The Chicago-born artist Alberto Aguilar enacts his artworks through video, performance, sound recordings, cooking, photographs, participatory events, drawings, installations, interior design, writing, collage, singing, teaching, conducting interviews, curating, mail-art, being on the Internet, writing, and personal social exchanges (e.g.…
Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls.
In this article, Miguel Aguilar describes the process of mental preparation he performs before beginning a new graffiti mural. This may include reviewing recent sketches and his lists of color palettes. Aguilar mind maps ideas he wants to connect, thinking about intentions or the goal he wants to accomplish. Aguilar further states "this…
Vliet, Donna; Sternberg, Susan
Provides a lesson plan designed to introduce students in grades four-six to the concept of social realism as it is portrayed in twentieth century Latin American art. Uses Antonio Berni's "Noon Time" in implementing instructional strategies which enhance analysis, interpretation, and judgment. Suggests a creative activity for studying…
This page will house updates for this urban waters partnership location. As projects progress, status updates can be posted here to reflect the ongoing work by partners in San Antonio working on the San Antonio River Basin.
Balampekou, Matina; Floriotis, Georgis
This paper explores how the ideas of a great political thinker and philosopher Antonio Gramsci, are relevant to education and science and to critical science education. One of the main points in Gramsci's analysis is the social value and impact of certain aspects of the superstructure. He understands that education is a means which can be used for…
Tafuri, Francesco; Pepe, Giampiero; Vaglio, Ruggero
Antonio Barone prematurely passed away on 4 December 2011 at the age of 72, after a one-year battle with cancer. He left behind his wife Sveva and his two sons, Alberto and Livio. Antonio was Professor Emeritus at the University of Napoli Federico II, where he had been teaching for about 40 years. The initial research activity of Antonio was in the field of nuclear physics. In this context, almost 45 years ago, the Ge 'Lithium drift' semiconductor detectors represented a novelty, due to the high energy resolution enabled by those devices. Superconductors stimulated new approaches to radiation detection and this motivated Antonio's interest towards superconductivity. Following the birth of the Laboratorio di Cibernetica of the CNR in 1967 he was given the opportunity to work on a joint USA-Italy project (University of Wisconsin, Madison and CNR Naples) in the field of superconductivity on the peculiar subject of the superconductive 'Neuristors'. His research activity on Josephson junctions opened up a wide variety of very stimulating subjects in which he was deeply involved, ranging from the soliton propagation in 'long' Josephson structures to fluctuations phenomena, from light-sensitive junctions and proximity effect to the development of innovative superconducting devices. The strong interaction of Antonio with the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow, characterizes a long period of his research activity with a precious merging of theoretical and experimental aspects. This body of work converged into the famous monograph on the 'Physics and Applications of the Josephson Effect', written in collaboration with Gianfranco Paternò in 1982. This rapidly became the reference text for the Josephson effect, as documented by thousands of citations and the fact that it was translated into Russian, Japanese and Chinese. In 1983 Antonio was awarded the highest academic title of 'Doctor of the Physical-Mathematical Sciences' by the
Musschenga, Albert W.
In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral judgements. Deliberate and critical reasoning is…
Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.
In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…
Lefèvre, L.; Aparicio, A. J. P.; Gallego, M. C.; Vaquero, J. M.
We provide a source of detailed solar parameters spanning the years 1914 - 1920. Although various catalogs containing information on sunspots and sunspot groups have been available for almost 150 years, the contents and conventions can vary greatly from one source to another. Thus, the availability of multiple sources is very important to assess the relative uncertainties in the identified quantities. We provide here a machine-readable version of the sunspot catalog made by M. Aguilar from 1914 to 1920. We show and explain the structure and possible errors found in this catalog. We also try to understand the specific differences of this catalog, i.e. explain the shortcomings and benefits of this catalog versus other available sources of solar information. This catalog, combined with the Valencia catalog, presents a valuable source of comparison with the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO or GPR for Greenwich Photoheliographic Results) data, and it helps shed more light on the link between the RGO classification and the more modern classifications of sunspot groups found in the Zürich or McIntosh classifications. We also extend the work started by Carrasco et al. ( Solar Phys. 290, 1445, 2015) on the mapping of Cortie types.
... Surface Transportation Board San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease Exemption--Port Authority of San Antonio San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C. (SAC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C., Docket No. FD 35604, wherein Watco Holdings, Inc. has filed a...
Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.
Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.
Erdos, John I.; Nucci, Louis M.
The concept is summarized of a diffusive burning supersonic combustion ramjet engine (scramjet) envisioned by Antonio Ferri and some of the salient technologies are highlighted as developed by General Applied Science Labs, PIBAL, and NYU, under his direction.
In this paper I examine the question of whether ethicists are moral experts. I call people moral experts if their moral judgments are correct with high probability and for the right reasons. I defend three theses, while developing a version of the coherence theory of moral justification based on the differences between moral and nonmoral experience: The answer to the question of whether there are moral experts depends on the answer to the question of how to justify moral judgments. Deductivism and the coherence theory both provide some support for the opinion that moral experts exist in some way. I maintain - within the framework of a certain kind of coherence theory - that moral philosophers are 'semi-experts'.
Chovitz, Bernard H.
Antonio Marussi, one of the most prominent geodesists of this century, died in Trieste, Italy, on April 24, 1984, at the age of 75. Blessed with good health and a robust physical constitution for most of his life, he was struck down by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) which he had contracted in 1982.Marussi is best known among geodesists as the father of modern three-dimensional geodesy. Following an initial presentation at the 1948 Oslo General Assembly of the IUGG, he published in 1949 in the Bulletin Géodésique an article entitled “Fondements de géométrie differentielle absolue du champ potential terrestre,” acknowledged now as one of the seminal works of the geodetic literature. In this and subsequent papers, Marussi developed in a general, rigorous, mathematical setting a unified approach to the solution of both geometric and physical problems in geodesy, obliterating the artificial distinction between horizontal and vertical which had been built up by geodesists over many years because of observational difficulties. He thus introduced many geodesists to the 20th century by demonstrating the value and, indeed, the necessity of advanced mathematical techniques like the tensor calculus and by anticipating useful data to be obtained by observations on close extraterrestrial objects like satellites.
Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Roccatagliata, V.; Getman, K.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Birnstiel, T.; Merin, B.; Fang, M.; Henning, T.; Eiroa, C.; Currie, T.
The Cep OB2 clusters, Tr 37 (centered at 21:38:09, +57:26:48, J2000) and NGC 7160 (centered at 21:53:40, 62:36:10, J2000), were observed with the ESA Herschel Space Observatory using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), as part of the open time (OT) program "Disk dispersal in Cep OB2" (PI A. Sicilia-Aguilar). We obtained a total of 23h observing time in parallel mode at 70 and 160um. Observations took place between November 2012 and January 2013. (4 data files).
Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138
This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Antonio, TX, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.
American Educator, 1997
Discusses the successful use of Core Knowledge Curriculum in one inner-city elementary school in San Antonio (Texas) that had previously reflected low student achievement, inconsistent attendance, and student behavioral problems. Improvements in these conditions as revealed through teacher observations are highlighted. (GR)
eligibility to sit for the NCLEX -RN licensing examination. (b) The second FTP offers a LVN an educational path to become a professional RN. Across the state...associate degree and eligibility to sit for the NCLEX -RN licensing examination. San Antonio has two such programs offered at St. Phillips College (SPC
Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.
Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797
Xu, Elvis G B; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y
Nonylphenols (NPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are the most common endocrine disruptors detected in the coastal waters of Hong Kong. The Cape D'Aguilar Marine Reserve (CAMR), the only marine reserve in Hong Kong is close to urbanized areas, thus the resident marine organisms are inevitably influenced by partially treated wastewater from adjacent sewage treatment plants (STPs). Elevated levels of NPs and BPA were detected in all seawater, sediment and biota samples collected from the CAMR. Estrogenic activities of seawater from the CAMR, and sludge and sewage from a nearby STP were assessed using yeast estrogen screen assay. We found aromatase, estrogen receptor and vitellogenin genes in the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma were significantly up-regulated after exposure to the reserve's seawater. According to a tissue-residue-based probabilistic risk assessment, the marine species living in the CAMR are having 35% and 21% of chance to be at risk due to exposure to NPs and BPA, respectively.
Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Navrady, Lauren; Tedeschi, Ellen; Mobbs, Dean
Moral perceptions of harm and fairness are instrumental in guiding how an individual navigates moral challenges. Classic research documents that the gender of a target can affect how people deploy these perceptions of harm and fairness. Across multiple studies, we explore the effect of an individual’s moral orientations (their considerations of harm and justice) and a target’s gender on altruistic behavior. Results reveal that a target’s gender can bias one’s readiness to engage in harmful actions and that a decider’s considerations of harm—but not fairness concerns—modulate costly altruism. Together, these data illustrate that moral choices are conditional on the social nature of the moral dyad: Even under the same moral constraints, a target’s gender and a decider’s gender can shift an individual’s choice to be more or less altruistic, suggesting that gender bias and harm considerations play a significant role in moral cognition. PMID:27478541
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian
In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.
In this study, the relationship between two aspects of the moral self, moral centrality and internal moral motivation, was analyzed. It is argued that these 2 aspects are conceptually distinct but nonetheless empirically related. Based on a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents (M age = 14.83 years, SD = 2.21 years) it was found that moral centrality and internal moral motivation, even though substantially correlated, interacted in predicting moral emotion expectancies. Even though moral centrality was unrelated to adolescents' age it predicted a longitudinal increase in internal moral motivation over a 1-year interval. Overall, the findings call for a differentiation of moral centrality and internal moral motivation as 2 distinct but interrelated aspects of moral self-development that follow different developmental trajectories and are differentially related to age. At the same time, the study points out that adolescence may be less important for the development of the moral self than commonly assumed.
Chambers, David W
The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.
PNNL, FSEC, and CalcsPlus provided technical assistance to Build San Antonio Green on three deep energy retrofits. For this gut rehab they replaced the old roof with a steeper roof and replaced drywall while adding insulation, new HVAC, sealed ducts, transfer grilles, outside air run-time ventilation, new lighting and water heater.
As the first step of a wider historical reconstruction of the reception of quantum mechanics in the nineteenth-century philosophy, we are going to consider Antonio Gramsci's philosophy. He asks himself about the nature of quantum objects, if their existence depends on the act of measuring by the experimenter and if this kind of relationship can be interpreted as an argument in favour of an immaterialistic philosophy. We will remark how an idealistic interpretation of quantum mechanics found a fertile field in the Italian culture, characterized by an antiscientific attitude and at the same time needing to find in science a term of comparison.
Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.
This publication offers a portrait of poverty in San Antonio (Texas) based on an analysis of available statistical data and focusing on health, education, employment, housing, and human services. Five chapters each contain statistics regarding poverty in the United States, Texas, and San Antonio. Each chapter also begins with true stories about…
Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)
Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.
The 1974 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Measurement Award was presented to J.P. Guilford at the ETS Invitational Conference. Irving Kristol, in "Moral and Ethical Development in a Democratic Society," called for the restoration of authority within our major social institutions, especially schools. Martin Trow examined the effects of the college…
Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…
In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…
Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S.; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour. PMID:27723826
Laabs, Carolyn A
Unlike bioethicists who contend that there is a morality common to all, H. Tristan Engelhardt (1996) argues that, in a pluralistic secular society, any morality that does exist is loosely connected, lacks substantive moral content, is based on the principle of permission and, thus, is a morality between moral strangers. This, says Engelhardt, stands in contrast to a substance-full morality that exists between moral friends, a morality in which moral content is based on shared beliefs and values and exists in communities that tend to be closely knit and religiously based. Of what value does Engelhardt's description of ethics as moral friends and moral strangers have for nursing? In this essay, I attempt to show how Engelhardt's description serves to illustrate how the nursing community historically had been one of moral friends but has gradually become one of moral strangers and, hence, at risk of failing to protect patients in their vulnerability and of compromising the integrity of nursing. Building on Engelhardt's concepts, I suggest we might consider modern nursing like a moral family to the extent that members might at times relate to one another as moral strangers but still possess a desire and a need to reconnect with the common thread that binds us as moral friends. Nursing is a practice discipline. Given the challenges of modern bioethics, an applied ethic is needed to give moral direction to clinicians as we strive to conduct ourselves ethically in the practice of our profession. To that end, nursing should reflect upon and seek to reconnect with the content-full morality that is historically and religiously based.
Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo
Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…
Horell, Harold D.
The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…
Lachman, Vicki D
Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b).
In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured.
The San Antonio River Basin of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.
This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Antonio, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.
Giroux, Henry A.; And Others
Three authors review the book by Harold Entwistle about the theoretician of Marxist social theory, Antonio Gramsci. Conclusions are that the book does not accurately reflect Gramsci's view on education. (KC)
Antonio Vergara Fernandez : Engineer of the LHC commissioning Questions asked : 1. What does it take to start up the LHC machine? 2. What's the plan for 1st injection day? 3. How do you feel about this?
Antonio Vergara Fernandez : Engineer of the LHC commissioning Questions asked : 1. What does it take to start up the LHC machine? 2. What's the plan for 1st injection day? 3. How do you feel about this?
In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…
James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…
The impact on the economy of five cultural institutions in the San Antonio, Texas, area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the San Antonio Symphony, San Antonio Opera, Witte Museum, Museum of Transportation, and the Carver Cultural Center. Data gathered from the six institutions…
Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX. Center for Educational Leadership.
Schools in San Antonio, Texas, need to make changes to make life work better for San Antonio's students, to improve their learning, and to help them become happier and more productive students. Schools must take children where they are and work with their circumstances. San Antonio is failing to provide students with the learning and development…
ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This research establishes methodology to measure morale as a function of productivity. Relationships between morale...productivity. Relationships between morale, ability, training, and experience are linked to productivity so that managers can incentivize employee...9 III. THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIPS ......................................................................11 A. MARGINAL
Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.
The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182
Susky, John E.
Critiquing Skinner's and Kohlberg's moral development theories as inadequate, the author asserts that affective development (compassion, empathy, caring) is necessary to moral action. While saying that schools are limited in their ability to provide moral education, he outlines qualities of an educational environment which could facilitate moral…
Rushton, Cynda Hylton
: Decades of research have documented the frequency, sources, and consequences of moral distress. However, few studies have focused on interventions designed to diminish its negative effects. The cultivation of moral resilience-the ability to respond positively to the distress and adversity caused by an ethically complex situation-is proposed as a method to transform moral distress.
Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…
Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph
Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…
Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.
The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…
Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie
Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…
Examines the response made by San Antonio (Texas) public schools to school violence and discusses the competing disciplinary views offered to address the problems. The author distinguishes between rhetorical and actual efforts to solve community problems in urban areas that surround urban schools and argues for mediation as a theory of social…
1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. KILNS 1A, 2A, 3A, AND 4A IN FOREGROUND. GAS VALVE AND METERING HOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE. - Jenkins Brick Company, Plant No. 2, Furnace Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL
This paper, drawing on original sources, provides an overview of and a discussion on those writings and ideas, in Antonio Gramsci's huge corpus of work, that are relevant to the education of adults. This should provide a fitting tribute to this major social theorist of the 20th century on the 70th anniversary of his death. Among the topics…
Scott, Otis L., Jr.
Texas has a proud history of being a multicultural state. Of its nearly 23 million residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006), none of its major racial or ethnic groups (Anglo, Hispanic, Black, American Indian, or Asian) constitutes a majority of the population. San Antonio, with a population of over 1.2 million, is the second-largest city in Texas,…
San Antonio Coll., TX.
This report provides general statistical information about San Antonio College (Texas). Section 1, Overview, offers a brief history, mission statement, outstanding former students, academic programs, and accreditation/affiliations. Twelve academic departments, offering 60 degree and certificate programs are identified. Section 2, Organizational…
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) began a five year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, which include assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up of students by staff members. The study utilized a computerized tracking system to compare retention, grade point average (GPA),…
A study was conducted by the Community Services Department at Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) to evaluate participant satisfaction and suggestions for future direction for the department's comprehensive program of non-credit courses. A questionnaire was administered in class to 307 participants between April 1, and June 1, 1987, focusing on…
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) initiated a 5-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, including assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up. The academic performance and success of students participating in one or more of these services were compared to those of degree- and…
Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.
This databook contains some of the basic information to be used in decision making and planning in the Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) District. Part I focuses on the demographic characteristics of the district population, feeder school districts, and data from other educational providers. Part II presents statewide data on potential enrollment by…
... boundary line of sections 22, 27, and 34, T24S, R10E, to the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line; then (5) Follow the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line west for approximately 7.0 miles, back onto the Tierra... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false San Antonio Valley....
... boundary line of sections 22, 27, and 34, T24S, R10E, to the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line; then (5) Follow the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line west for approximately 7.0 miles, back onto the Tierra... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Antonio Valley....
... boundary line of sections 22, 27, and 34, T24S, R10E, to the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line; then (5) Follow the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line west for approximately 7.0 miles, back onto the Tierra... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false San Antonio Valley....
... boundary line of sections 22, 27, and 34, T24S, R10E, to the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line; then (5) Follow the Monterey-San Luis Obispo County line west for approximately 7.0 miles, back onto the Tierra... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false San Antonio Valley....
How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think.
Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte
This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's emerging morality and designing developmentally sensitive moral intervention strategies. The subsequent chapters present promising conceptual approaches and empirical evidence linking children's moral emotions to moral cognition. Examples of integrated educational interventions intended to enhance children's moral development are presented and discussed.
