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria que finaliza en un cuadro de pancreatitis. Su manifestación severa se relaciona con el grado y duración de la obstrucción.

  6. [Clinical features of patients with influenza-like illness who went to a third level center in the winter of 2013-2014].

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Sánchez, Alejandra; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Huerta-Montiel, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Angélica; Herrera-Landero, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, José Luis; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Elia; Palmas-Pineda, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) registró, entre octubre de 2013 y abril de 2014, el pico más alto de casos relacionados con la influenza AH1N1. No todos los casos sospechosos de influenza resultan positivos, pero todos les generan costos a las instituciones. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las características de la población que acude con sospecha de influenza al Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI durante una nueva epidemia. Métodos: estudio transversal de casos admitidos al servicio de Urgencias del hospital mencionado por sospecha de influenza de acuerdo con las guías de práctica clínica. Con base en estas se analizaron los factores asociados a la severidad de la infección. Resultados: se registraron 109 pacientes con promedio de 44 años edad; el 78 % de ellos tenía menos de 60 años; el 62 % fueron mujeres; 75 % tenía por lo menos un factor de riesgo como obesidad (26 %) o hipertensión (27 %). Solo 65 pacientes tuvieron prueba confirmatoria, 33.8 % fueron diagnóstico positivo y 21 % de ellos fallecieron. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de casos confirmados de influenza es baja. Los factores asociados a mortalidad en los casos confirmados son la presencia de hipertensión, de leucocitosis y la presentación clínica de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG).

  7. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and adipocitokines levels in head and neck cancer non diabetic patients after surgery.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, R

    2014-10-10

    Introducción: Alguntos trabajos han encontrado que la L-arginina induce efectos beneficiosos sobre la resistencia a la insulina, tanto en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 como en individuos sanos. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar si la suplementación enteral de L-arginina (20 g por día) en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello puede modificar la resistencia a la insulina, los niveles de leptina y adiponectina después de la cirugía. Material y métodos: Tras la cirugía 82 pacientes fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos grupos: grupo I recibió un enterales suplementos de dieta con una dosis alta de arginina (20 g por día) y el grupo II recibió una fórmula enteral sin arginina. En el momento basal y el día 10 tras la cirugia, se registraron los siguientes parámetros: glucosa, proteína C reactiva, insulina, HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment), leptina y adiponectina. Resultados: Los valores de peso, índice de masa corporal, la masa grasa y la masa libre de grasa se mantuvieron sin cambios durante la intervención nutricional aguda en ambos grupos. Los niveles de insulina UI/L (-0,21 + / -0,18) y HOMA (-0,07 + / -0,13) disminuyeron en el grupo de arginina. Los niveles de adiponectina (1,8 + / -2.3ng/ml) aumentaron en el grupo de arginina. Conclusión: La nutrición enteral con L-arginina a corto plazo en los pacientes afectados por cáncer de cabeza y cuello y tras cirugía es capaz de mejorar la resistencia a la insulina y los niveles de adiponectina.

  8. [Experience in kidney transplantation without blood transfusion: kidney transplantation transfusion-free in Jehovah's Witnesses. First communication in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, Liliana Stefany; Hernández-Jiménez, Jesús Diego; Jiménez-López, Luis Alfredo; Budar-Fernández, Luis Filadelfo; Méndez-López, Marco Tulio; Martínez-Mier, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: los Testigos de Jehová rechazan la transfusión sanguínea, pero aceptan el trasplante de órganos, albúmina, inmunoglobulina, vacunas y factores de coagulación. Casos clínicos: comunicamos tres casos de pacientes (dos masculinos y uno femenino) a quienes se realizó trasplante renal en Testigos de Jehová sin transfusión sanguínea, con edad promedio de 31.33 años e índice de masa corporal promedio de 20.99 kg/m(2). Los tres pacientes recibieron diálisis peritoneal pre trasplante por un promedio de 52.3 meses. Se realizaron dos trasplantes de donante vivo y uno de fallecido, con isquemia fría de 23 horas. Los donantes fueron dos femeninos y uno masculino, con edad promedio de 34.33 años. Los tres pacientes recibieron eritropoyetina y hierro dextrán pretrasplante y en el transoperatorio se utilizó una máquina de recuperación celular. Las concentraciones de hemoglobina, hematócrito, glóbulos rojos, creatinina sérica y filtración glomerular a 24 meses postrasplante permanecieron estables. La inducción se realizó con basiliximab y la inmunosupresión inicial con inhibidores de calcineurina. Uno de los pacientes tuvo como complicación un hematoma perirrenal que ameritó reintervención a los 20 días postrasplante. A 5, 26 y 36 meses postrasplante los tres pacientes están vivos y con injerto funcional. Conclusión: es posible realizar trasplantes renales sin transfusión sanguínea en Testigos de Jehová, con supervivencia global aceptable y sin episodios de rechazo agudo.

  9. [Bouveret's syndrome: A rare presentation of gallstone ileus].

    PubMed

    Franco-Avilés, Luis; Arce-Guridi, Héctor Tonalli; Mercado, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de Bouveret se caracteriza por una obstrucción de la salida gástrica, causado por un cálculo en el bulbo duodenal, después de pasar a través de una fístula colecistoduodenal. Caso clínico: reportamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 46 años de edad, quien se presentó con dolor epigástrico intermitente, nausea, vómito y pérdida de peso de 2 meses de duración. No tenía fiebre, deshidratación o ictericia. La paciente admitió uso de alcohol y abuso de metanfetamina. La amilasa, enzimas, electrolitos y creatinina estuvieron dentro de los límites normales. Siete meses antes había ingresado a Urgencias por colecistitis aguda. El ultrasonido fue reportado como colelitiasis sin dilatación de la vía biliar intra/extrahepática. Las radiografías simples de abdomen no mostraron hallazgos relevantes. Recibió tratamiento conservador y fue egresada. Se programó para cirugía laparoscópica. Durante el procedimiento se encontró un plastrón subhepático con adherencias firmes, por lo que se efectuó cirugía abierta. La vesícula se encontró adherida al bulbo duodenal y un cálculo impactado en el duodeno. Se removió el calculo por enterotomía. Habia leve distension gastrica. Debido a la inflamacion regional, el cirujano decidio efectuar Bilroth 1; no hubo complicaciones. Conclusiones: las manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome de Bouveret son inespecíficas. El diagnóstico preoperatorio es un desafío para el clínico por la rareza del padecimiento. El tratamiento debe individualizarse.

  10. [BEHAVIOR OF HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION, HEMATOCRIT AND OXYGEN SATURATION IN COLOMBIAN UNIVERSITY POPULATION AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES].

    PubMed

    Trompetero González, Andrea Catalina; Cristancho Mejía, Edgar; Benavides Pinzón, William Fernando; Serrato Roa, Mauricio; Landinez Macias, María Paula; Rojas, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de la presente investigación se basa en el creciente interés por comprender las adaptaciones a la hipoxia crónica, principalmente en el rango altitudinal denominado de alturas intermedias (1.500- 3.000 m.s.n.m), con la necesidad de establecer parámetros de normalidad en las variables [Hb], Hct y SO2 con fines diagnósticos y de caracterización de la población. Objetivos: analizar el comportamiento de la [Hb], el Hct y la SaO2 a diferentes alturas intermedias (970 m.s.n.m, 1.520 m.s.n.m, 1.728 m.s.n.m, 1.923 m.s.n.m, 2.180 m.s.n.m y 2.600 m.s.n.m) con el fin de aportar conocimiento sobre la fisiología de la altura y al campo clínico para apoyar el diagnóstico de anemia. Métodos: sujetos clínicamente sanos, con nivel bajo de actividad física y reporte de consumo de alimentos con contenido de hierro. Total de 264 participantes de ambos géneros entre 18 y 30 años. Las muestras se obtuvieron de sangre de la vena antecubital y del lóbulo de la oreja y fueron analizadas en un radiómetro. Se realizó un análisis estadístico no paramétrico. Resultados: con el incremento de la altitud los valores de [Hb] y Hct se incrementaron, mientras la SO2 descendió. Los hombres presentaron valores más altos que las mujeres en [Hb] y Hct, relacionado con valores más bajo de SO2 que las mujeres. Discusión: no se evidenció un umbral de las variables, quizás por la pequeña distancia entre las alturas. Los valores reportados fueron similares pero no iguales a otros estudios, lo que podría deberse a la diversidad genética entre poblaciones. Conclusiones: este estudio permite obtener los primeros valores de caracterización de la población estudiada. Todas las alturas estuvieron por encima del punto de corte para el diagnóstico de anemia ([Hb] 12 g/dl).

  11. [Detection of vascular risk factors and unknown atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalised in the stroke unit].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Caballero, Pedro E; López-Espuela, Fidel; Portilla-Cuenca, Juan C; Jiménez-Gracia, M Antonia; Casado-Naranjo, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    Introduccion. Existe una serie de factores de riesgo cerebrovascular modificables, como son la hipertension arterial, la diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y la fibrilacion auricular, cuyo reconocimiento y control es fundamental para disminuir la aparicion de enfermedades cerebrovasculares. En ocasiones, el ictus puede ser el sintoma de presentacion de estos factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de los pacientes que ingresan en la unidad de ictus de nuestro hospital por enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda –accidente isquemico transitorio e ictus isquemico– para conocer el porcentaje de pacientes con hipertension arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y fibrilacion auricular no diagnosticadas previamente. Resultados. Se selecciono a 186 pacientes, de los que 24 presentaban hipertension arterial no conocida (12,9%); 11, diabetes mellitus no conocida (5,9%); 49, hipercolesterolemia no conocida (26,3%); 15, hipertrigliceridemia no conocida (8,1%), y 22 tenian fibrilacion auricular no conocida (11,8%). En total, 96 pacientes (51,6%) tenian alguno de estos factores de riesgo cerebrovascular. La existencia de un factor de riesgo no diagnosticado previamente era mayor en el medio rural, en los sujetos que no habian fallecido a los seis meses y en los ataques isquemicos transitorios respecto a los ictus isquemicos. Conclusiones. Mas de la mitad de los sujetos que sufren un evento cerebrovascular tienen un factor de riesgo que no se ha diagnosticado previamente. Se deben realizar campanas para implementar la deteccion de estos factores, asi como incidir en el control de estos para disminuir la aparicion y recidiva de patologia vascular.

  12. [Lung eosinophilic syndrome: clinical presentation and cases report].

    PubMed

    Egea, N; Merlo, A; Esponda, L; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de eosinofilia pulmonar se caracteriza por un grupo de patologías que presentan afección clínico – radiológica pulmonar con eosinofilia periférica o en parénquima pulmonar en su evolución. Materiales y métodos: Se describen las características de presentaciones clínico-radiológicas y evolutivas de pacientes atendidos entre 2007 y 2010 en Hospital Rawson. Resultados: Sobre 8 casos, se observó mayor número de casos en mujeres. Los signos y síntomas principales fueron tos, disnea, fiebre y sibilancias. Los hallazgos radiológicos más prevalentes fueron patrón alveolar y alveolointersticial. En la TAC el más frecuente fue el patrón en vidrio esmerilado. La eosinofilia periférica presentó valores entre 550 y 10.000 cel/mm3. Los pacientes fueron abdordados inicialmente como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el 62% de los casos. Los diagnósticos principales realizados fueron neumonía eosinofílica aguda y crónica, ambas con respuesta a esteroides. Conclusiones: El síndrome de eosinofilias pulmonares comparte características clínico-radiológicas comunes con entidades de mayor prevalencia, particularmente NAC.

  13. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy in a case of late-onset eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Castrillo-Sanz, Ana; Mendoza, Amelia; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Raúl; Zamora, M Isabel; Morollón, Noemí; Rodríguez-Sanz, M Fernanda; Duarte, Jacinto

    2013-08-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de encefalopatia posterior reversible (SEPR) es un sindrome clinico-radiologico de presentacion aguda o subaguda que se caracteriza por la presencia de cefalea, vomitos, crisis epilepticas, trastornos visuales y alteracion del nivel de conciencia asociado a lesiones localizadas fundamentalmente en la sustancia blanca de regiones posteriores cerebrales. Caso clinico. Mujer de 32 años que desarrollo un SEPR en el periodo posparto secundario a eclampsia tardia. La paciente presento 10 dias despues del parto un cuadro clinico consistente en cefalea, crisis epilepticas, ceguera y deterioro del nivel de conciencia. El estudio de imagen con resonancia magnetica confirmo la afectacion de la sustancia blanca de predominio posterior. Conclusiones. Aunque la eclampsia es una entidad tipica del embarazo y puerperio inmediato, es necesario recordar que tambien puede producirse de forma tardia tras el parto y que puede ser la causa de otros sindromes, como el SEPR. Aunque en estos casos el pronostico suele ser favorable, el tratamiento debe ser precoz, efectuando un rapido control de la tension arterial y las convulsiones con el fin de evitar un daño cerebral permanente. Es necesario considerar siempre este sindrome en mujeres con crisis epilepticas u otros sintomas neurologicos durante el posparto.

  14. [Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. A rare cause of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    del Saz-Saucedo, Pablo; Alfaya-Muñoz, Laura Blanca; Recio-Bermejo, Marta; Lara-Medina, Francisco Javier; García-Chiclano, Amalia; Ortega-León, Teresa; Rueda-Medina, Ignacio; Domínguez-Fernández, María José; Madrid-Muñiz, Carmen; Franco-Huerta, María

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La epiteliopatia pigmentaria placoide multifocal posterior aguda (EPPMPA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara, generalmente de etiologia indeterminada, de la coriocapilar, el epitelio pigmentario y la retina externa. Afecta predominantemente a pacientes jovenes y en algunos casos puede involucrar al sistema nervioso central en forma de ictus o de meningoencefalitis. Presentamos el caso clinico de una mujer joven con EPPMPA complicada con ictus e hipertension intracraneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 16 anos que comienza con cefalea intensa sugestiva de hipertension intracraneal, asi como con un deficit agudo hemisferico izquierdo. La resonancia magnetica craneal ponia de manifiesto lesiones embolicas o vasculiticas en diferentes territorios. No se evidenciaron datos de meningoencefalitis en el estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo, pero si de hipertension intracraneal asociada. La presencia de lesiones muy especificas en el polo ocular posterior permitio el diagnostico de EPPMPA complicada con ictus isquemico, probablemente por mecanismo vasculitico. Un amplio estudio etiologico fue negativo para identificar un factor desencadenante claro del proceso. Se inicio tratamiento corticoideo con buena evolucion clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. La EPPMPA es una entidad rara que generalmente entrana buen pronostico; sin embargo, en algunos casos puede complicarse con afectacion del sistema nervioso central, y el ictus isquemico secundario a vasculitis es la complicacion mas grave. Ante un paciente joven con ictus que presente sintomatologia visual y lesiones coriorretinianas, debe considerarse la EPPMPA en su diagnostico etiologico.

  15. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Introduccion. La poliomielitis es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyos sintomas iniciales son fiebre, cansancio, cefalea, vomitos, rigidez de cuello y dolores en los miembros. En muchos casos, las secuelas son paralisis irreversibles, y puede producirse la muerte si hay afectacion bulbar o respiratoria. Se describe tambien un conjunto de sintomas, llamado sindrome pospolio, que aparece años despues de la infeccion aguda. Objetivo. Analizar el abordaje que la literatura, el cine y la television han hecho de la poliomielitis. Desarrollo. Los escritores y los directores de cine y television han mostrado interes por la poliomielitis y la han reflejado de manera correcta y realista, tanto en las obras de ficcion como en las biograficas o de tipo documental. Nemesis, Secreto de hermanas, Que el cielo la juzgue u Oscura son algunos ejemplos de obras literarias. El cine ha mostrado la poliomielitis desde su epoca silente con titulos como The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Amor sublime o Las sesiones. Tambien la television ha reflejado esta enfermedad y sus secuelas en series como Hospital Central, Anatomia de Grey, House o Amar en tiempos revueltos, y en telefilmes como El asunto, Eleanor y Roosevelt o Warm Springs. Conclusiones. La poliomielitis se ha mostrado en la literatura, el cine y la television de forma realista, presentando la sintomatologia, las secuelas, y el impacto personal, familiar y social de esta enfermedad.

  16. Tissue effects of glutamine in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Hernando-Martín, Mercedes; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Cordido, Fernando; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos de la administración de glutamina sobre la regresión tumoral y sobre el tejido sano en pacientes con cáncer rectal que recibieron quimiorradioterapia. Material y métodos: Se incluyó 10 pacientes con cáncer rectal operado después de quimiorradioterapia, un subgrupo de un ensayo clínico que comparó glutamina con placebo en la prevención de enteritis aguda. Un patólogo experto analizó las muestras de tumor y tejido sano, buscando datos de regresión tumoral, mucífagos y daño por radiación. Resultados: No hubo diferencias entre placebo y glutamina en el grado de regresión tumoral. Todos los pacientes con glutamina presentaron mucífagos, frente al 28,6% con placebo (p = 0,038). El daño sobre tejido sano fue similar en los pacientes con glutamina y placebo, y entre aquellos con y sin enteritis. Conclusión: La glutamina no ejerce un efecto protector frente a la quimiorradioterapia sobre el tumor o el tejido rectal sano.

  17. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  18. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  19. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  20. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  1. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  2. Incorporating the viewer's point of regard (POR) in gaze-contingent virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    1998-04-01

    Awareness of the viewer's gaze position in a virtual environment can lead to significant savings in scene processing if fine detail information is presented `just in time' only at locations corresponding to the participant's gaze, i.e., in a gaze-contingent manner. This paper describes the evolution of a gaze-contingent video display system, `gcv'. Gcv is a multithreaded, real-time program which displays digital video and simultaneously tracks a subject's eye movements. Treating the eye tracker as an ordinary positional sensor, gcv's architecture shares many similarities with contemporary virtual environment system designs. Performance of the present system is evaluated in terms of (1) eye tracker sampling latency and video transfer rates, and (2) measured eye tracker accuracy and slippage. The programming strategies developed for incorporating the viewer's point-of-regard are independent of proprietary eye tracking equipment and are applicable to general gaze- contingent virtual environment designs.

  3. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  4. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  5. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  6. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  7. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  8. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  10. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  11. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  12. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  13. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  14. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  15. [Nutrition-related risk factors in autonomous non-institutionalized adult elderly people].

    PubMed

    Montejano Lozoya, A Raimunda; Ferrer Diego, Rosa M; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; Sanjuan Quiles, Angela; Ferrer Ferrándiz, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Objetivos: Determinar factores asociados al riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores autónomos no institucionalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 660 adultos mayores autónomos, no institucionalizados. Los participantes fueron evaluados en 12 centros sociales (provincia de Valencia) seleccionados mediante un muestreo estratificado por bloques. Criterios de inclusión: tener 65 años o más, vivir en el domicilio, poseer autonomía funcional, residir más de un año en la provincia de Valencia, acudir periódicamente a los centros sociales y colaborar voluntariamente en el estudio. Se usa el MNA para la valoración nutricional y se recogen factores asociados al estado nutricional en una encuesta adhoc. Resultados: De los 660 sujetos estudiados, el 48,33% son hombres y el 51,67% mujeres, la edad media es de 74,3±6,57 años. El 23,33% presentan riesgo de malnutrición. Los factores independientes asociados al riesgo de malnutrición, con el odds de prevalencia ajustada, son: no poseer estudios (OR=2,29), sentir soledad (OR=2,34), mantener dietas controladas (OR=0,55), un apetito escaso (OR=2,56), número de fracciones en la ingesta diaria (OR=0,66), sufrir xerostomía (OR=1,72), tener dificultades para deglutir (OR=2,30), el número de enfermedades crónicas (OR=1,38) y haber sufrido enfermedades agudas en el último año (OR=2,03). Un incremento en el IMC se asocia a un buen estado nutricional (OR=0,85). Estos factores nos han permitido clasificar correctamente a un 80% de los pacientes encuestados. Conclusiones: Tener numerosas enfermedades crónicas, haber sufrido enfermedades agudas recientes, mantener dietas sin control, sufrir xerostomía y dificultad para deglutir, comer pocas veces al día y con escaso apetito, sentirse solo y no tener estudios son factores que, permiten predecir el riesgo de malnutrición en los adultos mayores.

