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Sample records for agv scheduling task

  1. Petri Net Decomposition Method for Simultaneous Optimization of Task Assignment and Routing for AGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Nishi, Tatsushi; Inuiguchi, Masahiro

    We propose a simultaneous optimization method for task assignment and routing problems with multiple AGVs by the decomposition of Petri Nets. In the proposed method, Petri Net is decomposed into several subnets representing task subproblems and AGV subproblems. Each subproblem is solved by Dijkstra's algorithm. The subproblem on each subnet is repeatedly solved until a feasible solution for the original problem is derived. A solution method for subproblems with no final marking is newly developed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing the performance with CPLEX as well as a nearest neighborhood heuristic method.

  2. Enhanced Memetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmavathi, S.; Shalinie, S. Mercy; Someshwar, B. C.; Sasikumar, T.

    Scheduling tasks onto the processors of a parallel system is a crucial part of program parallelization. Due to the NP-hardness of the task scheduling problem, scheduling algorithms are based on heuristics that try to produce good rather than optimal schedules. This paper proposes a Memetic algorithm with Tabu search and Simulated Annealing as local search for solving Task scheduling problem considering communication contention. This problem consists of finding a schedule for a general task graph to be executed on a cluster of workstations and hence the schedule length can be minimized. Our approach combines local search (by self experience) and global search (by neighboring experience) possessing high search efficiency. The proposed approach is compared with existing list scheduling heuristics. The numerical results clearly indicate that our proposed approach produces solutions which are closer to optimality and/or better quality than the existing list scheduling heuristics.

  3. A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. PMID:25254244

  4. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  5. Hybrid Scheduling Model for Independent Grid Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Shanthini, J.; Kalaikumaran, T.; Karthik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Grid computing facilitates the resource sharing through the administrative domains which are geographically distributed. Scheduling in a distributed heterogeneous environment is intrinsically very hard because of the heterogeneous nature of resource collection. Makespan and tardiness are two different measures of scheduling, and many of the previous researches concentrated much on reduction of makespan, which measures the machine utilization. In this paper, we propose a hybrid scheduling algorithm for scheduling independent grid tasks with the objective of reducing total weighted tardiness of grid tasks. Tardiness is to measure the due date performance, which has a direct impact on cost for executing the jobs. In this paper we propose BG_ATC algorithm which is a combination of best gap (BG) search and Apparent Tardiness Cost (ATC) indexing algorithm. Furthermore, we implemented these two algorithms in two different phases of the scheduling process. In addition to that, the comparison was made on results with various benchmark algorithms and the experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithms. PMID:26543897

  6. Task scheduling in dataflow computer architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1994-01-01

    Dataflow computers provide a platform for the solution of a large class of computational problems, which includes digital signal processing and image processing. Many typical applications are represented by a set of tasks which can be repetitively executed in parallel as specified by an associated dataflow graph. Research in this area aims to model these architectures, develop scheduling procedures, and predict the transient and steady state performance. Researchers at NASA have created a model and developed associated software tools which are capable of analyzing a dataflow graph and predicting its runtime performance under various resource and timing constraints. These models and tools were extended and used in this work. Experiments using these tools revealed certain properties of such graphs that require further study. Specifically, the transient behavior at the beginning of the execution of a graph can have a significant effect on the steady state performance. Transformation and retiming of the application algorithm and its initial conditions can produce a different transient behavior and consequently different steady state performance. The effect of such transformations on the resource requirements or under resource constraints requires extensive study. Task scheduling to obtain maximum performance (based on user-defined criteria), or to satisfy a set of resource constraints, can also be significantly affected by a transformation of the application algorithm. Since task scheduling is performed by heuristic algorithms, further research is needed to determine if new scheduling heuristics can be developed that can exploit such transformations. This work has provided the initial development for further long-term research efforts. A simulation tool was completed to provide insight into the transient and steady state execution of a dataflow graph. A set of scheduling algorithms was completed which can operate in conjunction with the modeling and performance tools

  7. Guided and detecting technology of intelligent robot AGV and new-style AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yue-dong; Luo, Ying

    2000-05-01

    This paper summarizes AGV electromagnetic guided and detecting technology of Yunnan Yuxi Cigarette Factory and investigates new-style AGV laser guided and communication technology of Yunnan Honghe Cigarette Factory.

  8. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  9. A simple neural network scheduler for real-time machine task scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of a new generation of automated radionuclide assay equipment in our facility requires embedded software at each machine for the scheduling of tasks. The execution time requirements of real-time embedded software limit the complexity of the scheduler design. By representing the scheduling problem properly, a simple backpropagation neural network performs the scheduling function within the imposed requirements. Operational tests have demonstrated that the neural network scheduler has met all development goals and is superior to the previous approaches. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Temporal knowledge representation for scheduling tasks in clinical trial protocols.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Kahn, Michael; Gennari, John

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trial protocols include detailed temporal constraints on treatment and associated tasks. Unlike health-care guidelines, protocols are highly prescriptive. Therefore, informatics applications that enforce such temporal constraints are more directly useful with protocols than with guidelines. Although there are some temporal knowledge representation efforts for health-care guidelines, we find these to be insufficiently expressive for clinical trial protocols. In this paper, we focus on temporal knowledge representation for clinical trial protocols and the task of patient-specific scheduling in protocols. We define a temporal ontology, use it to encode clinical trial protocols, and describe a prototype tool to carry out patient-specific scheduling for the tasks in protocols. We predict that an expressive temporal knowledge representation can support a number of scheduling and management tasks for protocol-based care. PMID:12463951

  11. AGENDA: A task organizer and scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratter, Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    AGENDA will be the main tool used in running the SPOT 4 Earth Observation Satellite's Operational Control Center. It will reduce the operator's work load and make the task easier. AGENDA sets up the work plan for a day of operations, automatically puts the day's tasks into sequence and monitors their progress in real time. Monitoring is centralized, and the tasks are run on different computers in the Center. Once informed of any problems, the operator can intervene at any time while an activity is taking place. To carry out the various functions, the operator has an advanced, efficient, ergonomic graphic interface based on X11 and OSF/MOTIF. Since AGENDA is the heart of the Center, it has to satisfy several constraints that have been taken into account during the various development phases. AGENDA is currently in its final development stages.

  12. Remote Collaboration on Task Scheduling for Humans at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Meyer, Patrick; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea

    2006-01-01

    As humans venture farther from Earth for longer durations, it will become essential for those on the journey to have significant control over the scheduling of their own activities as well as the activities of their companion systems and robots. However, the crew will not do all the scheduling; timelines will be the result of collaboration with ground personnel. Emerging technologies such as in-space message buses, delay-tolerant networks, and in-space internet will be the carriers on which the collaboration rides. Advances in scheduling technology, in the areas of task modeling, scheduling engines, and user interfaces will allow the crew to become virtual scheduling experts. New concepts of operations for producing the timeline will allow the crew and the ground support to collaborate while providing safeguards to ensure that the mission will be effectively accomplished without endangering the systems or personnel.

  13. In-Space Crew-Collaborative Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Meyer, Patrick; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea

    2006-01-01

    As humans venture farther from earth for longer durations, it will become essential for those on the journey to have significant control over the scheduling of their own activities as well as the activities of their companion systems and robots. However, there are many reasons why the crew will not do all the scheduling; timelines will be the result of collaboration with ground personnel. Emerging technologies such as in-space message buses, delay-tolerant networks, and in-space internet will be the carriers on which the collaboration rides. Advances in scheduling technology, in the areas of task modeling, scheduling engines, and user interfaces will allow the crew to become virtual scheduling experts. New concepts of operations for producing the timeline will allow the crew and the ground support to collaborate while providing safeguards to ensure that the mission will be effectively accomplished without endangering the systems or personnel.

  14. In-Space Crew-Collaborative Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Meyer, Patrick; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea

    2006-01-01

    As humans venture farther from Earth for longer durations, it will become essential for those on the journey to have significant control over the scheduling of their own activities as well as the activities of their companion systems and robots. However, the crew will not do all the scheduling; timelines will be the result of collaboration with ground personnel. Emerging technologies such as in-space message buses, delay-tolerant networks, and in-space internet will be the carriers on which the collaboration rides. Advances in scheduling technology, in the areas of task modeling, scheduling engines, and user interfaces will allow the crew to become virtual scheduling experts. New concepts of operations for producing the timeline will allow the crew and the ground support to collaborate while providing safeguards to ensure that the mission will be effectively accomplished without endangering the systems or personnel.

  15. Design issues in the semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks.

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, Stephen L.

    2013-07-01

    The asynchronous task model serves as a useful vehicle for shared memory parallel programming, particularly on multicore and manycore processors. As adoption of model among programmers has increased, support has emerged for the integration of task parallel language constructs into mainstream programming languages, e.g., C and C++. This paper examines some of the design decisions in Cilk and OpenMP concerning semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks with the aim of informing the efforts of committees considering language integration, as well as developers of new task parallel languages and libraries.

  16. Joint scheduling and resource allocation for multiple video decoding tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Brian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a joint resource allocation and scheduling algorithm for video decoding on a resource-constrained system. By decomposing a multimedia task into decoding jobs using quality-driven priority classes, we demonstrate using queuing theoretic analysis that significant power savings can be achieved under small video quality degradation without requiring the encoder to adapt its transmitted bitstream. Based on this scheduling algorithm, we propose an algorithm for maximizing the sum of video qualities in a multiple task environment, while minimizing system energy consumption, without requiring tasks to reveal information about their performances to the system or to other potentially exploitative applications. Importantly, we offer a method to optimize the performance of multiple video decoding tasks on an energy-constrained system, while protecting private information about the system and the applications.

  17. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  18. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  19. A simple neural network scheduler for real-time machine task scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1992-06-01

    The recent development of a new generation of automated radionuclide assay equipment in our facility requires embedded software at each machine for the scheduling of sample assay tasks. The execution time requirements of real-time embedded software limit the complexity of the schedular software. By representing the scheduling problem properly, a simple backpropagation neural network performs the scheduling function within the imposed requirements. Operational tests have demonstrated that the neural network schedular has met all development goals and is superior to the previous approaches. This paper describes the design and development of the neural network task scheduler. In addition, several aspects of the practical application of neural networks to real-world problems are discussed.

  20. A simple neural network scheduler for real-time machine task scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The recent development of a new generation of automated radionuclide assay equipment in our facility requires embedded software at each machine for the scheduling of sample assay tasks. The execution time requirements of real-time embedded software limit the complexity of the schedular software. By representing the scheduling problem properly, a simple backpropagation neural network performs the scheduling function within the imposed requirements. Operational tests have demonstrated that the neural network schedular has met all development goals and is superior to the previous approaches. This paper describes the design and development of the neural network task scheduler. In addition, several aspects of the practical application of neural networks to real-world problems are discussed.

  1. In-Space Crew-Collaborative Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Meyer, Patrick; Davis, Elizabeth; Richardson, Lea

    2007-01-01

    For all past and current human space missions, the final scheduling of tasks to be done in space has been devoid of crew control, flexibility, and insight. Ground controllers, with minimal input from the crew, schedule the tasks and uplink the timeline to the crew or uplink the command sequences to the hardware. Prior to the International Space Station (ISS), the crew could make requests about tomorrow s timeline, they could omit a task, or they could request that something in the timeline be delayed. This lack of control over one's own schedule has had negative consequences. There is anecdotal consensus among astronauts that control over their own schedules will mitigate the stresses of long duration missions. On ISS, a modicum of crew control is provided by the job jar. Ground controllers prepare a task list (a.k.a. "job jar") of non-conflicting tasks from which jobs can be chosen by the in space crew. Because there is little free time and few interesting non-conflicting activities, the task-list approach provides little relief from the tedium of being micro-managed by the timeline. Scheduling for space missions is a complex and laborious undertaking which usually requires a large cadre of trained specialists and suites of complex software tools. It is a giant leap from today s ground prepared timeline (with a job jar) to full crew control of the timeline. However, technological advances, currently in-work or proposed, make it reasonable to consider scheduling a collaborative effort by the ground-based teams and the in-space crew. Collaboration would allow the crew to make minor adjustments, add tasks according to their preferences, understand the reasons for the placement of tasks on the timeline, and provide them a sense of control. In foreseeable but extraordinary situations, such as a quick response to anomalies and extended or unexpected loss of signal, the crew should have the autonomous ability to make appropriate modifications to the timeline, extend the

  2. Improved task scheduling for parallel simulations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, A.E.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design, analyze, and validate the generation of optimal schedules for simulation systems. Improved performance in simulation execution times can greatly improve the return rate of information provided by such simulations resulting in reduced development costs of future computer/electronic systems. Optimal schedule generation of precedence-constrained task systems including iterative feedback systems such as VHDL or war gaming simulations for execution on a parallel computer is known to be N P-hard. Efficiently parallelizing such problems takes full advantage of present computer technology to achieve a significant reduction in the search times required. Unfortunately, the extreme combinatoric 'explosion' of possible task assignments to processors creates an exponential search space prohibitive on any computer for search algorithms which maintain more than one branch of the search graph at any one time. This work develops various parallel modified backtracking (MBT) search algorithms for execution on an iPSC/2 hypercube that bound the space requirements and produce an optimally minimum schedule with linear speed-up. The parallel MBT search algorithm is validated using various feedback task simulation systems which are scheduled for execution on an iPSC/2 hypercube. The search time, size of the enumerated search space, and communications overhead required to ensure efficient utilization during the parallel search process are analyzed. The various applications indicated appreciable improvement in performance using this method.