This article questions whether the study of normative moral theory and its application to particular moral problems has a beneficial effect upon someone seeking to improve the quality of their moral thinking. A broad outline of the conception of moral thinking underlying moral theory and applied ethics is considered, particularly the logical…
Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka
Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times.
Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka
Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269
Edwards, Steven D
For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties.
Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian
A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904
Moral philosophy seems well placed to claim the key role in theorizing about moral education. Indeed, moral philosophers have from antiquity had much to say about psychological and other processes of moral formation. Given this history, it may seem ironic that much systematic latter-day theorizing about moral education has been social scientific,…
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-542 LPD 17 San Antonio Class Amphibious Transport Dock (LPD 17) As of FY 2017 President’s...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be...in select crafts. Notes LPD 27 construction is being performed at Huntington Ingalls Industries, Pascagoula Operations. The program manager’s
Jones, Nic; Norris, Ben; Meyer, Lisa
This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.
Meyer, Liza C.; Hammer, Mary C.
The San Antonio Better Buildings Program is a unified single-point-of-service energy efficiency delivery mechanism targeting residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and public buildings. This comprehensive and replicable energy efficiency program is designed to be an effective demand side management initiative to provide a seamless process for program participants to have turn-key access to expert analysis, support and incentives to improve the performance of their in-place energy using systems, while reducing electrical energy use and demand.
Most Texans would rather sell a favorite horse than vote for a tax hike that promises bigger government. Yet San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro has not only persuaded his constituents to spend $248 million to pay for an unusual and ambitious preschool program for poor 4-year-olds, but he is also going to open doors in August--a mere nine months after…
https://soundcloud.com/bmjpodcasts/highlights-from-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-2015 A critical review on the practice changing studies presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held December 2015, is presented in this podcast. A number of areas, including neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment, treatment of metastatic disease and the emergence of new biomarkers are addressed. Trials discussed include the WSG-ADAPT HER2+/HR+ phase II trial, which assessed 12-weeks of neoadjuvant TDM1 with or without endocrine therapy versus trastuzumab+endocrine therapy in HER2-positive hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, the CREATE-X study, which assessed adjuvant capecitabine in patients with HER2-negative pathologic residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the TH3RESA study, which investigated trastuzumab emtansine use in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Further, studies on new promising biomarkers such as the prognostic value of circulating tumour cells in follow up of early breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy are highlighted. Overall, the present podcast represents a comprehensive overview on some of the most important studies presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. PMID:27843589
Holt, Janet; Long, Tony
A prescriptive moral guidance approach to teaching nursing ethics is unacceptable. Students should be introduced to philosophical methods to learn autonomous analysis and decision making. Case-study material based on personal experiences enhances the integration of ethical reasoning and clinical practice. (SK)
AU/ACSC/3778/AY09 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AL QAEDA, CALIPHATE AND ANTONIO GRAMSCI : ONE STATE, ONE REGION, THEN ONE WORLD...Caliphate and Antonio Gramsci : One State, One Region, then One World? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...manages relationships in comparison to the ideas and thoughts of Antonio Gramsci . Gramsci was a prolific Italian Socialist writer whose thoughts on
Taylor, James Stacey
Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.
Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…
Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith
The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…
Schaefer, G Owen
Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.
This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…
Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald
Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…
Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…
Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte
This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…
Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views.
Friend, Gary Gene
This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…
A lesson on female stereotypes in advertising begins a discussion of the mass media's role in the lives of young women. It is suggested that conventional moral wisdom about media education for children does not reflect the complexity of the media's influence but is narrow and ethnocentric. (MSE)
Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…
The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…
Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin and Houston. Studies were completed in the Fort Worth metropolitan area at the end of the 1977 water year, and in the Dallas metropolitan area at the end of the 1979 water year. The study in the San Antonio area was completed at the end of the 1981 water year.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing streamflow network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The Texas Department of Water Resources ended its participation in the project in 1979, and the city of San Antonio funded the program through the 1981 water year.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the city of San Antonio and the U.S Geological Survey.The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178720, Lorence Creek at Thousand Oaks Blvd., San Antonio, station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio, are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Hater Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent watersheds. The West Elm watershed is still predominately rural but is undergoing extensive urbanization in some areas. The East Elm watershed is relatively stable and undeveloped.The objectives of the San Antonio urban hydrology study are:To provide data showing the effects of various stages
McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey
The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.
Vogt, W. Paul
Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)
While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…
Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.
The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…
Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan
Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…
The author critiques John Wilson's view of moral education for being too linear, ignoring the complexity of moral development. He proposes a more generalized moral education, with greater emphasis on affect and social context. For Wilson's article, see "Journal of Moral Education," p3-9, Oct 1979 (EJ220532). (SJL)
Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses' moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang's Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen's Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge.
Zago, S; Randazzo, C
Whilst the debate about cerebral localisation of articulate speech was raging in France in the 1860s and in particular with reference to the observations of Paul Broca, there were also some Italians who attempted to make a contribution on the subject. Among those was the physician Antonio Berti, who in 1865 furnished some interesting observations on the association of aphasia with the frontal lobe. In this paper we intend to revive this forgotten episode that represents one of the early Italian observations on the issue of cortical localisation of speech.
A VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST TOWARD MT. SAN ANTONIO FROM THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD TRACK NEAR CAJON PASS. VISIBLE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE THE SANDSTONE OUTCROPS AT SULLIVANS CURVE IN THE FAR LEFT DISTANCE; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 2 CURVING THROUGH THE HILLS IN THE LEFT DISTANCE; HILL 58.2 AT CENTER, MARKED BY AN ISOLATED STAND OF TREES; BNSF RAILROAD MAIN TRACK 1, RUNNING STRAIGHT THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH; AND THE UNION PACIFIC TRACK AT THE FAR RIGHT. 123 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA
Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W
Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity.
... National Park Service U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List: San Antonio Franciscan Missions AGENCY... request that a draft nomination of the San Antonio Franciscan Missions for inclusion on the World Heritage... earlier notice and of consultation with the Federal Interagency Panel for World Heritage. The notice...
Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth
It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency.
Peterson, Candida; And Others
A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)
Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal
Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.
Prescott, James W.
The effects of sensory deprivation in humans is discussed as well as the need for developing a moral education curriculum designed to rear children in an affectional environment of positive reinforcements. (JB)
First, a short summary of the moral enhancement debate is drawn up. Then an argument first put forward by J. Harris is explored: this argument is directly related to I. Perrson's and J. Savulescu's conception of moral life. To conclude, it is suggested that they advocate a naïve idea of technology, conceived as a neutral means for value loaded ends.
Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony
We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers.
Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P
The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.
The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.
Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa
: Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions.
Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.
Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199
Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.
Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R
The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.
Markowitz, Ezra M.; Shariff, Azim F.
Converging evidence from the behavioural and brain sciences suggests that the human moral judgement system is not well equipped to identify climate change -- a complex, large-scale and unintentionally caused phenomenon -- as an important moral imperative. As climate change fails to generate strong moral intuitions, it does not motivate an urgent need for action in the way that other moral imperatives do. We review six reasons why climate change poses significant challenges to our moral judgement system and describe six strategies that communicators might use to confront these challenges. Enhancing moral intuitions about climate change may motivate greater support for ameliorative actions and policies.
This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978
The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346
Maldonado, Nancy; Efinger, Joan; Lacey, Candace H.
This qualitative study investigated perceptions of 14 contemporary moral leaders regarding primary influences on their moral development. Findings indicated a number of important factors influenced the participants' moral development, including parents, spirituality, education/mentors/friends, and peak experiences. This study has implications for…
Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis
If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…
Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…
In his article 'Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts' David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common-sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply.
Sherblom, Stephen A.
The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…
Neuroscience and technological medicine in general increasingly faces us with the imminent reality of cyborgs-integrated part human and part machine complexes. If my brain functions in a way that is supported by and exploits intelligent technology both external and implantable, then how should I be treated and what is my moral status-am I a machine or am I a person? I explore a number of scenarios where the balance between human and humanoid machine shifts, and ask questions about the moral status of the individuals concerned. The position taken is very much in accordance with the Aristotelian idea that our moral behaviour is of a piece with our social and personal skills and forms a reactive and reflective component of those skills.
Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.
Neuroscience and technological medicine in general increasingly faces us with the imminent reality of cyborgs—integrated part human and part machine complexes. If my brain functions in a way that is supported by and exploits intelligent technology both external and implantable, then how should I be treated and what is my moral status—am I a machine or am I a person? I explore a number of scenarios where the balance between human and humanoid machine shifts, and ask questions about the moral status of the individuals concerned. The position taken is very much in accordance with the Aristotelian idea that our moral behaviour is of a piece with our social and personal skills and forms a reactive and reflective component of those skills. PMID:16446411
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.
Crockett, Molly J.
Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564
Crow, Cassi L.; Banta, J. Ryan; Opsahl, Stephen P.
San Antonio and surrounding municipalities in Bexar County, Texas, are in a rapidly urbanizing region in the San Antonio River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and the Texas Water Development Board, compiled historical sediment data collected between 1996 and 2004 and collected suspended-sediment and bedload samples over a range of hydrologic conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Tex., and at a site on the Guadalupe River downstream from the San Antonio River Basin during 2011–13. In the suspended-sediment samples collected during 2011–13, an average of about 94 percent of the particles was less than 0.0625 millimeter (silt and clay sized particles); the 50 samples for which a complete sediment-size analysis was performed indicated that an average of about 69 percent of the particles was less than 0.002 millimeter. In the bedload samples collected during 2011–13, an average of 51 percent of sediment particles was sand-sized particles in the 0.25–0.5 millimeter-size range. In general, the loads calculated from the samples indicated that bedload typically composed less than 1 percent of the total sediment load. A least-squares log-linear regression was developed between suspended-sediment concentration and instantaneous streamflow and was used to estimate daily mean suspended-sediment loads based on daily mean streamflow. The daily mean suspended-sediment loads computed for each of the sites indicated that during 2011–12, the majority of the suspended-sediment loads originated upstream from the streamflow-gaging station on the San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex. A linear regression relation was developed between turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at the San Antonio River near Elmendorf site because the high-resolution data can facilitate understanding of the complex suspended-sediment dynamics over time and throughout the river basin.
Kantor, Robert E.
A research memorandum presents the results of an on-going study into the implications of a moral science. Adopting a moral stance in scientific investigation would entail the abandonment of analytic modes of inquiry for more holistic, open-ended ones. The basic premise of a moral science is that it is possible for men to reach agreement on what is…
MacMillan, C. J. B.
This paper argues that just as subject matter is inherently value-laden, educators should not feel trepidation about morally justifying their criteria for choosing curricula to be taught in the classroom. It recommends that true "moral" choices should be made on the bases of relevance to student experiences; moral propriety of subject matter…
This paper proposes a lifespan developmental model of critical moral consciousness and examines its implications for education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Mature moral consciousness, central to negotiating the challenges of the 21st century, is characterized by a deepening lifelong integration of moral motivation, agency and critical…
Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…
Harrington, Helen L.; Quinn-Leering, Kathleen
Discussion of responsibility, professional morality, and moral reasoning focuses on the potential that computer conferencing activities have for providing opportunities for moral discourse and expanding prospective teachers' understanding of their professional responsibilities. The form and the content of the discussions have the potential to…
Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia
This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…
Stengel, Susan R.
Provides an overview of Kohlberg's five stages of moral reasoning and Damon's levels of positive justice. Argues that a conditioning approach to moral development is inadequate, suggesting teaching methods for facilitating moral development based on helping children understand principles and reasons. (RH)
Fullinwider, Robert K.
Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…
Reed, Don Collins
The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…
Clarken, Rodney H.
Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…
Jacobson, Ronald B.
The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…
Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris
Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…
Engelhardt, H Tristram
An authentic Christian bioethical account of abortion must take into consideration the conflicting epistemologies that separate Christian moral theology from secular moral philosophy. Moral epistemologies directed to the issue of abortion that fail to appreciate the orientation of morality to God will also fail adequately to appreciate the moral issues at stake. Christian accounts of the bioethics of abortion that reduce moral-theological considerations to moral-philosophical considerations will not only fail to appreciate fully the offense of abortion, but morally mislead. This article locates the bioethics of abortion within the theology of the Church of the first millennium, emphasizing that abortion was prohibited, whether or not one considered the embryo or fetus to be ensouled.
Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared
In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…
Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.
When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…
This article traces the historical development of the Japanese nation with respect to the education, character, and spirit of its people. Changes in educational thought in the post-World War II period are discussed and indication made of the active interest in and current provisions for moral education in Japanese schools. (Author/SJL)
Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…
Case, Verna; And Others
Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)
Johnson, Lawrence E.
Lawrence Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. The author considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with the utmost precision and clarity.
Compares the stated educational philosophy of several colleges and universities in 1896-97 with the contemporary version, focusing on the role of moral values in the curriculum. Institutions discussed include the University of Maine, University of North Dakota, Washington State University, Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), Stetson University…
Sullivan, Kathleen M.
Discusses character and moral education in the classroom, suggesting that schools should reinforce the lessons of the home rather than acting as value-free zones. Modern education has the tendency to present students with a huge set of options with no distinctions made as to each option's pros and cons. Students need guidance in discerning correct…
In public education's current environment of high-stakes testing and accountability, principals are constantly engaged in an effort to balance messages to their teachers to achieve ever-higher levels of student learning with appreciation for what they do. As a result, it is not surprising that staff morale is an issue in some schools. The…
Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison
People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.
Gibson, Donald E.
Examines hospice concepts and proposals to identify moral problems presented. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the hospice concept's alleged humanitarianism and emphasis on cost-efficiency. Suggests that cost emphasis raises serious questions about the meaning of hospice concepts. (JAC)
Rury, John L.
Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…
Forest, James J. F.; Keith, Bruce
The United States Military Academy (USMA) provides cadets with a liberal education designed to develop versatile and critical thinkers who can adapt to the professional and ethical challenges they will confront. Cadets' moral development is integrated throughout their West Point experience, to the point of being included as one of the USMA's…
Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)
News about the San Antonio River Basin of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.
Armstrong, Paul F.
The author presents a biography of Antonio Gramsci and discusses the influence of Karl Marx on Gramsci's key ideas concerning mode of production, superstructure, hegemony, consciousness, praxis, and intellectuals. Gramsci's emphasis on adult education for socialism is discussed. (CH)
To meet its goal of reducing electrical demand by 9 megawatts CPS Energy in San Antonio, TX partnered with the Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (TMAC) and the Southwest Research Institute to provide lean, clean and energy efficiency training.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in San Antonio-Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas and Buzzi Unicem cement-are among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification.
Morgan, W. John
The author attempts to trace the theoretical view of working-class adult education implicit in the work of a leading figure in the history of the communist movement in Western Europe, Antonio Gramsci. (CH)
Rembert, Ron B.
For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.
Mudrack, Peter E
Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.
Government installa- lions around the country Attendees 3 Atlendes are working -level people who must solve real-lifehaidware problems and are strongly... WORK ~SHOPJ sion and problem solving GoalsSan Antonio, Texas SonAntonio, 19 1 Th workshop brings together those people who use trans-June!182019J e 81...two-wire interfaces. My analog designer did quite a bit of work in making things happen. Changing constant current to voltage is quite wasteful, and
Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.
Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas known locally as the Westside creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected once during base-flow and again after periods of storm-water runoff (post-storm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, Richard
Addresses several issues regarding the impact of models on the child's morality among 72 five- to seven-year-old boys. Moral behavior was recorded, moral judgment was assessed and responses to a hypothesized moral dilemma were obtained. Among the results, the child's moral responses depended, in part, on the level of justification used by the…
Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478
Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian
We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. PMID:21797913
Archuleta, L.; Ishimatsu, J.; Schneiderman, J.S. . Geology Dept.)
Pelitic schists and gneisses from the San Antonio terrane in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains consist of garnet, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, sillimanite, cordierite, hercynite [+-] alkali feldspar. Large garnet porphyroblasts contain quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite inclusions. Cordierite occurs as haloes around garnet porphyroblasts and as small subgrains always associated with hercynite and together replacing sillimanite blades. Hercynite additionally appears to have nucleated on the edges of sillimanite blades. Contrary to previous investigations, hercynite appears to be a late mineral phase. Reaction textures described above have been used to calculate a set of net-transfer reactions that can be used (1) to characterize all possible exchanges of matter between minerals in the system and (2) to construct a reaction space for the system. Fourteen thin sections with large garnet porphyroblasts and abundant biotite were used for microprobe analysis. Detailed probe analyses show well-developed zoning in the plagioclase and alkali feldspar whose character varies depending on location in the thin section relative to neighboring minerals. Generally, large plagioclase porphyroblasts display normal zoning and are not as calcium-rich as plagioclase inclusions in the garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts have flat zoning profiles due to high temperatures of metamorphism. Pressures and temperatures of metamorphism have been calculated from these assemblages using garnet-biotite geothermometry and quartz-garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase geobarometry.
Pyrrho, Monique; Schramm, Fermin Roland
Nanotechnology is a set of knowledge, techniques, and practices in studying and exploring new properties of materials that arise when manipulated at the atomic and molecular levels. The technical possibility of organizing and controlling matter at the smallest dimensions and units can result in profound changes in industrial production processes and have significant moral impacts on human relations, organization of the current social order, and even life as a phenomenon. However, moral reflection on nanotechnology has been criticized over the assertion that nanotechnology fails to raise any new ethical issue, for example. The current article discusses the limits of this claim by presenting two aspects that distinguish between nanotechnology and earlier biotechnoscientific advances in terms of their ethical implications: (a) uncertainty as an epistemic characteristic and (b) the threat to the current symbolic character of DNA as the "code of life".
Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light
Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.
In this paper I explore the role of manners and morals. In particular, what is the connection between emotional demeanor and the inner stuff of virtue? Does the fact that we can pose faces and hide our inner sentiments, i.e., "fake it," detract from or add to our capacity for virtue? I argue, following a line from the Stoics, that it can add to…
This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…
Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni
We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.
Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni
We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621
Ockerman, Darwin J.
Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May–October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek.
Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.
How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801
Tennison, Michael N
Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.
Solbakk, Jan Helge
This paper aims at analysing the problem of remainder and regret in moral conflicts. Four different approaches are subject of investigation: a moral-theoretical strategy aimed at consistency; a narrative approach of moral coherence and open consensus; Plato's moral methodology of dialogue and aporetic resolution of moral conflicts and finally, an approach deduced from Greek tragedy of emotional resolution of moral conflicts. A central argument is that since there exists no theoretically convincing way of solving the problem of remainder and regret, the attention should instead be directed towards finding alternative ways of coping with this problem. The three last approaches subject of investigation attempt--each in their own way--to do this. Teaching medical ethics to medical students and the burning issue of medical fallibility is used to demonstrate the relevance of these forms of resolution in a medical context.
This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical
asymétriques, l’approche globale face aux opérations et la reconnaissance croissante que les interventions des soldats même les moins expérimentés...e.g., Singer, 1998; see also Jaffe & Pasternak, 2006). Moral Intensity (Magnitude of Consequences, Probability of Effect, Social Consensus...affecting judgments of morality (e.g., Singer, 1998; see also Jaffe & Pasternak, 2006). The participants also judged the morality of each option on
Rintoul, Heather M.; Goulais, Linda
Competency in moral Literacy, like any other literacy develops through careful and continual practice (Herman, 2007). In this qualitative study we explore the vice principalship and the development of administrative moral literacy. Using a northern Ontario Canada case study, we recount how three secondary school vice principals further their own…
Stephens, Beth; And Others
Two factor analyses were conducted on data obtained from measurements of the reasoning, moral judgment, and moral conduct of 75 retarded and 75 normal subjects ranging in age from 6 to 18 years. One factor analysis sought to determine relationships between the reasoning variables and standard measures of intelligence and achievement. A second…
Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo
Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699
Johnson, David; Brett, William
Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…
Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn
: To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.
Defines the good in organizations; critiques the moral and methodological perspectives in Thomas Greenfield's writing; explains Jurgen Habermas' theory of discourse ethics; distinguishes key similarities and differences between Greenfield's and Habermas' moral theories; discusses substantive and methodological implications for the field of…
Opotow, Susan; Gerson, Janet; Woodside, Sarah
This article presents Moral Exclusion Theory as a way to systematize the study of complex issues in peace education and to challenge the thinking that supports oppressive social structures. The authors define its 2 key concepts: moral exclusion, the limited applicability of justice underlying destructive conflicts and difficult social problems;…
Hesburgh, Theodore M.; Halle, Louis J.
Two papers and several commentaries discuss a viable moral framework for foreign policy. It is hoped that the thought of some of the world's major thinkers can provide at least the foundations for a more enduring approach to the issues of political morality. The two main papers are by Father Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C., president of the…
Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong
Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.
Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann
Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…
Goodman, Joan F.
It is argued that current school disciplinary policies are ineffective instruments for delivering moral messages: they are poorly justified; fail to distinguish moral violations (violence, vandalism, deception) from conventional school-limited violations (attendance, dress codes, eating venues), leaving the impression that dress code violations…
van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan
Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…
The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…
Manning, Roger W.
A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…
Harrison, John L.
The work of John Wilson, now teaching at Oxford University, as moral educator is summarized and evaluated. His rationalist humanistic approach is based on a componential characterization of the morally educated person. The rationale and conceptual status of the components is discussed. His position is compared to that of Peter McPhail, R. S.…
Piburn, Michael D.
Stages of moral reasoning through which children develop, as researched by developmental psychologists Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, are outlined in the introduction of this paper. The six stages are defined and exemplified by the moral issue of the value of human life. The developmental model, as it is argued, is suitable for instruction in…
Rich, John Martin
This paper argues that the emotions have a central place in moral education. Two types of emotions involved in moral judgment are defined: constitutive and regulative. Fear and guilt are used as paradigms to explain how emotions are learned. A model for education in conscientiousness, compassion, and benevolence is outlined. (Author/SJL)
Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…
Goodman, Joan F.
Can schools encourage children to become independent moral decision-makers, maintaining controlled environments suitable to instructing large numbers of children? Two opposing responses are reviewed: one holds that the road to morality is through discipline and obedience, the other through children's experimentation and choice-making.…
That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such.
Weare, Kenneth M.
Presents objectives, required readings, course outline, and bibliography for an engineering and morals course. Course topics include: history of technology; engineering as a profession; engineering ethics (with four case studies); and career choice. Emphases are on the foundation of and criteria for making moral decisions. (DH)
Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon
One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements.
... Railroad, L.L.C. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2), for Watco to continue in control of San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C... concurrently filed verified notice of exemption in San Antonio Central Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease Exemption--...
Lafferty, Bill R.
The San Antonio Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) project was evaluated by a third party for its three years of operation. The project was designed to assist youth in making a successful transition to adulthood through community-based and learning center experiences, and was implemented by the Harlandale and San Antonio school districts.…
Clavien, Christine; Tanner, Colby J; Clément, Fabrice; Chapuisat, Michel
The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.
Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.
IntroductionThe Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks in San Antonio, Texas, are part of a network of urban tributaries to the San Antonio River, known locally as the Westside Creeks. The Westside Creeks flow through some of the oldest neighborhoods in San Antonio. The disruption of streambed sediment is anticipated during a planned restoration to improve and restore the environmental condition of 14 miles of channelized sections of the Westside Creeks in San Antonio. These construction activities can create the potential to reintroduce chemicals found in the sediments into the ecosystem where, depending on hydrologic and environmental conditions, they could become bioavailable and toxic to aquatic life. Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants often are measured in urban areas such as San Antonio, Tex. Contaminants found in sediment can affect the health of aquatic organisms that ingest sediment. The gradual accumulation of trace elements and organic compounds in aquatic organisms can cause various physiological issues and can ultimately result in death of the aquatic organisms; in addition, subsequent ingestion of aquatic organisms can transfer the accumulated contaminants upward through the food chain (a process called biomagnification).The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, collected sediment samples and water samples for toxicity testing from sites on the Westside Creeks as part of an initial characterization of selected contaminants in the study area. Samples were collected in January 2014 during base-flow conditions and again in May 2104 after a period of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions). Sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, as an indicator of ecological health (and
de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada; Salles, Arleen
Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral problems that affect human beings is based on several problematic framing assumptions. We evaluate here three of such assumptions: the first rests on a contested understanding of morality, the second consist in a mistaken conception of human moral problems, and the third relates to problematic presuppositions grounding the interpretation of existent scientific evidence presented to defend moral bioenhancement. Once these framing assumptions are identified and critically evaluated, it becomes clear that the moral bioenhancement debate is misguided.
Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam
Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268
Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato
Abstract The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. In total 7,743 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to two classes, eight orders, 37 families, 94 genera and 104 species were collected. PMID:27110176
Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart
The present study investigates the relation between the religiosity dimensions which Wulff (1991) described (Exclusion versus Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal versus Symbolic) and both moral attitudes and moral competence. The Post-Critical Belief Scale (Duriez, Fontaine, & Hutseabut, 2000) was used as a measure of Wulff's religiosity…
Schools provide a context or moral space for youth to develop their identity; however, with the racialized ideology, language and practices that promote Black youth criminality, criminalized schools become a racialized, classed, and gendered moral space that feeds into the school-to-prison pipeline. The criminalization of schools refers to a…
Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.
Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, C. Richard
The impact of adult models on the moralities of seventy-two 5- to 7-year-old boys was assessed in this study. Each subject was exposed to a televised adult model and was then administered tests of moral behavior (resistance to deviation in a laboratory situation), moral choice (in a hypothetical situation) and moral judgment level (on an…
Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim.
Greene, Joshua D
The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function.
Research has analyzed the relationship between moral identity--the extent to which people experience their moral character as being central to their self-conception--and the inclusion of other people within one's own moral circle. These studies underline that the higher the moral identity, the larger the moral circle. However, recent studies have…
Clarken, Rodney H.
Conceptions of morality and moral education are in need of reexamination in this time of global transformation. Historical views of morality and moral education are briefly presented, the commonalities and implications of these conceptualizations discussed and their influence on civilization briefly explored. The modern-day conceptions of morality…
Leming, James S.
Explores reasons for the current ineffectiveness of moral education and offers an alternative perspective on the proper purpose and methods for moral education. This ideal moral education is based primarily on the belief that social interactions during childhood are highly significant in the development of morality and on the functionalist…
Westphal, Kenneth R.
Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…
Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.
In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…
Jecker, Nancy S.
Traces two accounts of moral maturation--love and reason--from Greek philosophy through Saint Augustine to Kohlberg. Considers that the moral perspective of any age level falls short of an entirely satisfactory conception of morality, allowing the possibility for moral wisdom in both children and adults. (SK)
Xu, T M
This is the first of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." The author, vice president of Beijing Medical University and vice chairman of the Beijing Academic Association for Morality, identifies population control, euthanasia, and the allocation of health care resources as bioethical issues of current interest in his country. Population policy in China is grounded in public welfare arguments. The idea of a right to choose one's death is found in Chinese philosophy, although Chinese legal experts believe that euthanasia is not compatible with present criminal, civil, or family law. Allocation of health resources remains a problem in China, even throughout the free medical service that serves a small portion, largely composed of government employees, of the country's population of 1.08 billion.
Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B
To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647
Jia, Fanli; Krettenauer, Tobias
Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that moral identity is a context-dependent construct tied to varying social and cultural obligations. We argue that Western moral identity stresses an individually oriented morality, whereas, people from Eastern cultures consider a highly moral person to be societally oriented. We conclude by discussing the implications of this view for future research. PMID:28377737
Johnston, James Scott
In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…
Garcia, Neftali G.; And Others
The ethnic identification and political attitudes of "mejicano" youth in San Antonio, Texas were examined during Spring 1973. The affect or attachment levels for various types of political leaders, as well as for the President and the policeman, were determined. Respondents were 170 "mejicano" students in the 7th, 9th, and 12th grades. A…
Arispe, Don D.
This case study focuses upon the transformational experiences of 28 social service and pastoral workers engaged in a Reflection Circle Process (RCP) in San Antonio, TX. The RCP involves the writing of a holistic journal entry, known as a process note, coupled with an in-depth exploration of the note with the help of a group of trusted peers, known…
Presents a lesson plan on the San Antonio River missions. Suggests that students will learn about the role of Spanish missions in the history of the Southwest, the psychological and cultural factors that led Indians to accept mission life, and Spanish contributions to agriculture through irrigation systems. Includes student readings, maps, and…
This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…
Maloch, Beth, Ed.; Hoffman, James V., Ed.; Schallert, Diane L., Ed.; Fairbanks, Colleen M., Ed.; Worthy, Jo, Ed.
This volume presents the 54th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (NRC). The 2004 NRC conference, set in San Antonio, took place against a political backdrop in which the nature and substance of literacy research has become suspect. Given the current state of politically-driven research agendas, the focus of the 54th annual NRC…
This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle" with storyteller Antonio Rocha. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains four sheets for use in class. The first, "About the Performance," prepares students for understanding…
This case study describes Imagine Homes, who met Builders Challenge criteria on more than 200 homes in San Antonio with rigid foam exterior sheathing, ducts and air handler in conditioned space in a spray-foam insulated attic, and high-efficiency HVAC, windows, and appliances.
Castillo, Victor Anthony
With the study rise of the Hispanic population in the United States over the last 25-years there has been a languished progression of this populations' educational attainment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to tap into the "black-box" of ten academically successful Latino students from San Antonio by capturing the life history…
Lafferty, Bill R.
The three-year San Antonio Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) Project, an implementation of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory EBCE model, was evaluated for its first year of operation. The project was designed to assist youth in making a successful transition to adulthood through community-based and learning center experiences,…
Jackson, Sara C.
Bridging the gap between theory and practice enables trade service providers to effectively reach the small business community interested in entering foreign markets. This paper describes how the award-winning San Antonio Export Leaders program is a model for applying theoretical concepts to the practice of international business.
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1988, Mt. San Antonio College undertook a study to determine the effect of prerequisite waivers on students' academic progress. Two groups who received waivers in the fall 1987 and spring 1988 semesters were selected for the study. Group I included 222 students who applied for and received waivers both semesters. Group II was comprised of…
Hall, Barbara Ann
A study was conducted at California's Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) to determine whether remedial classes had assisted students in reaching their educational goals. The study sample included all students (N=425) enrolled in Fall 1980 Learning Assistance classes which included: Reading Skills Review, Writing Skills Review, or Math Skills…
Hall, Barbara Ann; And Others
In fall 1986, Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) initiated a 5-year longitudinal study of the effectiveness of its matriculation services, including assessment, orientation, counseling/advisement, and follow-up. Students participating in these services were compared to those degree-seeking students who did not participate. The study sample included…
Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.
This booklet presents Mt. San Antonio College's (Mt. SAC's) long-range goals and specific action priorities in an effort to focus planning on the year 2000. Introductory comments discuss the purpose of strategic planning and Mt. SAC's planning orientation. The next sections list goals and objectives with respect to: (1) the improvement of existing…
In Antonio Machado's collection "Soledades", the poet's search for identity guides an introspective quest where context, body, and mind form an intricate and inseparable connection. By extending cognitive capabilities to his natural environment, the poet, through embodied cognition and Theory of Mind, reads other people's and nature's minds to…
Perez, Eyra A.; Ortiz, Noé C.
The success of the financial aid initiative is founded on the premise that the truest impact occurs when the greater community owns and develops solutions to issues that impede student progress. Co-authored by two community leaders, Noé Ortiz and Eyra Pérez, the San Antonio experience demonstrates how a community can partner across different…
Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.
The City of San Antonio and the surrounding municipalities in Bexar County, Texas, are among the fastest growing cities in the Nation. Increases in residential and commercial development are changing runoff patterns and likely will increase chemical loads into streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, evaluated the concentrations and distributional patterns of selected “compounds of emerging concern” (CECs) by collecting and analyzing water-quality samples from 20 sites in the San Antonio River Basin, Tex., during 2011–12. On the basis of their chemical composition or similar uses, the CECs discussed in this fact sheet are wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds (hereinafter referred to as “pharmaceuticals”), and steroidal hormone and sterol compounds (hereinafter referred to as “steroidal hormones and sterols”). Three synoptic sampling events were completed during 2011–12 to analyze for CECs in the San Antonio River Basin. Samples were analyzed for 54 wastewater compounds, 13 pharmaceuticals, 17 steroidal hormones, and 4 sterols. Overall, the concentrations of all CECs analyzed for during this study were low, generally close to or less than the laboratory reporting level.
Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul
Between 500 BCE and 300 BCE, religions worldwide underwent a dramatic shift, emphasizing morality and asceticism for the first time. A new study suggests that the emergence of this new type of religion can be explained by increases in prosperity.
Hughes, James J
Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.
Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline
Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.
Baird, Jodie A.; Astington, Janet Wilde
The authors explore children's use of intention information in evaluating the moral quality of others' actions. They also address links among mental state understanding, motives-based moral reasoning, and children's own moral behavior. (Contains 2 tables.)
The stresses inherent in a hospital environment which impact on security may result in officers who do not see or feel positive results from the hard work they provide and, in experiencing low morale, can affect the performance of their peers, according to the author. In this article he describes what the healthcare security director can do to maintain high morale and, in doing so, retain the key members of his or her team.
Negrisolo, Adriana; Brugnaro, Luca
In nursing practice, the ability to make decisions regarding patients and to act on them is considered to be an expression of the professional nursing role. Problems may arise when a nurses would like to perform an action they believe morally correct but which are conflictual with the habits, organization or politics of the health structure in which they work. This inevitably produces moral distress in nurses who feel impotent to act as they feel they should. Although a certain amount of moral distress is part and parcel of the nursing profession , when it is excessive or prolonged it may become unacceptable and culminate in burn-out and the relative consequences. The aim of the study was to compare the level of moral stress in 111 Italian nurses working in different Operative Units to identify those clinical situations significantly associated with moral stress using the MDS scale. Similarly to studies performed in the USA, the level of moral stress in the 3 different work contexts was moderate, although some clinical situations were related to significant stress levels.
Magid, Rachel W; Schulz, Laura E
We discuss a process by which non-moral concerns (that is concerns agreed to be non-moral within a particular cultural context) can take on moral content. We refer to this phenomenon as moral alchemy and suggest that it arises because moral obligations of care entail recursively valuing loved ones' values, thus allowing propositions with no moral weight in themselves to become morally charged. Within this framework, we predict that when people believe a loved one cares about a behavior more than they do themselves, the moral imperative to care about the loved one's interests will raise the value of that behavior, such that people will be more likely to infer that third parties will see the behavior as wrong (Experiment 1) and the behavior itself as more morally important (Experiment 2) than when the same behaviors are considered outside the context of a caring relationship. The current study confirmed these predictions.
Clavien, Christine; Tanner, Colby J.; Clément, Fabrice; Chapuisat, Michel
The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled “universal structure of human morality” or “pure aversion to social betrayal”. Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous. PMID:22720012
What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior. For example, recent research indicates that spatial learning and navigation involve the formation of non-perspectival as well as ego-centric models of the physical environment, and that spatial representations are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning. Research on infants provides evidence that they form non-perspectival expected-value representations of agents and actions as well, which help them to navigate the human environment. Such representations can be formed by highly-general mental processes such as causal and empathic simulation, and thus afford a foundation for spontaneous moral learning and action that requires no innate moral faculty and can exhibit substantial autonomy with respect to community norms. If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems."
Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y
All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result.
In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.
Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon.
Lizarraga, Joy S.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, the Evergreen Underground Water Conservation District, and the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, investigated streamflow gains and losses during 2006-10 in the lower San Antonio River watershed in south-central Texas. Streamflow gains and losses were estimated using 2006-10 continuous streamflow records from 11 continuous streamflow-gaging stations, and discrete streamflow measurements made at as many as 20 locations on the San Antonio River and selected tributaries during four synoptic surveys during 2006-7. From the continuous streamflow records, the greatest streamflow gain on the lower San Antonio River occurred in the reach from Falls City, Tex., to Goliad, Tex. The greatest streamflow gain on Cibolo Creek during 2006-10 occurred in the reach from near Saint Hedwig, Tex., to Sutherland Springs, Tex. The San Antonio River between Floresville, Tex., and Falls City was the only reach that had an estimated streamflow loss during 2006-10. During all four synoptic streamflow measurement surveys, the only substantially flowing tributary reach to the main stem of the lower San Antonio River was Cibolo Creek. Along the main stem of the lower San Antonio River, verifiable gains larger than the potential measurement error were estimated in two of the four synoptic streamflow measurement surveys. These gaining reaches occurred in the two most downstream reaches of the San Antonio River between Goliad and Farm Road (FM) 2506 near Fannin, Tex., and between FM 2506 near Fannin to near McFaddin. There were verifiable gains in streamflow in Cibolo Creek, between La Vernia, Tex., and the town of Sutherland Springs during all four surveys, estimated at between 4.8 and 14 ft3/s.
Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…
The annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABC) is a multidisciplinary conference that covers basic molecular and cellular biology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of all types of breast cancer and premalignant breast disease. In 2012, this meeting was held at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas, United States, from 4 to 8 December. The symposium consisted of lectures within six general sections covering a range of topics in breast cancer research. These included discussions on research of breast cancer posters, a large number of specialist sessions, and several minisymposia. The report below describes much of the research presented in those general lecture sessions. The abstracts of all papers and posters presented at this conference have been published in Cancer Research as a supplement: Cancer Research (2012) 72(24), 1s–608s. PMID:23441137
De Lorenzo, Robert A
The Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission law of 2005 established a combined Army-Air Force medical center in San Antonio, Texas. The new facility is named the San Antonio Military Medical Center. This planned integration of two facilities would result in the downsizing of Wilford Hall Medical Center to a clinic and expansion of the nearby Brooke Army Medical Center to encompass all inpatient care. As part of the integration, the emergency services of both hospitals, to include the emergency departments, would merge under single leadership. As part of this case study, the proposed future organizational design is examined. Real and potential barriers to change are also indentified and possible solutions are explored.
Casillas, Jose; Sperduti, Stephanie; Cardenas, Rosa
The means of transporting power from a centralized power plant by transmission lines has several disadvantages. Electricity transmission and distribution networks are costly, require long planning processes and are unsightly to residents. These networks are also susceptible to natural disasters creating massive disruptions to consumers. For these reasons distributed power sources such as solar panels and small wind turbines are becoming a more desirable and viable means of energy production. We report on the status of a study to determine the maximum output power of small wind turbines in urban San Antonio, Texas. Wind speed data along with power measurements from small wind turbines in urban San Antonio will be reported. U.S. Department of Education Title V HSI-STEM and Articulation Award No. P031C110145.
Banta, J. Ryan; Ockerman, Darwin J.; Crow, Cassi; Opsahl, Stephen P.
This extended abstract is based on the U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Reports by Crow et al. (2013) and Banta and Ockerman (2014). Suspended sediment in rivers and streams can play an important role in ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. The quantity and type of suspended sediment can affect the biological communities (Wood and Armitage, 1997), the concentration and movement of natural constituents and anthropogenic contaminants (Moran and others, 2012), and the amount of sediment deposition in coastal environments (Milliman and Meade, 1983). To better understand suspended-sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and Texas Water Development Board, conducted a two-phase study to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions in the San Antonio River downstream of San Antonio, Texas, and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads for four watersheds in the San Antonio River Basin, downstream from San Antonio, Texas.
Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz
Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis. PMID:24760073
Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz
Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.
Corlett, J A
In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.
Alexandra, Andrew; Miller, Seumas
We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert's account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert's notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert's theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of Gert's account of common morality in general. In the second, we outline Gert's explanation of the source of professional moral rules and demonstrate its inadequacy. In the third section, we provide an account of our own collectivist needs-based view of the source of the role-moral obligations of many professional roles, including those of health care professionals.
Enright, Robert D; And Others
Strategies for promoting moral development in early adolescence reviewed include the "plus-one" model, Deliberate Psychological Education, didactic courses in social studies, and a high school Just Community on moral reasoning. (CJ)
Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)
Craig, Robert P.
Formalistic theories of moral development enunciated by L. Kohlberg and R. M. Hare are criticized for failing to recognize that normative principles are also necessary to the development of moral reasoning abilities. (GW)
Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen
Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics.
Glanzer, Perry L.
In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…
Derryberry, W. Pitt; Thoma, Stephen J.
Current models of moral functioning such as those of Rest (1983) and Damon and Hart (1988) have maintained that optimal moral development and consistent moral action require the presence of multiple constructs. In order to examine the importance of the presence of multiple variables relevant to moral functioning, structural equation modeling was…
Nichols, Shaun; Folds-Bennett, Trisha
Researchers working on children's moral understanding maintain that the child's capacity to distinguish morality from convention shows that children regard moral violations as objectively wrong (e.g. Nucci, L. (2001). "Education in the moral domain." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). However, one traditional way to cast the issue of…
Professional philosophers are members of bioethical committees and regulatory bodies in areas of interest to bioethicists. This suggests they possess moral expertise even if they do not exercise it directly and without constraint. Moral expertise is defined, and four arguments given in support of scepticism about their possession of such expertise are considered and rejected: the existence of extreme disagreement between moral philosophers about moral matters; the lack of a means clearly to identify moral experts; that expertise cannot be claimed in that which lacks objectivity; and that ordinary people do not follow the advice of moral experts. I offer a better reason for scepticism grounded in the relation between moral philosophy and common-sense morality: namely that modern moral philosophy views even a developed moral theory as ultimately anchored in common-sense morality, that set of basic moral precepts which ordinary individuals have command of and use to regulate their own lives. Even if moral philosophers do nevertheless have a limited moral expertise, in that they alone can fully develop a set of moral judgments, I sketch reasons - grounded in the values of autonomy and of democracy - why moral philosophers should not wish non-philosophers to defer to their putative expertise.
Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing
The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…
Cheung, Chau-kiu; Lee, Tak-yan
Moral education in the traditional form of classroom didactic lectures in secondary schools has been prevailing in Hong Kong since the initiation of moral education in the 1980s. However, such a traditional form has not received credit from research in the West. Instead, discussion of moral issues would be a more effective way of moral education…
Brodbeck, Felix C.; Kugler, Katharina G.; Reif, Julia A. M.; Maier, Markus A.
Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, ) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, ) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals’ decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the ‘Dyadic Solidarity Game’ and its solitary equivalent, the ‘Self-Insurance Game’. Four experiments, in which the moral motives “Unity” and “Proportionality” were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule (“treat others how you wish to be treated”) could be established. Individuals with a “Unity” motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a “Proportionality” motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making. PMID:24358115
Brodbeck, Felix C; Kugler, Katharina G; Reif, Julia A M; Maier, Markus A
Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, ) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, ) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated") could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.
deep, well-drained clays with slopes from level to 3 percent. The Patrick series consists of deep, well drained, clayey and sandy alluvial soils...policy regarding wetlands. 3.5.2 Existing Conditions Groundwater within San Antonio is found in a shallow alluvial aquifer and the underlying...Edwards Aquifer. The shallow alluvial aquifer is found at depths between 5 and 15 feet below ground surface (bgs) and is primarily recharged through
van Hooft, S
This paper attacks the Kantian conception of mortality that predominates in our society and the rationalist educational strategies that flow from it. In its place it offers an Aristotelian conception of ethics in which sensitivity and feeling are important components of practical reason. It argues that a nurse's ethical concerns extend further than the several moral dilemmas discussed in the daily press and that those concerns should be responded to in moral education by a process called 'empowerment'. Empowerment seeks to develop confidence and sensitivity in the making of difficult decisions and does so by training habits, developing attitudes, and encouraging reflection on actions performed.
Zucker, A; Patriquin, D
Gene therapy, pre-natal diagnosis, genetically altered bacteria, patenting new life forms: these are all outgrowths from the development of genetics. Our focus will be on the moral issues engendered by some of the genetic techniques which are now so well integrated into clinical medicine. The section on genetic counseling is meant to show the most frequent moral problems encountered as they might really occur. Genetic screening is presented as a mix of preventive medicine and aid for genetic counseling. Genetic engineering is discussed in the context of evolution and human needs and desires.
Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.
Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124
Twedt, Daniel J.
Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.
Lindsay, Ronald A
Common morality theory must confront apparent counterexamples from the history of morality, such as the widespread acceptance of slavery in prior eras, that suggest core norms have changed over time. A recent defense of common morality theory addresses this problem by drawing a distinction between the content of the norms of the common morality and the range of individuals to whom these norms apply. This distinction is successful in reconciling common morality theory with practices such as slavery, but only at the cost of underscoring the limits of common morality theory, in particular its inability to resolve disputes about the moral status of entities. Given that many controversies in bioethics center on the disputed status of various entities, such as embryos and nonhuman animals, this is an important limitation. Nonetheless, common morality theory still can be a useful resource in diminishing moral conflict on issues that do not involve disputes over moral status.
Krawczyk, Rosemary; Kudzma, Elizabeth
Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)
The article proposes that the teaching of Islamic morality presents as an important if not urgent task for moral education. It offers the opportunity to inform a student body about a vital historical development in the formation of moral thought and action; to challenge and offset a blind spot in Western thinking about Islam in general; to…
Lockwood, John H.
This paper discusses the work of Emile Durkheim and his interest in developing a science of ethics that would enable the social sciences to guide social and political policy. One of his main policy interests was education, specifically the construction of moral values. Durkheim proposed a secular approach to morality and moral education. Moral…
Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez
This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…
Dan, Jau Wei
Certain difficulties pervade the course of moral education and in this essay a broad picture of these shall be sketched. Moral educators need to understand the problems they will face if they intend to enhance their performance; this includes knowing the limits of moral education, and not going beyond their capacities. These difficulties may be…
Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter
An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…
Three developmental perspectives complementary to Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development are addressed. The research of Damon, Selman, and Gilligan, is explained in light of their contributions to a more complete view of moral development. Implications of this research for moral education are discussed and a comprehensive model of moral…
Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Buchmann, Marlis
Two studies investigated the role of children's moral motivation and sympathy in prosocial behavior. Study 1 measured other-reported prosocial behavior and self- and other-reported sympathy. Moral motivation was assessed by emotion attributions and moral reasoning following hypothetical transgressions in a representative longitudinal sample of…
Elkins, James R.
Legal education fails to prepare students to engage in moral discourse, exploring the ethical/moral dimension of the profession. Moral discourse suggests that the lawyer's professional ethos is problematic for the good person, and moves the profession to confront more directly the public image of lawyers. (MSE)
Clough, Dick B.
A literature review and discussion the effect of school administrators on staff morale is presented in this paper. Four factors for improving staff morale include: a supportive workplace; meaningful incentives; a good working environment; and personal display of high morale by the administrator. Ten recommendations for improving staff relations…
This paper analyzes the moral reasoning and perceptions of inmates in an eastern youth reformatory. A series of prison dilemmas, reflecting conflicts experienced by inmates and guards, was administered to 34 inmates; in addition, each inmate was given the standard Kohlberg moral maturity interview. Responses were scored for moral judgment and…
Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan
This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…
Analyzes psychological mechanisms by which moral control is selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct in ordinary and unusual circumstances. Explores the symptoms of moral exclusion as described in the literature. Presents categories that unify theory on moral exclusion and contribute practical classifications for use in empirical studies. (JS)
Olejnik, Anthony B.
The interrelationships among young adults' levels of moral reasoning, their preferred discipline style, and how they reason with children on moral issues was investigated. After initial screening, 25 males and 25 females completed a test on defining issues of moral judgement. Then 20 subjects were classified at the high principled level, and 30 at…
Mabe, Alan R.
Asserts that, although there is widespread agreement that civic education is a worthy educational goal, there is little agreement about its content or appropriate instructional methods. Maintains that effective moral education must involve discussion of substantive civic-moral issues and consideration of moral alternatives. Recommends using the…
Positive psychology has significantly influenced studies in the fields of moral philosophy, psychology and education, and scholars in those fields have attempted to apply its ideas and methods to moral education. Among various theoretical frameworks, virtue ethics is most likely to connect positive psychology to moral educational studies because…
Zigler, Ronald Lee
Examines recent research that suggests the formation of moral impulse, rather than moral reasoning, is the basis for moral development and education. Discusses the insights of the medieval Jewish philosopher and physician Maimonides, comparing his ideas with current research in neuroscience. Discusses implications for educational and social…
Opsahl, Stephen P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.
The distributional patterns of detections and concentrations of individual compounds and compound classes show the influence of wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls on the quality of water in the San Antonio River Basin. In the Medina River Subbasin, the minimal influence of wastewater is evident as far downstream as the Macdona site. Downstream from the Macdona site, the Medina River receives treated municipal wastewater from both the Medio Creek Water Recycling Center site from an unnamed tributary at the plant and the Leon Creek Water Recycling Center site from Comanche Creek at the plant, and corresponding increases in both the number of detections and the total concentrations of all measured compounds at all downstream sampling sites were evident. Similarly, the San Antonio River receives treated municipal wastewater as far upstream as the SAR Witte site (San Antonio River at Witte Museum, San Antonio, Tex.) and additional WWTP outfalls along the Medina River upstream from the confluence of the Medina and San Antonio Rivers. Consequently, all samples collected along the main stem of the San Antonio River had higher concentrations of CECs in comparison to sites without upstream WWTPs. Sites in urbanized areas without upstream WWTPs include the Leon 35 site (Leon Creek at Interstate Highway 35, San Antonio, Tex.), the Alazan site (Alazan Creek at Tampico Street, San Antonio, Tex.), and the San Pedro site (San Pedro Creek at Probandt Street, at San Antonio, Tex.). The large number of detections at sites with no upstream wastewater source demonstrated that CECs can be detected in streams flowing through urbanized areas without a large upstream source of treated municipal wastewater. A general lack of detection of pharmaceuticals in streams without upstream outfalls of treated wastewater appears to be typical for streams throughout the San Antonio River Basin and may be a useful indicator of point-source versus nonpoint-source contributions of these compounds
Mourad, Roger P.
Given that human suffering persists globally on a massive scale, are scholars doing all they ought to be in the pursuit of knowledge? To explore this question, the author analyzes works by Alasdair MacIntyre, Nicholas Maxwell, and Bill Readings. Based on implications derived from their moral critiques of higher education, an alternative, broadened…
Liddell, Debora L.; Cooper, Diane L.
In this article, the authors lay out the basic foundational concepts and assumptions that will guide the reader through the chapters to come as the chapter authors explore "how" moral growth can be facilitated through various initiatives on the college campus. This article presents a brief review of the theoretical frameworks that provide the…
religious heritage of the United States, the First Amendment to the Constitution, and the history of military policies toward homosexuals; and an...heritage, and that the First Amendment to the Constitution was not written to exclude Christian moral influence from the public-decision making
Masters, Roger D.
Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…
Stein, Aletha Huston
Commercial television as it currently exists presents moral content and values that are often contrary to the predominant values of the society. It emphasizes violence and illegal action; it perpetuates a system in which groups of people are devalued because of sex, race, age, and other such criteria. There is good reason to believe that this type…
Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)
This chapter contrasts the aims of progressive and traditional state-mandated schooling, and argues that the former represents a new form in the history of Western education, oriented to individual, social and moral reconstruction rather than reproduction, and guided by the evolutionary possibilities inherent in human neoteny. The school is…
Hymel, Shelley; Bonanno, Rina A.
Bullying is the most common form of interpersonal violence facing youth in schools, and recent school-based intervention efforts have shown only limited success in reducing such behavior. Accordingly, this article considers the utility of Albert Bandura's theory of moral disengagement in understanding bullying behavior among children and…
Describes St. Elizabeth School's (Dallas, Texas) adoption of Stanford University's HumBio curriculum, a human biology program for middle school students, which combines scientific inquiry with basic health information and moral decision-making skills. Highlights the program's emphasis on flexibility and teacher creativity. (MAB)
The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, was established to promote scholarship and the study of values issues in the professions. The article describes present ethics courses on the moral issues in engineering, architecture, business, and law. (MF)
Thomas, R. Murray; And Others
Educators from over 30 countries judged the suitability of incidents in moral education in the context of their native environment. Participants were 54 secondary school principals or teachers, most of whom were graduate students or married to graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara. They were given descriptions of 23…
Wynne, Edward A.
There seems to be a link between traditional Judeo-Christian morality and successful school administration. Interviews of more than 200 practitioners in the Chicago (Illinois) area reveal that public school practitioners and religious practitioners often share similar values. Further, site studies show that the policies of the interviewees agree…
Bergoffen, Debra B.