  16. New data on the Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Canary Islands, with a description of a new species of Apseudopsis.

    PubMed

    Esquete, Patricia; Ramos, Eva; Riera, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Benthic samples from two harbours at El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands) yielded three species of Tanaidacea. Tanais dulongii and Leptochelia savignyi are recorded for the first time in Tenerife and El Hierro, respectively. A new species of Apseudomorpha, Apseudopsis rogi, was collected in both harbours and can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the male having a cheliped merus with a distinctive, cylindrical dorso-proximal spur. This is the first species of Apseudopsis described for the Macaronesian region. A key to the Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Apseudopsis is provided. PMID:27394493

  17. [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors. Evaluation of long-term outcomes in a tertiary level].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; García-Ruiz, Salud; Rubio-Chaves, Carolina; Bustos-Jiménez, Manuel; Docobo-Durantez, Fernando; Padillo-Ruiz, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los tumores apendiculares se encuentran en cerca de 1% de las apendicectomías y representan 0.5% de las neoplasias intestinales. El tipo de tumor más frecuente es el carcinoide apendicular, que casi siempre es un hallazgo durante la apendicectomía por otro motivo. Su pronóstico es excelente y la supervivencia es mayor de 95% a cinco años de la intervención. Objetivo: reportar una serie de casos y analizar la supervivencia media a cinco años posteriores a la identificación el tumor. Material y métodos: análisis retrospectivo (1990-2010) de pacientes con tumor carcinoide apendicular intervenidos en el servicio de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo del Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, España. Se analizaron: la supervivencia a cinco años, la necesidad de tratamiento complementario y las pruebas para seguimiento en la consulta. Resultados: se encontraron 42 pacientes intervenidos por tener un tumor carcinoide apendicular. En 38 pacientes la operación fue de urgencia, la mayoría por sospecha de apendicitis aguda, sin que en ninguno se hubiera establecido el diagnóstico de tumor carcinoide antes de la operación. El síntoma predominante al ingreso fue el dolor abdominal. El tratamiento quirúrgico fue: apendicectomía en 34 pacientes (12 por laparoscopia), en el intraoperatorio siete pacientes requirieron resecciones colónicas mayores debido a la afectación del colon; sólo uno requirió la reintervención para completar la hemicolectomía derecha. Al momento del diagnóstico dos pacientes tenían enfermedad diseminada (metástasis hepáticas). La supervivencia a cinco años fue superior a 95%, sin recidivas o tratamiento posterior de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el tumor carcinoide apendicular difícilmente se diagnostica antes del procedimiento quirúrgico. La apendicectomía suele ser suficiente aunque en algunos pacientes las resecciones colónicas son necesarias por diseminación. La supervivencia a 5 años es

  18. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Two-case-report].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Martínez, Ixchel; Cornejo-López, Gilberto; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el pseudomixoma peritoneal se caracteriza por la diseminación celular intraperitoneal de un tumor adenomucinoso; el apéndice cecal es la etiología más frecuente. Objetivo: reportar la experiencia de un grupo de Cirugía General y revisar la bibliografía. Casos clínicos: 1: paciente femenina de 74 años de edad, que cuatro días previos inició con dolor abdominal tipo cólico en el mesogastrio y fosa iliaca derecha, evacuaciones diarreicas y fiebre. A su ingreso al hospital se la encontró con datos de irritacion peritoneal y resistencia muscular, leucocitosis de 14,500 células por mm3, neutrófilos 89%, bandas 1%. Se diagnosticó: apendicitis aguda y se programó para laparoscopia diagnóstica, con distensión importante de asas, por lo que se decidió convertir a laparotomía. Caso 2: paciente masculino de 73 años de edad; el padecimiento actual se inició con dolor intermitente en la fosa iliaca derecha e hipogastrio, de un año de evolución. Al cuadro se agregaron: disnea, estreñimiento alternado con periodos de diarrea, plenitud gástrica, y pirosis. A la exploración física se encontró un tumor palpable en el mesogastrio y ambas fosas iliacas. Por eso se le realizó la laparotomía exploradora. En ambos casos el diagnóstico se estableció en el transoperatorio con el hallazgo de múltiples implantes tumorales mucinosos multilobulados diseminados en la cavidad peritoneal, el diagnóstico se confirmó con el reporte histopatológico de pseudomixoma peritoneal. Conclusiones: el pseudomixoma peritoneal es una neoplasia poco frecuente y de difícil diagnóstico, caracterizada por producción copiosa de ascitis mucinosa y de múltiples implantes tumorales en la serosa de las vísceras intracavitarias. El tratamiento ideal es la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal perioperatoria o la quimioterapia postoperatoria, o ambas.

  19. [SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND ADEQUACY OF PRENATAL CARE ASSOCIATED PERINATAL MORTALITY IN COLOMBIAN PREGNANT WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el adecuado seguimiento clínico y el cumplimiento de los requerimientos nutricionales, son aspectos esenciales para el adecuado desarrollo fetal y la culminación exitosa del embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre los factores sociodemográficos y el seguimiento prenatal asociados a la mortalidad perinatal en gestantes de Colombia. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal secundario a la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010) y la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud (ENDS 2010), en 14.754 mujeres gestantes de entre 13 y 44 años de edad. Los factores sociodemográficos: sexo del recién nacido, región geográfica (atlántica, oriental, central, pacífica, Bogotá, territorios nacionales), nivel socioeconómico- Sisbén (I al VI) y área geográfica (cabecera municipal, centro poblado, población dispersa), el seguimiento prenatal (control de peso, altura uterina, presión arterial, fetocardia, bioquímica sanguínea, análisis de orina) y la suplementación con hierro, calcio y ácido fólico se recogieron a través de una encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión logística binaria simple y multivariable. Resultados: de las variables sociodemográficas, residir en centros poblados, región oriental o pacífica, y pertenecer al nivel Sisbén I, son las que mostraron mayor frecuencia de muerte perinatal, con valores de 1,7%, 1,5%, 1,4% y 1,4%, respectivamente. Tras ajustar por sexo del recién nacido, área, región geográfica y puntaje de Sisbén, se encontró que un inadecuado seguimiento en el control del peso (OR 5,12), la presión arterial (OR 5,18), la bioquímica sanguínea (OR 2,19) y la suplementación con hierro (OR 2,09), calcio (OR 1,73) y ácido fólico (OR 2,73) se asociaron como factores predisponentes a la mortalidad perinatal. Conclusiones: la mortalidad perinatal

  20. [Adverse effects with ambulatory intravenous immunoglobulin administration in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen A; Galguera-Sauceda, Angélica; Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice G; Campos-Romero, Freya; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Amaya-Mejía, Adela; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy; O'Farril-Romanillos, Patricia; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficiencia primaria sintomática más frecuente, afecta a 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 sujetos. Se distingue por la ausencia o disminución de anticuerpos. Su tratamiento consiste en el reemplazo de anticuerpos con inmunoglobulina humana y la vía de administración más frecuente es la intravenosa, a dosis de 400 a 800 mg/kg de peso/dosis cada tres a cuatro semanas. Los efectos adversos asociados con la administración de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IgIV) ocurren incluso en 25% de todas las infusiones realizadas, las reacciones severas afectan a menos de 1% de los pacientes. Entre las reacciones adversas severas están la insuficiencia renal aguda, que sobreviene 1 a 10 días después del inicio de tratamiento con IgIV. En nuestro centro elaboramos e implementamos un esquema ambulatorio para la aplicación de IgIV que permite su administración en un promedio de 3 h, sin efectos adversos graves. Objetivos: describir los efectos adversos y evaluar la frecuencia de insuficiencia renal secundaria a la aplicación ambulatoria de IgIV en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo en el que participaron pacientes adultos con diagnóstico definitivo de inmunodeficiencia común variable, que recibían IgIV a dosis de sustitución cada tres semanas, a quienes se realizó exploración física, somatometría, determinación sérica de creatinina, albúmina y urea, depuración de creatinina en orina de 24 horas, cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular por la fórmula CKD-EPI y evaluación de la función renal inmediata, así como la asociada con la administración acumulada de IgIV a través del cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular. Los resultados se analizaron con estadística descriptiva para el reporte de los efectos en la función renal y la dosis acumulada de IgIV. Resultados: se determinó la frecuencia de reacciones adversas

  1. [Differences in the management of epileptic seizures between the elderly and younger adults treated in an emergency department].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, C; Matias-Guiu, J A; Castillo, C; Fuentes-Ferrer, M E; Gonzalez-Del Castillo, J; Martin-Sanchez, F J

    2014-09-16

    Objetivo. Estudiar las diferencias en el manejo y los resultados a corto plazo de los pacientes adultos atendidos en un servicio de urgencias por una crisis epileptica en funcion de ser anciano. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional de cohorte retrospectivo que selecciono a todos los pacientes de 15 años o mas atendidos por una crisis epileptica en un servicio de urgencias de un hospital terciario y universitario desde el 1 de septiembre al 31 de diciembre de 2011. Se recogieron las variables de la atencion aguda y de seguimiento a los 30 dias del episodio indice de urgencias. Resultados. Se incluyeron 114 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 46,4 años (rango intercuartilico: 32,6-74,3 años), de los cuales 34 (29,8%) tenian 65 años o mas. El grupo de los mayores presento mas frecuentemente un primer episodio epileptico (p = 0,001), desencadenante desconocido (p = 0,02), etiologia estructural (p < 0,001), realizacion de tomografia computarizada en urgencias (p < 0,001), inicio de farmaco antiepileptico preventivo en urgencias (p = 0,001) y estancia prolongada (p = 0,002) que los adultos mas jovenes. Tras un analisis multivariable, el ser anciano fue un factor independiente asociado a un mayor requerimiento de pruebas complementarias especificas (Odds ratio = 3,7; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,3-10,3) e intervencion farmacologica en urgencias (odds ratio = 3,3; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,4-8,1). No hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas en los resultados a 30 dias entre ambos grupos en terminos de revisita (p = 0,316) y mortalidad (p = 0,087). Conclusiones. La atencion de las crisis epilepticas del anciano en urgencias, en comparacion con adultos mas jovenes, es mas compleja, siendo necesario un mayor consumo de recursos hospitalarios.

  2. [Acute silicosis. An infrequent pneumoconiosis].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Soto-de la Fuente, Andrés Eduardo; Soto-Vera, Eduardo Andrés; Leo-Méndez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la silicosis aguda fue descrita inicialmente en 1900 por Betts. Se le denomina también silicoproteinosis alveolar. Es una forma infrecuente de neumoconiosis producida al utilizar chorro de arena (sandblast) para pulir. Caso clínico: masculino de 27 años, trabajó 4 años en un expendio de vidrios, esmerilándolos por medio de chorro de arena. Padecimiento de 4 años con disnea de esfuerzos rápidamente progresiva hasta mínimos esfuerzos, tos seca, emetizante y disneizante, con expectoración hialina 50 ml diarios, pérdida de 20 kg de peso en 1 año y dolor torácico generalizado de tipo pungitivo intenso. Frecuencia respiratoria 36X´ frecuencia cardiaca 120X´, estertores crepitantes basales bilaterales. En la telerradiografía de tórax se observa festón de Mengeaux en hemidiafragma derecho y en el vértice derecho, opacidades redondeadas entre 3 y 10 mm de diámetro tipo 2/2 r/r de la Clasificación de la OIT, 2000. En el pulmón izquierdo las opacidades confluyen formando un silicoma tipo B e imágenes en panal de abeja. Silueta cardiaca deshilachada y cardiomegalia grado 1. Fallece a los 5 años de iniciado su padecimiento. Conclusiones: se deben prohibir estas operaciones o aplicar programa de higiene industrial con uso de respirador autónomo.

  3. [Mucha-Habermann disease and orthotopic heart transplant. Case report].

    PubMed

    Zetina-Tun, Hugo; de la Cerda-Belmont, Gustavo Armando; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Mucha-Habermann es la afección cutánea de etiología desconocida más frecuente en los pacientes jóvenes. Se caracteriza por la erupción aguda de lesiones papulares que evolucionan a vesículas, pústulas y cicatrices deprimidas hiperpigmentadas de aspecto varioliforme. Su curso habitual es subagudo o crónico. El objetivo es describir la enfermedad de Mucha-Habermann en un hombre con trasplante ortotópico de corazón. Caso clínico: hombre de 62 años de edad que cuatro años después de recibir trasplante de corazón presentó lesiones papulares diseminadas en cuello y miembros torácicos, las cuales se extendieron al resto del cuerpo y evolucionaron a vesículas y pústulas. Se obtuvo biopsia de piel y se conformó el diagnóstico de enfermedad de Mucha-Habermann. El paciente recibió tratamiento con esteroide y antimicrobiano, al que respondió favorablemente. Al momento de este informe, las lesiones habían desaparecido. Conclusiones: la enfermedad de Mucha-Habermann es poco frecuente y requiere confirmación mediante biopsia de piel para tratarla adecuadamente. El caso que se describe es poco común por el tipo de paciente y la edad en que se manifestó la enfermedad.

  4. [ACCEPTANCE OF PULP FRUIT BEVERAGES FORTIFIED WITH FERROUS FUMARATE; AN ALTERNATIVE SUPPLEMENT FOR A HEALTH PROGRAM].

    PubMed

    Morales Guerrero, Josefina Consuelo; García Zepeda, Rodrigo Antonio; Sánchez Vargas, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición y la deficiencia de hierro son problemas de salud pública en varios países, México no es la excepción, y la mayor prevalencia se presenta en el medio rural. Una forma de atenderla es a través de la suplementación. El suplemento que se seleccione debe ser aceptado sensorialmente por el consumidor final para que la intervención sea exitosa. Objetivos: elaborar un suplemento multivitamínico para el programa “Salud y Nutrición para Pueblos Indígenas” y evaluar su aceptación en la población infantil urbana y rural. Métodos: se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas del producto a desarrollar y el método de elaboración y de preparación para su consumo. La aceptación se evaluó en niños de entre 6 a 24 meses de edad, con una prueba de caritas, y en los infantes de 6 a 12 meses se corroboró con el registro del volumen consumido. Para determinar las diferencias en la aceptación por edad y género en la misma población y para establecer diferencias entre poblaciones se aplicó una Ji cuadrada. Resultados: los suplementos, en los tres sabores evaluados, cumplieron con la concentración de vitaminas y nutrimentos inorgánicos establecidos en el programa citado. El 80% de los niños aceptaron los suplementos multivitamínicos (SM) en sus tres sabores. La edad de los niños fue el factor que más influyó en la aceptación. Conclusión: los SM desarrollados en este estudio son una alternativa al suplemento que actualmente proporciona el PSNPI, para los niños mayores a seis meses.

  5. [Assessing the profile and nutritional intake of an Ibero-American group of nutrition postgraduate students].

    PubMed

    Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elío, Iñaki; Domínguez, Irma; Calderón, Rubén; García, Agueda; Fernández, Federico; Gracia, Santos; Dzul, Luis; Battino, Maurizio; Solano, Héctor Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los hábitos alimentarios tienen una gran influencia sobre la salud de las personas, por ello es de suma importancia profundizar en su estudio para comprobar su adaptación a las recomendaciones actuales y poder realizar políticas de educación nutricional y/o suplementación ajustadas a la realidad. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con la colaboración de estudiantes de postgrado. Los participantes se seleccionaron mediante muestreo no probabilístico accidental enviando vía mail la información del estudio, realizado mediante un cuestionario sobre sus características socio-demográficas y un registro dietético de 3 días. La muestra estuvo formada por n = 50 participantes. Los registros dietéticos de 3 días se valoraron con el software NutrIber y los datos obtenidos fueron tratados mediante el software estadístico SPSS 15. Resultados y discusión: El perfil de los estudiantes es de 80% mujeres y 20% hombres, con edad media de 33,7 ± 9,32 AÑOs, e índice de masa corporal de 22,91 ± 4,07. Todos los grupos presentan un consumo excesivo de proteínas y lípidos y deficitario en glúcidos. En cuanto a los micronutrientes es destacable que ningún grupo cubre las ingestas recomendadas de yodo, y que ningún grupo de mujeres cubre las recomendaciones de ingesta de fibra, ácido fólico ni hierro. Conclusiones: Son necesarios más estudios para confirmar los resultados hallado, sin embargo, se puede concluir que las poblaciones urbanas de Latinoamérica cada vez se acercan más al modelo de dieta occidental, rica en proteínas y grasas y pobre en glúcidos, fibra y micronutrientes, lo que es indicativo de dietas pobres en cereales integrales, frutas y verduras.

  6. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  7. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: El mantenimiento de unos adecuados estilos de vida, es de gran importancia para la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con el embarazo durante las primeras etapas. Por ello, es necesario conocer el estado de salud general de las mujeres en edad fértil, y poder proporcionar un asesoramiento adecuado con el objetivo de mantener o mejorar su estado nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los estilos de vida de las mujeres en edad fértil que planean un embarazo y estudiar las diferencias entre mujeres primíparas y multíparas en dichos estilos de vida. Métodos: Este estudio transversal incluyó un total de 4.471 mujeres españolas en edad fértil que está planeando un embarazo. La información se recogió, a través de un cuestionario, por profesionales de oficinas de farmacia. Resultados: El perfil de las mujeres reclutadas en edad fértil que planean un embarazo fue de poco más de treinta años (31,4 ± 4,8 años) y el 72,5% estaba buscando a su primer bebé. Ellas tenían una buena percepción tanto de su estado nutricional como de salud, y una dieta equilibrada pero con algunos hábitos no saludables. Cabe destacar que las mujeres primíparas presentaban menor riesgo de complicaciones relacionadas con salud pero eran mayores consumidoras de tabaco y alcohol, y menos consumidoras de leche fortificada, yodo y suplementos de hierro (p < 0,05), que las mujeres multíparas. Además, la población examinada mostró un patrón más sedentario en las mujeres primíparas en comparación con las mujeres multíparas, relativo a las horas / día tumbada, sentada y de pie. Conclusión: Las diferencias entre ambos grupos (primíparas y multíparas) ofrecen una gran oportunidad para promover hábitos saludables entre las mujeres en edad fértil, de acuerdo con el perfil de paridad, con el objetivo de prevenir estilos de vida no adecuados en embarazos futuros.