  3. A task scheduler framework for self-powered wireless sensors.

    PubMed

    Nordman, Mikael M

    2003-10-01

    The cost and inconvenience of cabling is a factor limiting widespread use of intelligent sensors. Recent developments in short-range, low-power radio seem to provide an opening to this problem, making development of wireless sensors feasible. However, for these sensors the energy availability is a main concern. The common solution is either to use a battery or to harvest ambient energy. The benefit of harvested ambient energy is that the energy feeder can be considered as lasting a lifetime, thus it saves the user from concerns related to energy management. The problem is, however, the unpredictability and unsteady behavior of ambient energy sources. This becomes a main concern for sensors that run multiple tasks at different priorities. This paper proposes a new scheduler framework that enables the reliable assignment of task priorities and scheduling in sensors powered by ambient energy. The framework being based on environment parameters, virtual queues, and a state machine with transition conditions, dynamically manages task execution according to priorities. The framework is assessed in a test system powered by a solar panel. The results show the functionality of the framework and how task execution reliably is handled without violating the priority scheme that has been assigned to it. PMID:14582879

  4. A Scheduling Algorithm for Replicated Real-Time Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Albert C.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    We present an algorithm for scheduling real-time periodic tasks on a multiprocessor system under fault-tolerant requirement. Our approach incorporates both the redundancy and masking technique and the imprecise computation model. Since the tasks in hard real-time systems have stringent timing constraints, the redundancy and masking technique are more appropriate than the rollback techniques which usually require extra time for error recovery. The imprecise computation model provides flexible functionality by trading off the quality of the result produced by a task with the amount of processing time required to produce it. It therefore permits the performance of a real-time system to degrade gracefully. We evaluate the algorithm by stochastic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the algorithm is resilient under hardware failures.

  5. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  6. The Effects of Practice Schedule on Learning a Complex Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsdingen, Anne S.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of practice schedule on learning a complex judgment task were investigated. In Experiment 1, participants' judgment accuracy on a retention test was higher after a random practice schedule than after a blocked schedule or operational schedule. Experiment 2 demonstrated that judgment on a transfer test was also better after a random…

  7. Applying dynamic priority scheduling scheme to static systems of pinwheel task model in power-aware scheduling.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ye-In; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task's priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10-80% over the existing algorithms. PMID:25121126

  8. Non-Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling Dependent Tasks in Distributed Heterogeneous Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Gurdeep S. Hura

    2005-09-01

    The Problem of obtaining an optimal matching and scheduling of interdependent tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing (DHC) environments is well known to be an NP-hard problem. In a DHC system, task execution time is dependent on the machine to which it is assigned and task precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph. Recent research in evolutionary techniques has shown that genetic algorithms usually obtain more efficient schedules that other known algorithms. We propose a non-evolutionary random scheduling (RS) algorithm for efficient matching and scheduling of inter-dependent tasks in a DHC system. RS is a succession of randomized task orderings and a heuristic mapping from task order to schedule. Randomized task ordering is effectively a topological sort where the outcome may be any possible task order for which the task precedent constraints are maintained. A detailed comparison to existing evolutionary techniques (GA and PSGA) shows the proposed algorithm is less complex than evolutionary techniques, computes schedules in less time, requires less memory and fewer tuning parameters. Simulation results show that the average schedules produced by RS are approximately as efficient as PSGA schedules for all cases studied and clearly more efficient than PSGA for certain cases. The standard formulation for the scheduling problem addressed in this paper is Rm|prec|Cmax.,

  9. Effective Scheduling Algorithms for I/O Blocking with a Multi-Frame Task Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shan; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hiroaki

    A task that suspends itself to wait for an I/O completion or to wait for an event from another node in distributed environments is called an I/O blocking task. Conventional hard real-time scheduling theories use framework of rate monotonic analysis (RMA) to schedule such I/O blocking tasks. However, most of them are pessimistic. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms that can schedule a task set which has I/O blocking tasks under dynamic priority assignment. We present a new critical instant theorem for the multi-frame task set under dynamic priority assignment. The schedulability is analyzed under the new critical instant theorem. For the schedulability analysis, this paper presents saturation summation which is used to calculate the maximum interference function (MIF). With saturation summation, the schedulability of a task set having I/O blocking tasks can be analyzed more accurately. We propose an algorithm which is called Frame Laxity Monotonic Scheduling (FLMS). A genetic algorithm (GA) is also applied. From our experiments, we can conclude that FLMS can significantly reduce the calculation time, and GA can improve task schedulability ratio more than is possible with FLMS.

  10. A new model of scheduling in manufacturing: tasks, roles, and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah; Wilson, John R; MacCarthy, Bart L

    2004-01-01

    For over 3 decades there was a belief that computer-based solutions would "solve" complex industrial scheduling problems, yet most manufacturing organizations still require human contributions for effective scheduling performance. We present a new model of scheduling for the development and implementation of effective scheduling systems within manufacturing companies. The model derives from investigating the work of 7 schedulers in 4 manufacturing environments using a qualitative field study approach, for which novel field-based data collection and analysis methods were developed. The results show that scheduling in practice comprises task, role, and monitoring activities and that the business environment influences a scheduler at work. A new definition of scheduling is presented that includes the significant facilitation and implementation aspects of human scheduling ignored by many computer-based scheduling approaches. The implications for this model extend across the domains of human factors and operations management, especially for the analysis and improvement of existing and new production planning and control processes and enterprise information systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include the analysis, design, and management of planning, scheduling, and control processes in industry; the selection, training, and support of production schedulers; and the allocation of tasks to humans and computer systems in industrial planning, scheduling, and control processes. PMID:15573550

  11. Task scheduling on multicore embedded systems under power and thermal constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamy, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The trend nowadays is to utilise multiple processors to overcome the limited additional power that can be extracted from a single core. This adds to the challenge of task scheduling on such architectures. Task scheduling should consider the power consumption of concurrently running tasks to avoid going over the maximum power limit. However, often scheduling with power awareness does not guarantee thermal safety. Thermal safety is intended to keep the temperatures of all system components under the maximum allowable temperature at all times. High temperatures can reduce the reliability and the overall functionality of the system. This implies that thermal-aware task scheduling is essential to reduce the system hotspots. In this article, we propose effective solutions to power and thermal-aware scheduling based on an integer linear formulation and genetic algorithms. Results on benchmarks proved the effectiveness and usefulness of our provided techniques.

  12. Give Me a Break! Can Strategic Recess Scheduling Increase On-Task Behaviour for First Graders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Todd; Mahoney, Kate

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether strategically scheduled recess breaks throughout the school day will increase student on-task behaviours during the time when students work independently. As an intervention for this action research study, recess breaks were given more often but for less time; recess breaks were scheduled before…

  13. Machine Learning Based Online Performance Prediction for Runtime Parallelization and Task Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J; Ma, X; Singh, K; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R; McKee, S A

    2008-10-09

    With the emerging many-core paradigm, parallel programming must extend beyond its traditional realm of scientific applications. Converting existing sequential applications as well as developing next-generation software requires assistance from hardware, compilers and runtime systems to exploit parallelism transparently within applications. These systems must decompose applications into tasks that can be executed in parallel and then schedule those tasks to minimize load imbalance. However, many systems lack a priori knowledge about the execution time of all tasks to perform effective load balancing with low scheduling overhead. In this paper, we approach this fundamental problem using machine learning techniques first to generate performance models for all tasks and then applying those models to perform automatic performance prediction across program executions. We also extend an existing scheduling algorithm to use generated task cost estimates for online task partitioning and scheduling. We implement the above techniques in the pR framework, which transparently parallelizes scripts in the popular R language, and evaluate their performance and overhead with both a real-world application and a large number of synthetic representative test scripts. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly improves task partitioning and scheduling, with maximum improvements of 21.8%, 40.3% and 22.1% and average improvements of 15.9%, 16.9% and 4.2% for LMM (a real R application) and synthetic test cases with independent and dependent tasks, respectively.

  14. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  15. Investigation of automated task learning, decomposition and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, David L.; Serpen, Gursel; Masti, Chandrashekar L.

    1990-01-01

    The details and results of research conducted in the application of neural networks to task planning and decomposition are presented. Task planning and decomposition are operations that humans perform in a reasonably efficient manner. Without the use of good heuristics and usually much human interaction, automatic planners and decomposers generally do not perform well due to the intractable nature of the problems under consideration. The human-like performance of neural networks has shown promise for generating acceptable solutions to intractable problems such as planning and decomposition. This was the primary reasoning behind attempting the study. The basis for the work is the use of state machines to model tasks. State machine models provide a useful means for examining the structure of tasks since many formal techniques have been developed for their analysis and synthesis. It is the approach to integrate the strong algebraic foundations of state machines with the heretofore trial-and-error approach to neural network synthesis.

  16. Fuzzy logic control of an AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, Nikhal; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic approach for steering and speed control, a neuro-fuzzy approach for ultrasound sensing (not discussed in this paper) and an overall expert system. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised by a 486 computer through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a micro-controller interfaced with six ultrasonic transducers. This micro- controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends a steering angle correction back to the computer via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system in which high speed computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected by a vision tracking device that transmits the X, Y coordinates of the lane marker to the control computer. Simulation and testing of these systems yielded promising results. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous fuzzy logic controller applicable to any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.

  17. The Effects of Task Fluency and Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules on Student Choice Allocation between Math Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Maliha

    2010-01-01

    Students may avoid working on difficult tasks because it takes them longer to complete those tasks, which results in a delay to reinforcement. Research studies show that reinforcer and response dimensions can be manipulated within a concurrent operants framework to bias choice allocation toward more difficult tasks. The current study extends…

  18. Changes in Practice Schedule and Functional Task Difficulty: a Study Using the Probe Reaction Time Technique

    PubMed Central

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor learning is accelerated most by optimized task difficulty. When task difficulty is optimized, the amount of information required to complete the task matches the learner's information processing abilities. The practice schedule is one of the factors which changes the amount of task information. We investigated the influence of changes in practice schedule on the amount of task information using the probe reaction time technique. [Methods] Fourteen young male subjects were randomly assigned to a blocked or random practice group. They were required to perform two tasks simultaneously. The primary task consisted of treadmill walking with specific step lengths, and the secondary task consisted of a probe reaction time task. [Results] The blocked practice group was superior to the random practice group in performance during the acquisition phase. In contrast, the random practice group was superior to the blocked practice group in performance during the retention phase. Furthermore, the random practice group had a longer reaction time than the blocked practice group. [Conclusion] From the standpoint of the challenge point framework, motor learning may be accelerated by random practice because random practice probably elicits greater attentional demand than blocked practice. PMID:24259863

  19. Further testing the impact of shift schedule on task scale variables for medical laboratory professionals.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Fertig, Jason; Lopez, Andrea; Aaronson, William; Holladay, Blair

    2007-01-01

    Using a broader sample of medical laboratory professionals, this study extended prior work by Blau and Lunz testing the impact of shift schedule on task scales. Overall the results supported the study hypothesis-i.e., medical laboratory professionals on a fixed day shift have lower job content routinization (higher task enrichment) than fixed evening and night and rotating shifts. Future research issues and study limitations are briefly discussed. PMID:18293804

  20. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  1. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan. PMID:27348127

  2. Task path planning, scheduling and learning for free-ranging robot systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, G. Steve

    1987-01-01

    The development of robotics applications for space operations is often restricted by the limited movement available to guided robots. Free ranging robots can offer greater flexibility than physically guided robots in these applications. Presented here is an object oriented approach to path planning and task scheduling for free-ranging robots that allows the dynamic determination of paths based on the current environment. The system also provides task learning for repetitive jobs. This approach provides a basis for the design of free-ranging robot systems which are adaptable to various environments and tasks.

  3. Research on Scheduling Algorithm for Multi-satellite and Point Target Task on Swinging Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Dai, G.; Peng, L.; Song, Z.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, using satellite in space to observe ground is an important and major method to obtain ground information. With the development of the scientific technology in the field of space, many fields such as military and economic and other areas have more and more requirement of space technology because of the benefits of the satellite's widespread, timeliness and unlimited of area and country. And at the same time, because of the wide use of all kinds of satellites, sensors, repeater satellites and ground receiving stations, ground control system are now facing great challenge. Therefore, how to make the best value of satellite resources so as to make full use of them becomes an important problem of ground control system. Satellite scheduling is to distribute the resource to all tasks without conflict to obtain the scheduling result so as to complete as many tasks as possible to meet user's requirement under considering the condition of the requirement of satellites, sensors and ground receiving stations. Considering the size of the task, we can divide tasks into point task and area task. This paper only considers point targets. In this paper, a description of satellite scheduling problem and a chief introduction of the theory of satellite scheduling are firstly made. We also analyze the restriction of resource and task in scheduling satellites. The input and output flow of scheduling process are also chiefly described in the paper. On the basis of these analyses, we put forward a scheduling model named as multi-variable optimization model for multi-satellite and point target task on swinging mode. In the multi-variable optimization model, the scheduling problem is transformed the parametric optimization problem. The parameter we wish to optimize is the swinging angle of every time-window. In the view of the efficiency and accuracy, some important problems relating the satellite scheduling such as the angle relation between satellites and ground targets, positive

  4. Design and analysis of self-adapted task scheduling strategies in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue; Chao, Han-Chieh; Hussain, Sajid; Chen, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the usage of resources is usually highly related to the execution of tasks which consume a certain amount of computing and communication bandwidth. Parallel processing among sensors is a promising solution to provide the demanded computation capacity in WSNs. Task allocation and scheduling is a typical problem in the area of high performance computing. Although task allocation and scheduling in wired processor networks has been well studied in the past, their counterparts for WSNs remain largely unexplored. Existing traditional high performance computing solutions cannot be directly implemented in WSNs due to the limitations of WSNs such as limited resource availability and the shared communication medium. In this paper, a self-adapted task scheduling strategy for WSNs is presented. First, a multi-agent-based architecture for WSNs is proposed and a mathematical model of dynamic alliance is constructed for the task allocation problem. Then an effective discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the dynamic alliance (DPSO-DA) with a well-designed particle position code and fitness function is proposed. A mutation operator which can effectively improve the algorithm's ability of global search and population diversity is also introduced in this algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve significant better performance than other algorithms. PMID:22163971

  5. Multi-Satellite Scheduling Approach for Dynamic Areal Tasks Triggered by Emergent Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. N.; Zhai, X. J.; Tang, H.; Wu, L. X.