This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)
Rest, James R.
This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…
How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…
Yun, Hyun Sub
A Kantian model of moral development already tested on adolescents was further tested on normal and delinquent Korean adults. The model, based on the philosophy of Kant, starts its causality from the self, moves from the self to parental images, advances from parental images to duty and legality, and moves from duty and legality to a moral…
Flint, Thomas A.
Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…
Moral intelligence is grounded in emotion and reason. Neuroscientific and clinical research illustrate how early life co-regulation with caregivers influences emotion, cognition, and moral character. Triune ethics theory (Narvaez, 2008) integrates neuroscientific, evolutionary, and developmental findings to explain differences in moral functioning, identifying security, engagement, and imagination ethics that can be dispositionally fostered by experience during sensitive periods, but also situationally triggered. Mature moral functioning relies on the integration of emotion, intuition, and reasoning, which come together in adaptive ethical expertise. Moral expertise can be cultivated in organizations using the integrative ethical education model.
Martin, Mike W
Creativity in science and engineering has moral significance and deserves attention within professional ethics, in at least three areas. First, much scientific and technological creativity constitutes moral creativity because it generates moral benefits, is motivated by moral concern, and manifests virtues such as beneficence, courage, and perseverance. Second, creativity contributes to the meaning that scientists and engineers derive from their work, thereby connecting with virtues such as authenticity and also faults arising from Faustian trade-offs. Third, morally creative leadership is important at all levels of science and engineering.
Trotochaud, Karen; Coleman, Joyce Ramsey; Krawiecki, Nicolas; McCracken, Courtney
Pediatric providers across professions and clinical settings experience moral distress. Higher moral distress correlates with intent to leave for all professionals. Physicians as professional group had the highest moral distress. Intensive care nurses had the highest moral distress for nurses. While all providers describe distressing scenarios as disturbing, physicians report situations as occurring more frequently. The most distressing situations include requests for aggressive treatments not in child's best interest, poor team communication and lack of provider continuity. Understanding moral distress as experienced by all pediatric providers is needed to create interventions with a goal of reducing provider turnover.
Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John
It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206
Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John
It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.
This article challenges recent calls for moral bioenhancement-the use of biomedical means, including pharmacological and genetic methods, to increase the moral value of our actions or characters. It responds to those who take a practical interest in moral bioenhancement. I argue that moral bioenhancement is unlikely to be a good response to the extinction threats of climate change and weapons of mass destruction. Rather than alleviating those problems, it is likely to aggravate them. We should expect biomedical means to generate piecemeal enhancements of human morality. These predictably strengthen some contributors to moral judgment while leaving others comparatively unaffected. This unbalanced enhancement differs from the manner of improvement that typically results from sustained reflection. It is likely to make its subjects worse rather than better at moral reasoning.
Nichols, Shaun; Folds-Bennett, Trisha
Researchers working on children's moral understanding maintain that the child's capacity to distinguish morality from convention shows that children regard moral violations as objectively wrong (e.g. Nucci, L. (2001). Education in the moral domain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). However, one traditional way to cast the issue of objectivism is to focus not on conventionality, but on whether moral properties depend on our responses, as with properties like icky and fun. This paper argues that the moral/conventional task is inadequate for assessing whether children regard moral properties as response-dependent. Unfortunately, children's understanding of response-dependent properties has been neglected in recent research. Two experiments are reported showing that children are more likely to treat properties like fun and icky as response-dependent than moral properties like good and bad. Hence, this helps support the claim that children are moral objectivists.
Han, Hyemin; Chen, Jingyuan; Jeong, Changwoo; Glover, Gary H
The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions-i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning.
There are several reasons for accommodating health professionals' conscientious objections. However, several authors have argued that among the most important and compelling reasons is to enable health professionals to maintain their moral integrity. Accommodation is said to provide "moral space" in which health professionals can practice without compromising their moral integrity. There are, however, alternative conceptions of moral integrity and corresponding different criteria for moral-integrity-based claims. It is argued that one conception of moral integrity, the identity conception, is sound and suitable in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation. According to the identity conception, one maintains one's moral integrity if and only if one's actions are consistent with one's core moral convictions. The identity conception has been subject to a number of criticisms that might call into question its suitability as a standard for determining whether health professionals have genuine moral-integrity-based accommodation claims. The following five objections to the identity conception are critically examined: (1) it does not include a social component, (2) it is a conception of subjective rather than objective integrity, (3) it does not include a reasonableness condition, (4) it does not include any substantive moral constraints, and (5) it does not include any intellectual integrity requirement. In response to these objections, it is argued that none establishes the unsuitability of the identity conception in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation.
Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
The interconnection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience was explored by constructing two hypothetical scenarios based on a recent Swedish newspaper report. In the first scenario, a 77-year-old man, rational and awake, was coded as "do not resuscitate" (DNR) against his daughter's wishes. The patient died in the presence of nurses who were not permitted to resuscitate him. The second scenario concerned a 41-year-old man, who had been in a coma for three weeks. He was also coded as "do not resuscitate" and, when he stopped breathing, was resuscitated by his father. The nurses persuaded the physician on call to resume life support treatment and the patient recovered. These scenarios were analyzed using Viktor Frankl's existential philosophy, resulting in a conceivable theoretical connection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience. To substantiate our conclusion, we encourage further empirical research.
Conference photograph This volume is dedicated to the memory of Julio Morales who passed away on Saturday July 4, 2009 at the age of 61 after a strenuous battle with cancer. He had devoted most of his intense professional career to the field of underground physics, and contributed in an essential way to the foundation and development of the Canfranc Laboratory. The TAUP Conferences owes him a great debt for a long collaboration with, for the remarkable organization of the TAUP session in 2005 in Zaragoza and his activity as a member of the Steering Committee. In Julio Morales, our community has lost a highly appreciated colleague, a charming person and a great friend. He will be missed by all of his colleagues.
U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.
Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A
The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.
Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M.
Empathy shapes the landscape of our social lives. It motivates prosocial and caregiving behaviors, plays a role in inhibiting aggression, and facilitates cooperation between members of a similar social group. Thus, empathy is often conceived as a driving motivation of moral behavior and justice, and as such, everyone would think that it should be cultivated. However, the relationships between empathy, morality, and justice are complex. We begin by explaining what the notion of empathy encompasses and then argue how sensitivity to others’ needs has evolved in the context of parental care and group living. Next, we examine the multiple physiological, hormonal, and neural systems supporting empathy and its functions. One troubling but important corollary of this neuro-evolutionary model is that empathy produces social preferences that can conflict with fairness and justice. An understanding of the factors that mold our emotional response and caring motivation for others helps provide organizational principles and ultimately guides decision-making in medical ethics. PMID:26877887
Gillett, G R
Informed consent is required for any medical procedure although the situations in which it is given are beset by uncertainties and indeterminacies. These make medicolegal scrutiny of such situations very difficult. Although some people find the decision in the Sidaway case incomprehensible because of its continuing regard for a 'professional practice standard' in informed consent, I will argue that an important fact in many cases is the moral integrity of the doctor concerned and the pattern of his practice. This may provide the only morally principled and legally accessible evidence enabling a correct decision to be made in a difficult case. Although the epistemological significance of a professional practice standard is thereby defended the 'prudent patient standard' for what counts as consent is left intact. PMID:2795625
Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter
Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents’ classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition. PMID:25582811
Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter
Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.
Thompson, J N
As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.
Kronick, D A; Bowden, V M; Olivier, E R
The new University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Library opened in June 1983, replacing the 1968 library building. Planning a new library building provides an opportunity for the staff to rethink their philosophy of service. Of paramount concern and importance is the need to convey this philosophy to the architects. This paper describes the planning process and the building's external features, interior layouts, and accommodations for technology. Details of the move to the building are considered and various aspects of the building are reviewed. Images PMID:3995205
Brown, D.S.; Patton, J.T.
The Edwards aquifer is the sole source of public water supply for more than 1 million people in the San Antonio area and supplies large quantities of water for agriculture, industry, and the military. The dissolutioned, faulted limestone aquifer is the major source of water for Bexar, Comal, Hays, Medina, and Uvalde Counties. The annual compilation of estimates of ground-water recharge to and discharge from the Edwards aquifer is part of a continuing program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation wilh the Edwards Underground Water District (EUWD).
This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)
This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.
Hennessy, Thomas C., Ed.
This book contains papers in revised form that were delivered during the Fordham University 1976 Institute on Moral Education. The eight papers are titled: (1) The Teacher as Moral Educator; (2) Ten Years as a Moral Educator in a Catholic School; (3) Moral Education at the College Level: A Blueprint; (4) Moral Education at the Elementary School…
Kahn, Peter H., Jr.
An analysis of four foundational issues in the study of moral development is provided. The four issues involve: (1) the definition of morality; (2) individual or cultural moral variation; (3) moral ontogeny; and (4) moral epistemology. The first section of the paper describes each issue. The second section is based on the argument that the four…
Wilmoth, Gregory H.; McFarland, Sam G.
Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Scale, Gilligan, et al.'s Sexual Moral Judgment Scale, Maitland and Goldman's Objective Moral Judgment Scale, and Hogan's Maturity of Moral Judgment Scale were examined for reliability and inter-scale relationships. All measures except the Objective Moral Judgment Scale had good reliabilities. The obtained relations…
Kazemek, Francis E.
Literature can be used in an elementary school curriculum to provide sound moral models for children. Through the exploration of moral problems and the adoption of the perspectives of others, children may begin to develop and refine their own morality. A male and a female morality may be identified in literature. The male morality--based on the…
Explores John Wilson's ideas on moral education, arguing against Wilson's criticism of virtue theory. Evaluates Wilson's account of moral education from the perspective of a neo-Aristotelian sense of morality and moral development. Focuses on a part of Wilson's work, "A New Introduction to Moral Education." (CMK)
Abstract This paper examines how charitable giving offers an example of lay morality, reflecting people's capacity for fellow‐feeling, moral sentiments, personal reflexivity, ethical dispositions, moral norms and moral discourses. Lay morality refers to how people should treat others and be treated by them, matters that are important for their subjective and objective well‐being. It is a first person evaluative relation to the world (about things that matter to people). While the paper is sympathetic to the ‘moral boundaries’ approach, which seeks to address the neglect of moral evaluations in sociology, it reveals this approach to have some shortcomings. The paper argues that although morality is always mediated by cultural discourses and shaped by structural factors, it also has a universalizing character because people have fellow‐feelings, shared human conditions, and have reason to value. PMID:27546914
Cornwell, James F. M.; Higgins, E. Tory
Moral Foundations Theory has provided a framework for understanding the endorsement of different moral beliefs. Our research investigated whether there are other reasons to endorse moral foundations in addition to epistemic concerns; specifically, the perceived social usefulness of moral foundations. In Study 1, we demonstrate that those showing stronger locomotion concerns for controlling movement tend toward a higher endorsement of binding foundations, and that this effect is stronger among political liberals who otherwise do not typically endorse these foundations. In Study 2, we show that priming participants with assessment concerns (emphasizing truth) rather than locomotion concerns (emphasizing control) reduces the response variance among liberals and also removes the association between locomotion and the binding foundations. In Study 3, we directly ask participants to focus on moral truth versus moral usefulness, with moral truth replicating the Study 2 effect of assessment priming, and moral usefulness replicating the effect of locomotion priming. PMID:24347681
White, Jenny; Bandura, Albert; Bero, Lisa A
We analyze mechanisms of moral disengagement used to eliminate moral consequences by industries whose products or production practices are harmful to human health. Moral disengagement removes the restraint of self-censure from harmful practices. Moral self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from harmful activities by investing them with socially worthy purposes, sanitizing and exonerating them, displacing and diffusing responsibility, minimizing or disputing harmful consequences, making advantageous comparisons, and disparaging and blaming critics and victims. Internal industry documents and public statements related to the research activities of these industries were coded for modes of moral disengagement by the tobacco, lead, vinyl chloride (VC), and silicosis-producing industries. All but one of the modes of moral disengagement were used by each of these industries. We present possible safeguards designed to protect the integrity of research.
Knabb, Joshua J; Welsh, Robert K; Ziebell, Joseph G; Reimer, Kevin S
Modern advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology have given neuroscientists the opportunity to more fully appreciate the brain's contribution to human behavior and decision making. Morality and moral reasoning are relative newcomers to the growing literature on decision neuroscience. With recent attention given to the salience of moral factors (e.g. moral emotions, moral reasoning) in the process of decision making, neuroscientists have begun to offer helpful frameworks for understanding the interplay between the brain, morality, and human decision making. These frameworks are relatively unfamiliar to the community of forensic psychologists, despite the fact that they offer an improved understanding of judicial decision making from a biological perspective. This article presents a framework reviewing how event-feature-emotion complexes (EFEC) are relevant to jurors and understanding complex criminal behavior. Future directions regarding converging fields of neuroscience and legal decision making are considered.
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This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.
Maxwell, Bruce; Beaulac, Guillaume
Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the…
Van Bavel, Jay J.; Packer, Dominic J.; Haas, Ingrid Johnsen; Cunningham, William A.
Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad) or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad) of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions—the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action—than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic) evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making. PMID:23209557
Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A
The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.
Ugazio, Giuseppe; Lamm, Claus; Singer, Tania
Emotions seem to play a critical role in moral judgment. However, the way in which emotions exert their influence on moral judgments is still poorly understood. This study proposes a novel theoretical approach suggesting that emotions influence moral judgments based on their motivational dimension. We tested the effects of two types of induced emotions with equal valence but with different motivational implications (anger and disgust), and four types of moral scenarios (disgust-related, impersonal, personal, and beliefs) on moral judgments. We hypothesized and found that approach motivation associated with anger would make moral judgments more permissible, while disgust, associated with withdrawal motivation, would make them less permissible. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the type of scenario: the induced emotions only affected moral judgments concerning impersonal and personal scenarios, while we observed no effects for the other scenarios. These findings suggest that emotions can play an important role in moral judgment, but that their specific effects depend upon the type of emotion induced. Furthermore, induced emotion effects were more prevalent for moral decisions in personal and impersonal scenarios, possibly because these require the performance of an action rather than making an abstract judgment. We conclude that the effects of induced emotions on moral judgments can be predicted by taking their motivational dimension into account. This finding has important implications for moral psychology, as it points toward a previously overlooked mechanism linking emotions to moral judgments.
Sherblom, Stephen A.
This "systems thinking" model illustrates a common feedback loop by which people engage the moral world and continually reshape their moral sensibility. The model highlights seven processes that collectively form this feedback loop: beginning with (1) one's current moral sensibility which shapes processes of (2) perception, (3)…
Zbikowski, John; Collins, Jerre
This paper discusses the concept of literature as a moral laboratory in which author and readers run complex thought experiments about human actions and their consequences. The paper warns that discussion of the role of literature in building moral character and moral communities needs to be based on a better understanding of what literature is…
Workplace relations like any social relation first and foremost have a moral dimension. Thus, if vocational education sees one of its major goals in helping apprentices to deal with moral issues, one of the core objectives in vocational education is the support of the apprentice's development of moral judgement competence. Since Lawrence Kohlberg…
Koenig, Amy L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.
In this investigation, the moral development of physically abused (N = 28), neglected (N = 26), and nonmaltreated (N = 28) five-year-old children from low socioeconomic backgrounds was examined through observational measures of prosocial behaviors, moral transgressions, and emotions associated with moral development. Findings showed that…
Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.
This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…
Moral sensitivity is the first component of the 4-component moral action process (J. R. Rest, 1986). The author reviews moral sensitivity operationalization and measurement across multiple samples and domains. She reviews 3 definitions of the construct (i.e., "recognition and affective response, recognition, and recognition and ascription of…
Hawley, Patricia H.; Geldhof, G. John
Various aspects of moral functioning, aggression, and positive peer regard were assessed in 153 preschool children. Our hypotheses were inspired by an evolutionary approach to morality that construes moral norms as tools of the social elite. Accordingly, children were also rated for social dominance and strategies for its attainment. We predicted…
Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt
Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition--in both liberals and conservatives--is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested--and confirmed--through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes--and overlaps with--diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives.
Pardales, Michael J.
Argues that reading literature is one of the best ways to cultivate the moral imagination. Draws on sources from cognitive science, philosophy, literature, and education. Argues that a cultivated moral imagination will have greater ability to make sound moral judgements. Infers this can be applied to educational pursuits as well. (CAJ)
Jordan, Jennifer; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Tenbrunsel, Ann E.