  8. High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Duarte Moreira Alves, Raquel; Boroni Moreira, Ana Paula; Silva Macedo, Viviane; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-05-01

    Antecedentes: Las pruebas sugieren que el consumo de frutos secos puede mejorar el metabolismo energético. Propósito: Este estudio tenía por finalidad comparar los efectos de la ingesta aguda de cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico y cacahuetes convencionales sobre el apetito, el consumo de alimentos y el metabolismo energético in hombres con sobrepeso y obesos. Métodos: Se distribuyó a 71 individuos (29,8 ± 2,4 kg/m2) a los grupos: control (CT, n = 24); cacahuetes convencionales (CVP, n = 23); cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico (HOP, n = 24). Los individuos consumieron 56 g de cacahuetes (CVP y HOP) o control (CT) tras un ayuno nocturno. Posteriormente, se evaluó el metabolismo energético a lo largo de 200 minutes, durante los cuales se analizaron la termogénesis inducida por la dieta (TID) y la oxidación de sustratos. La sensación de apetito se registró durante 3 horas. Se realizaron los análisis estadísticos con el programa SAS considerando un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: El consumo de energía posprandial y la TID fueron significativamente superiores en el HOP que el CVP. La oxidación de sustratos no difirió entre los grupos. Sólo el HOP presentó una puntuación por debajo de 100, lo que indicaba una compensación incompleta. El CT y el CVP mostraron una compensación calórica completa (puntuaciones > 100). Con respecto a la sensación de apetito, el grupo CVP se mostró menos “lleno” que los grupos HOP y CT. A las 3 horas, la puntuación de saciedad del CVP volvió a la situación basal, mientras que en los grupos HOP y CT permanecía significativamente superior. Las puntuaciones de hambre volvieron a la situación basal in los grupos CVP y CT y se mantuvieron significativamente por debajo a las del grupo HOP. Conclusión: Los cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico contribuyen a una mayor TID, mayor sensación de plenitud y una compensation incompleta del consumo de energía en comparación con los cacahuetes

  9. [Mexican guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of urticaria].

    PubMed

    Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Ortega-Martell, José Antonio; Beirana-Palencia, Angélica María; Rojo-Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Morales-Sánchez, Martha Alejandra; Solorio-Gómez, Héctor; Alonzo-Romero Pareyón, María Lourdes; Vargas-Correa, Jorge Bernardo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Blancas-Espinosa, Roberto; Esquer-Flores, Joaquín; Gómez-Vera, Javier; Guzmán-Perea, María Graciela; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Maldonado-García, César Alfonso; Martínez-Villarreal, José Darío; Matta-Campos, Juan José; Medina-Segura, Elías; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca; Salgado-Gama, Juan Ignacio; Stone-Aguilar, Héctor; Sienra-Monge, Juan José Luis; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Mendoza-López, Enrique; Amaya-Guerra, Mario; Lemini-López, Alicia; Blanco-Montero, Andrés; Chavarría-Jiménez, María Teresa; Guerrero-Michaus, Martha Graciela; Martínez-Pérez, Albina; Ramírez-Segura, Ruth Ivonne Mireya; Montes-Narváez, Gabriel; Olvera-Salinas, Jorge; Rosas-Sumano, Ana Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la urticaria es una enfermedad que padece una quinta parte de la población en algún momento de su vida. Las guías internacionales recientes han propuesto unos cambios de fondo en su diagnóstico y tratamiento, por lo que había la necesidad de crear una guía nacional y multidisciplinaria, con base amplia en los gremios de especialistas y médicos de primer contacto en México. Material y método: un grupo interdisciplinario de expertos clínicos y algunos expertos en metodología determinó los objetivos y alcances de la Guía de Práctica Clínica Basada en Evidencia con el instrumento SCOPE. Se decidió llevar a cabo la adaptación y transculturización de guías internacionales para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de urticaria. Con el instrumento AGREE-II se seleccionaron las tres guías de alta calidad, como guías base (Zuberbier 2014, Sánchez-Borges 2012, Powell 2007) para formular y contestar la preguntas clínicas clave, en el contexto cultural y económico mexicano, según el método de desarrollo de recomendaciones GRADE. Resultados: mediante un proceso formal de discusión y votación durante varias juntas de expertos, se terminó la redacción de la forma final de la guía, con especial cuidado de lograr un ajuste a las realidades, valores y preferencias de los pacientes de México. Se hace hincapié en la administración de antihistamínicos vía oral de segunda generación, como tratamiento de primera elección. Conclusión: este documento es una Guía de Práctica Clínica Basada en Evidencia para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de urticaria aguda y crónica, basada en tres guías internacionales de alta calidad. Se desarrolló por un grupo multidisciplinario. Los cuadros y algoritmos hacen a la guía amigable para su uso por médicos de primer contacto y por especialistas.

  10. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  11. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    pyrite et dans les sulfates dissous et la corrélation entre les concentrations en sulfates, en fer et en arsenic dissous laissent penser que l'oxydation des sulfures est le processus dominant contrôlant la libération de l'arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Cependant, les oxy-hydroxydes contenant de l'arsenic sont susceptibles d'être une autre source d'arsenic si des conditions réductrices apparaissent ou s'ils sont transportés dans l'aquifère sous forme de colloïdes. L'analyse des données provenant de puits montre que l'intersection entre le SCH et les niveaux statiques des puits domestiques est fortement corrélée à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Des données de terrain et de laboratoire conduisent à penser que la contamination en arsenic la plus forte est causée par l'interaction localisée aux forages entre l'air, l'eau et les sulfures. Bien que la contamination en arsenic soit causée par l'oxydation de sulfures présents naturellement, elle est influencée par les fluctuations du niveau piézométrique causées par les pompages du captage municipal ou par les variations climatiques, ce qui peut conduire au déplacement des zones géographiques où se produisent les contaminations. Resumen Se han medido concentraciones de arsénico muy altas (de hasta 12000μg/L) en las aguas subterráneas de un acuífero confinado, en areniscas, localizado en la parte oriental de Wisconsin (EEUU). La fuente principal de arsénico es un horizonte de cementación secundaria (SCH) con un alto contenido en sulfuros, y con una gran variabilidad en espesor, morfología y concentraciones de As. El arsénico aparece en piritas y marcasitas, además de en oxihidróxidos de hierro, pero no como una fase independiente de arsenopiritas. El hecho que la marca isotópica de piritas y sulfatos disueltos sea muy similar, y que exista una gran correlación entre las concentraciones de sulfato disuelto, hierro y arsénico sugiere que la oxidación de

  12. 77 FR 23807 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Juarez, Valentin Gomez Farias 120A, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico; Puerta de Hierro 5594, Colonia...--B, Colonia Reg. 92, Quintana Roo, Benito Juarez 77516, Mexico; Avenida Vallarta No. 6503, Piso 15..., Col. Napoles, Benito Juarez, Mexico City, Distrito Federal 03810, Mexico; Wisconsin No. 68,...

  13. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  14. [Undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma/ malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated a gouty tophus. a case report].

    PubMed

    Szlabi, Susana; Flores, Jorge O; Diller, Ana L de; Cabrera, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: La gota es una enfermedad metabólica por depósito de cristales de ácido úrico, que compromete articulaciones y tejidos blandos tanto en sus etapas agudas como crónicas. Constituye un suceso poco común la aparición de un tumor en el sitio propio de la lesión. Objetivo: presentar un caso de asociación infrecuente entre tofo gotoso y sarcoma. Material y métodos: hombre de 83 años que consultó por tumoración en codo izquierdo de aproximadamente 40 años de evolución, que comenzó a doler espontáneamente. Con la presunción diagnóstica de tofo gotoso se trató quirúrgicamente. La lesión recidivó a los 60 días, se realizó reintervención y radioterapia por diagnóstico de tumor mesenquimal maligno asociado a tofo gotoso. A los 10 meses desarrolló metástasis ganglionar homolateral, falleció antes de los 2 años de la consulta inicial. Resultados: El diagnóstico de la primer biopsia fue tofo gotoso. En el material de reintervención se diagnosticó tofo gotoso asociado a neoplasia mesenquimal fusocelular de alto grado; la inmunohistoquímica reveló: vimentina +/+, MYO D1 -/-, ASMA -/-, FVIII -/-, A1ATT -/-, CD68-/-, S100-/- con resultado diagnóstico final de sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado de alto grado. Conclusión: Es infrecuente que los tofos gotosos se asocien a otras enfermedades y menos que lo hagan a tumores. En la bibliografía se han reportado tres casos previos concurrentes con neoplasias, las cuales fueron angiosarcoma, tumor de células gigantes y fibrohistiocitoma maligno. Estos últimos tienen una alta tendencia a recidivar y poseen capacidad de dar metástasis, especialmente a pulmones y ganglios regionales. Palabras clave: tofo gotoso, fibrohistiocitoma maligno, sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado.

  15. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  16. [First report of complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 isolated in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cardozo Tomas, Agustina; Ghietto, Lucia Maria; Insfran, Constanza; Wasinger, Nicolas; Marchesi, Ariana; Adamo, Maria Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. El Bocavirus humano (HBoV) es un parvovirus descripto por primera vez en 2005, asociado a cuadros leves y graves de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA), una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en la población infantil en todo el mundo. Al presente se han identificado 4 genotipos, nombradas HBoV1 a 4, de los cuales el primero es el que se asocia a IRA con predominancia. Objetivo. Obtener el genoma completo de HBoV respiratorio aislado localmente. Métodos. Se diseñaron primers para fragmentos superpuestos del genoma completo de HBoV, empleando las herramientas informáticas ClustalW y NCBI Primer-Blast. Los fragmentos se amplificaron por PCR convencional y se secuenciaron mediante tecnología capilar BigDye Terminator. La edición de las secuencias y análisis filogenético se realizó con el programa MEGA v6. Resultados. Se obtuvo la secuencia genómica completa de HBoV1 cepa 307AR09, aislada de secreción respiratoria de paciente pediátrico con bronquiolitis. La misma fue depositada en la base de datos GenBank con número de acceso KJ634207. El análisis filogenético con secuencias genómicas completas de los 4 genotipos obtenidas en distintas regiones del mundo muestra similitud cercana al 100% con la secuencia original descubierta en Suecia (DQ000495), así como el agrupamiento de los 4 genotipos en 2 clusters de alta homología interna: HBoV1-HBoV3 y HBoV2-HBoV4. Conclusiones. Se aportan datos locales para futuros desarrollos tecnológicos destinados tanto a la investigación como al diseño de métodos diagnósticos para la práctica médica. Por otra parte, los resultados sustentan la propuesta de redistribución taxonómica de los 4 genotipos en 2 especies.

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  18. RED MEAT, MICRONUTRIENTS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF ARGENTINE ADULT PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Dante Gustavo; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Galíndez, María Fernanda; Piccini, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Héctor; Brunotto, Mabel

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la detección de grupos de riesgo de cáncer oral permite reducir las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad típicas de esta patología. Objetivo: se analizó el rol de carnes rojas, macronutrientes y micronutrientes en pacientes con carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE) en un estudio de casos y controles llevado a cabo en Córdoba, Argentina. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles 3:1, ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 24-80 años. La información sobre la dieta fue recogida mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos cuali-cuantitativo. La regresión logística se aplicó para evaluar la asociación entre el estado caso/control y la ingesta diaria de carne roja/ macronutrientes/micronutrientes/energía. Resultados: los micronutrientes y minerales de la dieta que mostraron valores medios significativos de consumo común en los casos relativos a los controles eran hierro, fósforo, vitaminas B1, B5, B6, E y K y selenio. La medición de la asociación estimada por regresión logística mostró una asociación significativa entre carne roja, grasas, energía diaria, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, ingesta de selenio y presencia de COCE. Conclusión: un alto consumo de grasas, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, selenio y carne roja parece estar relacionado con la presencia de COCE en Córdoba, Argentina. En relación con el consumo de carne roja y el riesgo de COCE, la investigación futura debería centrar su atención en la reducción de la complejidad de las relaciones de la dieta y la enfermedad, así como en reducir la variabilidad de los datos de ingesta mediante la estandarización de los criterios de admisión a fin de aplicar estrategias sencillas en salud pública para el reconocimiento de grupos de riesgo de COCE.

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  20. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de nutrientes y el estado nutricional de los alimentos en pacientes con cáncer ingresados en un hospital universitario, comparando por categoría de edad entre adulto y adulto mayor. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Este estudio incluía pacientes cancerosos ingresados en un hospital en 2010. Se recogieron los hábitos dietéticos mediante un cuestionario brasileño de frecuencia de alimentos. Se dividieron los participantes en dos grupos: adultos y adultos mayores y en 4 categorías de cáncer: hematológico, pulmonar, gastrointestinal y otros. El estado nutricional se evaluó con el índice de masa corporal. Resultados: Se evaluó a un total de 86 pacientes con una edad promedio de 56,5 años, siendo el 55 % varones y el 42 % adultos mayores. La categoría de adultos mayores tenía con mayor frecuencia peso bajo (24,4 % frente a 16,3 %, p < 0,01) y una menor frecuencia de sobrepeso (7 % frente a 15,1 %, p < 0,01) que los adultos. En ambos grupos había una frecuencia elevada de fumadores, consumo de alcohol e inactividad física. Los adultos mayores tenían un menor consumo de calorías, ingesta de hierro y ácido fólico. Se observó una ingesta inadecuada de vitaminas en ambos grupos; respectivamente, 52 %, 43 %, 95 %, 76 % y 88 % para las vitaminas A, C, D, E y el ácido fólico. Los adultos mayores tenían más ingesta inadecuada de ácido fólico y calcio que los adultos (97 % frente a 82 %, p < 0,01; 88 % frente a 72 %, p < 0,01). No hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de micronutrientes con el cáncer ni con el estado nutritivo. Conclusión: La ingesta de alimentos y de macro y micronutrientes es insuficiente en los individuos con cáncer. La ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores fue menor en comparación con los adultos. Hubo una prevalencia elevada de IMC excesivo en el grupo de adultos y un peor estado nutricional en la categoría de adultos mayores.

  1. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    Antecedentes: El inicio de la alimentación complementaria temprana coincide con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad especialmente en los niños, lo cual se debe entre otras causas a los cambios en los patrones de alimentación que se han experimentado. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños mexicanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de los estudios que evaluaron las prácticas alimentarias en menores de 2 años en México en Medline, Lilacs y de forma manual con los siguientes términos: alimentación complementaria, alimentación suplementaria, México, ablactación y destete. Se recabó la edad de inicio de la alimentación complementaria, tipo de alimento consumido, frecuencia de consumo de los alimentos y motivo por el que iniciaban la alimentación complementaria. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo de la información recolectada y los datos en las gráficas son mostrados como proporciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 7 estudios que mostraron que los niños inician la alimentación complementaria antes de los 6 meses predominantemente con frutas, aunque también consumieron jugos industrializados, refrescos y frituras. El consumo de estos productos aumenta con el crecimiento de los niños, aunado a un bajo consumo de alimentos con proteína de alto valor biológico, especialmente las carnes rojas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de los estudios incluidos mostraron que los menores reciben alimentos con alta densidad energética, mientras que es bajo el consumo de aquellos que aportan proteína animal y hierro en particular, lo que puede contribuir a problemas de salud como sobrepeso, obesidad, desnutrición y anemia.

  2. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  3. [Small infundibulectomy versus ventriculotomy in tetralogy of Fallot].

    PubMed

    Bojórquez-Ramos, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en la corrección quirúrgica de la tetralogía de Fallot existe uniformidad en la forma de cerrar el defecto septal, pero variedad en cómo ampliar el tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho, por lo que se compara la evolución clínica posoperatoria temprana de la ampliación del tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho con ventriculotomía clásica e infundibulectomía minima. Métodos: análisis de la base de datos de un servicio de cardiocirugía pediátrica de 2008 a 2011. Se eligieron pacientes con tetralogía de Fallot no compleja sometidos a corrección completa mediante ventriculotomía clásica o infundibulectomía minima. Para el análisis estadístico se obtuvo Anova, χ(2) y prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: 55 % fue del sexo masculino, la edad media fue de 43 meses, la ventriculotomía clásica se realizó en 61.7 %, con la que se tuvo mayor nivel máximo de lactato (9.07 adversus 6.8 mmo/L), de magnitud en el índice hemorragia/kg en las primeras 12 horas (39.1 adversus 20.3 mL/kg), de mortalidad (31.03 adversus 5.6 %), de complicaciones exclusivas como insuficiencia renal aguda, hemoneumotórax, neumonía, bloqueo auriculoventricular permanente y falla orgánica múltiple. Conclusiones: la morbimortalidad fue mayor con la ventriculotomía clásica, relacionada posiblemente con el mayor volumen de sangrado.

  4. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  5. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  6. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  7. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  8. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  9. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  10. Relaciones entre el sueño y la adicción

    PubMed Central

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La interacción entre los trastornos del sueño y el abuso de sustancias es ya conocida, pero seguramente más compleja de lo que se pensaba. Existe tanto una relación positiva entre tener un trastorno por uso de substancias y sufrir un trastorno de sueño, como viceversa. Los efectos sobre el sueño dependen de la substancia utilizada, pero se ha demostrado que tanto durante su uso como en período de abstinencia los consumidores tienen diferentes problemas de sueño y fundamentalmente un sueño más fragmentado. Sabemos que hay que tener en cuenta los problemas de sueño para evitar recaídas en la adicción. Investigaciones recientes indican que el sistema hipocretinérgico definido por el neuropéptido hipocretina/orexina (Hcrt/ox), localizado en el hipotálamo lateral e implicado entre otros en la regulación del ciclo sueño-vigilia, jugaría un papel importante en las conductas adictivas. Diferentes estudios han demostrado interacciones entre el sistema hipocretinérgico, los circuitos de respuesta aguda al estrés y los sistemas de recompensa. También sabemos que la activación optogenética selectiva del sistema hipocretinérgico incrementa la probabilidad de la transición del sueño a la vigilia, y también es suficiente para iniciar un comportamiento compulsivo de recaída adictiva. La activación del sistema hipocretinérgico podría explicar la hipervigilia asociada al estrés y a la adicción. El mayor conocimiento de esta interacción permitiría entender mejor los mecanismos de la adicción y encontrar nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de las adicciones. PMID:23241715

  11. [Carotid body paraganglioma in a teenager. Case report].

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, María Elisa; Llamas-Macías, Francisco Javier; Nuño-Escobar, César; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello son tumores neuroendocrinos de baja incidencia (0.6%), en su mayor parte benignos, en cuyo origen se han involucrado múltiples factores. Los seres humanos y otras especies que viven a grandes alturas (por arriba de 2000 metros sobre el nivel del mar) son propensos a sufrir hipoxia crónica relativa, hiperplasia del cuerpo carotídeo y, eventualmente, paragangliomas. Este padecimiento aparece en la quinta década de la vida y en la tercera, en caso de presentación familiar. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una adolescente de 16 años de edad que un año antes tuvo faringitis aguda con tumor localizado en la cara lateral izquierda del cuello, de crecimiento gradual, sin ningún síntoma. El ultrasonido Doppler dúplex de cuello mostró una lesión nodular sólida sobre el trayecto de la bifurcación carotídea izquierda. Fue intervenida quirúrgicamente mediante cervicotomía lateral izquierda, en la cual se encontró una tumoración de aproximadamente 4 × 3 × 3 cm, sumamente vascularizada, que afectaba la carótida común desde su tercio medio, la carótida interna hasta la base del cráneo y la carótida externa hasta el tercio superior, con íntima relación con la tráquea, el esófago y la columna cervical. La tumoración se resecó en su totalidad, el estudio histopatológico corroboró los paragangliomas. Conclusiones: la edad de presentación es poco común, por lo que se considera relevante y de interés clínico comunicar este caso, toda vez que debe considerarse como posibilidad diagnóstica.