    2016-06-01

    The process of satellite mission scheduling, which plays a significant role in rapid response to emergent disasters, e.g. earthquake, is used to allocate the observation resources and execution time to a series of imaging tasks by maximizing one or more objectives while satisfying certain given constraints. In practice, the information obtained of disaster situation changes dynamically, which accordingly leads to the dynamic imaging requirement of users. We propose a satellite scheduling model to address dynamic imaging tasks triggered by emergent disasters. The goal of proposed model is to meet the emergency response requirements so as to make an imaging plan to acquire rapid and effective information of affected area. In the model, the reward of the schedule is maximized. To solve the model, we firstly present a dynamic segmenting algorithm to partition area targets. Then the dynamic heuristic algorithm embedding in a greedy criterion is designed to obtain the optimal solution. To evaluate the model, we conduct experimental simulations in the scene of Wenchuan Earthquake. The results show that the simulated imaging plan can schedule satellites to observe a wider scope of target area. We conclude that our satellite scheduling model can optimize the usage of satellite resources so as to obtain images in disaster response in a more timely and efficient manner.

  6. Adaptation of human routines to support a robot's tasks planning and scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikanmäki, Antti; Feliu, Sandra T.; Röning, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Service robots usually share their workspace with people. Typically, a robot's tasks require knowing when and where people are, to be able to schedule requested tasks. Therefore, there exists the need to take into account the presence of humans when planning their actions and it is indispensable to have knowledge of robots' environments. It means in practice knowing when (time and events duration) and where (in workspace) a robot's tasks can be performed. This research paper takes steps towards obtaining of the spatial information required to execute software to plan tasks to be performed by a robot. With this aim, a program capable to define meaningful areas or zones in the robot workspace by the use of a clustering is created tied with statistically reasoned time slots when to perform each task. The software is tested using real data obtained from different cameras located along the corridors of CSE Department of University of Oulu.

  7. A distributed computing environment with support for constraint-based task scheduling and scientific experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.P.; Shapiro, L.G.; Tanimoto, S.L.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a computing environment which supports computer-based scientific research work. Key features include support for automatic distributed scheduling and execution and computer-based scientific experimentation. A new flexible and extensible scheduling technique that is responsive to a user`s scheduling constraints, such as the ordering of program results and the specification of task assignments and processor utilization levels, is presented. An easy-to-use constraint language for specifying scheduling constraints, based on the relational database query language SQL, is described along with a search-based algorithm for fulfilling these constraints. A set of performance studies show that the environment can schedule and execute program graphs on a network of workstations as the user requests. A method for automatically generating computer-based scientific experiments is described. Experiments provide a concise method of specifying a large collection of parameterized program executions. The environment achieved significant speedups when executing experiments; for a large collection of scientific experiments an average speedup of 3.4 on an average of 5.5 scheduled processors was obtained.

  8. Genetic algorithm based task reordering to improve the performance of batch scheduled massively parallel scientific applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Angel, Jordan; Brown, W. Michael

    2015-04-08

    The growth in size of networked high performance computers along with novel accelerator-based node architectures has further emphasized the importance of communication efficiency in high performance computing. The world's largest high performance computers are usually operated as shared user facilities due to the costs of acquisition and operation. Applications are scheduled for execution in a shared environment and are placed on nodes that are not necessarily contiguous on the interconnect. Furthermore, the placement of tasks on the nodes allocated by the scheduler is sub-optimal, leading to performance loss and variability. Here, we investigate the impact of task placement on themore » performance of two massively parallel application codes on the Titan supercomputer, a turbulent combustion flow solver (S3D) and a molecular dynamics code (LAMMPS). Benchmark studies show a significant deviation from ideal weak scaling and variability in performance. The inter-task communication distance was determined to be one of the significant contributors to the performance degradation and variability. A genetic algorithm-based parallel optimization technique was used to optimize the task ordering. This technique provides an improved placement of the tasks on the nodes, taking into account the application's communication topology and the system interconnect topology. As a result, application benchmarks after task reordering through genetic algorithm show a significant improvement in performance and reduction in variability, therefore enabling the applications to achieve better time to solution and scalability on Titan during production.« less

  9. Genetic algorithm based task reordering to improve the performance of batch scheduled massively parallel scientific applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Angel, Jordan; Brown, W. Michael

    2015-04-08

    The growth in size of networked high performance computers along with novel accelerator-based node architectures has further emphasized the importance of communication efficiency in high performance computing. The world's largest high performance computers are usually operated as shared user facilities due to the costs of acquisition and operation. Applications are scheduled for execution in a shared environment and are placed on nodes that are not necessarily contiguous on the interconnect. Furthermore, the placement of tasks on the nodes allocated by the scheduler is sub-optimal, leading to performance loss and variability. Here, we investigate the impact of task placement on the performance of two massively parallel application codes on the Titan supercomputer, a turbulent combustion flow solver (S3D) and a molecular dynamics code (LAMMPS). Benchmark studies show a significant deviation from ideal weak scaling and variability in performance. The inter-task communication distance was determined to be one of the significant contributors to the performance degradation and variability. A genetic algorithm-based parallel optimization technique was used to optimize the task ordering. This technique provides an improved placement of the tasks on the nodes, taking into account the application's communication topology and the system interconnect topology. As a result, application benchmarks after task reordering through genetic algorithm show a significant improvement in performance and reduction in variability, therefore enabling the applications to achieve better time to solution and scalability on Titan during production.

  10. A design fix to supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Rajesh; Sarkar, Arnab; Biswas, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    In the article 'Supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks', Park and Cho presented a systematic way of computing a largest fault-tolerant and schedulable language that provides information on whether the scheduler (i.e., supervisor) should accept or reject a newly arrived aperiodic task. The computation of such a language is mainly dependent on the task execution model presented in their paper. However, the task execution model is unable to capture the situation when the fault of a processor occurs even before the task has arrived. Consequently, a task execution model that does not capture this fact may possibly be assigned for execution on a faulty processor. This problem has been illustrated with an appropriate example. Then, the task execution model of Park and Cho has been modified to strengthen the requirement that none of the tasks are assigned for execution on a faulty processor.

  11. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  12. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  13. Range detection for AGV using a rotating sonar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Wen-chuan; Ramamurthy, Dhyana Chandra; Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    A single rotating sonar element is used with a restricted angle of sweep to obtain readings to develop a range map for the unobstructed path of an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV). A Polaroid ultrasound transducer element is mounted on a micromotor with an encoder feedback. The motion of this motor is controlled using a Galil DMC 1000 motion control board. The encoder is interfaced with the DMC 1000 board using an intermediate IMC 1100 break-out board. By adjusting the parameters of the Polaroid element, it is possible to obtain range readings at known angles with respect to the center of the robot. The readings are mapped to obtain a range map of the unobstructed path in front of the robot. The idea can be extended to a 360 degree mapping by changing the assembly level programming on the Galil Motion control board. Such a system would be compact and reliable over a range of environments and AGV applications.

  14. External support for collaborative problem solving in a simulated provider/patient medication scheduling task.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Daniel; Raquel, Liza; Schriver, Angela; Redenbo, Seth; Rozovski, David; Weiss, Gillian

    2008-09-01

    Taking medication requires developing plans to accomplish the activity. This planning challenges older adults because of age-related cognitive limits and inadequate collaboration with health providers. The authors investigated whether an external aid (medtable) supports collaborative planning in the context of a simulated patient/provider task in which pairs of older adults worked together to create medication schedules. Experiment 1 compared pairs who used the medtable, blank paper (unstructured aid), or no aid to create schedules varying in complexity of medication constraints (number of medications and medication co-occurrence restrictions) and patient constraints (available times during the day to take medication). Both aids increased problem-solving accuracy and efficiency (time per unit accuracy) compared to the no-aid condition, primarily for more complex schedules. However, benefits were similar for the two aids. In Experiment 2, a redesigned medtable increased problem-solving accuracy and efficiency compared to blank paper. Both aids presumably supported problem solving by providing a jointly visible workspace for developing schedules. The medtable may be more effective because it externalizes constraints (relationships between medication and patient information), so that participants can more easily organize information. PMID:18808282

  15. The Research of Solution to the Problems of Complex Task Scheduling Based on Self-adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; He, Yongxiang; Xue, Haidong; Chen, Leichen

    Traditional genetic algorithms (GA) displays a disadvantage of early-constringency in dealing with scheduling problem. To improve the crossover operators and mutation operators self-adaptively, this paper proposes a self-adaptive GA at the target of multitask scheduling optimization under limited resources. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional GA in evolutive ability to deal with complex task scheduling optimization.

  16. Metaheuristic based scheduling meta-tasks in distributed heterogeneous computing systems.

    PubMed

    Izakian, Hesam; Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Scheduling is a key problem in distributed heterogeneous computing systems in order to benefit from the large computing capacity of such systems and is an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we present a metaheuristic technique, namely the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, for this problem. PSO is a population-based search algorithm based on the simulation of the social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. Particles fly in problem search space to find optimal or near-optimal solutions. The scheduler aims at minimizing makespan, which is the time when finishes the latest task. Experimental studies show that the proposed method is more efficient and surpasses those of reported PSO and GA approaches for this problem. PMID:22346701

  17. Energy-efficient scheduling for hybrid tasks in control devices for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%-80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds. PMID:23112659

  18. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds. PMID:23112659

  19. The Effect of Self-Regulated and Experimenter-Imposed Practice Schedules on Motor Learning for Tasks of Varying Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keetch, Katherine M.; Lee, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that allowing individuals to control their own practice schedule has a positive effect on motor learning. In this experiment we examined the effect of task difficulty and self-regulated practice strategies on motor learning. The task was to move a mouse-operated cursor through pattern arrays that differed in two levels of…

  20. Multiobjective resource-constrained project scheduling with a time-varying number of tasks.

    PubMed

    Abello, Manuel Blanco; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. PMID:24883398

  1. Multiobjective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with a Time-Varying Number of Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Abello, Manuel Blanco

    2014-01-01

    In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. PMID:24883398

  2. Imaging tasks scheduling for high-altitude airship in emergency condition based on energy-aware strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible. PMID:23864822

  3. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible. PMID:23864822

  4. Young Children's Affective Decision-Making in a Gambling Task: Does Difficulty in Learning the Gain/Loss Schedule Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…

  5. Control over the Scheduling of Simulated Office Work Reduces the Impact of Workload on Mental Fatigue and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, G. Robert J.; Earle, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that task-induced mental fatigue is moderated by control over work scheduling. Participants worked for 2 hr on simulated office work, with control manipulated by a yoking procedure. Matched participants were assigned to conditions of either high control (HC) or low control (LC). HC participants decided their…

  6. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  7. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  8. Nonpreemptive run-time scheduling issues on a multitasked, multiprogrammed multiprocessor with dependencies, bidimensional tasks, folding and dynamic graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Allan Ray

    1987-05-01

    Increases in high speed hardware have mandated studies in software techniques to exploit the parallel capabilities. This thesis examines the effects a run-time scheduler has on a multiprocessor. The model consists of directed, acyclic graphs, generated from serial FORTRAN benchmark programs by the parallel compiler Parafrase. A multitasked, multiprogrammed environment is created. Dependencies are generated by the compiler. Tasks are bidimensional, i.e., they may specify both time and processor requests. Processor requests may be folded into execution time by the scheduler. The graphs may arrive at arbitrary time intervals. The general case is NP-hard, thus, a variety of heuristics are examined by a simulator. Multiprogramming demonstrates a greater need for a run-time scheduler than does monoprogramming for a variety of reasons, e.g., greater stress on the processors, a larger number of independent control paths, more variety in the task parameters, etc. The dynamic critical path series of algorithms perform well. Dynamic critical volume did not add much. Unfortunately, dynamic critical path maximizes turnaround time as well as throughput. Two schedulers are presented which balance throughput and turnaround time. The first requires classification of jobs by type; the second requires selection of a ratio value which is dependent upon system parameters. 45 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Assessing and Increasing Staff Preference for Job Tasks Using Concurrent-Chains Schedules and Probabilistic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Derek D.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Campisano, Natalie; Lacourse, Kristen; Azulay, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and improvement of staff members' subjective valuation of nonpreferred work tasks may be one way to increase the quality of staff members' work life. The Task Enjoyment Motivation Protocol (Green, Reid, Passante, & Canipe, 2008) provides a process for supervisors to identify the aversive qualities of nonpreferred job tasks. Through…

  10. Learning of a golf putting task with varying contextual interference levels induced by feedback schedule in novices and experts.