Recent ethical decision-making models suggest that individuals' own view of their morality is malleable rather than static, responding to their (im)moral actions and reflections about the world around them. Yet no construct currently exists to represent the malleable state of a person's moral self-image (MSI). In this investigation, we define this construct, as well as develop a scale to measure it. Across five studies, we show that feedback about the moral self alters an individual's MSI as measured by our scale. We also find that the MSI is related to, but distinct from, related constructs, including moral identity, self-esteem, and moral disengagement. In Study 1, we administered the MSI scale and several other relevant scales to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we examine the relationship between the MSI and one's ought versus ideal self. In Studies 3 and 4, we find that one's MSI is affected in the predicted directions by manipulated feedback about the moral self, including feedback related to social comparisons of moral behavior (Study 3) and feedback relative to one's own moral ideal (Study 4). Lastly, Study 5 provides evidence that the recall of one's moral or immoral behavior alters people's MSI in the predicted directions. Taken together, these studies suggest that the MSI is malleable and responds to individuals' moral and immoral actions in the outside world. As such, the MSI is an important variable to consider in the study of moral and immoral behavior. PMID:26696941
Letz, Adrian G; Quinn, James M
The U.S. Air Force conducts basic military training (BMT) in San Antonio, TX, an area with occasionally adverse air quality. Many individuals from the BMT population are evaluated for asthma symptoms. The relationship of air quality with these symptoms has not been studied in this population. This study examines the correlation of several air quality indicators in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for asthma from the BMT population. The variables studied were basic trainee ED visits for asthma, the 8-hour air quality index (AQI) for ozone, and the 24-hour AQI for particulate matter <2.5 microm for the San Antonio metropolitan area, daily pollen and fungal spore counts, and daily high temperature. The ED visits were obtained by retrospective review of medical records. Basic trainees reporting asthma symptoms often are referred to the allergy/immunology department for evaluation. The ED visits for only those patients who were later formally diagnosed with asthma were correlated also with the air quality indicators. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for all data pairs. There were 149 ED visits meeting inclusion criteria for the period of time studied (328 days). Forty-one percent of the basic trainees seen in the ED for asthma symptoms were later formally diagnosed with asthma in the allergy/immunology department. There was no significant correlation between basic trainee ED visits for asthma and the selected air quality indicators. Air quality does not significantly correlate with the occurrence of ED visits for asthma from the BMT population.
Presents Antonio E. Puente as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. "For his decades of efforts to enhance the recognition of psychologists in providing health care services, through his work with the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Panel to develop and maintain appropriate CPT codes for the breadth of professional practice; for his willingness to participate in litigation establishing the expertise of neuropsychologists to testify in court about their findings; for his tireless work in cross-cultural assessment relative to criminal trials; for his leadership of professional societies in clinical neuropsychology; for his promotion of legislation and policy at all levels of government; and for his countless other contributions to the enhancement of independent practice in psychology. Antonio Puente is a far-thinking visionary who freely shares his knowledge to improve the quality of psychological practice and the reimbursement system that attests to the worth of the profession. He is the very embodiment of the psychologist for whom this award is intended." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Banta, J. Ryan; Ockerman, Darwin J.
Suspended sediment in rivers and streams can play an important role in ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand suspended-sediment loads and transport in a watershed, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, developed a Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12 for four watersheds, which comprise the overall study area in the San Antonio River Basin (hereinafter referred to as the “USGS–2014 model”). The study area consists of approximately 2,150 square miles encompassing parts of Bexar, Guadalupe, Wilson, Karnes, DeWitt, Goliad, Victoria, and Refugio Counties. The USGS–2014 model was calibrated for hydrology and suspended sediment for 2006–12. Overall, model-fit statistics and graphic evaluations from the calibration and testing periods provided multiple lines of evidence indicating that the USGS–2014 model simulations of hydrologic and suspended-sediment conditions were mostly “good” to “very good.” Model simulation results indicated that approximately 1,230 tons per day of suspended sediment exited the study area and were delivered to the Guadalupe River during 2006–12, of which approximately 62 percent originated upstream from the study area. Sample data and simulated model results indicate that most of the suspended-sediment load in the study area consisted of silt- and clay-sized particles (less than 0.0625 millimeters). The Cibolo Creek watershed was the largest contributor of suspended sediment from the study area. For the entire study area, open/developed land and cropland exhibited the highest simulated soil erosion rates; however, the largest contributions of sediment (by land-cover type) were pasture and forest/rangeland/shrubland, which together composed approximately 80 percent of the land cover of the
Beißert, Hanna M.; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests. PMID:28066287
Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Richmond, Aaron; Cladianos, Antonia
Background/Context: Results of the few studies that have investigated moral reasoning in education students suggest that such reasoning may be less advanced for them than for college students with non-education majors and that education students do not appear to advance in moral reasoning from freshman to senior year. Purpose: The purpose of the…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
Understanding the developmental issues first-time college students face is critical for scholars and educators interested in learning and development. This purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of first-year college experiences on the moral reasoning development of 1,469 students in moral transition versus those in moral…
The definition of the term SOCIAL LIFE FEELING is offered to denote or connote a sentiment about the social world or an affect-state that comes from socializing in that world. A review of the literature in SOCIOLOGY indicates that there is an abundance of predilection among sociologists in measuring and assessing How People Feel About Society and Their Place in Society. The selection of TWELVE SOCIAL LIFE FEELING SCALES developed by Karl F. Schuessler is based on their established reliability, their ease of use, and their embodiment in covering concepts pertaining to both a person's outlook on society (cynical, pessimistic, fatalistic) and his or her frame of mind in society (demoralized, estranged, alienated). The present report is based on SLFS11 or FEELINGS OF DEMORALIZATION in Urban and Rural settings. This scale gives the subjects an opportunity to express whether they are marking time, finding it difficult to be optimistic, surmising the world as too complicated, viewing their physical condition to be good, or taking pleasure in their achievements, and so and so forth. A random sample of 398 students drawn from an urban and a rural campus was personally administered a questionnaire included in Appendix A. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analyses through MINITAB software. High scores present a view of self as useless, helpless, aimless; low scores on the other hand, rules out such an admission of self as useless. It appears that this scale comes closest to approximating the concept of morale and its denotation of demoralization and despair. Persons of high morale have high hopes and great expectations and intend to persevere. Persons of low morale have little hope in their efforts being counted and would presumably stop trying. It is important to note that the items in this scale have principally determined the morale of older people. In this study we have attempted to find its utility in investigating undergraduate students representing the
Hawley, Patricia H; John Geldhof, G
Various aspects of moral functioning, aggression, and positive peer regard were assessed in 153 preschool children. Our hypotheses were inspired by an evolutionary approach to morality that construes moral norms as tools of the social elite. Accordingly, children were also rated for social dominance and strategies for its attainment. We predicted that aspects of moral functioning would be only loosely related to each other and that moral cognitions about rules (unlike emotion attributions and moral internalization) would demonstrate patterns suggestive of instrumentality. Results showed that cognitions about moral rules and internalized conscience were unrelated and that sociomoral behavior was more strongly related to the latter than to the former. In addition, promoting group norms (Selective Moral Engagement) positively predicted social dominance, whereas internalized conscience negatively predicted social dominance. Children who controlled resources via both prosocial and coercive means (i.e., bistrategic) showed enhanced moral cognitions about rules (despite high levels of aggression) but had deficits in emotional aspects of moral functioning in the eyes of teachers. Patterns of Selective Moral Engagement invite comparisons to tattling and impression management. The findings are contrasted with alternative hypotheses that are advanced from traditional yet prevailing approaches.
Pascual, Leo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Gallardo-Pujol, David
Neural underpinnings of morality are not yet well understood. Researchers in moral neuroscience have tried to find specific structures and processes that shed light on how morality works. Here, we review the main brain areas that have been associated with morality at both structural and functional levels and speculate about how it can be studied. Orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices are implicated in emotionally-driven moral decisions, while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex appears to moderate its response. These competing processes may be mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. Parietal and temporal structures play important roles in the attribution of others' beliefs and intentions. The insular cortex is engaged during empathic processes. Other regions seem to play a more complementary role in morality. Morality is supported not by a single brain circuitry or structure, but by several circuits overlapping with other complex processes. The identification of the core features of morality and moral-related processes is needed. Neuroscience can provide meaningful insights in order to delineate the boundaries of morality in conjunction with moral psychology. PMID:24062650
As with other cognitive faculties, the etiology of moral judgment and its connection to early development is complex. Because research is limited, the causative and contributory factors to the development of moral judgment in preverbal infants are unclear. However, evidence is emerging from studies within both infant research and moral psychology that may contribute to our understanding of the early development of moral judgments. Though its finding are preliminary, this proposed paradigm synthesizes these findings to generate an overarching, model of the process that appears to contribute to the development of moral judgment in the first year of life. I will propose that through early interactions with the caregiver, the child acquires an internal representation of a system of rules that determine how right/wrong judgments are to be construed, used, and understood. By breaking moral situations down into their defining features, the attachment model of moral judgment outlines a framework for a universal moral faculty based on a universal, innate, deep structure that appears uniformly in the structure of almost all moral judgments regardless of their content. The implications of the model for our understanding of innateness, universal morality, and the representations of moral situations are discussed. PMID:24478739
Park, Mihyun; Kjervik, Diane; Crandell, Jamie; Oermann, Marilyn H
This study described the relationships between academic class and student moral sensitivity and reasoning and between curriculum design components for ethics education and student moral sensitivity and reasoning. The data were collected from freshman (n = 506) and senior students (n = 440) in eight baccalaureate nursing programs in South Korea by survey; the survey consisted of the Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and the Korean Defining Issues Test. The results showed that moral sensitivity scores in patient-oriented care and conflict were higher in senior students than in freshman students. Furthermore, more hours of ethics content were associated with higher principled thinking scores of senior students. Nursing education in South Korea may have an impact on developing student moral sensitivity. Planned ethics content in nursing curricula is necessary to improve moral sensitivity and moral reasoning of students.
Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn
: To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward.
Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.
While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…
Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan
The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…
This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…
Sets forth a theory of social development (represented by Maslow), a theory of moral development (represented by Kohlberg), and then synthesizes these theories to develop a set of student needs and teaching techniques for each stage of social and moral development. (CT)
Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.
Long, Edward LeRoy, Jr.
This book argues that higher education is fundamentally a moral enterprise that needs to be guided by commitments to what is morally right and fundamentally good. It takes issue with prevailing tendencies to give attention merely to what is intellectually warranted, operationally feasible, or superficially attractive to students who consider…
Cooper, Diane L.; Liddell, Debora L.; Davis, Tiffany J.; Pasquesi, Kira
In this era of increased accountability, it is important to consider how student affairs researches and assesses the outcomes of efforts to increase moral competence. This article examines both qualitative and quantitative inquiry methods for measuring moral development. The authors review the instrumentation and methods typically used to measure…
Morgan, Blaire; Gulliford, Liz; Carr, David
In a rapidly expanding academic literature on gratitude, psychologists, philosophers and educational theorists have argued that gratitude is not just of great psycho-social importance but also of moral significance. It would therefore seem to follow that the promotion of gratitude is also of moral educational significance. In this regard, recent…
Eggers, Brenda Dishman
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…
In this inaugural lecture, delivered at the University of Birmingham in January 2014, I sketch the outline of a theory of moral education. The theory is an attempt to resolve the tension between two thoughts widely entertained by teachers, policy-makers and the general public. The first thought is that morality must be learned: children must come…
Cousins, Linwood H.
Maintains that public policy discourse with narrow views of morality and character are at the center of contemporary definitions and marketing of services for violent/troubled youth. Uses descriptive and ethnographic data on violence in urban and black schools/communities to argue that, left undisturbed, moral entrepreneurs pose as much risk as…
Taylor, Monica J.
As Editor of the "Journal of Moral Education" for over 30 years, it could be said that I have witnessed a generation of international scholarship in the emerging and developing field of moral education. In this article, I offer a personal reflection on this journey, drawing on this editorial experience and as an educational researcher. I address…
Roepke, William J.
Ponders the role of journalism and mass communication education in America and its apparent failure to impress the importance of leadership and morality on some of its students. Discusses how journalism schools can take up the reins of moral leadership, with applications in the professional curriculum, non-major course selection, faculty…
Nichols, Randall G.
Considers moral issues related to educational technology. Highlights include educational biotechnology; ways in which educational technology can be detrimental to educational achievement and is ecologically harmful; technology and morality; and pertinent philosophies, including Habermas' critical theory, Rorty's liberal ironist, and Barrett's…
Ayala, Francisco J.
In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, published in 1871, Charles Darwin wrote: “I fully … subscribe to the judgment of those writers who maintain that of all the differences between man and the lower animals the moral sense or conscience is by far the most important.” I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined. The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions. I propose that the capacity for ethics is a necessary attribute of human nature, whereas moral codes are products of cultural evolution. Humans have a moral sense because their biological makeup determines the presence of three necessary conditions for ethical behavior: (i) the ability to anticipate the consequences of one's own actions; (ii) the ability to make value judgments; and (iii) the ability to choose between alternative courses of action. Ethical behavior came about in evolution not because it is adaptive in itself but as a necessary consequence of man's eminent intellectual abilities, which are an attribute directly promoted by natural selection. That is, morality evolved as an exaptation, not as an adaptation. Moral codes, however, are outcomes of cultural evolution, which accounts for the diversity of cultural norms among populations and for their evolution through time. PMID:20445091
Forisha, Bill E.; Forisha, Barbara E.
Problems of providing effective training for moral development are discussed. Intended for teachers, parents, and education students, the book lends itself easily to application in the classroom. The book is presented in three sections. Section I provides a historical and philosophical perspective on the need for moral education and on basic…
Within the limits of law and process, the lawyer's concern must be the client's cause, not his own agenda. Effective legal representation requires objectivity. The lawyer's role is to counsel legality, not morality, and the law school's responsibility is to teach law, not moral obligation. (MSE)
Despite the Aristotelian renaissance in the philosophy of education, the development of virtue has not received much attention. This is unfortunate, because an attempt to draft an Aristotelian model of moral development can help philosophers to evaluate the contribution Aristotelian virtue ethics can make to our understanding of moral development,…
Reiman, Alan J.; Dotger, Benjamin H.
This article examines the links between prosocial moral education, educational innovations and concerns of school system personnel during an innovation's implementation process. The role of social innovations in promoting prosocial moral education is discussed with attention given to the challenges and processes associated with implementing such…
Clarken, Rodney H.
Society is in turmoil that can be termed a moral crisis the result of dogmatic materialistic worldviews. A more holistic framework for moral development based on the tripartite theory that considers cognitive, affective and conative domains and capacities is presented along with some guiding principles as an answer to the needs of the modern…
Meriwether, Nicholas K.
Suggests that sanctions based on emotional well-being or self-esteem are insufficient for motivating moral behavior and ultimately are reduced to hedonism. Argues this is also the case in the hypothetical event that all moral action results in heightened self-esteem and all immoral actions results in lower self-esteem. (CAJ)
Mitchell, Thomas E.
Kelley's cube model of attributions (1967) can be applied to moral judgments to predict how individuals arrive at attributions concerning dispositional or environmental causes. The relative contributions of the three dimensions of Kelley's cube to attributions of morality and trustworthiness were tested by presenting 37 male and 77 female subjects…
Bélanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; LeBrasseur, Rolland
This study links moral reasoning, academic dishonesty, and business students. Undergraduate business students (N = 1357) from eight Ontario (Canada) universities responded to a survey to express their perceptions and expectations of their academic environment and the variables that can help them to understand what is morally right and what is…
This study examines how six national newspapers balanced supporting agriculture (a morally good occupation) with supporting environmentalism (nature as a moral value), in an area in which agricultural and environmental interests conflict--farm use of pesticides. The study showed that, contrary to expectations, newspapers supported social change…
Maintains that many traditional economics classroom experiments unfairly label, deride, or denigrate altruistic behavior and moral motivation. Describes several in-class experiments, the prisoners' dilemma, dictator games, and double auction experiments and discusses their inherent bias against moral considerations. Examines the ethical problems…
Thomas, Paul F.
Moral education, a primary component of Japanese education, has no precise equivalent in Canadian education. The focus of moral education is development of personal attitudes and social values. The content of this discipline is a kind of secular humanism which has engendered in the postwar Japanese the values, attitudes, behaviors, and virtues…
Wei, Tan Tai
Asserts that moral education in Singapore has been aimed pragmatically at forging together, by shared values, the four major racial and cultural communities of that nation. Maintains that moral education also has been used to preserve a cultural and national identity against the perceived erosion of Asian roots by Western education. (ACM)
Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)
This article traces changing notions of a moral upbringing among British Bangladesh families in London. It reviews ideas of the making of a moral person ("manush corano") in Bangladesh and contrasts those with contemporary practices and ideas about the good child in London. It argues that in London, British Bangladeshis have embraced a…
Chinese Education and Society, 2006
Moral education is political, ideological, moral, and psychological quality education conducted for students. It plays a decisive and guiding role in upholding the socialist nature of schools, assuring the correct political direction in cultivating talent, and promoting the all-around development of students. Guided by Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong…
Banner, William Augustus
William James, Kierkegaard, Kant, and Arnold, among others, warrant attention as the responsibilities of colleges for the moral education of students are reassessed. It is suggested that the issue of culture as a moral enterprise is at the heart of the argument. (Author/MSE)
In this article I outline an original form of ethical theory that I call exemplarist virtue theory. The theory is intended to serve the philosophical purposes of a comprehensive moral theory, but it is also intended to serve the practical purpose of moral education by structuring the theory around a motivating emotion--the emotion of admiration.…
DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Yu, Tianlong, Ed.
Against a formidable national discourse that emphasizes academic standardization, accountability, and high-stakes testing in educational policy, "Character and Moral Education: A Reader" seeks to re-introduce and revive the moral mission of education in public conversation and practices in America's schools. With contributions from a…
Rich, John Martin; DeVitis, Joseph L.
The introductory chapter clarifies key terms and lays the background for different theories of moral development. Chapter 2 surveys competing models from various schools of thought on the initial origins of morality in childhood. The works discussed include those of Freud, Jung and Piaget. Chapter 3 includes: Erik H. Erikson's sociocultural…
Robbins, Nora Reinburg
The morale of employees in higher education has plummeted in recent years due to fiscal crises, program cuts, staff reduction and bulging enrollments. In this article, an HR consultant offers suggestions for removing demotivators and creating new motivating strategies that can help higher education human resource organizations boost morale and…
Keller, Monika; Edelstein, Wolfgang
In this study, reasoning about moral responsibilities in friendships on the part of 97 subjects was assessed at the ages of 7, 9, 12, and 15 years. Assessment was undertaken of: (1) general reasoning about the moral obligation of promise keeping; (2) general reasoning about responsibilities in friendship; and (3) situation-specific reasoning about…
Mork, Gordon R.