  12. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  13. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication.

  15. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  16. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  17. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  18. [Rescue treatment in acute thrombosis of intracranial stents].

    PubMed

    Pumar, José M; Banguero, Alexandra; Arias-Rivas, Susana; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Sucasas, Paula; Blanco, Miguel; Castiñeira-Mourenza, José A; Vázquez-Herrero, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. La trombosis aguda intrastent es una complicacion potencialmente grave en el stenting intracraneal. Es primordial determinar cual es la terapia mas adecuada en las trombosis intrastent. Caso clinico. Mujer de 58 años, el primer caso de trombosis aguda de un stent intracraneal, que fue tratada con exito mediante fibrinolisis tras la implantacion de un dispositivo diversificador de flujo (Silk) en un aneurisma basilar fusiforme. Conclusion. La administracion de abciximab como tratamiento de rescate parece segura en los casos de formaciones de trombos agudos intrastent.

  19. Iron availability in an enteral feeding formulation by response surface methodology for mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: La terapia nutricional con nutrición enterales se ha especializado en los últimos 2013s y estas formulaciones pueden sustituir a la dieta tradicional para aquellos pacientes que necesitan de infusiones de alimentación. El objetivo fue estudiar el efecto de los componentes de la formulación de nutrición enterales: fibra, calcio y triglicéridos de cadena media para optimizar una formulación para el hierro dialisibilidad. Métodos: La herramienta utilizada fue el análisis de múltiples variables, utilizando modelos de superficie de respuesta para las mezclas. Los ingredientes usados en las formulaciones de la dieta se presentan en el diseño experimental elegido de acuerdo con los módulos que se venden en dieta enteral estándar. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron la dependencia de la respuesta en la proporción de nutrientes que han sido manipulados en las mezclas preparadas en el diseño experimental. En el momento de obtener el contorno de hierro dialisible se puede ver que la interacción fibra y calcio era el más sinérgico presentado para la formulación evaluada. Teniendo en cuenta los hechos analizados la mejor formulación de la dieta enteral optimizado para el hierro dialisibilidad fue la proporción de 60% de fibra y 40% de calcio.

  20. [A FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS DIET QUALITY IN THE PREVENTION OF IRON DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Toxqui Abascal, Laura; Díaz Álvarez, Alejandra; Vaquero, María Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: A pesar del amplio conocimiento sobre la biodisponibilidad del hierro, no se ha implementado aún un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (CFCA) para su aplicación en grupos poblacionales con predisposición a anemia. Objetivos: Diseñar un CFCA basado en los potenciadores e inhibidores de la absorción del hierro y valorar su aplicabilidad en un grupo de mujeres en edad fértil. Métodos: Se elaboró un CFCA específico de 28 preguntas, 10 de ellas con indicación del momento de consumo de alimentos, en el desayuno y en comida/cena (CC). Se seleccionaron 179 mujeres sanas jóvenes que se distribuyeron en 3 grupos en función de su estado del hierro, ferritina sérica 30 ng/mL. Resultados: La reproducibilidad del CFCA fue muy alta (coeficiente de Spearman>0.500, p.

  1. [Giant abscessed urachal cyst in adult. Case report].

    PubMed

    Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo; Domínguez-Muñoz, Guillermo; López-Díaz, Yazmín Araceli; Vera-Rodríguez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: durante la gestación, el uraco representa la conexión entre la vejiga y el alantoides. Su infección se manifiesta, principalmente, en adultos jóvenes. La vía hematógena o linfática son las posibles rutas de trasmisión, aunque también puede ocurrir el origen umbilical o de vejiga. El quiste de uraco es raro en adultos y sólo puede observarse en 2%. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 30 años, con antecedente de hepatopatía alcohólica, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, desnutrición crónica. Inició con aumento del volumen abdominal, dolor abdominal generalizado, tumor abdominal de 20 por 15 cm, móvil, de consistencia sólida, sin signos de irritación peritoneal.La tomografía computada mostró un tumor probablemente dependiente de la vejiga, de aspecto quístico. En la laparotomía exploradora se encontró un quiste de uraco infectado, que drenaba 3,000 cc de material purulento. Se realizó la resección parcial de la cara anterior y se conservó la posterior debido a la adherencia firme a las asas intestinales. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. discusión: las alteraciones uracales son raras, con razón hombre:mujer de 2:1. Aunque un absceso uracal representa una infección confinada a un espacio cerrado, su tratamiento definitivo no debe ser la simple incisión y drenaje, debido a la posibilidad de degeneración maligna de los restos uracales. El tratamiento definitivo debe considerar la escisión completa del quiste, y del uraco, cuando la infección esté limitada. Conclusión: el quiste de uraco es una afección poco frecuente, que debe considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de apendicitis aguda, y tener en mente su tratamiento definitivo.

  2. [Clinical applications of the use of probiotics in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Jimena; Tolín, Mar; Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El empleo de probióticos supone un novedoso avance en el campo de la Pediatría puesto que pueden ser útiles en la prevención y tratamiento de múltiples patologías gastrointestinales, constituyendo un elemento más en nuestro arsenal terapéutico. Objetivo: En este artículo se presenta una revisión actualizada de la literatura científica sobre el uso de los probióticos en Pediatría, principalmente en problemas gastrointestinales con alteración en la microbiota intestinal describiéndose las principales aplicaciones del empleo de los probióticos y prebióticos en la infancia y repasando las líneas de investigación futuras. Resultados y conclusiones: A pesar de existir suficiente evidencia científica en varias patologías, la utilización de probióticos no está del todo incorporado a la práctica clínica habitual de los pediatras. Se emplea en el contexto de las enfermedades gastrointestinales (diarrea aguda infecciosa, la diarrea asociada a antibióticos, sobredesarrollo bacteriano) y, más recientemente, en procesos inflamatorios crónicos como la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal o en trastornos funcionales como el cólico del lactante o el estreñimiento. También se ha valorado su efecto beneficioso en alteraciones extraintestinales, tales como la alergia (dermatitis atópica) o los efectos sobre las mucosas respiratorias o urogenitales y, en los últimos años, en la prevención de patología del recién nacido pretérmino y en la infección por H. pylori. Además existen varias líneas de investigación abiertas en la suplementación alimentaria con probióticos y prebióticos. Cada cepa prebiótica debe ser estudiada individualmente y extensamente para determinar su eficacia y seguridad en todas aquellas situaciones en que su empleo puede ser aconsejable.

  3. [231 laparoscopic cholecystectomy in ambulatory: what results?].

    PubMed

    Goulart, André; Delgado, Margarida; Antunes, Maria Conceição; Braga Dos Anjos, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A colecistectomia laparoscópica é actualmente o gold standard no tratamento da patologia litiásica vesicular e colecistite aguda. A sua realização em regime de cirurgia de ambulatório permanece em discussão. O presente estudo tem por objectivo analisar a qualidade e segurança das colecistectomias laparoscópicas realizadas pela Unidade de Cirurgia de Ambulatório do Hospital de Braga e comparar os resultados com outros centros europeus que realizam colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo de doentes submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório durante 26 meses. Foram recolhidos dados referentes à demografia do doente, complicações peri e pós-operatórias, tempo cirúrgico e tempo de permanência no recobro e internamentos não programados.Resultados: Foram submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita (alta < 24h) 231 doentes. Três doentes tiveram intercorrências intra-operatórias com necessidade de conversão para laparotomia e quatro doentes foram internados após a cirurgia. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi de 58 minutos e o tempo médio de recobro de 19h19m. A morbilidade pósoperatória foi de 7,8% tendo, ocorrido dois internamentos não programados.Discussão: Uma das discussões que existe em torno da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório é a necessidade de vigilância hospitalar durante a primeira noite após a cirurgia. Na nossa unidade, iniciamos a realização da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita hospitalar. Os resultados de mais de dois anos e 231 doentes operados a colecistectomia laparoscópica mostram que é uma técnica perfeitamente segura em regime de ambulatório.Conclusões: Os dados do estudo mostram que a colecistectomia laparoscópica é uma técnica segura em regime de ambulatório, com resultados semelhantes comparativamente com

  4. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  5. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  6. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  7. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  8. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  9. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  10. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  11. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  12. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  13. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  14. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  15. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  16. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  17. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  18. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  19. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  20. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  1. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  2. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Ángel Francisco González; Sierra, Ángel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  3. Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, R.T.; Searle, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Large landslides are ubiquitous around the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes, and GLORIA has also revealed large landslides offshore from Tristan da Cunha and El Hierro. On both of the latter islands, steep flanks formerly attributed to tilting or marine erosion have been reinterpreted as landslide headwalls mantled by younger lava flows. These landslides occur in a wide range of settings and probably represent only a small sample from a large population. They may explain the large volumes of archipelagic aprons and the stellate shapes of many oceanic volcanoes. Large landslides and associated tsunamis pose hazards to many islands. -from Authors

  4. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  5. [SwapINN: analytic study about prescription swaps at pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Ana; Alexandra, Denise; Rodrigues, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A prescrição obrigatória por DCI foi imposta em 2012, para redução de custos do SNS e motivou discussão entre as partes envolvidas. Estudámos, numa população real, a dinâmica prescrição-dispensa de medicamentos.Objetivos: Determinar a percentagem de prescrições substituídas; avaliar os fatores associados à substituição; identificar as respetivas justificações; quantificar os diferenciais dos custos para utente e Serviço Nacional de Saúde.Material e Métodos: Estudo analítico. Amostra de conveniência constituída pelos medicamentos prescritos de uma unidade de saúde, de 19 a 23 de Dezembro de 2011. Três dias depois, os utentes foram entrevistados telefonicamente. Software: Excel® e SPSS®. Testes: Qui-quadrado e Mann-Whitney; n.s. = 0,05.Resultados: Total de 255 prescrições. A maioria foi efetuada a mulheres (62%), idade média 52 anos, 4 anos de escolaridade (33%) e para situações agudas (53%). Foram substituídas 31% das prescrições, sem relação com idade, sexo ou escolaridade, nem com o médico prescritor ou farmácia. Os medicamentos prescritos para situações crónicas foram menos substituídos (p < 0,001), assim como as prescrições de marca (p < 0,001). Os anti-infeciosos e anti-alérgicos foram os grupos com mais substituições (p = 0,009). Os utentes não se aperceberam da substituição em 72% dos casos. Nos casos de substituição, o utente pagou, em média, mais 79% que o prescrito e o Serviço Nacional de Saúde 5%.Discussão/Conclusão: Verificou-se substituição de 31% das prescrições, com mais custos para utente e Serviço Nacional de Saúde. Consideramos possível viés de seleção, informação e registo. Sendo agora obrigatória a prescrição por DCI, sugerimos a análise regular, a nível nacional, com base nas aplicações informáticas em uso, da prescrição e respetiva dispensa.

  6. [Effect of metformin addition to an acute lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy treatment].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Santoyo-Sánchez, Adrián; Jiménez-Ponce, Fiacro; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: se ha informado efecto benéfico con metformina en pacientes con cáncer. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de adicionar metformina a la quimioterapia sobre las recaídas tempranas en pacientes con leucemia linfoblástica aguda. MÉTODOS: estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y experimental de pacientes portadores de leucemia linfoblástica aguda de novo, realizado en el Hospital General de Mexico. La muestra fue dividida en dos brazos de tratamiento: uno recibió metformina (850 mg cada ocho horas) + quimioterapia; otro recibió únicamente quimioterapia estándar. La distribución de los pacientes fue aleatoria, 3:1 a favor del segundo brazo.

  7. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia

  8. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los des

  9. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia

  10. [Hypofractionation in locally advanced breast cancer: "flash" scheme].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marisa; Gonçalves, Sara; Fardilha, Carlos; Melo, Gilberto; Miranda, Cristina; Alves, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da mama é uma das principais causas de morte no nosso país. No Serviço de Radioterapia do Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra de Coimbra utilizamos, desde há mais de 30 anos, um esquema de hipofraccionamento de radioterapia, denominado “Flash”, como opção terapêutica em doentes idosos ou com baixo Performance Status, portadores de carcinoma da mama localmente avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, com intenção neoadjuvante ou paliativa. Objectivos: Avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, nomeadamente sobrevivência global aos três anos, resposta local e toxicidades aguda e crónica, no grupo de doentes seleccionados submetidos a esquema de hipofraccionamento, em estudo retrospectivo. Metodologia: Entre Janeiro de 2006 e Dezembro de 2008, um total de 83 doentes com diagnóstico de Carcinoma da Mama Localmente Avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, foi submetido a “Flash” mamário. A dose de radioterapia prescrita foi de 13Gy / 2Fr / 3 dias (em 23 doentes - 27,7%) e 26Gy / 4Fr / 2,5 semanas (em 60 doentes - 72,3%), com fotões de 4 MV, sobre a mama afectada. Foi avaliada sobrevivência global segundo o método de Kaplan-Meier. A análise estatística foi efectuada através da aplicação SPSS, versão 17.0 e os testes estatísticos foram avaliados ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 80 doentes (96,4%) que efectuaram “Flash” mamário eram do género feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 59 e os 93 anos (idade média 80,72 + 5,87 anos) e Performance Status (Karnosfsky: 0 - 100) entre 90 e 50%. Em 72 doentes (86,7%) o diagnóstico histológico foi Carcinoma Ductal Invasivo. A cirurgia após a realização do “Flash” Mamário foi realizada em 44 doentes (53%) após evidência de resposta local à radioterapia, sendo a Mastectomia Radical Modificada a técnica cirúrgica mais frequente. Efectuou-se o diagnóstico de metastização óssea em 10 doentes (12%), sendo que a taxa de sobrevivência global foi

  11. [A community-based study of stroke code users in northern Portugal].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Mariana; Magalhães, Rui; Correia, Manuel; Silva, M Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2002 Portugal detinha uma das mais altas taxas de mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares entre os países europeus. Várias estratégias foram adoptadas para melhorar a prevenção da doença e o seu tratamento na fase aguda, entre as quais a criação da Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral. O objectivo deste trabalho é descrever a utilização e resultados desta estratégia no contexto de um registo prospectivo comunitário na Região Norte de Portugal. Material e Métodos: Foram registados todos os AVCs ocorridos entre 1 de Outubro de 2009 e 30 de Setembro de 2010 nos utentes inscritos no agrupamento de centros de saúde do Porto Ocidental e nos de Mirandela e Vila Pouca de Aguiar. Para a detecção de casos utilizaram-se múltiplas fontes de informação: notificação via WEB, e-mail, Alerta P1 e pesquisas sistemáticas em registos disponibilizados pelas entidades envolvidas - urgências hospitalares, listas de altas, procedimentos de diagnóstico, óbitos, Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral e serviço de atendimento de situações urgentes. Resultados: Ocorreram 600 AVCs em 241 000 habitantes (taxa de incidência de 250 / 100 000), dos quais 434 foram primeiros na vida (180 / 100 000). Foram registados 72 acessos à Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, dos quais 66,7% foram diagnosticados como AVC. Considerando os quatro critérios de activação (idade ≤ 80 anos, independência funcional, sinais/sintomas do AVC e tempo após episódio ≤ 3 horas), só 15,9% dos doentes a poderiam utilizar e, dos utilizadores, apenas 56,3% satisfaziam esses critérios. Dos doentes com critérios de activação, foram internados 96,3% pela VV pré-hospitalar, 83,3% pela VV intra/inter-hospitalar e 64,0% dos restantes; a fibrinólise foi realizada em 77,3%, 36,4% e 17,4% dos doentes com enfarte cerebral, respectivamente. O Rankin pós- AVC é mais grave nos utilizadores da VV pré-hospitalar (70,3% vs. 35,3%), mas estes apresentam mais

  12. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  13. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  14. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  15. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  16. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  17. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  18. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  19. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  20. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  1. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  2. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  3. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  4. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  5. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  6. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  7. Crystal structure of bis-(4-nitro-aniline-κN (1))(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-κ(4) N)cobalt(III) chloride di-chloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of [Co(III)(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro-aniline in di-chloro-methane leads to the title compound, [Co(III)(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The Co(III) ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro-aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [Co(III)(TPP)(4-nitro-aniline)2](+) ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co-N(pyrrole) distance (Co-Np) is 1.982 (2) Å and the axial Co-N(4-nitro-aniline) bond length is 2.006 (2) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro-aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra-molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:25309176

  8. Trans --> cis isomerization of trans-[(dppm)2Ru(H)(L)][BF4] (L = P(OR)3) complexes: preparation of cis-[(dppm)2Ru(eta2-H2)(L)][BF4]2.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Jagirdar, Balaji R; Ranganathan, Anupama

    2003-01-13

    A series of new dicationic dihydrogen complexes of ruthenium of the type cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(eta(2)-H(2))(L)][BF(4)](2) (dppm = Ph(2)PCH(2)PPh(2); L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), PF(O(i)Pr)(2)) have been prepared by protonating the precursor hydride complexes cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] (L = P(OMe)(3), P(OEt)(3), P(O(i)Pr)(3)) using HBF(4).Et(2)O. The cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(L)][BF(4)] complexes were obtained from the trans hydrides via an isomerization reaction that is acid-accelerated. This isomerization reaction gives mixtures of cis and trans hydride complexes, the ratios of which depend on the cone angles of the phosphite ligands: the greater the cone angle, the greater is the amount of the cis isomer. The eta(2)-H(2) ligand in the dihydrogen complexes is labile, and the loss of H(2) was found to be reversible. The protonation reactions of the starting hydrides with trans PMe(3) or PMe(2)Ph yield mixtures of the cis and the trans hydride complexes; further addition of the acid, however, give trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(BF(4))Cl]. The roles of the bite angles of the dppm ligand as well as the steric and the electronic properties of the monodentate phosphorus ligands in this series of complexes are discussed. X-ray crystal structures of trans-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(OMe)(3))][BF(4)], and cis-[(dppm)(2)Ru(H)(P(O(i)Pr)(3))][BF(4)] complexes have been determined. PMID:12513094

  9. [Analysis of the nutritional parameters and adjustment of the requirements of the initial parenteral nutrition in post surgical critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Herrero Domínguez-Berrueta, M Carmen; Martín de Rosales Cabrera, Ana María; Pérez Encinas, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    Objetivos: Analizar los parámetros nutricionales en pacientes críticos postquirúrgicos en situación de estrés, su evolución y evaluar el grado de ajuste de la Nutrición Parenteral (NP) de inicio a los requerimientos de las recomendaciones recientemente publicadas. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo incluyendo pacientes críticos postquirúrgicos ingresados en una unidad de reanimación postquirúrgica en 2011 con prescripción de NP. Se recogieron datos demográficos, antropométricos, diagnóstico, parámetros nutricionales, mortalidad, estancia total y en Reanimación (REA), y complicaciones. Se comparó el tipo de NP pautada, con la individualización de los requerimientos por kg según las últimas recomendaciones publicadas de nutrición en el paciente crítico (ASPEN, ESPEN, SENPE): 18-30 kcal/kg, 0,8-1,5 g/kg/proteínas, 4 mg/kg/min/glucosa y 2-3 mg/kg/min/glucosa en pacientes con hiperglucemia de estrés, y 0,5-1 g/kg/día lípidos. Las variables analizadas fueron ajuste calórico, proteico y de glucosa en la NP de inicio, recuperación de la albúmina > 3 g/dl a día 10º y la posible asociación clínica con el número de complicaciones, mortalidad y estancia. Resultados: Se analizaron 60 pacientes. El 23,3% (14/60) presentaban al ingreso desnutrición con una pérdida significativa de peso previa a la intervención. La albúmina, reactante de fase aguda negativo, fue significativamente baja al inicio, media 1,9 g/dl (IC95% 1,83-2,12) indicando un alto grado de estrés metabólico de los pacientes postquirúrgicos. Las NP pautadas se ajustaron a las recomendaciones en kcal, proteínas y lípidos en un 68,3%, 71,7%, 80,4% respectivamente. El 57,1% estaban ajustados en glucosa aunque no se tuvo en cuenta el posible aporte en sueroterapia. En pacientes con IMC < 22 kg/m2 (16/60) se observó que el 81,8% de las NP pautadas presentaban exceso calórico, 60% exceso proteico y 43,8% exceso de lípidos (p < 0,05). Un 34 % de todos

  10. Moreiba gen. n., a new Canarian genus in Laparocerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Moreiba is described for Strophosoma canariense Franz, 1995 (type species) and placed in Laparocerini. It differs from Laparocerus Schoenherr, 1834 by the small size, the strongly transverse rostrum, the dense longitudinal strigosity on head and rostrum, the body covered by dense, adpressed scales and short, semierect subspatulate to parallel setae, the slender antennae with bisinuate scape and short oval club, the granulate pronotum and all tibiae lacking a mucro in both sexes. Moreiba canariensis (Franz, 1995), comb. n., is the only described species, distributed in El Hierro and Gran Canaria. The tribal placement of the genera Aphyonotus Faust, 1895, Asmaratrox Heller, 1909, Straticus Pascoe, 1886 and Cyrtozemia Pascoe, 1872 is discussed. PMID:24146559

  11. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro. PMID:26295394

  12. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro.