    PubMed

    Krause, Daniel; Brüne, Alexander; Fritz, Susanne; Kramer, Pascal; Meisterjahn, Peter; Schneider, Michael; Sperber, Alena

    2014-04-01

    Switching between tasks during practice can affect motor learning. This study tested whether switching feedback content has any effects on learning to perform golf putts without full visibility. 60 participants (44 men, 16 women; M age = 26.3 yr., SD = 6.6) practiced golf putts without seeing the ball movement. 30 of the participants were golfers with moderate expertise, and 30 were novices. They received feedback regarding their putts, either on the angle or on the distance in one of three feedback schedules: blocked, serial-blocked, or serial. Independent of the expertise level, learning was not affected by the feedback schedule. The strong linkage between the two components--direction and distance--may have prevented a sufficient level of contextual interference. PMID:24897875

  11. Flying Schedule-Matching Descents to Explore Flight Crews' Perceptions of Their Load and Task Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne Hazel; Sharma, Shivanjli; Lozito, Sharon; Kaneshige, John; Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the development and use of ground-based (controller) tools to manage and schedule traffic in future terminal airspace. No studies have investigated the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. To begin to redress the balance, an exploratory study investigated the procedures and actions of ten Boeing-747-400 crews as they flew eight continuous descent approaches in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, with the descents being controlled using speed alone. Although the study was exploratory in nature, four variables were manipulated: speed changes, route constraints, clearance phraseology, and winds. Despite flying the same scenarios with the same events and timing, there was at least a 50 second difference in the time it took crews to fly the approaches. This variation is the product of a number of factors but highlights potential difficulties for scheduling tools that would have to accommodate this amount of natural variation in descent times. The primary focus of this paper is the potential impact of ground scheduling tools on the flight crews performance and procedures. Crews reported "moderate to low" workload, on average; however, short periods of intense and high workload were observed. The non-flying pilot often reported a higher level of workload than the flying-pilot, which may be due to their increased interaction with the Flight Management Computer, when using the aircraft automation to assist with managing the descent clearances. It is concluded that ground-side tools and automation may have a larger impact on the current-day flight-deck than was assumed and that studies investigating this impact should continue in parallel with controller support tool development.

  12. Modeling the Scheduling of Eye Movements and Manual Responses in Performing a Sequence of Discrete Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Remington, Roger W.; Lewis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Common tasks in daily life are often accomplished by a sequence of actions that interleave information acquisition through the eyes and action execution by the hands. How are eye movements coordinated with the release of manual responses and how may their coordination be represented at the level of component mental operations? We have previously presented data from a typing-like task requiring separate choice responses to a series of five stimuli. We found a consistent pattern of results in both motor and ocular timing, and hypothesized possible relationships among underlying components. Here we report a model of that task, which demonstrates how the observed timing of eye movements to successive stimuli could be accounted for by assuming systems: an open-loop system generating saccades at a periodic rate, and a closed-loop system commanding a saccade based on stimulus processing. We relate this model to models of reading and discuss the motivation for dual control.

  13. Effects of a Photo Activity Schedule Book on Independent Task Changes by Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Community and School Job Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Keyla D; Gast, David L.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a photo activity schedule book to increase independent transitioning between vocational tasks inside a school cafeteria and at a community job site. Three students with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, enrolled in a self-contained classroom in a public high school,…

  14. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule risk assessments determine the likelihood of finishing on time. Each task in a schedule has a varying degree of probability of being finished on time. A schedule risk assessment quantifies these probabilities by assigning values to each task. This viewgraph presentation contains a flow chart for conducting a schedule risk assessment, and profiles applicable several methods of data analysis.

  15. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

  16. Job Shop Scheduling Focusing on Role of Buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Rei; Kusumi, Tetsuya; Yoo, Jae-Kyu; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    A scheduling problem is formulated in order to consistently manage each manufacturing resource, including machine tools, assembly robots, AGV, storehouses, material shelves, and so on. The manufacturing resources are classified into three types: producer, location, and mover. This paper focuses especially on the role of the buffer, and the differences among these types are analyzed. A unified scheduling formulation is derived from the analytical results based on the resource’s roles. Scheduling procedures based on dispatching rules are also proposed in order to numerically evaluate job shop-type production having finite buffer capacity. The influences of the capacity of bottle-necked production devices and the buffer on productivity are discussed.

  17. Schedule-Organizer Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Organizer provides simple method for generating distribution lists. Contains readers' names for each task schedule defined by input files. Schedule Organizer (SO), Schedule Tracker (ST) (COSMIC program MSC-21526), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  18. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  19. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  20. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  1. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  2. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  3. FLOYDS Classifications of ATLAS16ahj/AT 2016bey and ATLAS16agv/AT 2016bfc as Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.

    2016-03-01

    We obtained spectra of ATLAS16ahj/AT 2016bey and ATLAS16agv/AT 2016bfc (ATel #8839) on 2016 March 19.5 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the LCOGT 2-meter telescope on Haleakala, Hawai'i.

  4. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  5. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  6. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  7. Schedule-Report-Generator Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Report Generator provides simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. Enables engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff members on weekly basis. Sorts three types of reports by use of one or more data fields as sorting keys. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST) (COSMIC program MSC-21526), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  8. SO - SCHEDULE ORGANIZER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer SO, Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SO contains the following primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds twenty-five groups of up to twenty-five names for each group. The other file holds twenty-five records, each of which may hold a task schedule title. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout; there is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the last schedule title deleted by

  9. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  10. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  11. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  12. Satellite mission scheduling algorithm based on GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baolin; Mao, Lifei; Wang, Wenxiang; Xie, Xing; Qin, Qianqing

    2007-11-01

    The Satellite Mission Scheduling problem (SMS) involves scheduling tasks to be performed by a satellite, where new task requests can arrive at any time, non-deterministically, and must be scheduled in real-time. This paper describes a new Satellite Mission Scheduling problem based on Genetic Algorithm (SMSGA). In this paper, it investigates algorithmic approaches for determining an optimal or near-optimal sequence of tasks, allocated to a satellite payload over time, with dynamic tasking considerations. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and efficient in applications to the real problems.

  13. On-line task scheduling and trajectory planning techniques for reconnaissance missions with multiple unmanned aerial vehicles supervised by a single human operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Rubiano, Andres Eduardo

    The problem of a single human operator monitoring multiple UAVs in reconnaissance missions is addressed in this work. In such missions, the operator inspects and classifies targets as they appear on video feeds from the various UAVs. In parallel, the aircraft autonomously execute a flight plan and transmit real-time video of an unknown terrain. The main contribution of this work is the development of a system that autonomously schedules the display of video feeds such that the human operator is able to inspect each target in real time (i.e., no video data is recorded and queued for later inspection). The construction of this non-overlapping schedule is made possible by commanding changes to the flight plan of the UAVs. These changes are constructed such that the impact on the mission time is minimized. The development of this system is addressed in the context of both fixed and arbitrary target inspection times. Under the assumption that the inspection time is constant, a Linear Program (LP) formulation is used to optimally solve the display scheduling problem in the time domain. The LP solution is implemented in the space domain via velocity and trajectory modifications to the flight plan of the UAVs. An online algorithm is proposed to resolve scheduling conflicts between multiple video feeds as targets are discovered by the UAVs. Properties of this algorithm are studied to develop conflict resolution strategies that ensure correctness regardless of the target placement. The effect of such strategies on the mission time is evaluated via numerical simulations. In the context of arbitrary inspection time, the human operator indicates the end of target inspection in real time. A set of maneuvers is devised that enable the operator to inspect each target uninterruptedly and indefinitely. In addition, a cuing mechanism is proposed to increase the situational awareness of the operator and potentially reduce the inspection times. The benefits of operator cuing on mission

  14. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  15. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  16. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 6: Implementation schedule, development costs, operational costs, benefit assessment, impact on company organization, spin-off assessment, phase 1, tasks 3 to 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hurley, M. J.; Dublin, M.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline implementation plan, including alternative implementation approaches for critical software elements and variants to the plan, was developed. The basic philosophy was aimed at: (1) a progressive release of capability for three major computing systems, (2) an end product that was a working tool, (3) giving participation to industry, government agencies, and universities, and (4) emphasizing the development of critical elements of the IPAD framework software. The results of these tasks indicate an IPAD first release capability 45 months after go-ahead, a five year total implementation schedule, and a total developmental cost of 2027 man-months and 1074 computer hours. Several areas of operational cost increases were identified mainly due to the impact of additional equipment needed and additional computer overhead. The benefits of an IPAD system were related mainly to potential savings in engineering man-hours, reduction of design-cycle calendar time, and indirect upgrading of product quality and performance.

  17. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  18. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  19. Optimal Schedules in Multitask Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yoon; Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Sung Shin; Scheidt, Robert A; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Although scheduling multiple tasks in motor learning to maximize long-term retention of performance is of great practical importance in sports training and motor rehabilitation after brain injury, it is unclear how to do so. We propose here a novel theoretical approach that uses optimal control theory and computational models of motor adaptation to determine schedules that maximize long-term retention predictively. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, we derived a control law that determines the trial-by-trial task choice that maximizes overall delayed retention for all tasks, as predicted by the state-space model. Simulations of a single session of adaptation with two tasks show that when task interference is high, there exists a threshold in relative task difficulty below which the alternating schedule is optimal. Only for large differences in task difficulties do optimal schedules assign more trials to the harder task. However, over the parameter range tested, alternating schedules yield long-term retention performance that is only slightly inferior to performance given by the true optimal schedules. Our results thus predict that in a large number of learning situations wherein tasks interfere, intermixing tasks with an equal number of trials is an effective strategy in enhancing long-term retention. PMID:26890347

  20. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  1. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  2. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  3. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  4. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  5. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  6. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  7. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  8. Assessing reinforcers under progressive schedule requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Roane, H S; Lerman, D C; Vorndran, C M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research findings suggest that reinforcing stimuli may be differentially effective as response requirements increase. We extended this line of research by evaluating responding under increasing schedule requirements via progressive-ratio schedules and behavioral economic analyses. The differential effectiveness of preferred stimuli in treating destructive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement also was examined. Results showed that one of two stimuli was associated with more responding under increasing schedule requirements for the 4 participants. Furthermore, stimuli associated with more responding under increasing schedule requirements generally were more effective in treating destructive behavior than stimuli associated with less responding. These data suggest that progressive-ratio schedules and behavioral economic analyses may be useful for developing a new technology for reinforcer identification. From a clinical perspective, these results suggest that two reinforcers may be similarly effective for low-effort tasks and differentially effective for high-effort tasks. PMID:11421308

  9. SO/ST/SRG - SCHEDULING PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Organizer contains a primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options as follows: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds 25 groups of up to 25 names for each group. The other file holds 25 records. Each 60-character-long record holds a task schedule title or it is a blank entry. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout. There is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the schedule title of the last schedule title file deleted by the user. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are "past due" and/or "near term". ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term

  10. Dynamic Proportional Share Scheduling in Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholm, Thomas; Lai, Kevin

    We present the Dynamic Priority (DP) parallel task scheduler for Hadoop. It allows users to control their allocated capacity by adjusting their spending over time. This simple mechanism allows the scheduler to make more efficient decisions about which jobs and users to prioritize and gives users the tool to optimize and customize their allocations to fit the importance and requirements of their jobs. Additionally, it gives users the incentive to scale back their jobs when demand is high, since the cost of running on a slot is then also more expensive. We envision our scheduler to be used by deadline or budget optimizing agents on behalf of users. We describe the design and implementation of the DP scheduler and experimental results. We show that our scheduler enforces service levels more accurately and also scales to more users with distinct service levels than existing schedulers.

  11. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  12. LANL'S DEVELOPMENT OF SCHEDULE CONTINGENCY BASED ON PROBABILISTIC RISK RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    F. K. HOUGHTON; J. P. KINDINGER; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The need for budget reserve in project planning is widely recognized, but the need for a corresponding schedule reserve is generally not as universally acknowledged. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performs probabilistic project risk analyses for all major projects; the question has become how to more fully use the results of the schedule analyses to establish a schedule reserve. Before the use of quantitative project risk analysis, milestones were based on the initial point estimate with float time as the only time reserved for delays. With this practice, the set of tasks that have duration reserve is limited. In particular, critical path tasks, which do not have associated float, do not have reserve schedule time to use for delays. For other tasks, float was used on a ''first-come, first-served'' basis without allocation to other tasks. Thus, it was not possible to systematically allocate schedule reserve to project tasks.

  13. SRG - SCHEDULE REPORT GENERATOR COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Schedule Report Generator, SRG, are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are schedule for recent completion (near term). Schedule Reports Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SRG enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff members on a weekly basis. SRG sorts three types of reports using one or more data fields as sort keys. One type is sorted using the calendar year as the primary key and the end date as the secondary key. Another type is sorted by flight number. A third type of report, Waterfall plots, is also generated by SRG using the end date as the sorting key. SRG requires as input a single file or two concatenated files with up to 400 single line entries. The user constructs the input file by using the LSE editor VAX utility prior to the execution of the program. The user is able to modify the current functional description text lines just displayed. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum

  14. A threshold scheduling strategy for Sisal on distributed memory machines

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, S.S.; Agrawal, D.P.; Mauney, J. )

    1994-05-01

    The problem of scheduling tasks on distributed memory machines is known to be NP-complete in the strong sense, ruling out the possibility of a pseudo-polynomial algorithm. This paper introduces a new heuristic algorithm for scheduling Sisal (Streams and Iterations In a Single Assignment Language) programs on a distributed memory machine, Intel Touchstone i860. The compile time scheduling method works on IF-2, an intermediate form based on the dataflow parallelism in the program. The authors initially carry out a dependence analysis, to bind the implicit dependencies across IF-2 graph boundaries, followed by a cost assignment based on Intel Touchstone i860 timings. The scheduler works in two phases. The first phase of the scheduler finds the earliest and latest completion times of each task given by the shortest and longest paths from root task to the given task respectively. A threshold defined as the difference between the latest and the earliest start times of the task, is found. The scheduler varies the value of the allowable threshold, and determines the best value for minimal schedule length. In the second phase of the scheduler, the authors merge the processors to generate schedule to match the available number of processors. Schedule results for several benchmark programs have been included to demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach.