Outlines six approaches used in a university history course which address the problems of teaching the Hitler period. The assumption underlying all the approaches is that Americans are not entirely different from Germans and that they may be faced with similar moral choices. The approaches avoid the didactic moralism often taught about this era.…
We transcribe and comment on the report about the smallpox epidemic in Valparaiso in 1865, developed by Dr. Manuel Antonio Carmona. At that time, it was considered as an important contribution to epidemiology and clinical prevention of the disease. It gave rules about the management "of smallpox at home", highlighting mechanisms of transmission of this eruptive infectious disease.
Miller, Hubert J.
As Mexico's first viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza's most noteworthy achievement was his laying the basis of colonial government in New Spain which continued, with modifications, for 300 years. Although he was lenient in dealing with the shortcomings of his Indian and Spanish subjects, he took a firm stand in dealing with the rebellious Indians in the…
Across the nation, takeovers of schools or entire systems by mayors, state legislatures, or control boards have come as a result of increasing pressure to improve low performing schools, particularly those in central cities serving disadvantaged or minority students. Citing a need for improvement in the city's schools, Antonio Villaraigosa…
This article aims to "modernize" the current legal debate over inequitable public school funding at the state and local level. The 1973 Supreme Court case of "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" established precedent, allowing for property-tax based education funding programs at the state-level--a major source…
Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
The United States Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in San Antonio, Texas from December 9 to 14, 1968 under the authority of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The purpose of the hearing was to collect information regarding the civil rights problems of Mexican Americans in the five Southwestern States. Of concern were the issues of education,…
Beamer, Catharine, Comp.
A bibliography of sources on women and American history at the Mt. San Antonio College Library (Walnut, California) has been compiled. It has five sections: (1) general history (works reflecting the contributions of women as historians as well as portraying their roles in the history of the United States from the early colonial days to the…
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge
Clinical psychopathology has largely ignored the developments in the field of social neuroscience. The so-called moral emotions are a group of affective experiences thought to promote cooperation, group cohesion, and reorganization. In this review, we: (i) briefly describe a provisional taxonomy of a limited set of moral emotions and their neural underpinnings; and (ii) discuss how disgust, guilt, anger/indignation, and shame/embarrassment can be conceptualized as key affective experiences in different neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on a concise review of the literature linking moral emotions, psychopathology, and neuropsychiatry, we have devised a simple and preliminary scheme where we conjecture how specific moral emotions can be implicated in some categories of DSM-5 diagnoses, potentially helping to bridge psychopathology and neurobiologically plausible variables, in line with the Research Domain Criteria initiative. We hope this stimulates new empirical work exploring how moral emotional changes and their underlying neurobiology can help elucidating the neural underpinnings of mental disorders.
Evidence-based practice suggests the best approach to improving professionalism in practice is ethics curricula. However, recent research has demonstrated that millennium graduates do not advocate for patients or assert themselves during moral conflicts. The aim of this article is the exploration of evaluation techniques to evaluate one measurable outcome of ethics curricula: moral reasoning. A review of literature, published between 1995 and 2013, demonstrated that the moral orientations of care and justice as conceptualized by Gilligan and Kohlberg are utilized by nursing students to solve ethical dilemmas. Data obtained by means of reflective journaling, Ethics of Care Interview (ECI) and Defining Issues Test (DIT), would objectively measure the interrelated pathways of care-based and justice-based moral reasoning. In conclusion, educators have an ethical responsibility to foster students' ability to exercise sound clinical judgment, and support their professional development. It is recommended that educators design authentic assessments to demonstrate student's improvement of moral reasoning.
Fontenelle, Leonardo F.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge
Clinical psychopathology has largely ignored the developments in the field of social neuroscience. The so-called moral emotions are a group of affective experiences thought to promote cooperation, group cohesion, and reorganization. In this review, we: (i) briefly describe a provisional taxonomy of a limited set of moral emotions and their neural underpinnings; and (ii) discuss how disgust, guilt, anger/indignation, and shame/embarrassment can be conceptualized as key affective experiences in different neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on a concise review of the literature linking moral emotions, psychopathology, and neuropsychiatry, we have devised a simple and preliminary scheme where we conjecture how specific moral emotions can be implicated in some categories of DSM-5 diagnoses, potentially helping to bridge psychopathology and neurobiologically plausible variables, in line with the Research Domain Criteria initiative. We hope this stimulates new empirical work exploring how moral emotional changes and their underlying neurobiology can help elucidating the neural underpinnings of mental disorders. PMID:26869842
Cohen, A B; Rozin, P
Christian doctrine considers mental states important in judging a person's moral status, whereas Jewish doctrine considers them less important. The authors provide evidence from 4 studies that American Jews and Protestants differ in the moral import they attribute to mental states (honoring one's parents, thinking about having a sexual affair, and thinking about harming an animal). Although Protestants and Jews rated the moral status of the actions equally. Protestants rated a target person with inappropriate mental states more negatively than did Jews. These differences in moral judgment were partially mediated by Protestants' beliefs that mental states are controllable and likely to lead to action and were strongly related to agreement with general statements claiming that thoughts are morally relevant. These religious differences were not related to differences in collectivistic (interdependent) and individualistic (independent) tendencies.
Ortiz Barón, María José; Apocada Urquijo, Pedro; Etxebarria Bilbao, Itziar; Fuentes Rebollo, María Jesús; López Sánchez, Félix
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between parents' affection, acceptance, emotional communication, the transmission of values and moral intervention, on the one hand, and children's moral emotions and behaviors on the other (empathy, guilt, internalized behavior and reparation). It also aimed to identify the family variables that influence moral internalization in children. The sample comprised 485 children (244 boys and 241 girls) aged between 6 and 8. The results showed that the principal variable to predict internalized behavior in girls was maternal affection, whereas for boys, the principal variables were maternal emotional communication and transmission of values. The family variables that explain moral internalization in extreme groups of children are basically parents' affection, emotional communication, the transmission of values and moral intervention.
This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."
Scanlon, B. R.; Musgrove, M.; Sansom, A.; Xie, H.; Wilcox, B.; Sharp, J.; Alexander, C.; Vieux, B.; Jackson, R.; Archer, S.; Keese, K.; Reedy, R.
The paired San Antonio/Guadalupe watersheds and underlying karst and porous media aquifers (26,800 km2 area) are being proposed as a Hydrologic Observatory (HO) for the CUAHSI program (www.txh2o.org). This system has many unique attributes that would make it highly suitable as an HO: 1. Paired watersheds represent a range of land uses, from predominantly rural (Guadalupe watershed) to rapidly urbanizing (San Antonio watershed, including city of San Antonio). 2. The underlying karst aquifer is representative of karst systems in the US. Karst systems supply about 40% of groundwater for drinking in the US and 25% globally. Karst aquifers represent ideal systems for evaluating relationships between climate variability and land use/land cover on subsurface hydrology because of their dynamic nature. 3. The underlying karst system is ideal for evaluating surface water groundwater interactions because of direct connections between the two. About 85% of the recharge to the underlying Edwards aquifer is supplied by streams. The San Marcos springs system, located in the Guadalupe watershed, represents the second largest spring system in the SW US. 4. Caves, common in the region, provide an opportunity to directly monitor subsurface hydrology including recharge through dripwater monitoring. 5. Speleothems record system response to long-term climate change. High speleothem growth rates, recorded during glacial time, may correspond to cooler, wetter conditions in this region. Dye tracing allows flow paths to be mapped. 6. The combination of karst and porous media aquifers in this HO allow the dynamics of these systems to be integrated to address the feasibility of providing a reliable, sustainable water resource. 7. The region is highly vulnerable to hydrologic extremes: proximity to the Gulf of Mexico results in intense precipitation events and severe flooding. The region is also vulnerable to long-term droughts. 8. Hydrologic and ecosystem interactions are critical for
East, Jeffery W.
Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is
Lindgren, K.J.; Dutton, A.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Worthington, S.R.H.; Painter, S.; ,
Numerical ground-water flow models for the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region of Texas generally have been based on a diffuse-flow conceptualization. That is, although conduits likely are present, the assumption is that flow in the aquifer predominantly is through a network of small fractures and openings sufficiently numerous that the aquifer can be considered a porous-media continuum at the regional scale. Whether flow through large fractures and conduits or diffuse flow predominates in the Edwards aquifer at the regional scale is an open question. A new numerical ground-water-flow model (Edwards aquifer model) that incorporates important components of the latest information and an alternate conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer was developed. The conceptualization upon which the Edwards aquifer model is based emphasizes conduit development and conduit flow, and the model can be considered a test of one of two reasonable conceptualizations. The model incorporates conduits simulated as generally continuously connected, one-cell-wide (1,320 feet) zones with very large hydraulic-conductivity values (as much as 300,000 feet per day). The locations of the conduits are based on a number of factors, including major potentiometric-surface troughs in the aquifer, the presence of sinking streams, geochemical information, and geologic structures (for example, faults and grabens). The model includes both the San Antonio and Barton Springs segments of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region, Texas, and was calibrated for steady-state (1939-46) and transient (1947-2000) conditions. Transient simulations were conducted using monthly recharge and pumpage (withdrawals) data. The predominantly conduit-flow conceptualization incorporated in the Edwards aquifer model yielded a reasonably good match between measured and simulated hydraulic heads in the confined part of the aquifer and between measured and simulated springflows. The simulated directions of flow in the
This article briefly outlines some of the key problems with the way in which the moral realm has traditionally been understood and analysed. I propose two alternative views of what is morally interesting and applicable to nursing practice and I indicate that instability has its upsides. I begin with a moral tale - a 'Good Samaritan' story - which raises fairly usual questions about the nature of morality but also the more philosophically fundamental question about the relationship between subjectivity and moral agency. I then consider this relationship from the perspectives of two twentieth century philosophers: Emmanuel Levinas and Michel Foucault. Levinas' basic point is that the experience of ethical subjectivity is made possible through others: the demand to respond to the existence of others is the basic social structure that precedes individual freedom. If Levinas posits intersubjectivity as a fundamental or primitive feature of the moral realm, Foucault poses an even more basic question: how have moral subjects and relations of obligation been constituted? The aim of ethical inquiry, for Foucault, is to describe the network of discourses, institutions, relations, and practices through which certain kinds of subjects are constituted and constitute themselves, e.g. as a kind of person who can act morally. Finally, I consider some recent research in philosophy of nursing which illustrates how Levinasian and/or Foucauldian perspectives can deepen understanding of nurses' moral practices, specifically, the work of Norwegian public health nurses, Canadian pediatric nurses, and Irish midwives. I suggest that in spite of the instability of morality in general and the particular ethical challenges that face nurses, there are grounds for hope and possible strategies for living in unstable times.
Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.
The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.
Sparks, Corey S
Violent crimes are rarely considered a public health problem or investigated using epidemiological methods. But patterns of violent crime and other health conditions are often affected by similar characteristics of the built environment. In this paper, methods and perspectives from spatial epidemiology are used in an analysis of violent crimes in San Antonio, TX. Bayesian statistical methods are used to examine the contextual influence of several aspects of the built environment. Additionally, spatial regression models using Bayesian model specifications are used to examine spatial patterns of violent crime risk. Results indicate that the determinants of violent crime depend on the model specification, but are primarily related to the built environment and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. Results are discussed within the context of a rapidly growing urban area with a diverse population.
Maclay, R.W.; Rettman, P.L.; Small, T.A.
This report presents hydrochemical data that was collected as part of the investigations of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Te xas, during 1970-78 and indicates other sources of available data. The report includes the results of chemical analyses of 159 water samples from 123 well s and springs; tritium analyses for 242 water samples from 120 wells and springs; isotope and redox-potential analyses of 31 water samples from wells, springs, and streams; and calculated dissolved carbonate, partial C02 pressures, and saturation indices of selected minerals in 98 water samples from 81 wells, springs, and streams. The water types and hydrochemical facies are given for six zones of the aquifer.
Frimer, Jeremy A; Walker, Lawrence J
Self-interest and moral sensibilities generally compete with one another, but for moral exemplars, this tension appears to not be in play. This study advances the reconciliation model, which explains this anomaly within a developmental framework by positing that the relationship between the self's interests and moral concerns ideally transforms from one of mutual competition to one of synergy. The degree to which morality is central to an individual's identity-or moral centrality-was operationalized in terms of values advanced implicitly in self-understanding narratives; a measure was developed and then validated. Participants were 97 university students who responded to a self-understanding interview and to several measures of morally relevant behaviors. Results indicated that communal values (centered on concerns for others) positively predicted and agentic (self-interested) values negatively predicted moral behavior. At the same time, the tendency to coordinate both agentic and communal values within narrative thought segments positively predicted moral behavior, indicating that the 2 motives can be adaptively reconciled. Moral centrality holds considerable promise in explaining moral motivation and its development.
Bartels, Daniel M
Three studies test eight hypotheses about (1) how judgment differs between people who ascribe greater vs. less moral relevance to choices, (2) how moral judgment is subject to task constraints that shift evaluative focus (to moral rules vs. to consequences), and (3) how differences in the propensity to rely on intuitive reactions affect judgment. In Study 1, judgments were affected by rated agreement with moral rules proscribing harm, whether the dilemma under consideration made moral rules versus consequences of choice salient, and by thinking styles (intuitive vs. deliberative). In Studies 2 and 3, participants evaluated policy decisions to knowingly do harm to a resource to mitigate greater harm or to merely allow the greater harm to happen. When evaluated in isolation, approval for decisions to harm was affected by endorsement of moral rules and by thinking style. When both choices were evaluated simultaneously, total harm -- but not the do/allow distinction -- influenced rated approval. These studies suggest that moral rules play an important, but context-sensitive role in moral cognition, and offer an account of when emotional reactions to perceived moral violations receive less weight than consideration of costs and benefits in moral judgment and decision making.
Hinde, Robert A
This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality.
Moral agency is manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader sociocognitive self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. The self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they are activated, and there are many psychosocial maneuvers by which moral self-sanctions are selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct. The moral disengagement may center on the cognitive restructuring of inhumane conduct into a benign or worthy one by moral justification, sanitizing language, and advantageous comparison; disavowal of a sense of personal agency by diffusion or displacement of responsibility; disregarding or minimizing the injurious effects of one's actions; and attribution of blame to, and dehumanization of, those who are victimized. Many inhumanities operate through a supportive network of legitimate enterprises run by otherwise considerate people who contribute to destructive activities by disconnected subdivision of functions and diffusion of responsibility. Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty.
Hinde, Robert A
This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality. PMID:15590610
Álvaro-González, Luis C
Introduccion. La moralidad es el conjunto de normas y valores que guian la conducta. Se mantienen en muy diferentes culturas. Permiten alcanzar logros sociales que solo se entienden bajo el desarrollo moral, con un sentido de justicia que penetra toda accion humana. Las funciones morales, fruto del desarrollo evolutivo, asientan en circuitos neuronales propios. Objetivo. Describir su aparicion, puesta en marcha y mecanismos operativos en el cerebro normal. Desarrollo. Las respuestas morales, en lo esencial homogeneas, estan muy vinculadas al desarrollo emocional, tanto basico e individual (miedo o ira) como social (compasion o justicia). Aparecen a partir de los binomios emocionales placer/dolor y recompensa/castigo, que conducen al binomio moral basico bueno/malo. En su puesta en marcha intervienen la corteza prefrontal (ventromedial y dorsolateral), la corteza cingular anterior y el sulco temporal superior, que serian evaluativos y elaborativos, utilitaristas; tambien la insula, la amigdala y el hipotalamo, ejecutivos de las respuestas morales mas emocionales puras y rapidas. Asimismo, es importante el sistema de neuronas espejo (frontoparietal), que permite el aprendizaje motor y las conductas empaticas, con las que se vincula con la teoria de la mente. Conclusiones. El desarrollo del sentido moral y sus respuestas nos han permitido alcanzar una complejidad y convivencia social que redundan en beneficio de la especie e individuos. El conocimiento del funcionamiento moral esta influyendo tambien en territorios diversos de la neurocultura.
Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and - to no one's surprise - controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the 'urgent need' of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so far, there is no shared opinion among philosophers (or scientists) about the meaning, prospects, and ethical evaluation of moral enhancement. In this article I will address several conceptual and practical problems of this issue, in order to encourage discussion about the prospects of (thinking about) moral enhancement in the future. My assumption is that (i) for the short term, there is little chance of arriving at an agreement on the proper understanding of morality and the appropriateness of one single (meta-)ethical theory; (ii) apart from this, there are further philosophical puzzles loosely referred to in the debate which add to theoretical confusion; and (iii) even if these conceptual problems could be solved, there are still practical problems to be smoothed out if moral enhancement is ever to gain relevance apart from merely theoretical interest. My tentative conclusion, therefore, will be that moral enhancement is not very likely to be made sense of - let alone realized - in the medium-term future.
Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Borhani, Fariba; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rasooli, Hamidreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Kiani, Mehrzad; Bazmi, Shabnam
Background: Providing health services is described as an important moral measure, since its major aim is to ensure the welfare of the people who need treatment and care. Moral sensitivity is the ability to identify the existing moral problem and understand the moral consequences of the decisions made on the patient’s part. Physicians are always exposed to moral distress due to various circumstances. Objectives: In this survey, we evaluated moral sensitivity and moral distress among physicians and the relationship of these ethical factors on them. Hence, we assessed y relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress in physicians will facilitate their sound management so as to provide high-quality and safe health services. Moreover it will confirm proposed theories regarding this subject. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study aimed at investigating the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress among 321 specialist physicians working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Universities in Tehran. The samples were selected through two-stage random cluster sampling method. A three-partite questionnaire comprising of demographic characteristics, moral distress, and moral sensitivity was used for collecting data which then were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results: There was a negative significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress frequency; there was a positive significant relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress intensity. Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. Conclusions: Participating in medical ethics courses increased moral sensitivity and decreased the frequency of moral distress. PMID:26290859
College students' ideological morality always is the hotspot concerned by various circles of the society, and to strengthen and improve the ideological and moral education in colleges, continually enhance the pertinence and actual effect of the moral education, help college students to dissolve their worldly confusion in moral culture, further…
McDaniel, Brenda L.; Grice, James W.; Eason, E. Allen
The present study explored a multi-construct model of moral development. Variables commonly seen in the moral development literature, such as family interactions, spiritual life, ascription to various sources of moral authority, empathy, shame, guilt and moral judgement competence, were investigated. Results from the current study support previous…
Matsuba, M. Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J.
The purpose of our research was to explore the differences between young adult moral exemplars and comparison individuals by studying their life stories. Moral exemplars were nominated for their extraordinary moral commitment to the social organizations where they volunteered or worked. Forty moral exemplars, along with 40 matched comparison…
Wilmoth, Gregory H.; McFarland, Sam G.
The reliability and construct validity of the Kohlberg Moral Judgment Scale, the Gilligan et al's Sexual Moral Development Scale, Maitland and Goldman's Objective Moral Development Scale, and Hogan's Maturity of Moral Judgment Scale were compared for a sample of male and female graduate students. (EVH)
Lapsley, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo
This article introduces a special section on moral development. We claim that the field is now undergoing a resurgence of theoretical and methodological innovation after the eclipse of paradigmatic moral stage theory. Although research on prosocial development, moral emotions, and social domain theory has sustained interest in moral development,…
Clarken, Rodney H.
Morality and moral intelligence are important in our society and schools. Moral intelligence is discussed in the context of Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences. Moral intelligence helps apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. It consists of four competencies related to integrity, three to responsibility, two to…
The Moral and Social Action Interdisciplinary Colloquium (MOSAIC) is an international multidisciplinary network of scholars working within the fields of the philosophy, psychology and sociology of moral development, moral education and moral thought. MOSAIC runs an annual conference, traditionally in June or July. This conference attracts an…
On the assumption that education in values and moral education are necessary, moral competence (to make judgments) and the structure and development of the faculty of moral judgment should not be disregarded, even in the vocational education system. The main features of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development are described as a basis for…
Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah
This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…
Santoro, Doris A.
Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…
Walker, Lawrence J.
What fundamentally motivates moral behavior? What is the nature and source of moral motivation? The argument developed in this chapter is that moral action is not merely other-regarding; it also can, and should be, self-regarding. When there is something significant for the self in the moral enterprise, it can legitimately be self-enhancing and,…
The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.
DeGrazia, David; Sebo, Jeff
In this article, we present three necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research that we believe people on both sides of this debate can accept. Specifically, we argue that, even if human beings have higher moral status than nonhuman animals, animal research is morally permissible only if it satisfies (1) an expectation of sufficient net benefit, (2) a worthwhile-life condition, and (3) a no-unnecessary-harm/qualified-basic-needs condition. We then claim that, whether or not these necessary conditions are jointly sufficient for justified animal research, they are relatively demanding, with the consequence that many animal experiments may fail to satisfy them.
Miller, Christian B
The goal of this paper is to briefly introduce and defend the idea that God is the source of our moral obligations. In contrast to Michael Shermer's paper, which defends a naturalistic position about the foundations of morality, this approach is explicitly supernaturalistic. The paper begins by defining how "God" will be understood, and then spells out some of the details of how, on the proposed view, moral obligations are to depend upon God. The third section briefly reviews some of the leading arguments for this view, before the paper concludes with a discussion of the Euthyphro dilemma.
In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133
In its specific moral conclusions ecclesiastical Anglican theology shares much with traditional Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. In its understanding of the method and purpose of moral theology classical Anglicanism sometimes diverges from earlier Roman Catholicism -- and anticipates the most positive developments in contemporary Roman Catholic moral theology -- while sharing a common theological heritage with Rome in its understanding of natural law, the moral agent, and the moral act. Anglicans situate moral reasoning within the Church of the patristic Tradition, which distinguishes them from Protestants, yet do not accept the Roman magisterium's self-understanding. Consequently, the Anglican mode of moral reasoning has strong affinities with the Orthodox churches.
Steinfeldt, Jesse A; Rutkowski, Leslie A; Vaughan, Ellen L; Steinfeldt, Matthew C
In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants' process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants' identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players' moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.
Matsuba, M Kyle; Murzyn, Theresa; Hart, Daniel
The purpose of this chapter is to build an intellectual bridge between moral psychology and education. Our hope is that the findings from moral psychology will inform and explain best practices in moral education. With that end in mind, we briefly and selectively review the moral education and character education literature highlighting some of the challenges these domains have faced. Next, we review the moral identity literature and offer our own model of moral identity formation emphasizing the "characteristic adaptations" (i.e., moral orientation, moral self, moral emotions, and social relationships and opportunities) of the model. Finally, we illustrate and explain how some of these "characteristic adaptations" have been or could be used in the development of successful moral education programs, and provide specific examples for application of our model in the domain of sex education.
Narvaez, Darcia; Gleason, Tracy
Moral text processing was used as an ecologically valid method for assessing implicit and explicit moral understanding and development. The authors tested undergraduates, seminarians, and graduate students in political science and philosophy for recall of moral narratives and moral expository texts. Multivariate analyses of covariance using…
Barilan, Y M
This article examines the concept of moral enhancement from two different perspectives. The first is a bottom-up approach, which aims at identifying fundamental moral traits and subcapacities as targets for enhancement. The second perspective, a top-down approach, is holistic and in line with virtue ethics. Both perspectives lead to the observation that alterations of material and social conditions are the most reliable means to improve prosocial behavior overall. Moral enhancement as a preventive measure invokes Gnostic narratives on the allegedly fallen status of human nature, its search for salvation, and the dependence of the laity on heteronomous salvific interventions. The allure of the preventive kind of enhancement is attributable to its religious hues. Owing to the absence of clarity regarding moral enhancement and of metrics to evaluate its progress, humanity is at risk of prioritizing unclear and unsubstantiated measures of preventive diminishment at the expense of celebrating human capacities and joys.
The debate about the moral status of the embryo has gained new impetus because of the advances in reproductive technology that have made early human embryo experimentation a possibility, and because of the public concern that this arouses. Several philosophical arguments claiming that fertilisation is the event that accords moral status to the embryo were initially formulated in the context of the abortion debate. Were they formulated with sufficient precision to account for the scientific facts as we now understand them? Or do these arguments need modification? Aspects of three arguments for moral status being acquired at fertilisation are examined in relation to current scientific knowledge, highlighting the reasons why such arguments, at present, seem to provide an inadequate basis for the determination of moral status.
Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R
Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.
Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry
We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives.
In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)
Vesilind, P. Aarne
Proposes some functional definitions for three commonly used words in value-laden decision making. Discusses how rules, ethics, and morals enter into engineering practice as well as engineering education. (TW)
Casteen, John T., III
The president of the University of Virginia encourages a new academic leadership characterized by modesty and vigorous moral seriousness. Agnes Scott College's Mary Brown Bullock agrees, and adds her thoughts on the president's role in discussing international issues. (EV)
Sachdeva, Sonya; Singh, Purnima; Medin, Douglas
The importance of including cultural perspectives in the study of human cognition has become apparent in recent decades, and the domain of moral reasoning is no exception. The present review focuses on moral cognition, beginning with Kohlberg's model of moral development which relies heavily on people's justifications for their judgments and then shifting to more recent theories that rely on rapid, intuitive judgments and see justifications as more or less irrelevant to moral cognition. Despite this dramatic shift, analyses of culture and moral decision-making have largely been framed as a quest for and test of universal principles of moral judgment. In this review, we discuss challenges that remain in trying to understand crosscultural variability in moral values and the processes that underlie moral cognition. We suggest that the universalist framework may lead to an underestimation of the role of culture in moral reasoning. Although the field has made great strides in incorporating more and more cultural perspectives in order to understand moral cognition, theories of moral reasoning still do not allow for substantial variation in how people might conceptualize the domain of the moral. The processes that underlie moral cognition may not be a human universal in any simple sense, because moral systems may play different roles in different cultures. We end our review with a discussion of work that remains to be done to understand cultural variation in the moral domain.
de Groot, Jack; Leget, Carlo
This article describes a method of moral counselling developed in the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen (The Netherlands). The authors apply insights of Paul Ricoeur to the non-directive counselling method of Carl Rogers in their work of coaching patients with moral problems in health care. The developed method was shared with other health care professionals in a training course. Experiences in the course and further practice led to further improvement of the method.
health systems: the Bexar County Hospital District, Christus , Baptist, and University Health Care Systems. These organizations take responsibility...Appendix E: Bexar County Hospital Locations. I Baptist Medical Center 2 Brooke Army Medical Center 3 CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Children’s Hospital 4 CHRISTUS ...Santa Rosa City Centre 5 Christus Santa Rosa Medical Center 6 Compass Hospital of San Antonio 7 HEALTHSOUTH RIOSA 8 Innova Hospital of San Antonio It oil
Faust, Halley S
By using preimplantation haplotype diagnosis, prospective parents are able to select embryos to implant through in vitro fertilization. If we knew that the naturally-occurring (but theoretical) MoralKinder (MK+) haplotype would predispose individuals to a higher level of morality than average, is it permissible or obligatory to select for the MK+ haplotype? I.e., is it moral to select for morality? This paper explores the various potential issues that could arise from genetic moral enhancement.
If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.
Lovato, Sabrina; Lovato, Liliana; Cunico, Laura
Moral distress in nursing practice is described as a suffering situation that arises when the nurse is unable to act her/his ethical choices, when institutional constraints interfere with acting in the way she/he believes to be right. The aim is to describe nursing practice situations causing moral distress resulting from the recognition of the ethical appropriate actions combined with the impossibility to pursue it; to describe how nurses manage moral distress situations and the strategies to cope with them. A focus group was conducted in three wards of a large teaching-hospital in the north of Italy. In another ward the nurses were asked to write a moral distress experience. A total of 40 nurses were involved and 50 experiences collected. The experiences' analysis has shown 5 source areas of moral distress: 1) clinical decision; 2) nursing competences; 3) nurse-physician collaboration; 4) organization of care; 5) safe care. For each area the most frequent themes were highlighted.Areas of clinical decision, nursing competences, nurse-physician collaboration involve nurse leaders in identification and implementation of strategies for managing moral distress.
Fahlquist, L.; Rajagapolan, S.; Jackson, W. A.
Perchlorate has been detected in drinking-water supplies and can have adverse health effects on humans by disrupting thyroid function. Perchlorate and other constituents were analyzed from ground-water samples that were collected in 2004-06 from 99 wells completed in the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The fractured karstic carbonate Edwards aquifer, declared a sole-source aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, supplies nearly one-half million acre-feet per year for drinking water and other uses. Wells were located in a variety of land-use settings that included rangeland, agriculture, and urban; well types included domestic, public, and observation. Perchlorate was detected in 98 percent of the samples, and concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 3 micrograms per liter (μg/L). Five samples contained concentrations greater than 1 μg/L and were from wells in the urban northern San Antonio area. The results from three samples that contained perchlorate at concentrations greater than 2 μg/L are anomalous. Chloride concentration ranged from 5.6 to 69 milligrams per liter, typical for freshwater in the Edwards aquifer. No significant (r2 greater than 0.7) correlations were observed when perchlorate concentrations were correlated with depth to water, total depth of well, or concentrations of bicarbonate, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, strontium, and dissolved solids. Tritium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.9 tritium units in 31 of the 99 samples and indicate at least some fraction of modern water (post-atmospheric nuclear tests). No correlation between apparent tritium age and perchlorate concentration was observed, a possible indication that anthropogenic influences are not affecting observed perchlorate concentrations. The molar ratio of chloride to perchlorate ranged from 17,000 to 320
Zhao, G.; Gao, H.; Cuo, L.
With the rapid population growth and economic development in the State of Texas, a fast urbanization process has occurred over the past several decades. The direct consequences of the increased impervious area are greater surface runoff and higher flood peaks. Meanwhile, climate change has led to more frequent extreme events. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the hydrological processes under urbanization and climate change is indispensable for sustainable water management. In this investigation, a case study was conducted by applying the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to the San Antonio River Basin (SARB), Texas. Hosting the seventh largest city in the U.S. (i.e., City of San Antonio), the SARB is vulnerable to both floods and droughts. A set of historical and future land cover maps were assembled to represent the urbanization process. Two forcing datasets were employed to drive the DHSVM model. The first is a long-term observation based dataset (1915-2011), which was used as inputs for calibrating and validating DHSVM, as well as evaluating the urbanization effect. The second is the statistically downscaled climate simulations (1950-2099) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which were applied for understanding impacts related to climate change. Results show that urbanization exerts a much larger influence on streamflow than climate change does. Under the same observed forcings, annual average streamflow increased from 993.0 cfs (with 1929 land cover) to 1777.7 cfs (with 2011 land cover). As for climate change, results suggest that it will exacerbate the drought severity — with reduced evapotranspiration and soil moisture caused by decreased precipitation. However, the projected future streamflow does not show a clear increasing or decreasing trend. Regarding the combined effect from urbanization and climate change, the results indicate that the seasonal streamflow pattern will be notably changed (i
Walker, Lawrence J; Frimer, Jeremy A; Dunlop, William L
Four perspectives dominate thinking about moral heroism: One contends that moral action is primarily instigated by situational pressures, another holds that moral excellence entails the full complement of virtues, the third asserts a single superintending principle, and the fourth posits different varieties of moral personality. This research addresses these competing perspectives by examining the personalities of moral heroes. Participants were 50 national awardees for moral action and 50 comparison individuals. They responded to personality inventories and a life-review interview that provided a broadband assessment of personality. Cluster analysis of the moral exemplars yielded three types: a "communal" cluster was strongly relational and generative, a "deliberative" cluster had sophisticated epistemic and moral reasoning as well as heightened self-development motivation, and an "ordinary" cluster had a more commonplace personality. These contrasting profiles imply that exemplary moral functioning can take multifarious forms and arises from different sources, reflecting divergent person x situation interactions.
Darby, R. Ryan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain. First, we will test this hypothesis by reviewing evidence for modulation of moral behavior using non-invasive brain stimulation. Next, we will discuss how this evidence affects ethical issues related to the use of moral enhancement. We end with the conclusion that while brain stimulation has the potential to alter moral behavior, such alteration is unlikely to improve moral behavior in all situations, and may even lead to less morally desirable behavior in some instances. PMID:28275345
Darby, R Ryan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain. First, we will test this hypothesis by reviewing evidence for modulation of moral behavior using non-invasive brain stimulation. Next, we will discuss how this evidence affects ethical issues related to the use of moral enhancement. We end with the conclusion that while brain stimulation has the potential to alter moral behavior, such alteration is unlikely to improve moral behavior in all situations, and may even lead to less morally desirable behavior in some instances.
Carnes, Nate C; Lickel, Brian; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie
Morality helps make social life possible, but social life is embedded in many social contexts. Research on morality has generally neglected this and instead has emphasized people's general beliefs. We therefore investigated the extent to which different moral principles are perceived as embedded in social contexts. We conducted two studies investigating how diverse social contexts influence beliefs about the operative moral principles in distinct group types. Study 1 examined these perceptions using a within-subjects design, whereas Study 2 utilized a between-subjects design. We found a high degree of consensus among raters concerning the operative moral principles in groups, and each group type was characterized by a qualitatively distinct pattern of applicable moral principles. Political orientation, a focus of past research on morality, had a small influence on beliefs about operative moral principles. The implications of these findings for our understanding of morality and its functional role in groups are discussed.
Hommers, Wilfried; Lee, Wha-Yong
In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used. Moral…
Bernacki, Matthew L.; Jaeger, Elizabeth
Research on Service-learning's (SL) impact on students' moral development has been "mixed." In this study, 46 students in SL and non-SL sections of comparable courses offered at a northeastern Catholic university completed the Defining Issues Test, the Moral Justification Scale, and the SL Outcome Scale at the beginning and end of a semester.…
Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page
Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world.
This article examines the possibility of a Kantian justification of the intrinsic moral worth of education. The author critiques a recent attempt to secure such justification via Kant's notion of the Kingdom of Ends. He gives four reasons why such an account would deny any intrinsic moral worth to education. He concludes with a tentative…
Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page
Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral…
In this article, the author examines the role that teachers play in the moral development of American students. Historically, one of public education's purposes in America has been the development of moral citizens. However, educators currently face more academic accountability due to No Child Left Behind. Consequently, teachers must strike a…
Bell, Terrel H.
The importance of teaching moral education in the public schools is emphasized in this report. Three topics are discussed. The first section includes a sketch of the present moral climate of the United States, including evidence drawn from a recent Gallup Poll of public attitudes toward education, recent magazine articles, results of educational…
Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb
Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…
Although historians of psychological and educational sciences have not completely neglected early research in the field of morality testing, European contributions to the measurement of ethical judgement and moral feeling have not received much historical attention. In this paper, two principal, experimental paradigms that emerged in early…
Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.
Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…