  13. Mansonia dyari, Mansonia flaveola and Aedeomyia squamipennis in the Dominican Republic, three new country records.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Chadee, Dave D

    2004-12-01

    We report the first collection of 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera in the Dominican Republic. The collections of adults and larvae of Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page and Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett) from Santo Domingo City represent 2 additional mosquito species to the mosquito fauna of the Dominican Republic. Larvae were collected in the Quitasueno and Puerta de Hierro lagoons (covered with the Pistia stratiotes plants) in Santo Domingo. The associated species Aedeomyia squamipennis Lynch Arribalzaga was also collected for the first time and is the only representative of the genus Aedeomyia Theobald in the Dominican Republic. These collections increase the number of mosquito species belonging to the Genus Mansonia from 1 to 3 and total species from 45 to 48 in the Dominican Republic.

  14. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro. PMID:26295394

  15. Mansonia dyari, Mansonia flaveola and Aedeomyia squamipennis in the Dominican Republic, three new country records.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Chadee, Dave D

    2004-12-01

    We report the first collection of 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera in the Dominican Republic. The collections of adults and larvae of Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page and Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett) from Santo Domingo City represent 2 additional mosquito species to the mosquito fauna of the Dominican Republic. Larvae were collected in the Quitasueno and Puerta de Hierro lagoons (covered with the Pistia stratiotes plants) in Santo Domingo. The associated species Aedeomyia squamipennis Lynch Arribalzaga was also collected for the first time and is the only representative of the genus Aedeomyia Theobald in the Dominican Republic. These collections increase the number of mosquito species belonging to the Genus Mansonia from 1 to 3 and total species from 45 to 48 in the Dominican Republic. PMID:15669390

  16. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

  17. Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Andreas; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; García-Cañada, Laura; Stix, John

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011-2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15-20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially

  18. Pronounced fixation, strong population differentiation and complex population history in the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward

  19. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-09

    D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento

  20. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento

  1. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  2. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  3. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  4. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  5. ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY: IMPACT ON WEIGHT AND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANEMIA IN NEWBORN.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Solange Augusta; Willner, Erica; Duraes Pereira, Tatiane Aguiar; de Souza, Vanessa Rosse; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Blondet de Azeredo, Vilma

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la anemia gestacional todavía se considera un problema de salud pública en Brasil y se asocia con un mayor riesgo de morbilidad materno-fetal y el estado nutricional de los niños en el período posparto. Objetivo: evaluar la frecuencia de la anemia gestacional materna en recién nacidos y su relación con el estado nutricional del niño al nacer. Métodos: se obtuvieron datos antropométricos de las mujeres embarazadas y los recién nacidos. Se recogieron muestras de sangre de mujeres embarazadas y de cordón umbilical de los recién nacidos para su posterior análisis de hemoglobina, hematocrito, ADE, hierro, ferritina e índice de saturación de transferrina en dispositivos automatizados. Los resultados se presentan como media y la desviación estándar. Fue utilizado el software GraphPadinStat®, versión 3.0 y se aceptó un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: la frecuencia de anemia materna era de 53,7% y 32,6% en los recién nacidos. La mitad de los recién nacidos eran niños anémicos de madres anémicas. De las mujeres embarazadas con anemia, el 79,3% tenían anemia leve y el 20,7% moderada. La concentración media de hemoglobina y hematocrito fue menor en las mujeres embarazadas con anemia (9,7 ± 0,9 g/ dl y 29,8 ± 3,2%) en comparación con las no anémicas (11,9 ± 0,7 g/dl y 36,5 ± 2,7%), como se esperaba. El nivel de hierro de la madre se correlacionó positivamente con ferritina (r = 0,389; p = 0,01) a partir de la sangre del cordón umbilical. El peso, la longitud y la circunferencia de la cabeza de los niños nacidos de madres anémicas fueron: 3.375,9 ± 506,9 g, 51,2 ± 1,7 cm y 34,5 ± 1,5 cm, respectivamente, mientras que entre los recién nacidos de madres no anémicas fueron: 3.300,2 ± 458,4 g, 50,3 ± 2,0 cm y 34,2 ± 2,0 cm, respectivamente. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre la hemoglobina, el hierro y la ferritina de la madre, y el peso, la longitud y la circunferencia de la cabeza de los reci

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of mantle xenoliths from La Palma, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    La Palma is the second youngest island, after El Hierro, of the Canary archipelago. The archipelago consists of seven large islands, forming an east-west-trending island chain, and several seamounts. All together they form a volcanic belt of around 800 km length and 450 km width, which presumably comprises roughly the Canary hotspot. The islands are located off the western coast of Morocco, Africa. The distance ranges from 100 km to 500 km. Concurrently with the distance, subaerial volcanism age progresses from the oldest lava in the east to the youngest in the west of the archipelago. Presently, La Palma is in the shield building stage of growth (alongside with El Hierro and Tenerife) and is furthermore the fastest growing island of the Canary archipelago. Historical volcanic eruptions are restricted on the younger islands, La Palma and El Hierro, with the last eruption at the south end of La Palma in 1971. Mantle xenoliths described in this work were collected at the slopes of San Antonio Volcano, Fuencaliente, brought to the surface during the 1677/1678 eruption. The mantle xenolith collection comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites and pyroxenites. The texture can be distinguished between coarse-grained matrix and fine-grained veins in various thicknesses, mostly with olivine and pyroxene but also with amphibole, phlogopite as well as apatite. Mineral analyses reveal the existence of primary and secondary ol, cpx and opx. Primary ol has Fo contents of 89.2 to 91.7 and NiO ranging from 0.3 to 0.45 wt.%, whereas secondary ol show Fo values of 78.4 to 91.9 but with NiO below 0.3 wt.%. Primary cpx are predominantly Cr-Diopsides with En48.7-51.9-Wo43.5-44.3-Fs4.1-4.9 and Mg# of 91.5 to 92.4. Secondary cpx, primarily Ti-Augit, display En36.7-44.4-Wo47.7-49.6-Fs6.7-13.0 and Mg# of 75.3 to 90.8. Primary opx compositions are in range of En89.3-90.6-Wo1.3-1.5-Fs8.1-9.3 with Mg# between 90.7 and 92.0. Secondary opx exhibit En88.7-89.2-Wo1.7-1.9-Fs9.1-9.5 and Mg# of 90

  7. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the…

  8. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  9. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  10. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  11. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded. PMID:11107900

  12. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  13. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  14. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  15. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  16. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  17. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  18. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  19. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  20. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  1. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  2. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  3. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  4. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 < b < 2.0. For the time period analysed, they are rarely lower than b = 1. Our results confirm that these volcano-tectonic earthquake populations can have systematically high b-values, especially when associated with eruptions. At other times they can be indistinguishable from those of tectonic earthquakes within the total error. The results have significant

  5. The Mediterranean diet and micronutrient levels in depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Olga; Gili, Margalida; Roca, Miguel; Vives, Margalida; Serrano, María Jesús; Pareja, Antonio; García-Campayo, Javier; Gómez-Juanes, Rocío; García-Toro, Mauro

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Se ha comunicado una correlación inversa entre depresión y el nivel sérico de algunos micronutrientes (selenio, zinc, hierro, magnesio, vitamina B y acido fólico). Además, otros estudios han señalado que la suplementar de estos micronutrientes puede mejorar la depresión. La dieta mediterránea proporciona una suficiente cantidad de los micronutrientes mencionados, aunque ningún estudio ha probado si la prescripción de dicha dieta puede incrementar los niveles de micronutrientes en pacientes depresivos. Objetivo: Examinar el impacto de recomendar un patrón dietético mediterráneo en los niveles de micronutrientes de pacientes deprimidos. Material y Métodos: 77 pacientes ambulatorios se aleatorizaron entre un grupo de intervención (recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas sobre dieta, ejercicio, sueño y exposición solar) y un grupo control. La evolución fue evaluada antes y después de los seis meses del periodo de intervención. Resultados: Los niveles de selenio y de zinc fueron ligeramente bajos en la determinación basal y el nivel de selenio correlacionaba inversamente con la severidad de la depresión (r=-0.233; p=0.041). El grupo activo evolucionó mejor de la clínica depresiva. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en los niveles de micronutrientes después de la prescripción del patrón de dieta mediterránea probablemente a causa de una insuficiente adherencia. Conclusión: Los niveles séricos de selenio, zinc, hierro, magnesio vitamina B12 y acido fólico no aumentaron en pacientes depresivos seis meses después de prescribir un patrón de dieta mediterránea.

  6. [Nutrition and child development I; nutritional status of school children in a peripheral district of Madrid (Rev Clin Esp 1944; XII:87-94)].

    PubMed

    Grande Covián, F; Rof Carballo, J; Jiménez García, F; Morata Cernuda, A

    2014-09-01

    El estudio clínico del estado nutritivo de un grupo de niños en edad escolar, habitantes de un suburbio madrileño revela la existencia, relativamente rara, de signos carenciales específicos, que contrasta vivamente con el considerable retraso que se observa en su desarrollo somático. Los hechos parecen demostrar que el problema nutritivo de estos niños es sobre todo un problema cuantitativo. El retraso de la evolución está en relación con la insuficiencia global de la dieta y con el déficit de calcio que es probablemente el elemento individual con mayor grado de carencia en las dietas. La anemia que presenta el 98% de los niños no parece deberse únicamente a una deficiencia de hierro porque la dieta parece tener una cantidad adecuada; probablemente esté más en relación con el exiguo contenido de proteínas animales de la ración.

  7. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  8. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  9. Phylogeny of the Macaronesian endemic Crambe section Dendrocrambe (Brassicaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier; Kim, Seung-Chul; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Crawford, Daniel J; Jansen, Robert K

    2002-12-01

    The 14 species of Crambe L. sect. Dendrocrambe DC. (Brassicaceae) form a monophyletic group endemic to the Canary and Madeira archipelagos. Both parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of sequence data from the two internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to estimate phylogenetic relationships within this section. These analyses support the monophyly of three major clades. No clade is restricted to a single island, and therefore it appears that inter-island colonization has been the main avenue for speciation in these two archipelagos. The two species endemic to Fuerteventura (C. sventenii) and Madeira (C. fruticosa) comprise a clade, providing the first evidence for a floristic link between the Eastern Canary Islands and the archipelago of Madeira. Both maximum likelihood and weighted parsimony analyses show that this clade is sister to the two other clades, although bootstrap support for this relationship is weak. Parsimony optimizations of ecological zones and island distribution suggest a colonization route from the low-altitude areas of the lowland scrub toward the high-elevation areas of the laurel and pine forests. In addition, Tenerife is likely the ancestral island for species endemic to the five westernmost islands of Gran Canaria, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Palma, and Tenerife.

  10. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of the right tibia in the prehispanic population of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F

    2000-02-28

    This study has been performed in order to define standards usable to determine the sex of prehispanic individuals from the Canary Islands from their skeletal remains. Osteometric information at the right tibia was obtained from 59 complete skeletons from Gran Canaria, housed in the Museo Canario (Las Palmas), 45 males and 14 females (this constitutes the totality of complete prehispanic skeletons known from Gran Canaria). The parameters measured were: tibial length, proximal and distal epiphyseal breadth, transverse and anteroposterior diameter, perimeter at the nutrition foramen levels and minimum shaft perimeter. These parameters were subjected to different SPSS discriminant function analysis, combining all of them, or only the proximal or distal ones, without tibial length, etc., in order to obtain functions usable even if only bone fragments are available. Transverse diameter, proximal epiphyseal breadth and minimum shaft perimeter showed the highest discriminant power. The functions obtained showed high average accuracies, ranging from 94.9 to 98.3%, with female accuracies of 100%. The functions obtained were further applied to a test prehispanic population (ten males and ten females) from El Hierro. Overall accuracies of the functions when applied to this population ranged from 65 to 94.7%, with female accuracies ranging 80% to 100%.

  11. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Brown Alga Padina pavonica: Decalcification Due to Acute and Chronic Events

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Díaz, Teba; Haroun, Ricardo; Tuya, Fernando; Betancor, Séfora; Viera-Rodríguez, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic CO2 emissions have caused ocean acidification, which particularly affects calcified organisms. Given the fan-like calcified fronds of the brown alga Padina pavonica, we evaluated the acute (short-term) effects of a sudden pH drop due to a submarine volcanic eruption (October 2011–early March 2012) affecting offshore waters around El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). We further studied the chronic (long-term) effects of the continuous decrease in pH in the last decades around the Canarian waters. In both the observational and retrospective studies (using herbarium collections of P. pavonica thalli from the overall Canarian Archipelago), the percent of surface calcium carbonate coverage of P. pavonica thalli were contrasted with oceanographic data collected either in situ (volcanic eruption event) or from the ESTOC marine observatory data series (herbarium study). Results showed that this calcified alga is sensitive to acute and chronic environmental pH changes. In both cases, pH changes predicted surface thallus calcification, including a progressive decalcification over the last three decades. This result concurs with previous studies where calcareous organisms decalcify under more acidic conditions. Hence, Padina pavonica can be implemented as a bio-indicator of ocean acidification (at short and long time scales) for monitoring purposes over wide geographic ranges, as this macroalga is affected and thrives (unlike strict calcifiers) under more acidic conditions. PMID:25268231

  12. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  13. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  14. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  15. A new derived and highly polymorphic chromosomal race of Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae) from the 'Norte Chico' of Chile.

    PubMed

    Lamborot, M

    1998-06-01

    A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. PMID:9688513

  16. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  17. Effects of ocean acidification on the brown alga Padina pavonica: decalcification due to acute and chronic events.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, Teba; Haroun, Ricardo; Tuya, Fernando; Betancor, Séfora; Viera-Rodríguez, María A

    2014-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic CO₂ emissions have caused ocean acidification, which particularly affects calcified organisms. Given the fan-like calcified fronds of the brown alga Padina pavonica, we evaluated the acute (short-term) effects of a sudden pH drop due to a submarine volcanic eruption (October 2011-early March 2012) affecting offshore waters around El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). We further studied the chronic (long-term) effects of the continuous decrease in pH in the last decades around the Canarian waters. In both the observational and retrospective studies (using herbarium collections of P. pavonica thalli from the overall Canarian Archipelago), the percent of surface calcium carbonate coverage of P. pavonica thalli were contrasted with oceanographic data collected either in situ (volcanic eruption event) or from the ESTOC marine observatory data series (herbarium study). Results showed that this calcified alga is sensitive to acute and chronic environmental pH changes. In both cases, pH changes predicted surface thallus calcification, including a progressive decalcification over the last three decades. This result concurs with previous studies where calcareous organisms decalcify under more acidic conditions. Hence, Padina pavonica can be implemented as a bio-indicator of ocean acidification (at short and long time scales) for monitoring purposes over wide geographic ranges, as this macroalga is affected and thrives (unlike strict calcifiers) under more acidic conditions.

  18. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  19. Molecular characterization of a new serovar of Salmonella bongori 13,22:z39:- isolated from a lizard.

    PubMed

    Herrera-León, Silvia; Saco, Montserrat; Martínez Silvestre, Albert; Silveira, Luis; Echeita, Aurora; Usera, Miguel Angel

    2005-05-01

    Three Salmonella strains isolated from a lizard (Gallotia simoni) in the "Isla del Hierro" (Canary Islands, Spain) were serotyped as Salmonella bongori serotype 13,22:z39:-, which has not been described in the Kauffmann-White scheme of Salmonella serovars. In order to shed light on the assignment of those strains to the S. bongori species, several genes were amplified and/or sequenced. The iroB gene has been reported to be present only in S. enterica, while the invA gene has been described as being a helpful tool in distinguishing Salmonella from other bacterial species. Both genes were amplified and, as expected, only invA could be amplified. The fliC gene, encoding the phase 1 flagellin fljB gene, encoding phase 2 flagellin, and the gapA gene, which is believed to present polymorphic alleles among different subspecies, were amplified and sequenced. The sequence obtained from fliC(z39) matched with the sequences fliC(z39) obtained from other serovars. The sequence obtained from gapA clustered into the S. bongori group when it was compared to others previously described. We conclude that these three isolates are members of the S. bongori species representing a new serovar that will be described in the next supplement to the Kauffmann-White scheme.

  20. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  1. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  2. Diversification of the forest beetle genus Tarphius on the Canary Islands, and the evolutionary origins of island endemics.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Brent C; Oromí, Pedro

    2005-03-01

    The flightless beetle genus Tarphius Erichson (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) is a distinctive element of the beetle fauna of the Canary Islands with 29 species distributed across the five western islands. The majority of Tarphius species are rare and intimately associated with the monteverde forest and only two species occur on more than one island. In this study we investigate the phylogeography of the Canary Island Tarphius, and their relationship to Tarphius from the more northerly archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II sequence data. We use geological datings for the Canary Islands, Azores, and Madeira to calibrate specific nodes of the tree for the estimation of divergence times using a penalized likelihood method. Data suggest that the Canary Island species assemblage is of some antiquity, however, much of this species diversity is relatively recent in origin. The phylogenetic relationships of species inhabiting the younger islands of El Hierro and La Palma indicate that colonization events between islands have probably been a significant factor in the evolutionary history of the Canary Island species assemblage. A comparison of molecular phylogenetic studies of arthropods on the Canary Islands suggests that, in the evolution of the arthropod species community of an island, the origin of endemic species is initially the result of colonizing lineages differentiating from their source populations. However, as an island matures a greater proportion of endemic species originate from intra-island speciation.