  15. Concurrent reinforcement schedules: behavior change and maintenance without extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Hannah; McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea L; Paone, Debra

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement on negatively reinforced problem behavior and task completion with 3 children with autism. Results indicated that problem behavior occurred at high levels and relatively few tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break (from tasks) and task completion produced either no consequence or a break. By contrast, problem behavior was eliminated and tasks were completed when problem behavior produced a break and task completion produced a break with access to preferred activities. Treatment gains were maintained without the use of extinction when the response requirement was increased and the schedule of reinforcement was thinned. PMID:12102135

  16. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  17. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  18. Achieving reutilization of scheduling software through abstraction and generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, George J.; Monteleone, Richard A.; Weinstein, Stuart M.; Mohler, Michael G.; Zoch, David R.; Tong, G. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Reutilization of software is a difficult goal to achieve particularly in complex environments that require advanced software systems. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was developed to create a reusable scheduling system for the diverse scheduling needs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ROSE is a data-driven scheduler that accepts inputs such as user activities, available resources, timing contraints, and user-defined events, and then produces a conflict-free schedule. To support reutilization, ROSE is designed to be flexible, extensible, and portable. With these design features, applying ROSE to a new scheduling application does not require changing the core scheduling engine, even if the new application requires significantly larger or smaller data sets, customized scheduling algorithms, or software portability. This paper includes a ROSE scheduling system description emphasizing its general-purpose features, reutilization techniques, and tasks for which ROSE reuse provided a low-risk solution with significant cost savings and reduced software development time.

  19. Research on schedulers for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colome, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Guàrdia, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; Gesa, Lluis; Martínez, Francesc; Rodler, Florian

    2012-09-01

    The main task of a scheduler applied to astronomical observatories is the time optimization of the facility and the maximization of the scientific return. Scheduling of astronomical observations is an example of the classical task allocation problem known as the job-shop problem (JSP), where N ideal tasks are assigned to M identical resources, while minimizing the total execution time. A problem of higher complexity, called the Flexible-JSP (FJSP), arises when the tasks can be executed by different resources, i.e. by different telescopes, and it focuses on determining a routing policy (i.e., which machine to assign for each operation) other than the traditional scheduling decisions (i.e., to determine the starting time of each operation). In most cases there is no single best approach to solve the planning system and, therefore, various mathematical algorithms (Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, Multi-Objective Evolutionary algorithms, etc.) are usually considered to adapt the application to the system configuration and task execution constraints. The scheduling time-cycle is also an important ingredient to determine the best approach. A shortterm scheduler, for instance, has to find a good solution with the minimum computation time, providing the system with the capability to adapt the selected task to varying execution constraints (i.e., environment conditions). We present in this contribution an analysis of the task allocation problem and the solutions currently in use at different astronomical facilities. We also describe the schedulers for three different projects (CTA, CARMENES and TJO) where the conclusions of this analysis are applied to develop a suitable routine.

  20. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  1. Mixed-Integer Formulations for Constellation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valicka, C.; Hart, W.; Rintoul, M.

    Remote sensing systems have expanded the set of capabilities available for and critical to national security. Cooperating, high-fidelity sensing systems and growing mission applications have exponentially increased the set of potential schedules. A definitive lack of advanced tools places an increased burden on operators, as planning and scheduling remain largely manual tasks. This is particularly true in time-critical planning activities where operators aim to accomplish a large number of missions through optimal utilization of single or multiple sensor systems. Automated scheduling through identification and comparison of alternative schedules remains a challenging problem applicable across all remote sensing systems. Previous approaches focused on a subset of sensor missions and do not consider ad-hoc tasking. We have begun development of a robust framework that leverages the Pyomo optimization modeling language for the design of a tool to assist sensor operators planning under the constraints of multiple concurrent missions and uncertainty. Our scheduling models have been formulated to address the stochastic nature of ad-hoc tasks inserted under a variety of scenarios. Operator experience is being leveraged to select appropriate model objectives. Successful development of the framework will include iterative development of high-fidelity mission models that consider and expose various schedule performance metrics. Creating this tool will aid time-critical scheduling by increasing planning efficiency, clarifying the value of alternative modalities uniquely provided by multi-sensor systems, and by presenting both sets of organized information to operators. Such a tool will help operators more quickly and fully utilize sensing systems, a high interest objective within the current remote sensing operations community. Preliminary results for mixed-integer programming formulations of a sensor scheduling problem will be presented. Assumptions regarding sensor geometry

  2. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  3. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  4. Optimizing Operating Room Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Levine, Wilton C; Dunn, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the management of an operating room (OR) schedule and use of the schedule to add value to an organization. We review the methodology of an OR block schedule, daily OR schedule management, and post anesthesia care unit patient flow. We discuss the importance of a well-managed OR schedule to ensure smooth patient care, not only in the OR, but throughout the entire hospital. PMID:26610624

  5. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  6. Teaching Task Sequencing via Verbal Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Verbal sequence training was used to teach a moderately mentally retarded woman to sequence job-related tasks. Learning to say the tasks in the proper sequence resulted in the employee performing her tasks in that sequence, and the employee was capable of mediating her own work behavior when scheduled changes occurred. (Author/JDD)

  7. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  8. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  9. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  11. Distributed Scheduling Extension on Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadan, Zeng; Xieqin, Wang; Ningkang, Jiang

    Distributed computing splits a large-scale job into multiple tasks and deals with them on clusters. Cluster resource allocation is the key point to restrict the efficiency of distributed computing platform. Hadoop is the current most popular open-source distributed platform. However, the existing scheduling strategies in Hadoop are kind of simple and cannot meet the needs such as sharing the cluster for multi-user, ensuring a concept of guaranteed capacity for each job, as well as providing good performance for interactive jobs. This paper researches the existing scheduling strategies, analyses the inadequacy and adds three new features in Hadoop which can raise the weight of job temporarily, grab cluster resources by higher-priority jobs and support the computing resources share among multi-user. Experiments show they can help in providing better performance for interactive jobs, as well as more fairly share of computing time among users.

  12. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  13. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  14. Parallel scheduling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, E.; Sahni, S.

    1983-01-01

    Parallel algorithms are given for scheduling problems such as scheduling to minimize the number of tardy jobs, job sequencing with deadlines, scheduling to minimize earliness and tardiness penalties, channel assignment, and minimizing the mean finish time. The shared memory model of parallel computers is used to obtain fast algorithms. 26 references.

  15. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  16. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  17. Limited Matching on Concurrent-Schedule Reinforcement of Academic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three adolescent students with special educational needs were given reinforcers (nickels) according to three different concurrent variable-interval schedules. Time allocated to the assigned tasks was in linear relationship to the reinforcement rate. However, changes in reinforcement schedules were not followed by changes in allocation patterns…

  18. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  19. NASA scheduling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  20. Iterative modulo scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, B.R.

    1996-02-01

    Modulo scheduling is a framework within which algorithms for software pipelining innermost loops may be defined. The framework specifies a set of constraints that must be met in order to achieve a legal modulo schedule. A wide variety of algorithms and heuristics can be defined within this framework. Little work has been done to evaluate and compare alternative algorithms and heuristics for modulo scheduling from the viewpoints of schedule quality as well as computational complexity. This, along with a vague and unfounded perception that modulo scheduling is computationally expensive as well as difficult to implement, have inhibited its corporation into product compilers. This paper presents iterative modulo scheduling, a practical algorithm that is capable of dealing with realistic machine models. The paper also characterizes the algorithm in terms of the quality of the generated schedules as well as the computational incurred.

  1. Predicting scheduling success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messing, Fredric

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical formulation to predict scheduling success for a class of problems frequently referred to as activity scheduling. Space Network communications scheduling is an example of activity scheduling. The principal assumption is that the activity start times are randomly distributed over the available time in the time line. The formulation makes it possible to estimate how much of the demand can be scheduled as a function of the demand, number of resources, activity duration, and activity flexibility. The paper includes computed results for a variety of resource and demand conditions. The results demonstrate that even with highly flexible activities, it is difficult to schedule demand greater than 60 percent of resources without the use of optimization and conflict resolution capabilities in the scheduling system.

  2. Automatic generation of efficient orderings of events for scheduling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    In scheduling a set of tasks, it is often not known with certainty how long a given event will take. We call this duration uncertainty. Duration uncertainty is a primary obstacle to the successful completion of a schedule. If a duration of one task is longer than expected, the remaining tasks are delayed. The delay may result in the abandonment of the schedule itself, a phenomenon known as schedule breakage. One response to schedule breakage is on-line, dynamic rescheduling. A more recent alternative is called proactive rescheduling. This method uses statistical data about the durations of events in order to anticipate the locations in the schedule where breakage is likely prior to the execution of the schedule. It generates alternative schedules at such sensitive points, which can be then applied by the scheduler at execution time, without the delay incurred by dynamic rescheduling. This paper proposes a technique for making proactive error management more effective. The technique is based on applying a similarity-based method of clustering to the problem of identifying similar events in a set of events.

  3. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume uncertain amounts of a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have uncertain utility. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We show that the problems are NP- complete, and present some results that characterize the behavior of some simple heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  4. Schedule-Aware Workflow Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, Ronny S.; Russell, Nick C.; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.; Moleman, Arnold J.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    Contemporary workflow management systems offer work-items to users through specific work-lists. Users select the work-items they will perform without having a specific schedule in mind. However, in many environments work needs to be scheduled and performed at particular times. For example, in hospitals many work-items are linked to appointments, e.g., a doctor cannot perform surgery without reserving an operating theater and making sure that the patient is present. One of the problems when applying workflow technology in such domains is the lack of calendar-based scheduling support. In this paper, we present an approach that supports the seamless integration of unscheduled (flow) and scheduled (schedule) tasks. Using CPN Tools we have developed a specification and simulation model for schedule-aware workflow management systems. Based on this a system has been realized that uses YAWL, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Outlook, and a dedicated scheduling service. The approach is illustrated using a real-life case study at the AMC hospital in the Netherlands. In addition, we elaborate on the experiences obtained when developing and implementing a system of this scale using formal techniques.

  5. Analysis of Issues for Project Scheduling by Multiple, Dispersed Schedulers (distributed Scheduling) and Requirements for Manual Protocols and Computer-based Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1991-01-01

    Although computerized operations have significant gains realized in many areas, one area, scheduling, has enjoyed few benefits from automation. The traditional methods of industrial engineering and operations research have not proven robust enough to handle the complexities associated with the scheduling of realistic problems. To address this need, NASA has developed the computer-aided scheduling system (COMPASS), a sophisticated, interactive scheduling tool that is in wide-spread use within NASA and the contractor community. Therefore, COMPASS provides no explicit support for the large class of problems in which several people, perhaps at various locations, build separate schedules that share a common pool of resources. This research examines the issue of distributing scheduling, as applied to application domains characterized by the partial ordering of tasks, limited resources, and time restrictions. The focus of this research is on identifying issues related to distributed scheduling, locating applicable problem domains within NASA, and suggesting areas for ongoing research. The issues that this research identifies are goals, rescheduling requirements, database support, the need for communication and coordination among individual schedulers, the potential for expert system support for scheduling, and the possibility of integrating artificially intelligent schedulers into a network of human schedulers.

  6. Technology for planning and scheduling under complex constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguire, Karen M.; Pedro Gomes, Carla O.

    1997-02-01

    Within the context of law enforcement, several problems fall into the category of planning and scheduling under constraints. Examples include resource and personnel scheduling, and court scheduling. In the case of court scheduling, a schedule must be generated considering available resources, e.g., court rooms and personnel. Additionally, there are constraints on individual court cases, e.g., temporal and spatial, and between different cases, e.g., precedence. Finally, there are overall objectives that the schedule should satisfy such as timely processing of cases and optimal use of court facilities. Manually generating a schedule that satisfies all of the constraints is a very time consuming task. As the number of court cases and constraints increases, this becomes increasingly harder to handle without the assistance of automatic scheduling techniques. This paper describes artificial intelligence (AI) technology that has been used to develop several high performance scheduling applications including a military transportation scheduler, a military in-theater airlift scheduler, and a nuclear power plant outage scheduler. We discuss possible law enforcement applications where we feel the same technology could provide long-term benefits to law enforcement agencies and their operations personnel.

  7. A format for the interchange of scheduling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John P.; Davis, Elizabeth K.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years a variety of space-activity schedulers have been developed within the aerospace community. Space-activity schedulers are characterized by their need to handle large numbers of activities which are time-window constrained and make high demands on many scarce resources, but are minimally constrained by predecessor/successor requirements or critical paths. Two needs to exchange data between these schedulers have materialized. First, there is significant interest in comparing and evaluating the different scheduling engines to ensure that the best technology is applied to each scheduling endeavor. Second, there is a developing requirement to divide a single scheduling task among different sites, each using a different scheduler. In fact, the scheduling task for International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be distributed among NASA centers and among the international partners. The format used to interchange scheduling data for ISSA will likely use a growth version of the format discussed in this paper. The model interchange format (or MIF, pronounced as one syllable) discussed in this paper is a robust solution to the need to interchange scheduling requirements for space activities. It is highly extensible, human-readable, and can be generated or edited with common text editors. It also serves well the need to support a 'benchmark' data case which can be delivered on any computer platform.

  8. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models

  9. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  10. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  11. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  12. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  13. Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.