  3. Identification of six novel P450 oxidoreductase missense variants in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Marohnic, Christopher C; Gurwitz, David; Šeda, Ondřej; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme NADPH–P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the main electron donor to all microsomal CYPs. The possible contribution of common POR variants to inter- and intra-individual variability in drug metabolism is of great pharmacogenetic interest. Aim To search for POR polymorphic alleles and estimate their frequencies in a Jewish population. Materials & methods We analyzed the POR gene in 301 Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews. Results A total of 30 POR SNPs were identified, nine in the noncoding regions and 21 in the protein-coding regions (ten synonymous, 11 missense). Six of these missense variants are previously undescribed (S102P, V164M, V191M, D344N, E398A and D648N). Conclusion The data collected in this study on missense POR SNPs, interpreted in light of the crystallographic structure of human POR, indicate that some POR missense variants may be potential biomarkers for future POR pharmacogenetic screening. PMID:22462747

  4. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

    1995-01-01

    Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development. PMID:7659751

  5. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  6. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  7. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  8. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  9. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  10. Composition and evolution of submarine volcanic rocks from the central and western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, M.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Hansteen, T. H.

    2002-08-01

    Submarine volcanic rocks dredged during RV Meteor cruise M43-1 comprise alkali basalts, basanites, nephelinites and their differentiates representing both basement-shield and young post-shield volcanics of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. The primitive lavas vary widely in trace element composition (e.g., Zr/Y=6.6-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-5.4, and Ba/Yb=71-311), and they are characterized by steep, rare-earth element patterns with mean (La/Yb)N=16, and by pronounced, positive primitive mantle-normalized Nb and Ta and negative K anomalies similar to HIMU-type basalts. Rocks from the submarine flanks west and north of Gran Canaria are isotopically and geochemically identical to rocks of the subaerial Miocene shield stage, but they are distinct from rocks of the post-shield stages (Zr/Nb=6.3-8.9, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70327-0.70332, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51289-0.51293, 206Pb/204Pb=19.55-19.88). Most rocks dredged from the submarine flanks of Tenerife are isotopically and geochemically similar to rocks of the adjacent subaerial shield remnants, but a few resemble rocks of the subaerial post-shield stages (total range in Zr/Nb=4.6-6.1, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70300-0.70329, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51281-0.51292, 206Pb/204Pb=19.51-19.96). Rocks from the southern submarine ridge of La Palma cover the entire compositional range of the subaerial rocks of that ridge. Additionally, they comprise a high Zr/Nb group which resembles rocks of the ca. 1-Ma-old Taburiente shield of northern La Palma (total range in Zr/Nb=3.0-6.4, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70297-0.70314, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51288-0.51296, 206Pb/204Pb=19.21-19.79). Rocks from the southern submarine ridge of El Hierro compositionally resemble subaerial rocks of the island (Zr/Nb=4.1-6.2, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70296-0.70314, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51291-0.51297, 206Pb/204Pb=19.25-19.91). The degree of melting in the subcanarian mantle is interpreted to decrease from east to west across the archipelago whereas the proportion of depleted mantle component in the melting anomaly increases

  11. Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ω m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and

  12. New insights into ocean tide loading corrections on tidal gravity data in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoso, J.; Benavent, M.; Bos, M. S.; Montesinos, F. G.

    2009-04-01

    The Canary Islands are an interesting area to investigate ocean tides loading effects due to the complex coastline of the islands and the varying bathymetry. We present here the quality of five recent global oceanic tidal models, GOT00.2, GOT4.7, FES2004, TPXO.7.1 and AG2006, by comparing their predicted ocean tide loading values with results from tidal gravity observations made on three islands, Lanzarote, Tenerife and El Hierro, for the four harmonic constituents O1, K1, M2 and S2. In order to improve the accuracy of the loading corrections on the gravity tide measurements, we have used the high resolution regional oceanic model CIAM2 to supplement the global models considered here. This regional model has been obtained by assimilating TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry at crossovers and along-track points and tide gauge observations into a hydrodynamic model. The model has a 5'Ã-5' resolution and covers the area between the coordinates 26°.5N to 30°.0N and 19°.0W to 12°.5W. The gravity tide observing sites have been occupied by three different LaCoste&Romberg (LCR) spring gravimeters during different periods of observation. We considered here the most recent gravity tide observations made with LCR Graviton-EG1194 in El Hierro Island, for a period of 6 months during 2008. In the case of Tenerife and Lanzarote sites we have used observation periods of 6 months and 8 years with LCR-G665 and LCR-G434 gravimeters, respectively. The last two sites have been revisited in order to improve the previous tidal analysis results. Thus, the gravity ocean tide loading corrections, based on the five global ocean tide models supplemented with the regional model CIAM2 allowed us to review the normalization factors (scale factor and phase lag) of both two gravimeters. Also, we investigated the discrepancies of the corrected gravimetric factors with the DDW elastic and inelastic non hydrostatic body tide model (Dehant et al., 1999). The lowest values are found for inelastic model in the

  13. The Moroccan Turbidite System: a modern example of a multi-basin mixed siliciclastic-volcaniclastic deep-water sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell; Talling, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The Moroccan Turbidite System encompasses three interconnected depocentres: Agadir Basin, Seine Abyssal Plain and Madeira Abyssal Plain (Wynn et al. 2002). Both siliciclastic and volcaniclastic turbidites are discovered within these basins using piston coring, but have been found to behave differently according to their source and site of entry. The Agadir Basin is fed directly by the Agadir Canyon, which is the primary source for siliciclastic shelf-edged derived turbidity currents. The Agadir Basin also represents a proximal site of deposition for volcaniclastic turbidites derived directly from Madeira, Tenerife, Las Palma and El Hierro. Though these mixed deposits are also found in the Seine and Madeira Abyssal Plains, the focus of this presentation will be the Agadir Basin. Focusing this study is primarily because it removes the added complexity of these flows passing through the regions interconnecting the basins, but also because of the higher quality of coring completed in the Agadir Basin. Siliciclastic turbidty currents here are affected by both grain-size bypass and flow transformations owing to sensitive interactions with topography (Talling et al. 2007). These deposits form tabular sheets through the centre of the basin, with bypass within the Madeira Channel System and recommencing deposition in the distal Madeira Abyssal Plain. Volcaniclastic deposits vary in their behaviour since they travel up-gradient through the Agadir Basin, with the deposit architectures not only affected by topographic interactions but with the characteristics of the landslide failures that generated them. Large scale volcaniclastic turbidites, such as those from Tenerife and El Hierro, exhibit a vertically stacked sand facies relating to the failure mechanism at source. This facies architecture is maintained >400km away from source in the Agadir Basin. In comparison smaller flank failures generate localised turbidite lobes feeding off small aprons, which have been found to be

  14. [Trends in food consumption of university students].

    PubMed

    De Piero, Alexia; Bassett, Natalia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma

    2015-04-01

    Los jóvenes universitarios necesitan consolidar buenos hábitos alimentarios basados en una adecuada selección de alimentos, los cuales constituyen un factor de fundamental importancia para mantener un buen estado de salud y prevenir enfermedades. Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de alimentos y el perfil de la dieta de estudiantes universitarios de Tucumán y su variación a través del tiempo. Analizar si cumplen las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales. Materiales y métodos: La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo durante los años 1998-1999 (G1) y 2012-2013 (G2); se realizó mediante una autoencuesta alimentaria y cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Fue aplicada a 329 estudiantes universitarios seleccionados en forma aleatoria. El perfil alimentario se describió según la frecuencia de consumo habitual de los principales grupos de alimentos. Resultados: Los estudiantes resultaron 25,2% hombres y 74,8% mujeres, con edad promedio de 23±3 años. En general, en ambos grupos, la mayoría de los estudiantes presentó un IMC normal, sin embargo se destacó un elevado porcentaje de hombres con sobrepeso (18,2%) y obesidad (12,1%) y mujeres con bajo peso (11,6%). Según los grupos analizados y en función del sexo se observaron algunas diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la composición de macronutrientes de la dieta: en G1 fue mayor el consumo de carbohidratos en detrimento de proteínas y lípidos; se encontraron también diferencias en la ingesta de algunos micronutrientes, observándose mayor consumo de hierro y menor de vitaminas B1, B2, niacina y C en el G2. La dieta fue monótona para ambos grupos y con diferencias en el perfil de nutrientes que la conforman. La más notable fue el incremento gradual del consumo de productos azucarados, alimentos procesados, snacks y menor consumo de lácteos, pescados, frutas y vegetales en el G2. En ambos grupos, la adecuación de la ingesta alimentaria de la población estudiantil no cubrió las

  15. Double-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the diagnosis of osteopenia in ancient skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Machado-Calvo, M

    2002-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by double-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) accurately estimates the bone mass in living individuals, and is thus the method usually employed in the diagnosis and follow-up of osteopenia. It is preferred, in clinical settings, to the more invasive and destructive histomorphometrical assessment of trabecular bone mass in undecalcified bone samples. This study was performed in order to examine the value of DEXA-assessed BMD at the proximal end of the right tibia, either alone or in combination with the cortico-medullary index at the midshaft point of the right tibia (CMI), in the diagnosis of osteopenia in a prehistoric sample composed of 95 pre-Hispanic individuals from Gran Canaria. Age at death could be estimated in 34 cases. Diagnosis of osteopenia was performed by histomorphometrical assessment of trabecular bone mass (TBM) in an undecalcified bone section of a small portion of the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia. A high prevalence of osteopenia was found among the population of Gran Canaria. Both TBM and BMD were significantly lower in the older individuals than in younger ones, and BMD was also significantly lower in female individuals. BMD was moderately correlated with TBM (r = +0.51); the correlation was higher if CMI was included (multiple r = +0.615). BMD values lower than 0.7 g/cm2 showed a high specificity (>93%) at excluding normal TBM values. These methods were prospectively applied in a further sample of 21 right tibiae from Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and El Hierro. The results were similar to those obtained in the larger sample. Thus, DEXA-assessed BMD combined with CMI (noninvasive procedures) may be useful in detecting osteopenia in ancient populations.

  16. Tomography studies of volcanic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, I.; Gordeev, E. I.; West, M.; Yeguas, A. G.; Luehr, B.-G.; Jakovlev, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present an overview of recent results of seismic tomography studies of different volcanic complexes performed in collaboration with different research teams. In first three examples corresponding to Central Andes, areas around Merapi volcano and Toba caldera, the tomographic images down to 100-200 km depth reveal the paths of fluids and melts which escape from the subducting plate and feed the arc volcanoes. In all these areas, the shapes of the paths are different depending on particular features of the subduction regimes, such as type of the overriding plate, age of the slab, rate of the subduction etc. Next group of studies covers detailed tomographic studies of local structures beneath selected volcanoes. Beneath the Spurr Volcano (Alaska) we clearly observe a thin vertical channel with anomalously high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the main cone. Beneath the volcanoes of Kluchevskoy group (Kamchatka) seismic images reveal complex structure of channels and intermediate magma reservoirs. In the mantle we detect an anomaly with very high Vp/Vs ratio reaching 2.2, which looks as a top of the mantle channel feeding the volcanoes of the group. For this group we observed the time variations of seismic structure based on more than 10 years of continuous data. We detect considerable variations in Vp/Vs ratio in the crust related to large eruptions of Kluchevskoy and Bezymyanny volcanoes in 2005. The last example is another time-lapse tomography model obtained for the El Hierro volcano in Canaries based on earthquake swarm occurred from July to October 2011. During this period we observe regular deepening of a large body with high Vp/Vs ratio, which is interpreted as a magma reservoir, together with lowering of seismicity.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of the dual burden of malnutrition at the household level in Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bassete, M N; Romaguera, D; Giménez, M A; Lobo, M O; Samman, N C

    2014-02-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los hogares en los que coexisten el sobrepeso y bajo peso (doble carga de malnutrición) y explorar los factores que podrían contribuir a la doble carga de malnutrición en los hogares de esta población. Después de aplicar los criterios de exclusión, se incluyeron 136 hogares. Las madres fueron clasificadas como de peso normal o con sobrepeso/ obesidad basado en puntos de corte del índice de masa corporal (IMC), los niños y adolescentes fueron clasificados según z–score de la talla para la edad, si tenían o no retraso en el crecimiento (Stunted). Los hogares con una madre obesa y niños o adolescentes con retraso en el crecimiento fueron clasificados como hogares de doble carga. La prevalencia de hogares con doble carga fue del 12 %. En comparación con los otros hogares, en los hogares con doble carga de malnutrición habitan un mayor número de personas en la casa, y el nivel de educación del jefe de familia fue menor. Las personas que viven en hogares de doble carga mostraron ingestas de energía global más bajas y eran más propensos a tener una ingesta insuficiente de calcio y hierro. Una de las principales causas de la doble carga de malnutrición observada en esta comunidad podría ser la transición nutricional. Los resultados presentados aquí indican la necesidad de considerar a los programas que se centran en un solo tipo de problema nutricional y que en realidad podrían exacerbar el otro.

  18. The southern margin of the Caribbean Plate in Venezuela: tectono-magmatic setting of the ophiolitic units and kinematic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Beccaluva, Luigi; Coltorti, Massimo; Siena, Franca; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2002-07-01

    The southern Caribbean Plate margin in Venezuela consists of a W-E elongated deformed belt, composed of several tectonic units dismembered along the northern part of the South America continental Plate since the Late Cretaceous. The present review, based on petrology and tectono-magmatic significance of each unit, makes it possible to define the main geotectonic elements and to reconstruct the paleogeographic domains from Late Jurassic to Tertiary: (a) Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) proto-Caribbean oceanic basin (Loma de Hierro Unit); (b) oceanic plateau (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands basement); (c) rifted continental margin (Cordillera de La Costa and Caucagua-El Tinaco Units) with Within Plate Tholeiitic (WPTh) magmatism; (d) an intra-oceanic subduction zone represented by Island Arc Tholeiitic (IAT) magmatism (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units) of Early Cretaceous age; (e) an Early Cretaceous ocean-continent subduction trench filled by melange (Franja Costera); (f) a new intra-oceanic subduction zone, represented by the tonalitic arc magmatism of Late Cretaceous age (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands). Regional tectonic constraints and coherent kinematic reconstruction suggest an original "near-Mid America" location of the Jurassic-Cretaceous "proto-Caribbean" oceanic realm. From Early to Late Cretaceous one sub-continental subduction with melanges (Franja Costera Unit) and two main stages of intra-oceanic arc magmatism are recorded in the so-called "eo-Caribbean" phases. The first consists of generally metamorphosed and deformed volcano-plutonic sequences with IAT affinity (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units), probably in relation to a southeastward-dipping subduction. The second is mainly represented by generally unmetamorphosed tonalitic intrusives cutting the oceanic plateau in the Dutch and Venezuelan Islands, and related to the new intra-oceanic subduction with reverse lithospheric sinking. The latter probably marked the onset of the Aves/Lesser Antilles arc

  19. Risk factors associated with iron depletion and parasites in preschool and school children of Arandas, Jalisco, México.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Campos Barrera, Liliana Romina; Romero Velarde, Enrique; Miranda Ríos, Lizette; Nuño Cosío, María Eugenia; Nápoles Rodríguez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar factores asociados con depleción de hierro y parasitosis en preescolares y escolares que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (INADEJ) y los niños que asisten a escuelas en Arandas, Jalisco. Métodos: Este estudio transversal evaluó dos grupos de niños. En el grupo INADEJ, fueron incluidos 102 niños de 60 a 144 meses de edad; en el grupo Escuelas fueron seleccionados 206 niños al azar de las escuelas del mismo municipio. Se obtuvieron las variables: ferritina (g/mL), parasitosis, variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, educativas y datos dietéticos. Se realizaron pruebas t de Student, U de Mann-Whitney, ji cuadrada; odds ratio y regresiones logísticas. Resultados: El ingreso familiar en el grupo escuelas era $ 5,707 pesos mexicanos (pm), más alto que el grupo INADEJ ($ 4,311 pm), p=0,031. La proporción de padres con educación primaria incompleta fue mayor en el grupo INADEJ (41,3%) que en el grupo escuelas (35,4%) [OR = 1,88 (1,0-3,55)]. Trabajo inestable del padre fue más frecuente en el grupo INADEJ [OR = 5,6 (3,26-9,62)]. La concentración de ferritina fue menor en el grupo INADEJ que en el grupo Escuelas (25 μg/L vs. 60 μg/ml, respectivamente), p.

  20. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  1. Segmentation and Tracking of Anticyclonic Eddies during a Submarine Volcanic Eruption Using Ocean Colour Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Estrada-Allis, Sheila; Sangrà, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The eruptive phase of a submarine volcano located 2 km away from the southern coast of El Hierro Island started on October 2011. This extraordinary event provoked a dramatic perturbation of the water column. In order to understand and quantify the environmental impacts caused, a regular multidisciplinary monitoring was carried out using remote sensing sensors. In this context, we performed the systematic processing of every MODIS and MERIS and selected high resolution Worldview-2 imagery to provide information on the concentration of a number of biological, physical and chemical parameters. On the other hand, the eruption provided an exceptional source of tracer that allowed the study a variety of oceanographic structures. Specifically, the Canary Islands belong to a very active zone of long-lived eddies. Such structures are usually monitored using sea level anomaly fields. However these products have coarse spatial resolution and they are not suitable to perform submesoscale studies. Thanks to the volcanic tracer, detailed studies were undertaken with ocean colour imagery allowing, using the diffuse attenuation coefficient, to monitor the process of filamentation and axisymmetrization predicted by theoretical studies and numerical modelling. In our work, a novel 2-step segmentation methodology has been developed. The approach incorporates different segmentation algorithms and region growing techniques. In particular, the first step obtains an initial eddy segmentation using thresholding or clustering methods and, next, the fine detail is achieved by the iterative identification of the points to grow and the subsequent application of watershed or thresholding strategies. The methodology has demonstrated an excellent performance and robustness and it has proven to properly capture the eddy and its filaments. PMID:25875193

  2. The impact of the climate on the epidemiology of Dirofilaria immitis in the pet population of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Morchón, R; Silveira-Viera, L; Falcón, Y; Simón, F

    2016-01-30

    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis (heartworm) is a zoonotic vector borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis which affects domestic dogs and cats. Two of the seven Canary Islands are historically hyperendemic areas of dirofilariosis, although no epidemiological study has ever been carried out which includes the other islands. The aim of the study was to complete the epidemiological status of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in the canine and feline population throughout all the Canary Islands. 1643 client-owned dogs and 707 client-owned cats were tested for D. immitis antigens (dogs), and anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies (cats). The prevalence of canine dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands was 15.7%, and the seroprevalence of feline dirofilariosis was 18.1%. A remarkable disparity was found when evaluating the results by island separately, which ranged from from 0% in Lanzarote and El Hierro, low prevalences and seroprevalences in Fuerteventura (1.8% and 2.5% in dogs and cats, respectively), to higher prevalences on the other 4 islands; ranging between 15.7% (dogs) and 14.3% (cats) in La Palma 22.5% (dogs) and 24.1% (cats) in Tenerife. In addition, prevalences and seroprevalences were very variable within each island, these differences being associated to local climate conditions. The distribution and prevalence of dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands is heterogeneous and related to climate, demographic factors and management of pets in the studied areas. Dirofilariosis remains hyperendemic in 4 of the 7 Islands. Since D. immitis is a zoonosis, veterinary and health authorities should be aware of the current prevalence and seroprevalence of animal dirofilariosis. The results show the need for awareness raising campaigns to promote the implementation of prophylactic measures in pets, in order to achieve a decrease in the prevalence of animal dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands.

  3. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  4. K/Ar ages, magnetic stratigraphy and morphological evolution of La Gomera: implications for the Canary Islands hotspot evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Guillou, H.; Carracedo, J. C.; Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    The Canary Islands are a group of seven volcanic islands, 100-700 km west of the Sahara continental margin. The spatial and chronological evolution of the canarian volcanism, from east to west, is due to the progression of the slow-moving african plate on a hotspot. La Gomera is located between the western shield-growing stage islands (La Palma, 1,7 Ma and El Hierro, 1,1 Ma) and the central "rejuvaneted stage" islands (Tenerife, 11,9 Ma and Gran Canaria, 14,5 Ma). After 23 K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism datas, we determine the main volcanic phases of La Gomera : (1) the submarine shield volcano (> 9,5 Ma), (2) the first subaeriel shield volcano (9,43-7,36 Ma), (3) the Vallehermoso stratovolcan, (4) the peripheral "planèzes" and domes forming series (6,67-1,94 Ma) and the Garajonay horizontal series (5,42-4,25 Ma). The stratovolcano and the horizontal series fill a 10 km wide depression that is supposed to be a giant landslide embayment. The scarps of this landslide correspond to the main discontinuity in the island structure. After 4 M.y. of very scarce volcanism, the whole structure of La Gomera is in relief inversion, with a radial pattern of deep barrancos. The erosion rates are lower during the hiatus (< 0,2 m/ka) than during the shield stage (0,2-0,9 m/ka), pointing out the fact that the volcanic construction rates and the erosion rates are strongly correlated. La Gomera is one of the best example of a hiatus stage of hotspot evolution. The volcanic load La Gomera and Tenerife may have delayed the western islands volcanism, favouring a dual-line.

  5. Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Granda, Ángel; Quesada, Cecilio; Granda, Teresa; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Molina, Antonio; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The acidic waters of the Río Tinto rise from several acidic springs that emerge in the area surrounding Peña de Hierro (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2005). These springs are located above minor normal faults that act as natural conduits for the water from the underlying deep aquifer. Although it has been suggested that the acidity of the river originates from the biooxidation of massive and stockwork sulfides (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2008a), the location of the source for these acidic solutions has not previously been established. This lack of evidence has been used to suggest that the acidity of the Río Tinto may be the product of the most conspicuous of the possible source, the extensive mining of the area over approximately the last 5000 years (Davis et al., 2000). In this paper, we report resistivity and time-domain electromagnetic sounding data from the Río Tinto aquifer to a depth of ∼600 m, revealing the locations for the acidic sources. Both types of data support the presence of two distinct geological units that we interpret as thrust sheets emplaced onto each other during the Variscan orogeny of the Carboniferous. These units, both of which contain massive and stockwork sulfides, act as the aquifer for the acidic waters of the Río Tinto. Under this scenario, which is in agreement with the geological record of the Río Tinto fluvial system for the past 6 Ma (Moreno et al., 2003), our results imply that mining activity had little influence on the generation of the acidic river waters.

  6. Development of a multi-parameter system for Antarctic researching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Alicia; Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    This work describes the development of a multi-parameter system for antarctic researching. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration.The advantage of the system presented in this work is that it allows the rapid development of a monitoring network that uses the latest technologies of embedded systems. These embedded systems offer the possibility of developing the software necessary for managing the sensors and instruments available. Data can be transmitted in near real time or on demand to a Data Reception Center (DRC). The local storage allows retrieving data when the transmission fails and uses only short transmission periods rather than continuous transmission. The price of both hardware and software is very low. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular System described has been deployed at Deception Island (Antarctica), within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring and researching the geodinamical activity, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. Deception Islan is an active volcano with some geothermal areas, this fact has allowed to develop a power system using Peltier cells. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  7. Segmentation and tracking of anticyclonic eddies during a submarine volcanic eruption using ocean colour imagery.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Estrada-Allis, Sheila; Sangrà, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The eruptive phase of a submarine volcano located 2 km away from the southern coast of El Hierro Island started on October 2011. This extraordinary event provoked a dramatic perturbation of the water column. In order to understand and quantify the environmental impacts caused, a regular multidisciplinary monitoring was carried out using remote sensing sensors. In this context, we performed the systematic processing of every MODIS and MERIS and selected high resolution Worldview-2 imagery to provide information on the concentration of a number of biological, physical and chemical parameters. On the other hand, the eruption provided an exceptional source of tracer that allowed the study a variety of oceanographic structures. Specifically, the Canary Islands belong to a very active zone of long-lived eddies. Such structures are usually monitored using sea level anomaly fields. However these products have coarse spatial resolution and they are not suitable to perform submesoscale studies. Thanks to the volcanic tracer, detailed studies were undertaken with ocean colour imagery allowing, using the diffuse attenuation coefficient, to monitor the process of filamentation and axisymmetrization predicted by theoretical studies and numerical modelling. In our work, a novel 2-step segmentation methodology has been developed. The approach incorporates different segmentation algorithms and region growing techniques. In particular, the first step obtains an initial eddy segmentation using thresholding or clustering methods and, next, the fine detail is achieved by the iterative identification of the points to grow and the subsequent application of watershed or thresholding strategies. The methodology has demonstrated an excellent performance and robustness and it has proven to properly capture the eddy and its filaments. PMID:25875193

  8. SAR4Volcanoes: an international ASI funded research project on volcano deformation through new generation SAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansosti, E.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.; Casu, F.; Tizzani, P.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Nobile, A.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Zoffoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Volcano deformation monitoring is crucial to understand how magma emplaces, propagates and erupts. Therefore, volcano deformation research projects are particularly important opportunities to improve our understanding of volcano dynamics. SAR4Volcanoes is a 2-year research project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the framework of a cooperation agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It focuses on volcano deformation analysis through Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques by means of COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS data, through the joint use of L-band and X-band SAR data. It also aims to the identification of methods and techniques to support decision making in emergency cases. Main target volcanoes in the projects are Etna, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Stromboli (Italy) and Sakurajima and Kirishima (Japan). Secondary target volcanoes include recently or currently erupting volcanoes, as El Hierro (Spain), Nabro (Ethiopia) and Galapagos volcanoes (Ecuador). Since the project kickoff (July 2011) a large number of COSMO-SkyMed data has been acquired at these volcanoes; in some cases, the acquisitions are available almost at every satellite orbit, with an average interval down to 4 days. On these premises, the project represents an important opportunity to: (1) collect a significant amount of X-band data on active and erupting volcanoes and (2) study surface deformation to understand magma dynamics in different volcanic settings. We will present preliminary results on the ground deformation analysis of the main and secondary target volcanoes. In particular, target volcanoes without a pre-project archive are analyzed using single deformation maps, while those with archives are analysed through a time series approach, based on the SBAS technique.

  9. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  10. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  11. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Corella Aznar, Elena Guadalupe; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Rodríguez Vigil, Carmen; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo; Calvo Escribano, Carlota; Labarta Aizpun, José Ignacio

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: los supervivientes de leucemia aguda (LA) infantil presentan un riesgo incrementado de alteraciones metabólicas y cardiovasculares que aumentan su morbimortalidad a largo plazo.Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, dislipemia e hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo cardiometabólico (FRCM) en un grupo de supervivientes de LA infantil, y analizar las posibles causas asociadas a su desarrollo.Material y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en 47 supervivientes de LA tratados en un periodo de 4 años, que recibieron seguimiento durante 10 años.Resultados: el 40% de los participantes presentaron al menos un FRCM durante el seguimiento, siendo la dislipemia (aumento LDL) el más frecuente (38,3%), seguido de obesidad/sobrepeso (31,9%) y HTA sistólica (23,4%). El sexo femenino se estableció como factor de riesgo parael desarrollo de todos ellos (RR 1,6; RR 3,16; RR 1,69; p < 0,05). Ningún superviviente desarrolló diabetes mellitus, pero sí resistencia a la insulina el 19,4%. Los pacientes con leucemias de peor pronóstico presentaron mayor riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina y aumento de LDL (RR 3,56; RR 4,08; RR 2,53; p < 0,05). Los pacientes tratados con trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos presentaron mayor riesgo de obesidad, aumento de LDL e HTA sistólica (RR 2,86; RR 2,39; RR 3,12; p<0,05). La radioterapia se asoció de igual modo con un incremento de resistencia a la insulina e hipertensión arterial sistólica (RR 2,47; RR 2,53; p < 0,05).Conclusiones: existe un aumento en la prevalencia de obesidad/sobrepeso, dislipemia, resistencia a la insulina y alteración de la tensión arterial sistólica en supervivientes de leucemia aguda infantil a lo largo del tiempo, especialmente en aquellos con enfermedades y tratamientos más agresivos.

  13. [Cutaneous manifestations of leukemia].

    PubMed

    Pulido-Díaz, Nancy; Medina, Gabriela; Palomino, Nymrod; Peralta, Fidelio

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este estudio es describir la frecuencia y tipo de manifestaciones cutáneas en pacientes con leucemia.Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 16 años, con diagnóstico confirmado de leucemia, de los departamentos de Hematología y Dermatología procedentes de la consulta externa u hospitalizados. Se excluyeron los pacientes trasplantados de médula ósea. Se les efectuó historia clínica y revisión dermatológica completa de la piel y anexos, toma de biopsias y cultivos en caso de requerirlo. Las manifestaciones cutáneas se clasificaron en manifestaciones secundarias a procesos infecciosos o medicamentos, infiltración leucémica, dermatosis asociadas a la leucemia y lesiones inespecíficas. Se empleó estadística descriptiva.Resultados: Se incluyeron 142 pacientes con los siguientes diagnósticos: leucemia mieloide aguda (n = 36 pacientes), leucemia linfoblástica aguda (n = 52), leucemia mieloide crónica (n = 21), leucemia linfocítica crónica (n = 30), leucemia de células peludas (n = 3). El 42.25 % de los pacientes (n = 60) presentaron hallazgos positivos para alguna dermatosis. Se encontraron 36 dermatosis inespecíficas, 21 medicamentosas, 20 infecciosas, 3 infiltrativas y ninguna asociada.Conclusiones: las manifestaciones cutáneas directamente relacionadas a leucemia son frecuentes, siendo las inespecíficas las más comúnmente observadas. Sin embargo, el examen dermatológico completo es importante en estos pacientes como parte de su evaluación integral.

  14. [Features of Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults: results of a university hospital].

    PubMed

    De la O-Peña, Daniel; Robles-Figueroa, Martín; Chávez-Peña, Quetzalcóatl; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) tiene una distribución cosmopolita. Usualmente su curso es benigno y tiende a autolimitarse, pero en casos severos puede ocasionar la muerte. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las características de un grupo de adultos con SGB diagnosticados y tratados en un hospital universitario. Métodos: se analizaron todos los casos de SGB ocurridos del 1 de enero de 2005 al 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos a través de la aplicación de una cédula estructurada que comprendió las siguientes secciones: identificación del paciente, datos clínicos, historia de infección, estación del año de ocurrencia, tipos de variantes electrofisiológicas y letalidad. Resultados: en total se incluyeron 45 pacientes; la relación hombre-mujer fue de 1.4:1 y la edad media del grupo fue 48.2 ± 16.0 años. La estación del año con mayor número de casos fue el verano. La historia de infección intestinal estuvo presente en 40 % de los pacientes, y la infección respiratoria en 24.4 %. La letalidad asociada con SGB fue de 11.1 % (IC: 95 %, 4.4-23.9), los casos fatales se presentaron en los pacientes con mayor edad que los que sobrevivieron (65.2 ± 15.0 frente a 46.0 ± 14.9, p = 0.01). La variante más frecuente fue la neuropatía axonal motora aguda (64.4 %); hubo cuatro casos de síndrome de Miller Fisher. Conclusiones: la variante electromiográfica más frecuente del SGB fue la neuropatía axonal motora aguda. Se observó mayor número de casos durante la estación de verano.

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Corella Aznar, Elena Guadalupe; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Rodríguez Vigil, Carmen; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo; Calvo Escribano, Carlota; Labarta Aizpun, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los supervivientes de leucemia aguda (LA) infantil presentan un riesgo incrementado de alteraciones metabólicas y cardiovasculares que aumentan su morbimortalidad a largo plazo.Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, dislipemia e hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo cardiometabólico (FRCM) en un grupo de supervivientes de LA infantil, y analizar las posibles causas asociadas a su desarrollo.Material y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en 47 supervivientes de LA tratados en un periodo de 4 años, que recibieron seguimiento durante 10 años.Resultados: el 40% de los participantes presentaron al menos un FRCM durante el seguimiento, siendo la dislipemia (aumento LDL) el más frecuente (38,3%), seguido de obesidad/sobrepeso (31,9%) y HTA sistólica (23,4%). El sexo femenino se estableció como factor de riesgo parael desarrollo de todos ellos (RR 1,6; RR 3,16; RR 1,69; p < 0,05). Ningún superviviente desarrolló diabetes mellitus, pero sí resistencia a la insulina el 19,4%. Los pacientes con leucemias de peor pronóstico presentaron mayor riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina y aumento de LDL (RR 3,56; RR 4,08; RR 2,53; p < 0,05). Los pacientes tratados con trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos presentaron mayor riesgo de obesidad, aumento de LDL e HTA sistólica (RR 2,86; RR 2,39; RR 3,12; p<0,05). La radioterapia se asoció de igual modo con un incremento de resistencia a la insulina e hipertensión arterial sistólica (RR 2,47; RR 2,53; p < 0,05).Conclusiones: existe un aumento en la prevalencia de obesidad/sobrepeso, dislipemia, resistencia a la insulina y alteración de la tensión arterial sistólica en supervivientes de leucemia aguda infantil a lo largo del tiempo, especialmente en aquellos con enfermedades y tratamientos más agresivos. PMID:27513487

  16. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  17. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  18. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  19. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  20. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  1. [Opportunistic bacteria and microbial flora in children with leukemia and neutropenic enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Corona-de Los Santos, Juan C; Méndez-Tovar, Socorro; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy X

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar la microbiota y la prevalencia de microorganismos oportunistas en niños con leucemia y enterocolitis neutropénica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo observacional en pacientes con leucemia aguda y neutropenia. Se tomaron cultivos de heces para identificar la presencia de bacterias y microbiota. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para su análisis. Resultados: fueron incluidos 21 pacientes (12 hombres, 57.1 %). En 68 % de los coprocultivos se observó desarrollo de microorganismos gramnegativos. La presencia de microorganismos grampositivos fue de 20 %, 6 % de Candida sp., 3 % de Cryptosporidium sp. y en 3 % se observaron bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter sp., y Escherichia coli se observaron en cultivo puro. No se encontró asociación entre microorganismos grampositivos y gramnegativos con la edad, el recuento leucocitario ni el cultivo puro o mixto.Conclusiones: aunque los microorganismos gramnegativos fueron los más frecuentes, se aislaron de manera importante grampositivos y otros que no se buscan de rutina en el coprocultivo.

  2. [Pulmonary carcinomatous lymphangitis: presentation as acute pneumopathy. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ré, D P; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Zaya, A; Cortez, J R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La linfangitis carcinomatosa(LC) representa el 6-8% de las metástasis pulmonares. Existe evidencia de que puede ser una condición oncológicamente tratable, con impacto sobre la progresión de la disnea y lesiones radiológicas, con mejoría de la sobrevida. Se describen dos casos con el objetivo de inducir la sospecha de esta entidad ante un paciente con datos de neumopatía aguda. Métodos: Caso 1: mujer 32 años, disnea progresiva y tos de dos semanas de evolución sin respuesta a antibióticos. Taquipnea, aumento del trabajo respiratorio, crepitantes bibasales. Insuficiencia respiratoria. Radiografía: radiopacidadalvéolointersticialbibasal. Se inicia tratamiento para neumonía grave de la comunidad. Evoluciona desfavorablemente con requerimiento de ARM y desenlace fatal. Caso 2: mujer 46 años, disnea progresiva y tos de una semana de evolución. Taquipnea, subcrepitantes difusos.Insuficiencia respiratoria. Radiografía: radiopacidadintersticionodulillar difusa, con imagen radiopaca homogénea en vértice derecho.

  3. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  4. Optical properties of porous silicon processed in tetraethyl orthosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len'shin, A. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Tsipenyuk, V. N.; Seredin, P. V.; Agapov, B. L.; Minakov, D. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the change in the composition and optical properties of porous silicon (por-Si) obtained by electrochemical etching of a palate made of n-type (111) silicon single crystal under high-temperature annealing and processing in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). It is shown that TEOS processing and annealing prevent contamination of a sample stored for a long time in atmosphere. The processing of por-Si in TEOS does not change the position of the photoluminescence (PL) peak and suppresses PL to a smaller extent as compared to annealing of por-Si. This increases the reliability of optoelectronic devices based on por-Si.

  5. Concurrent Partnerships, Nonmonogamous Partners, and Substance Use Among Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; Taylor, Eboni M.; Khan, Maria R.; Schwartz, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of US women's involvement in concurrent sexual partnerships, a sexual-network pattern that speeds population-wide HIV dissemination. Methods. We used sexual partnership dates reported by 7643 women in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to determine prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships during the preceding 12 months. We examined associations between concurrency and sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Results. Prevalence of concurrent partnerships was 5.7% based on reported partnerships and 8.3% after adjustment for possible underreporting. Concurrency was associated with younger age (22 to 24 years: prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 2.44) versus older age (40 to 44 years); marital status (formerly married: POR = 6.56; never married: POR = 3.81; vs married); Black race/ethnicity (POR = 1.78); younger age at first sexual intercourse (12 to 13 years: POR = 2.89) versus 18 years or older); having a nonmonogamous sexual partner (POR = 6.96); having intercourse while “high” on drugs or alcohol (POR = 1.61); binge drinking (POR = 1.70); and crack or cocaine use (POR = 2.72). Conclusions. The association of concurrency with nonmonogamous sexual partners and substance use suggests the existence of extensive sexual networks that link people at higher risk for HIV infection with increased opportunities for disseminating infection. PMID:20724694

  6. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  7. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for

  8. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats.

  9. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for

  10. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Cáncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y niños. Los índices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008.

  11. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podría reducir el riesgo de cáncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podrían reducir el riesgo de cáncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  12. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  13. High resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) allows a detailed analysis of the heterotrimeric structure of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis porins inserted into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Freixeiro, Paula; Diéguez-Casal, Ernesto; Costoya, Liliana; Marzoa, Juan; Ferreirós, Carlos M; Criado, María Teresa; Sánchez, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Three recombinant proteins of Neisseria meningitidis, rPorB, rPorA, and rRmpM, were purified and incorporated into liposomes prepared by dialysis-extrusion. The protein complexes formed using different combinations of recombinant proteins were studied by high resolution clear native electrophoresis (hrCNE) and 2-D hrCNE/SDS-PAGE, analyzing the influence of the stoichiometry of the two porins in the formation of complexes and comparing them with native porin complexes present in OMVs from five different N. meningitidis strains. Insertion of the recombinant proteins into liposomes allowed a complete refolding of porin complexes, and the electrophoretic analyses showed that, when the three recombinant proteins are present, the pattern of porin complexes obtained is similar to that observed in native OMVs. We could show homocomplexes of each individual porin and PorA/PorB, RmpM/PorB, and PorA/PorB/RmpM heterocomplexes. Our results suggest that RmpM binds only to PorB, confirm the trimeric structure of N. meningitidis pores, and demonstrate that insertion into liposomes restores the native structure of porin complexes.