  14. Scheduling time-critical graphics on multiple processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Tom W.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for the scheduling of time-critical rendering and computation tasks on single- and multiple-processor architectures, with minimal pipelining. It was developed to manage scientific visualization scenes consisting of hundreds of objects, each of which can be computed and displayed at thousands of possible resolution levels. The algorithm generates the time-critical schedule using progressive-refinement techniques; it always returns a feasible schedule and, when allowed to run to completion, produces a near-optimal schedule which takes advantage of almost the entire multiple-processor system.

  15. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  16. A system for optimizing the scheduling and blending of crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, G.A.G.; Haverly, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    Operational scheduling within the downstream oil industry covers a wide range of tasks and decision making activities which have traditionally been undertaken with little or no assistance from specialized decision support tools. HSI has recently addressed this software gap and has developed scheduling decision support systems aimed specifically at the needs of the operational scheduler. In this paper the authors discuss the potential application of this software to crude oil scheduling covering pipeline delivery, terminal operations and optimized blending for feed to topping units. In addition HSI`s new scheduling software can be configured for use in refinery process unit scheduling, product blending and product distribution giving comprehensive cover to all aspects of downstream oil scheduling activities. The main scheduling system has been designed as a modular one so that the appropriate level of system complexity can be installed for any given application and to allow for stagewise implementation. The modules include a short term optimization module using Linear and/or Mixed Integer Programming techniques, a rule based Expert System decision generation module, a comprehensive event based operations simulation module and full graphic and text reporting modules. It is designed for network applications so that a number of schedulers can use the same system for individual tasks sharing data and other elements of the system to produce a fully integrated operating schedule. Substantial financial benefits should come from the improved ability of the schedulers to recover from the wide range of operational disturbances that routinely affect operations, the ability to perform What If studies to improve operating schedules and a faster response to commercial opportunities that regularly arise. Estimates are that a fully functioning operations scheduling system designed specifically for the job should pay for itself in no more than one year.

  17. Space station payload operations scheduling with ESP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kenneth L.; Jaap, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Division of the Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a system of programs to handle all aspects of scheduling payload operations for Space Station. The Expert Scheduling Program (ESP2) is the heart of this system. The task of payload operations scheduling can be simply stated as positioning the payload activities in a mission so that they collect their desired data without interfering with other activities or violating mission constraints. ESP2 is an advanced version of the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP) which was developed by the Mission Integration Branch beginning in 1979 to schedule Spacelab payload activities. The automatic scheduler in ESP2 is an expert system that embodies the rules that expert planners would use to schedule payload operations by hand. This scheduler uses depth-first searching, backtracking, and forward chaining techniques to place an activity so that constraints (such as crew, resources, and orbit opportunities) are not violated. It has an explanation facility to show why an activity was or was not scheduled at a certain time. The ESP2 user can also place the activities in the schedule manually. The program offers graphical assistance to the user and will advise when constraints are being violated. ESP2 also has an option to identify conflict introduced into an existing schedule by changes to payload requirements, mission constraints, and orbit opportunities.

  18. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  19. A space station onboard scheduling assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindle, A. F.; Anderson, B. H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the goals for the Space Station is to achieve greater autonomy, and have less reliance on ground commanding than previous space missions. This means that the crew will have to take an active role in scheduling and rescheduling their activities onboard, perhaps working from preliminary schedules generated on the ground. Scheduling is a time intensive task, whether performed manually or automatically, so the best approach to solving onboard scheduling problems may involve crew members working with an interactive software scheduling package. A project is described which investigates a system that uses knowledge based techniques for the rescheduling of experiments within the Materials Technology Laboratory of the Space Station. Particular attention is paid to: (1) methods for rapid response rescheduling to accommodate unplanned changes in resource availability, (2) the nature of the interface to the crew, (3) the representation of the many types of data within the knowledge base, and (4) the possibility of applying rule-based and constraint-based reasoning methods to onboard activity scheduling.

  20. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  1. Linear-time algorithms for scheduling on parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Monma, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear-time algorithms are presented for several problems of scheduling n equal-length tasks on m identical parallel processors subject to precedence constraints. This improves upon previous time bounds for the maximum lateness problem with treelike precedence constraints, the number-of-late-tasks problem without precedence constraints, and the one machine maximum lateness problem with general precedence constraints. 5 references.

  2. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  3. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  4. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  5. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  6. Trimester Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

  7. Fixed-Time Schedule Effects in Combination with Response-Dependent Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, John C.; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A.; Sy, Jolene R.; Francisco, Monica T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response…

  8. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  9. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  10. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  11. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  12. Adaptive sensor tasking using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Peter J.; Kirk, Joe; Welchons, Dave

    2007-04-01

    Today's battlefield environment contains a large number of sensors, and sensor types, onboard multiple platforms. The set of sensor types includes SAR, EO/IR, GMTI, AMTI, HSI, MSI, and video, and for each sensor type there may be multiple sensing modalities to select from. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ either static tasking approaches or require an operator to manually change sensor tasking operations. In a highly dynamic environment this leads to a situation whereby the sensors become less effective as the sensing environments deviates from the assumed conditions. Through a Phase I SBIR effort we developed a system architecture and a common tasking approach for solving the sensor tasking problem for a multiple sensor mix. As part of our sensor tasking effort we developed a genetic algorithm based task scheduling approach and demonstrated the ability to automatically task and schedule sensors in an end-to-end closed loop simulation. Our approach allows for multiple sensors as well as system and sensor constraints. This provides a solid foundation for our future efforts including incorporation of other sensor types. This paper will describe our approach for scheduling using genetic algorithms to solve the sensor tasking problem in the presence of resource constraints and required task linkage. We will conclude with a discussion of results for a sample problem and of the path forward.

  13. Dynamic multi DAG scheduling algorithm for optical grid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liying; Sun, Zhenyu; Guo, Wei; Jin, Yaohui; Sun, Weiqiang; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    Facing the evolvement of the Optical Grid technology, dynamic task scheduling can largely improve the efficiency of the Grid environment under the real circumstances. We propose a Serve On Time (SOT) algorithm - based on the idea of combining all the dynamic multi tasks so that all the tasks will obtain the rights to be served as soon as possible. We then introduce the basic First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm. A simulation will show the advantage of SOT.

  14. Enhanced Software for Scheduling Space-Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barretta, Joseph A.; Johnson, Earl P.; Bierman, Rocky R.; Blanco, Juan; Boaz, Kathleen; Stotz, Lisa A.; Clark, Michael; Lebovitz, George; Lotti, Kenneth J.; Moody, James M.; Nguyen, Tony K.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Sargent, Susan; Shaw, Karma; Stoner, Mack D.; Stowell, Deborah S.; Young, Daniel A.; Tulley, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) computer program is used to develop streamlined schedules for the inspection, repair, and refurbishment of space shuttles at Kennedy Space Center. A scheduling computer program is needed because space-shuttle processing is complex and it is frequently necessary to modify schedules to accommodate unanticipated events, unavailability of specialized personnel, unexpected delays, and the need to repair newly discovered defects. GPSS implements constraint-based scheduling algorithms and provides an interactive scheduling software environment. In response to inputs, GPSS can respond with schedules that are optimized in the sense that they contain minimal violations of constraints while supporting the most effective and efficient utilization of space-shuttle ground processing resources. The present version of GPSS is a product of re-engineering of a prototype version. While the prototype version proved to be valuable and versatile as a scheduling software tool during the first five years, it was characterized by design and algorithmic deficiencies that affected schedule revisions, query capability, task movement, report capability, and overall interface complexity. In addition, the lack of documentation gave rise to difficulties in maintenance and limited both enhanceability and portability. The goal of the GPSS re-engineering project was to upgrade the prototype into a flexible system that supports multiple- flow, multiple-site scheduling and that retains the strengths of the prototype while incorporating improvements in maintainability, enhanceability, and portability.

  15. Scheduling Operations for Massive Heterogeneous Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, John; Spagnoli, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) programming has become increasingly difficult with the advent of hybrid supercomputers consisting of multicore CPUs and accelerator boards such as the GPU. Manual tuning of software to achieve high performance on this type of machine has been performed by programmers. This is needlessly difficult and prone to being invalidated by new hardware, new software, or changes in the underlying code. A system was developed for task-based representation of programs, which when coupled with a scheduler and runtime system, allows for many benefits, including higher performance and utilization of computational resources, easier programming and porting, and adaptations of code during runtime. The system consists of a method of representing computer algorithms as a series of data-dependent tasks. The series forms a graph, which can be scheduled for execution on many nodes of a supercomputer efficiently by a computer algorithm. The schedule is executed by a dispatch component, which is tailored to understand all of the hardware types that may be available within the system. The scheduler is informed by a cluster mapping tool, which generates a topology of available resources and their strengths and communication costs. Software is decoupled from its hardware, which aids in porting to future architectures. A computer algorithm schedules all operations, which for systems of high complexity (i.e., most NASA codes), cannot be performed optimally by a human. The system aids in reducing repetitive code, such as communication code, and aids in the reduction of redundant code across projects. It adds new features to code automatically, such as recovering from a lost node or the ability to modify the code while running. In this project, the innovators at the time of this reporting intend to develop two distinct technologies that build upon each other and both of which serve as building blocks for more efficient HPC usage. First is the scheduling and dynamic

  16. Disk scheduling for multimedia data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Steve J.; Strosnider, Jay K.

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about the timing correctness of multimedia data streams supported on a shared, serially-reusable server. A real-time scheduling approach is used to guarantee the timing requirements for multimedia applications such as video-on- demand and multimedia presentations. This framework incorporates the use of scheduling models, which are defined as abstractions that can be used to reason about timing correctness on physical resources. The scheduling models in this paper can be applied to multimedia systems which use periodic tasks to retrieve data from a disk. With their use, the multimedia system designer can reason a priori about the throughput, capacity, and schedulability of a system. The models enable the real-time system architect to quickly explore the system design space, to establish and maintain a firm performance baseline, to optimize system configuration parameters, and to explore the impact of new technologies. As an example of the application of this framework a new disk policy called T-scan is developed here. T-scan is applied to a multimedia task set and the analytical results are presented. Additionally, the performance of various disk policies are compared using the framework.

  17. A software tool for dataflow graph scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1994-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is presented for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described using a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on multiple processors. The dataflow paradigm is very useful in exposing the parallelism inherent in algorithms. It provides a graphical and mathematical model which describes a partial ordering of algorithm tasks based on data precedence.

  18. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  19. Scheduling and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, James F.

    1982-01-01

    College scheduling system and operating procedure objectives influence efficient use of resources. Theoretical and practical considerations are outlined, including a step-by-step assessment of an institution's enrollment capacity and discussion of centralized or reassignable classrooms. (Author/MSE)

  20. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  1. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Grego

    2004-01-01

    Schedule Risk Assessment (SRA) determines the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. This viewgraph presentation introduces the prerequisites, probability distribution curves, special conditions, calculations, and results analysis for SRA.

  2. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate missions where communications resources are limited, requiring autonomous planning and execution. Unlike typical networks, spacecraft networks are also suited to automated planning and scheduling because many communications can be planned in advance.

  3. Initial Hardware Development Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware development schedule for the Common Lunar Lander's (CLLs) tracking system is presented. Among the topics covered are the following: historical perspective, solution options, industry contacts, and the rationale for selection.

  4. Prototype resupply scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Steve; Hughes, Angi; Byrd, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Resupply scheduling for the Space Station presents some formidable logistics problems. One of the most basic problems is assigning supplies to a series of shuttle resupply missions. A prototype logistics expert system which constructs resupply schedules was developed. This prototype is able to reconstruct feasible resupply plans. In addition, analysts can use the system to evaluate the impact of adding, deleting or modifying launches, cargo space, experiments, etc.

  5. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times. PMID:24895672

  6. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  7. SPANR planning and scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

    2001-07-01

    SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

  8. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS) enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26688828

  9. The Ames-Lockheed orbiter processing scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Gargan, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A general purpose scheduling system and its application to Space Shuttle Orbiter Processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are described. Orbiter processing entails all the inspection, testing, repair, and maintenance necessary to prepare the Shuttle for launch and takes place within the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and on the launch pad. The problems are extremely combinatoric in that there are thousands of tasks, resources, and other temporal considerations that must be coordinated. Researchers are building a scheduling tool that they hope will be an integral part of automating the planning and scheduling process at KSC. The scheduling engine is domain independent and is also being applied to Space Shuttle cargo processing problems as well as wind tunnel scheduling problems.

  10. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  11. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  12. NASA revises shuttle schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    The new schedule for Space Shuttle missions and expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) calls for a 7-month delay in sending up the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA was forced to put off launching the telescope until February 1990 to keep the Magellan and Galileo missions within their narrow launch windows. The first post-Challenger shuttle launch is now scheduled for late this month. Discovery's most recent delays were due to a hydrogen leak discovered July 29 that has still not been corrected and an engine valve malfunction during an August 4 test fire.

  13. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  14. Multiple daily fractionation schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Although conventional fractionation schedules have been satisfactory for the treatment of some tumors, there is reason to believe that the results of radiation therapy could be improved in some cases by appropriate alterations in treatment schedules. The pharmacological characteristics of some of the electron affinic radiation sensitizers have provided added incentive to investigate newer fractionation schemes, particularly ones which deliver the majority of the radiation dose in short periods of time. This editorial discusses three papers describing preliminary clinical studies using multi-daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy. Two of these studies also make use of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole. (KRM)

  15. Scheduling in the Face of Uncertain Resource Consumption and Utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Frank, Jeremy; Dearden, Richard

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problem of scheduling tasks that consume a resource with known capacity and where the tasks have varying utility. We consider problems in which the resource consumption and utility of each activity is described by probability distributions. In these circumstances, we would like to find schedules that exceed a lower bound on the expected utility when executed. We first show that while some of these problems are NP-complete, others are only NP-Hard. We then describe various heuristic search algorithms to solve these problems and their drawbacks. Finally, we present empirical results that characterize the behavior of these heuristics over a variety of problem classes.