  14. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May 19... case was made long after the end of the POR.\\5\\ \\3\\ See Final Rule, 62 FR at 27319-20 (``The...

  15. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  16. Formation and helicity control of ssDNA templated porphyrin nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Gevorg; Schatz, Alexandra A; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2013-02-01

    We report the formation of left- (M-helix) and right-handed (P-helix) nanoassemblies of a porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugate (Por-DAP) templated by a single stranded oligodeoxythymidine (dT40) via directional hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular helicity can be controlled by the ionic strength, Por-DAP : dT40 ratio, and annealing rate.

  17. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or...

  18. 77 FR 72268 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... associated with the proposed collection of information; and Estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito Tributario... Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr dito...

  19. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  20. Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmón (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer de pulmón patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  1. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  2. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  3. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  4. Using TEM for sounding conductive and deep groundwater in Mars analog environments: Comparing two field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-11-01

    A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, using a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells sur-rounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 Ωm) clay-rich soil above the water table. During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conduc-tive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show con-ductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

  5. Crystal Zoning Constrains on the Processes and Time Scales Involved in Monogenetic Mafic Volcanism (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Marti, J.

    2014-12-01

    . Magma transport times vary between about one week and one month, with somewhat longer times in the last eruption. The longer magma mixing times might be related to precursory seismicity of a few months as it occurred in the recent eruption of El Hierro in 2011. The shorter transport times of a week to a month might be more relevant for emergency plans in Tenerife Island.

  6. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  7. Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated

  8. [Anemia and iron deficiency in children with chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Barja, Salesa; Capo, Eduardo; Briceño, Lilian; Jakubson, Leticia; Méndez, Mireya; Becker, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas (ERC) tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar anemia ferropriva, sin embargo, la ferropenia está infradiagnosticada. Objetivos: Describir el status de hierro (Fe) en niños con ERC y evaluar la respuesta a su suplementación profiláctica. Método: Estudio prospectivo de niños con ERC y adecuada ingesta de Fe en la dieta: se realizó hemograma, velocidad de eritro-sedimentación, proteína Creactiva y perfil de Fe. Posteriormente, aquellos con hemoglobina plasmática (Hb) normal no se suplementaron con Fe (Grupo A) y los que presentaban anemia ferropriva o factores de riesgo sí lo fueron (grupo B). Se evaluaron al 3º mes, después se suplementaron todos y se re-evaluaron al 4ºmes. Resultados: De 40 pacientes, con mediana de edad 30 meses (0,5 a 178), 60% eran hombres, 80% eutróficos. Requerían ventilación prolongada u oxigenoterapia 45%. Diagnósticos: 50% Bronquiolitis Obliterante post-infecciosa, 17,5% enfermedades de la vía aérea, 10% Displasia Broncopulmonar, 7,5% Fibrosis Quística y 15% otros. Basalmente 12,5% tuvo bajos depósitos de Fe y 20% anemia (la mayoría ferropriva). Completaron el estudio 25 niños: el grupo A disminuyó la ferritina sérica al 3ºmes (- 22,9 ± 30) y aumentó al 4ºmes (+12,8 ± 26) μg/L, (p = 0,013), sin cambio en la Hb. El grupo B tuvo ascenso de la Hb (91 ± 12 a 102 ± 12% del promedio para la edad, p = 0,04). Conclusión: La anemia ferropriva y la ferropenia son frecuentes en niños con ERC, quienes deterioran reversiblemente sus depósitos si no son suplementados. Sugerimos monitorizar con perfil de Fe y tratar precozmente, o suplementarlos en forma profiláctica.

  9. Forecasting of Hourly Photovoltaic Energy in Canarian Electrical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez, D.; Castaño, C.; Nebot, R.; Piernavieja, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Canarian Archipelago face similar problems as most insular region lacking of endogenous conventional energy resources and not connected to continental electrical grids. A consequence of the "insular fact" is the existence of isolated electrical systems that are very difficult to interconnect due to the considerable sea depths between the islands. Currently, the Canary Islands have six isolated electrical systems, only one utility generating most of the electricity (burning fuel), a recently arrived TSO (REE) and still a low implementation of Renewable Energy Resources (RES). The low level of RES deployment is a consequence of two main facts: the weakness of the stand-alone grids (from 12 MW in El Hierro up to only 1 GW in Gran Canaria) and the lack of space to install RES systems (more than 50% of the land protected due to environmental reasons). To increase the penetration of renewable energy generation, like solar or wind energy, is necessary to develop tools to manage them. The penetration of non manageable sources into weak grids like the Canarian ones causes a big problem to the grid operator. There are currently 104 MW of PV connected to the islands grids (Dec. 2009) and additional 150 MW under licensing. This power presents a serious challenge for the operation and stability of the electrical system. ITC, together with the local TSO (Red Eléctrica de España, REE) started in 2008 and R&D project to develop a PV energy prediction tool for the six Canarian Insular electrical systems. The objective is to supply reliable information for hourly forecast of the generation dispatch programme and to predict daily solar radiation patterns, in order to help program spinning reserves. ITC has approached the task of weather forecasting using different numerical model (MM5 and WRF) in combination with MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) images. From the online data recorded at several monitored PV plants and meteorological stations, PV nominal power and energy produced

  10. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  11. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds.

  12. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease. PMID:27496728

  14. [The two faces of veno-arteriolar reflex: cutaneous vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to raise and to lower the arm].

    PubMed

    Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  16. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  17. [Use of glutamine in total parenteral nutrition of bone marrow transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura Dulcinea; Alhambra Expósito, María R; Manzano García, Gregorio; Molina Puertas, María J; Calañas Continente, Alfonso; Bahamondez Opazo, Rodrigo; Muñoz Jiménez, Concepción; Rojas Contreras, Rafael; Gálvez Moreno, María A

    2015-04-01

    La glutamina es un amioácido esencial para la síntesis de nucleótidos y una fuente de energía para la replicación celular, existe evidencia contradictoria respecto a los beneficios de su administración como parte de la nutrición parenteral en pacientes sometidos a trasplante de médula ósea (TMO). Más del 75% de los pacientes sometidos a trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos, presentan durante su evolución complicaciones que comprometen el tracto digestivo, principalmente mucositis, limitando la ingesta oral, de allí la necesidad del uso de nutrición parenteral total (NPT) en estos casos. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre uso de glutamina en la NPT de TMO y la evolución de complicaciones agudas como mucositis, EICH e infecciones, así como la estancia hospitalaria y los días de nutrición parenteral total. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se incluyeron la totalidad de TMO con NPT entre 2007 y 2013 en nuestro hospital. Se analizaron días de hospitalización, días de soporte nutricional, uso de glutamina y complicaciones agudas. Los resultados se analizaron con el programa SPSS 15.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 73 pacientes trasplantados, se dividieron en dos grupos según el aporte de glutamina siendo ambos grupos comparables entre sí. La edad media fue de 36,96±12,89 años. El 47,9% de los pacientes estudiados recibió suplemento de glutamina en la NPT. Los pacientes que recibieron glutamina tuvieron una estancia media de 31,49±7,41 días con 14,11±5,87 días de NPT en comparación a los que no recibieron glutamina con 32,16±7,99 y 15,50±7,71 días respectivamente (p=0,71 y 0,39). La duración de la mucositis en los pacientes que recibieron glutamina fue de 12,23±5,66 días comparado con 15,50±7,71 días en los que no recibieron glutamina (p=0,042).Se observaron grados severos de EICH (II, III) en un 20,6% de los pacientes sin glutamina en comparación al 13,7% en los que la recibieron (p=0,636). . Del total

  18. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation.

  19. [Sigmoid diverticulitis in adolescent. Case report].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Orozco-Tapia, Luis Manuel; de la Concha Blankenagel, Erika; Gallardo-Ramírez, Mario Alberto; Blas-Franco, Miguel; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad diverticular colónica en niños y adolescentes es poco frecuente y sólo existen reportes de casos aislados en la bibliografía. La mayoría de los casos reportados se asocian con divertículos verdaderos congénitos y enfermedades genéticas de producción de la colágena. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 13 años de edad, que ingresó a la División de Cirugía General y Endoscópica con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. En la laparotomía se encontró enfermedad diverticular complicada de colon sigmoides. Se le practicó sigmoidectomía y colorrecto-anastomosis. El reporte histopatológico evidenció perforación de pseudodivertículo de colon sigmoides y peritonitis. La paciente fue dada de alta del hospital 72 horas posteriores a la cirugía, sin complicaciones. Conclusión: existen sólo reportes de casos aislados de niños y adolescentes con diverticulitis colónica, y su etiología no ha sido aún debidamente establecida. Esta paciente tuvo diverticulitis de sigmoides, similar a la enfermedad en adultos, sin padecimientos genéticos concomitantes. El caso es una excepción a lo reportado en la bibliografía de las diverticulitis en niños y adolescentes.

  20. [Maternal mortality rate in the Aurelio Valdivieso General Hospital: a ten years follow up].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Sánchez, Marcelo Fidias; Arenas-Gómez, Susana; Rabadán-Martínez, Cesar Esli; Antonio-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: en México, la mortalidad materna ha disminuido en las últimas décadas. En Oaxaca esto no se ha manifestado porque se incrementó la tasa de mortalidad materna. Este estado se ubica entre las entidades con más muertes maternas. Objetivo: analizar 10 años de mortalidad materna en el Hospital General Dr. Aurelio Valdivieso de los Servicios de Salud de Oaxaca, para conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico y caracterización de los decesos. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, transversal y descriptivo efectuado mediante la revisión de expedientes clínicos de mortalidad materna en la División de Gineco-Obstetricia. Se consideraron variables sociales, obstétricas y circunstanciales y las comprobaciones se efectuaron con estadística general y descriptiva. Resultados: entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2009 se registraron 109 muertes maternas, excluidas dos que no fueron obstétricas; es decir, que hubo 107 muertes maternas: 75 directas y 32 indirectas. La tasa de mortalidad materna fue de 172.14 × 100,000 nacidos vivos. De las muertes maternas revisadas 89 pudieron evitarse (83%) y 18 no (17%), esto con base en el dictamen del Comité ad hoc del Hospital General Dr. Aurelio Valdivieso. La enfermedad hipertensiva aguda del embarazo fue la de mayor mortalidad; la escolaridad y el puerperio ueron el mayor riesgo. Conclusiones: las variables atribuibles a bajo índice de desarrollo humano, como: baja escolaridad y paridad elevada incrementaron el riesgo de mortalidad materna, que fue intrahospitalaria y durante el puerperio. La tasa de mortalidad materna fue la mayor encontrada en publicaciones nacionales con respecto a este referente.

  1. [Clinico-radiological profile of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the childhood population. A retrospective analysis of a series of 20 patients in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Otero-Reigada, M Carmen; Pérez-Tamarit, Amparo; Téllez de Meneses, Montserrat; Pitarch-Castellanos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EAD) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central mediado inmunologicamente y de patogenia desconocida. Puede presentarse en cualquier edad, pero es mucho mas frecuente en niños. La EAD no tiene marcador biologico especifico y el diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicos y neurorradiologicos. Objetivo. Mejorar el conocimiento del perfil clinicorradiologico de esta enfermedad. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo con inclusion de pacientes menores de 14 años ingresados en un hospital terciario en los ultimos 15 años con el diagnostico de EAD. Se revisaron antecedentes, signos clinicos de presentacion, datos analiticos en sangre/liquido cefalorraquideo y la semiologia radiologica. En 16 casos se realizo un seguimiento medio de 25 meses. Resultados. Se revisaron 20 pacientes, un 70% niños, con una edad media de 4,4 años. El 40% tuvo un episodio febril previo. El 85% presento fiebre o vomitos, y el 70%, afectacion del estado de consciencia. Predominaron los deficits motores (45%), las convulsiones (35%) y la afectacion de pares craneales (30%). Tres niños presentaron una evolucion recidivante, y otros tres, secuelas motoras. Los estudios de resonancia magnetica mostraron lesiones hiperintensas en secuencias T2, con patron de realce escaso o nulo, que predominaron en los talamos (70%), la medula (67%) y la sustancia blanca subcortical (50%). En dos pacientes se diagnostico EAD hemorragica. Conclusiones. La EAD representa una entidad con importante afectacion general y repercusion neurologica, que muestra un potencial secuelar considerable. Los datos clinicoanaliticos y la resonancia magnetica cerebral y medular son relevantes para el diagnostico inicial y seguimiento de pacientes con EAD.

  2. [Analysis of a series of cases with an initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis over the period 2000-2010].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Cristina; López-Marín, Laura; López-Pino, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis G; Soto-Insuga, Víctor; Conejo-Moreno, David

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EMAD) es una enfermedad desmielinizante que afecta fundamentalmente a la sustancia blanca del sistema nervioso central. El diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicorradiologicos y evolutivos. La resonancia magnetica cerebral es la herramienta diagnostica mas util. El curso suele ser monofasico y el tratamiento inicial de eleccion, los corticoides. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 18 pacientes con diagnostico de sospecha inicial de EMAD. Se analizo la sintomatologia, los hallazgos radiologicos, la evolucion y el tratamiento. El diagnostico definitivo se establecio en 12 pacientes, excluyendo un paciente con reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa positiva para el virus herpes simple en el liquido cefalorraquideo, uno con clinica compatible pero resonancia magnetica cerebral normal, y cuatro con inicio similar a EMAD cuyos diagnosticos definitivos fueron: sindrome de Rassmusen, sindrome hemofagocitico, tumor cerebral y MELAS (encefalomiopatia mitocondrial con acidosis lactica y accidentes cerebrovasculares). Resultados. La mediana de edad fue de 31 meses, sin predominio de sexo. La infeccion de la via respiratoria superior fue la causa mas frecuente en niños mayores y la gastrointestinal, en menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron alteracion en el nivel de conciencia y deficits neurologicos multifocales. El hallazgo radiologico mas frecuente fue la alteracion multifocal bihemisferica de la sustancia blanca. Los corticoides fueron el tratamiento de eleccion en la mayoria. La evolucion fue favorable en casi todos los pacientes excepto en dos, que tuvieron secuelas importantes. Conclusiones. La EMAD puede presentarse a cualquier edad, incluyendo lactantes. Hay multiples entidades que pueden simular una EMAD en un inicio.

  3. [Complications of pediatric renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Sandes, Ana Rita; Azevedo, Sara; Stone, Rosário; Almeida, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A transplantação renal é a terapêutica de eleição na criança com doença renal crónica terminal, evidenciando impacto positivo na sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos doentes. Não é, no entanto, isenta de complicações, algumas com importante morbilidade. Os autores pretendem caracterizar o perfil de complicações pós transplantação renal em doentes pediátricos (até 18 anos).Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos doentes submetidos a transplantação renal e seguidos na Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica entre Setembro de 1995 e Agosto de 2010. Dados obtidos dos processos clínicos: características demográficas, etiologia da doença renal crónica terminal, terapêutica de substituição renal, mortalidade e perda de enxertos, complicações cirúrgicas, infecciosas e não infecciosas (rejeição aguda e crónica, recidiva da doença de base, alterações metabólicas e factores de risco cardiovascular). Análise estatística descritiva simples.Resultados: Foram incluídas 78 crianças transplantadas (48,7% sexo masculino), com idade mediana à data da transplantaçãorenal de 12 anos (2 - 18). A maioria fez previamente diálise peritoneal: 49 (62,6%). Cinco doentes (6,4%) foram transplantados sem diálise prévia. A mediana do tempo de seguimento após transplante foi 37,5 meses (1 - 169). As principais etiologias de doença renal crónica terminal foram: uronefropatias (41%) e glomerulopatias (28,2%). As complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 74,4%; infecçõesvirais em 56,4%, sendo a mais prevalente a infecção citomegalovírus (39,7%); infecções bacterianas em 53,8% (na maioria infecções urinárias em doentes urológicos). Outras complicações: 1) factores de risco para doença cardiovascular: hipertensão arterial em 85,9%; dislipidémia em 16,7% e diabetes de novo em 7,7%; 2) episódios de rejeição aguda em 32,1% e nefropatia crónica do enxerto em 17,9%; 3) complicações relacionáveis com a cirurgia em 16

  4. EPR study of new defects in neutron irradiated KS-4V and KU1 fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomacini, J. C.; Bravo, D.; Martín, P.; Ibarra, A.; Martín, A.; López, F. J.

    2010-11-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on high purity fused silica KS-4V (low OH content) and KU1 (high OH content), irradiated with fast neutrons (E > 0.1 MeV) at a high fluence of 1022 n/m2. The spectrum of irradiated samples shows various well-known types of paramagnetic defects, POR, NBOHC and E'. Their thermal stability has also been studied by heating the samples in air up to 775 °C. A detailed analysis of the spectra shows that the POR spectrum of neutron-irradiated KS-4V and KU1 has two contributions from centres POR(I) and POR(II), which show very different thermal annealing behaviour. POR(I) is identified with the POR centre previously reported, whereas POR(II) is associated to the effects of fast neutrons. Moreover, a new broad line centred at g = 2.02 is reported that we suggest could be associated to oxygen-hole centres in the neighbourhood of the high amount of tracks generated by ion displacement due to fast neutrons.

  5. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  6. Bacterial porin disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and sensitizes host cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Dian-Lothrop, Elke A; Meinecke, Michael; Kepp, Oliver; Ross, Katharina; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Harsman, Anke; Hauf, Eva; Brinkmann, Volker; Günther, Dirk; Herrmann, Ines; Hurwitz, Robert; Rassow, Joachim; Wagner, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of DeltaPsi(m). The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce DeltaPsi(m) loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection. PMID:19851451

  7. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  8. NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  9. [Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Villalba-Espinoza, Ignacio; Pérez-Cardoso, Ana Luisa; Barrón-Saldaña, Dante Adrián; Montesinos-Gómez, Gabriela; Aguirre Güemez, Ana Valeria; Novoa-Boldo, Alejandro; Mendoza-Larios, Laura Alejandra; López-González, Rosa; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 ocurrieron 955 defunciones maternas en México, 49.9 por 100 000 nacidos vivos. La meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para 2015 es reducir la tasa a 22.5: 560 defunciones anuales. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 1257 muertes maternas ocurridas en México durante 2009, con una muestra representativa de 173 expedientes. Se calcularon frecuencias simples y porcentajes. Resultados: las muertes maternas ocurrieron por causas directas como preeclampsia-eclampsia, infección y hemorragia obstétrica secundaria a atonía uterina, acretismo placentario y placenta previa. Quince mujeres tuvieron complicaciones por abortos. Cuatro murieron por embarazo extrauterino debido a diagnóstico y tratamiento tardíos. Las causas indirectas de la muerte materna fueron neoplasias, sepsis abdominal, eventos vasculares, problemas metabólicos y cardiopatías. Veinticinco pacientes fallecieron por neumonía atípica y 11 por influenza A H1N1. Conclusiones: es factible disminuir la mortalidad materna mediante suficientes consultas prenatales de calidad y evitar embarazos con riesgo alto por los antecedentes obstétricos y los padecimientos asociados. La influenza A H1N1 interrumpió la tendencia descendente de la mortalidad materna.

  10. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  11. Characterisation of porin genes from Myco