  16. Optimal scheduling of logistical support for an emergency roadway repair work schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Lin, C. K.; Chen, S. Y.

    2012-09-01

    The completion of every disaster rescue task performed by repair work teams relies on the in-time supply of materials to the rescue workers. Up to now, logistical support planning for emergency repair work in Taiwan has been done manually, which is neither effective nor efficient. To remedy the problem, this study presents a logistical support scheduling model for the given emergency repair work schedule. The objective is to minimize the short-term operating cost subject to time constraints and other related operating constraints. This model is formulated as an integer multiple-commodity network flow problem which is characterized as NP-hard. A heuristic algorithm, based on the problem decomposition and variable fixing techniques, is also proposed to efficiently solve this problem. Computational tests are performed using data from Taiwan's 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The results show that the model and the solution algorithm would be useful for the logistical support scheduling.

  17. Emergency response nurse scheduling with medical support robot by multi-agent and fuzzy technique.

    PubMed

    Kono, Shinya; Kitamura, Akira

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new co-operative re-scheduling method corresponding the medical support tasks that the time of occurrence can not be predicted is described, assuming robot can co-operate medical activities with the nurse. Here, Multi-Agent-System (MAS) is used for the co-operative re-scheduling, in which Fuzzy-Contract-Net (FCN) is applied to the robots task assignment for the emergency tasks. As the simulation results, it is confirmed that the re-scheduling results by the proposed method can keep the patients satisfaction and decrease the work load of the nurse. PMID:26738190

  18. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  19. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  20. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  1. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  2. Schedule-Induced Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Howard, Denise

    1992-01-01

    The phenomena of the induction and entrainment of adjunctive behaviors was investigated in 8 people (ages 5-51) with severe or profound mental retardation who exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Seven of the eight demonstrated evidence of schedule-induced stereotypic behavior, whereas five also showed evidence of the entrainment of these behaviors by…

  3. Simulation-Based Optimization for Surgery Scheduling in Operation Theatre Management Using Response Surface Method.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fung, Richard Y K

    2015-11-01

    Operation theatre is one of the most significant assets in a hospital as the greatest source of revenue as well as the largest cost unit. This paper focuses on surgery scheduling optimization, which is one of the most crucial tasks in operation theatre management. A combined scheduling policy composed of three simple scheduling rules is proposed to optimize the performance of scheduling operation theatre. Based on the real-life scenarios, a simulation-based model about surgery scheduling system is built. With two optimization objectives, the response surface method is adopted to search for the optimal weight of simple rules in a combined scheduling policy in the model. Moreover, the weights configuration can be revised to cope with dispatching dynamics according to real-time change at the operation theatre. Finally, performance comparison between the proposed combined scheduling policy and tabu search algorithm indicates that the combined scheduling policy is capable of sequencing surgery appointments more efficiently. PMID:26385551

  4. Expert system for on-board satellite scheduling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, John M.; Sary, Charisse

    1988-01-01

    An Expert System is described which Rockwell Satellite and Space Electronics Division (S&SED) is developing to dynamically schedule the allocation of on-board satellite resources and activities. This expert system is the Satellite Controller. The resources to be scheduled include power, propellant and recording tape. The activities controlled include scheduling satellite functions such as sensor checkout and operation. The scheduling of these resources and activities is presently a labor intensive and time consuming ground operations task. Developing a schedule requires extensive knowledge of the system and subsystems operations, operational constraints, and satellite design and configuration. This scheduling process requires highly trained experts anywhere from several hours to several weeks to accomplish. The process is done through brute force, that is examining cryptic mnemonic data off line to interpret the health and status of the satellite. Then schedules are formulated either as the result of practical operator experience or heuristics - that is rules of thumb. Orbital operations must become more productive in the future to reduce life cycle costs and decrease dependence on ground control. This reduction is required to increase autonomy and survivability of future systems. The design of future satellites require that the scheduling function be transferred from ground to on board systems.

  5. Designing safe job rotation schedules using optimization and heuristic search.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, B J; Redfern, M S; Norman, B

    2000-04-01

    Job rotation is one method that is sometimes used to reduce exposure to strenuous materials handling; however, developing effective rotation schedules can be complex in even moderate sized facilities. The purpose of this research is to develop methods of incorporating safety criteria into scheduling algorithms to produce job rotation schedules that reduce the potential for injury. Integer programming and a genetic algorithm were used to construct job rotation schedules. Schedules were comprised of lifting tasks whose potential for causing injury was assessed with the Job Severity Index. Each method was used to design four job rotation schedules that met specified safety criteria in a working environment where the object weight, horizontal distance and repetition rate varied over time. Each rotation was assigned to a specific gender/lifting capacity group. Five versions of the integer programming search method were applied to this problem. Each version generated one job rotation schedule. The genetic algorithm model was able to create a population of 437 feasible solutions to the rotation problem. Utilizing cluster analysis, a rule set was derived from the genetic algorithm generated solutions. These rules provided guidelines for designing safe job rotation schedules without the use of a computer. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in developing administrative controls for the prevention of back injury are discussed. PMID:10801086

  6. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike

  7. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  8. Characterizing and Mitigating Work Time Inflation in Task Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olivier, Stephen L.; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Schulz, Martin; Prins, Jan F.

    2013-01-01

    Task parallelism raises the level of abstraction in shared memory parallel programming to simplify the development of complex applications. However, task parallel applications can exhibit poor performance due to thread idleness, scheduling overheads, and work time inflation – additional time spent by threads in a multithreaded computation beyond the time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation. We identify the contributions of each factor to lost efficiency in various task parallel OpenMP applications and diagnose the causes of work time inflation in those applications. Increased data access latency can cause significant work time inflation in NUMAmore » systems. Our locality framework for task parallel OpenMP programs mitigates this cause of work time inflation. Our extensions to the Qthreads library demonstrate that locality-aware scheduling can improve performance up to 3X compared to the Intel OpenMP task scheduler.« less

  9. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  10. State-based scheduling: An architecture for telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of constraint-based scheduling, a methodology previously developed and validated in the domain of factory scheduling, is extended to problem domains that require attendance to a wider range of state-dependent constraints. The problem of constructing and maintaining a short-term observation schedule for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which typifies this type of domain is the focus of interest. The nature of the constraints encountered in the HST domain is examined, system requirements are discussed with respect to utilization of a constraint-based scheduling methodology in such domains, and a general framework for state-based scheduling is presented.

  11. NASA launch schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D‧, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

  12. Observation Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  13. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  14. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  15. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  16. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  17. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  18. Heuristics for scheduling Earth observing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, William J.; Sorensen, Stephen E.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes several methods for assigning tasks to Earth Observing Systems Satellites (EOS). We present empirical results for three heuristics, called: Priority Dispatch (PD), Look Ahead (LA), and Genetic Algorithm (GA). These heuristics progress from simple to complex, from less accurate to more accurate, and from fast to slow. We present empirical results as applied to the Window-Constrained Packing problem (WCP). The WCP is a simplified version of the EOS scheduling problem. We discuss the problem of having more than one optimization criteria. We will also discuss the relationship between the WCP and the more traditional Knapsack and Weighted Early/Tardy problems.

  19. A human factors approach to range scheduling for satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Aitken, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Range scheduling for satellite control presents a classical problem: supervisory control of a large-scale dynamic system, with unwieldy amounts of interrelated data used as inputs to the decision process. Increased automation of the task, with the appropriate human-computer interface, is highly desirable. The development and user evaluation of a semi-automated network range scheduling system is described. The system incorporates a synergistic human-computer interface consisting of a large screen color display, voice input/output, a 'sonic pen' pointing device, a touchscreen color CRT, and a standard keyboard. From a human factors standpoint, this development represents the first major improvement in almost 30 years to the satellite control network scheduling task.

  20. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  1. Establishing Derived Textual Control in Activity Schedules with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Yang, Heejean G.; Finn, Heather E.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity schedules are often used to facilitate task engagement and transition for children with autism. This study evaluated whether conditional discrimination training would serve to transfer the control from activity-schedule pictures to printed words (i.e., derived textual control). Two preschoolers with autism were taught to select pictures…

  2. Relationship between Contingency Awareness and Human Performance on Random Ratio and Random Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ceri A.; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments, human participants pressed the space bar on a computer keyboard to earn points on random-ratio (RR) and random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. Verbalized contingency awareness (CA) for each schedule was measured after the entire task (Experiments 1 and 2), or after each RR-RI trial (Experiment 3). In all three…

  3. Scheduling Jobs with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrolho, António; Crisóstomo, Manuel

    Most scheduling problems are NP-hard, the time required to solve the problem optimally increases exponentially with the size of the problem. Scheduling problems have important applications, and a number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to determine relatively good solutions in polynomial time. Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) are successfully used to solve scheduling problems, as shown by the growing numbers of papers. GA are known as one of the most efficient algorithms for solving scheduling problems. But, when a GA is applied to scheduling problems various crossovers and mutations operators can be applicable. This paper presents and examines a new concept of genetic operators for scheduling problems. A software tool called hybrid and flexible genetic algorithm (HybFlexGA) was developed to examine the performance of various crossover and mutation operators by computing simulations of job scheduling problems.

  4. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  5. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Night Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called ?ask models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that are to be scheduled. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next, a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, the models are modified to be compatible with the scheduling engine. Then the models are submitted to the scheduling engine for automatic scheduling or, when requirements are expressed in notes, the timeline is built manually. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components: (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphical methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models without the

  6. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  7. A Multitasking General Executive for Compound Continuous Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2005-01-01

    As cognitive architectures move to account for increasingly complex real-world tasks, one of the most pressing challenges involves understanding and modeling human multitasking. Although a number of existing models now perform multitasking in real-world scenarios, these models typically employ customized executives that schedule tasks for the…

  8. Individual differences in strategic flight management and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Raby, Mireille

    1991-01-01

    A group of 30 instrument-rated pilots was made to fly simulator approaches to three airports under conditions of low, medium, and high workload conditions. An analysis is presently conducted of the difference in discrete task scheduling between the group of 10 highest and 10 lowest performing pilots in the sample; this categorization was based on the mean of various flight-profile measures. The two groups were found to differ from each other only in terms of the time when specific events were conducted, and of the optimality of scheduling for certain high-priority tasks. These results are assessed in view of the relative independence of task-management skills from aircraft-control skills.

  9. Job-shop scheduling applied to computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian y Zuniga, Jose M.; Torres-Medina, Fernando; Aracil, Rafael; Reinoso, Oscar; Jimenez, Luis M.; Garcia, David

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents a method for minimizing the total elapsed time spent by n tasks running on m differents processors working in parallel. The developed algorithm not only minimizes the total elapsed time but also reduces the idle time and waiting time of in-process tasks. This condition is very important in some applications of computer vision in which the time to finish the total process is particularly critical -- quality control in industrial inspection, real- time computer vision, guided robots. The scheduling algorithm is based on the use of two matrices, obtained from the precedence relationships between tasks, and the data obtained from the two matrices. The developed scheduling algorithm has been tested in one application of quality control using computer vision. The results obtained have been satisfactory in the application of different image processing algorithms.

  10. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  11. Schedule-induced licking during multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Yasuko Filby

    1972-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia was studied in rats bar pressing under two-component multiple schedules of food reinforcement. The first component of the multiple schedule was a variable-interval 1-min schedule throughout the experiment. The schedule comprising the second component was varied over blocks of sessions in terms of rate and magnitude of reinforcement, and was either variable-interval 3-min (one pellet), variable-interval 3-min (three pellets), variable-interval 1-min (one pellet), or extinction. Water intake per session varied with the rate of reinforcement in the schedule comprising the second component and was highest when the schedule was variable-interval 1-min. Both bar-pressing behavior and licking behavior showed behavioral interactions between the two components of the multiple schedules. With magnitude of reinforcement held constant, a matching relationship was observed between lick rate and reinforcement rate; the relative frequency of licks in the constant component matched the relative frequency of reinforcement in that component. Bar pressing, however, showed only a moderate degree of relativity matching. During the schedule-induced licking, a burst of licking followed each delivery of a pellet (post-prandial drinking). The duration of these bursts of licking was observed to be a function of the inter-reinforcement interval. PMID:16811598

  12. Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.

    2012-12-01

    Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these

  13. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  14. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  15. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  16. Scheduling Results for the THEMIS Observation Scheduling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Anwar, Sadaat; Mehall, Greg; Christensen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheduling system intended to assist in the development of instrument data acquisitions for the THEMIS instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and compare results from multiple scheduling algorithms. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted geographical regions of interest and (b) general mapping observations, while respecting spacecraft constraints such as data volume, observation timing, visibility, lighting, season, and science priorities. This tool therefore must address both geometric and state/timing/resource constraints. We describe a tool that maps geometric polygon overlap constraints to set covering constraints using a grid-based approach. These set covering constraints are then incorporated into a greedy optimization scheduling algorithm incorporating operations constraints to generate feasible schedules. The resultant tool generates schedules of hundreds of observations per week out of potential thousands of observations. This tool is currently under evaluation by the THEMIS observation planning team at Arizona State University.

  17. Expert mission planning and replanning scheduling system for NASA KSC payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Roger

    1987-01-01

    EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flight manifest, these planners develop mission and payload schedules detailing all processing to be performed in the Operations and Checkout building at Kennedy. With the EMPRESS system, schedules are generated quickly using standard flows that represent the tasks and resources required to process a specific horizontal carrier. Resources can be tracked and resource conflicts can be determined and resolved interactively. Constraint relationships between tasks are maintained and can be enforced when a task is moved or rescheduled. The domain, structure, and functionality of the EMPRESS system is briefly designed. The limitations of the EMPRESS system are described as well as improvements expected with the EMPRESS-2 development.

  18. The TJO-OAdM Robotic Observatory: the scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Casteels, Kevin; Ribas, Ignasi; Francisco, Xavier

    2010-07-01

    The Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (TJO - OAdM) is a small-class observatory working under completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by its reliability in responding to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. But there is another key point when deciding how the system performs as a robot: the capability to adapt the scheduled observation to actual conditions. The scheduler represents a fundamental element to fully achieve an intelligent response at any time. Its main task is the mid- and short-term time optimization and it has a direct effect on the scientific return achieved by the observatory. We present a description of the scheduler developed for the TJO - OAdM, which is separated in two parts. Firstly, a pre-scheduler that makes a temporary selection of objects from the available projects according to their possibility of observation. This process is carried out before the beginning of the night following different selection criteria. Secondly, a dynamic scheduler that is executed any time a target observation is complete and a new one must be scheduled. The latter enables the selection of the best target in real time according to actual environment conditions and the set of priorities.

  19. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  20. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  1. Web-based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

  2. Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

  3. Coordinating space telescope operations in an integrated planning and scheduling architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.; Cesta, Amedeo; D'Aloisi, Daniela

    1992-01-01

    The Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software architecture for integrated planning and scheduling, is discussed. The architecture has been applied to the problem of generating observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This problem is representative of the class of problems that can be addressed: their complexity lies in the interaction of resource allocation and auxiliary task expansion. The architecture deals with this interaction by viewing planning and scheduling as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing behaviors of a dynamical system. The principal components of the software architecture are described, indicating how to model the structure and dynamics of a system, how to represent schedules at multiple levels of abstraction in the temporal database, and how the problem solving machinery operates. A scheduler for the detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations that has been developed within HSTS is described. Experimental performance results are given that indicate the utility and practicality of the approach.

  4. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  5. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is well-known to be a difficult problem the more resources are involved (a NP-hard problem). This is about to become an issue in Radio astronomy as observatories consisting of hundreds to thousands of telescopes are planned and operated. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which Australia and New Zealand bid to host, is aiming for scales where current approaches -- in construction, operation but also scheduling -- are insufficent. Although manual scheduling is common today, the problem is becoming complicated by the demand for (1) independent sub-arrays doing simultaneous observations, which requires the scheduler to plan parallel observations and (2) dynamic re-scheduling on changed conditions. Both of these requirements apply to the SKA, especially in the construction phase. We review the scheduling approaches taken in the astronomy literature, as well as investigate techniques from human schedulers and today's observatories. The scheduling problem is specified in general for scientific observations and in particular on radio telescope arrays. Also taken into account is the fact that the observatory may be oversubscribed, requiring the scheduling problem to be integrated with a planning process. We solve this long-term scheduling problem using a time-based encoding that works in the very general case of observation scheduling. This research then compares algorithms from various approaches, including fast heuristics from CPU scheduling, Linear Integer Programming and Genetic algorithms, Branch-and-Bound enumeration schemes. Measures include not only goodness of the solution, but also scalability and re-scheduling capabilities. In conclusion, we have identified a fast and good scheduling approach that allows (re-)scheduling difficult and changing problems by combining heuristics with a Genetic algorithm using block-wise mutation operations. We are able to explain and eradicate two problems in the

  6. A new distributed systems scheduling algorithm: a swarm intelligence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi Kashani, Mostafa; Sarvizadeh, Raheleh; Jameii, Mahdi

    2011-12-01

    The scheduling problem in distributed systems is known as an NP-complete problem, and methods based on heuristic or metaheuristic search have been proposed to obtain optimal and suboptimal solutions. The task scheduling is a key factor for distributed systems to gain better performance. In this paper, an efficient method based on memetic algorithm is developed to solve the problem of distributed systems scheduling. With regard to load balancing efficiently, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied as local search in the proposed memetic algorithm. The proposed method has been compared to existing memetic-Based approach in which Learning Automata method has been used as local search. The results demonstrated that the proposed method outperform the above mentioned method in terms of communication cost.

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2000-03-27

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522.

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    1999-08-31

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522.

  9. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  10. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children Recommend on Facebook ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Schedule for ...

  11. Improved Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Scheduling using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.

    There are close to 20,000 cataloged manmade objects in space, the large majority of which are not active, functioning satellites. These are tracked by phased array and mechanical radars and ground and space-based optical telescopes, collectively known as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). A better SSN schedule of observations could, using exactly the same legacy sensor resources, improve space catalog accuracy through more complementary tracking, provide better responsiveness to real-time changes, better track small debris in low earth orbit (LEO) through efficient use of applicable sensors, efficiently track deep space (DS) frequent revisit objects, handle increased numbers of objects and new types of sensors, and take advantage of future improved communication and control to globally optimize the SSN schedule. We have developed a scheduling algorithm that takes as input the space catalog and the associated covariance matrices and produces a globally optimized schedule for each sensor site as to what objects to observe and when. This algorithm is able to schedule more observations with the same sensor resources and have those observations be more complementary, in terms of the precision with which each orbit metric is known, to produce a satellite observation schedule that, when executed, minimizes the covariances across the entire space object catalog. If used operationally, the results would be significantly increased accuracy of the space catalog with fewer lost objects with the same set of sensor resources. This approach inherently can also trade-off fewer high priority tasks against more lower-priority tasks, when there is benefit in doing so. Currently the project has completed a prototyping and feasibility study, using open source data on the SSN's sensors, that showed significant reduction in orbit metric covariances. The algorithm techniques and results will be discussed along with future directions for the research.

  12. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  13. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. 29 CFR 1952.221 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Tennessee § 1952.221 Developmental schedule. The Tennessee state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule...

  15. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  16. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  17. A Generic Scheduling Simulator for High Performance Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, B S; Choi, G S; Jette, M A

    2001-08-01

    It is well known that efficient job scheduling plays a crucial role in achieving high system utilization in large-scale high performance computing environments. A good scheduling algorithm should schedule jobs to achieve high system utilization while satisfying various user demands in an equitable fashion. Designing such a scheduling algorithm is a non-trivial task even in a static environment. In practice, the computing environment and workload are constantly changing. There are several reasons for this. First, the computing platforms constantly evolve as the technology advances. For example, the availability of relatively powerful commodity off-the-shelf (COTS) components at steadily diminishing prices have made it feasible to construct ever larger massively parallel computers in recent years [1, 4]. Second, the workload imposed on the system also changes constantly. The rapidly increasing compute resources have provided many applications developers with the opportunity to radically alter program characteristics and take advantage of these additional resources. New developments in software technology may also trigger changes in user applications. Finally, political climate change may alter user priorities or the mission of the organization. System designers in such dynamic environments must be able to accurately forecast the effect of changes in the hardware, software, and/or policies under consideration. If the environmental changes are significant, one must also reassess scheduling algorithms. Simulation has frequently been relied upon for this analysis, because other methods such as analytical modeling or actual measurements are usually too difficult or costly. A drawback of the simulation approach, however, is that developing a simulator is a time-consuming process. Furthermore, an existing simulator cannot be easily adapted to a new environment. In this research, we attempt to develop a generic job-scheduling simulator, which facilitates the evaluation of

  18. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  19. Influence of practice schedules and attention on skill development and retention.

    PubMed

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Regal, Alison; Diekfuss, Jed A; Rhea, Christopher K; Ward, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Focus of attention during dual-tasks and practice schedules are important components of motor skill performance and learning; often studied in isolation. The current study required participants to complete a simple key-pressing task under a blocked or random practice schedule. To manipulate attention, participants reported their finger position (i.e., skill-focused attention) or the pitch of an auditory tone (i.e., extraneous attention) while performing two variations of a dual-task key-pressing task. Analyses were conducted at baseline, 10 min and 24h after acquisition. The results revealed that participants in a blocked schedule, extraneous focus condition had significantly faster movement times during retention compared to a blocked schedule, skill focus condition. Furthermore, greatest improvements from baseline to immediate and delayed retention were evident for an extraneous attention compared to the skill-focused attention, regardless of practice schedule. A discussion of the unique benefits an extraneous focus of attention may have on the learning process during dual-task conditions is presented. PMID:26248312

  20. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  1. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target

  2. Multicore job scheduling in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forti, A.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hartmann, T.; Alef, M.; Lahiff, A.; Templon, J.; Dal Pra, S.; Gila, M.; Skipsey, S.; Acosta-Silva, C.; Filipcic, A.; Walker, R.; Walker, C. J.; Traynor, D.; Gadrat, S.

    2015-12-01

    After the successful first run of the LHC, data taking is scheduled to restart in Summer 2015 with experimental conditions leading to increased data volumes and event complexity. In order to process the data generated in such scenario and exploit the multicore architectures of current CPUs, the LHC experiments have developed parallelized software for data reconstruction and simulation. However, a good fraction of their computing effort is still expected to be executed as single-core tasks. Therefore, jobs with diverse resources requirements will be distributed across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), making workload scheduling a complex problem in itself. In response to this challenge, the WLCG Multicore Deployment Task Force has been created in order to coordinate the joint effort from experiments and WLCG sites. The main objective is to ensure the convergence of approaches from the different LHC Virtual Organizations (VOs) to make the best use of the shared resources in order to satisfy their new computing needs, minimizing any inefficiency originated from the scheduling mechanisms, and without imposing unnecessary complexities in the way sites manage their resources. This paper describes the activities and progress of the Task Force related to the aforementioned topics, including experiences from key sites on how to best use different batch system technologies, the evolution of workload submission tools by the experiments and the knowledge gained from scale tests of the different proposed job submission strategies.

  3. Effects of modeling versus instructions on sensitivity to reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Nancy A; Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems associated with different variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. After responding proved insensitive to the schedules, sessions were preceded by either instructions or modeling, counterbalanced across students in a multiple baseline design across subjects. During the instruction condition, students were told how to distribute responding to earn the most reinforcers. During the modeling condition, students observed the experimenter performing the task while describing her distribution of responding to obtain the most reinforcers. Once responding approximated obtained reinforcement under either condition, the schedules of reinforcement were changed, and neither instruction nor modeling was provided. Both instruction and modeling interventions quickly produced patterns of response allocation that approximated obtained rates of reinforcement, but responding established with modeling was more sensitive to subsequent changes in the reinforcement schedules than responding established with instructions. Results were similar for students with and without ADHD. PMID:15529886

  4. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  5. SSA Sensor Tasking Approach for Improved Orbit Determination Accuracies and More Efficient Use of Ground Assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Stoner, F.

    2013-09-01

    Current SSA sensor tasking and scheduling is not centrally coordinated or optimized for either orbit determination quality or efficient use of sensor resources. By applying readily available capabilities for determining optimal tasking times and centrally generating de-conflicted schedules for all available sensors, both the quality of determined orbits (and thus situational awareness) and the use of sensor resources may be measurably improved. This paper provides an approach that is logically separated into two main sections. Part 1 focuses on the science of orbit determination based on tracking data and the approaches to tracking that result in improved orbit prediction quality (such as separating limited tracking passes in inertial space as much as possible). This part of the paper defines the goals for Part 2 of the paper which focuses on the details of an improved tasking and scheduling approach for sensor tasking. Centralized tasking and scheduling of sensor tracking assignments eliminates conflicting tasking requests up front and coordinates tasking to achieve (as much as possible within the physics of the problem and limited resources) the tracking goals defined in Part I. The effectivity of the proposed approach will be assessed based on improvements in the overall accuracy of the space catalog. Systems Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics and STK Scheduler from Orbit Logic are used for computations and to generate schedules for the existing and improved approaches.

  6. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  7. Schedules of controlled substances: rescheduling of buprenorphine from schedule V to schedule III. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    This final rule is issued by the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to reschedule buprenorphine from a Schedule V narcotic to a Schedule III narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This action is based on a rescheduling recommendation by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and a DEA review indicating that buprenorphine meets the criteria of a Schedule III narcotic. The DEA published a proposed rule to reschedule buprenorphine on March 21, 2002 (67 FR 13114). The comment period was extended for an additional 30 days until May 22, 2002 (67 FR 20072). The DEA received ten comments but no requests for hearings. This final action will impose the regulatory controls and criminal sanctions of a Schedule III narcotic on those persons who handle buprenorphine or products containing buprenorphine PMID:12369590

  8. A comparative critical analysis of modern task-parallel runtimes.

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Stark, Dylan; Murphy, Richard C.

    2012-12-01

    The rise in node-level parallelism has increased interest in task-based parallel runtimes for a wide array of application areas. Applications have a wide variety of task spawning patterns which frequently change during the course of application execution, based on the algorithm or solver kernel in use. Task scheduling and load balance regimes, however, are often highly optimized for specific patterns. This paper uses four basic task spawning patterns to quantify the impact of specific scheduling policy decisions on execution time. We compare the behavior of six publicly available tasking runtimes: Intel Cilk, Intel Threading Building Blocks (TBB), Intel OpenMP, GCC OpenMP, Qthreads, and High Performance ParalleX (HPX). With the exception of Qthreads, the runtimes prove to have schedulers that are highly sensitive to application structure. No runtime is able to provide the best performance in all cases, and those that do provide the best performance in some cases, unfortunately, provide extremely poor performance when application structure does not match the scheduler's assumptions.

  9. Cooperative Supply Chain Re-scheduling: The Case of an Engine Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia-Sabater, Jose P.; Marin-Garcia, Juan A.

    One of the main issues on task planning of the enterprises with several production sites is how they can reassign tasks when a part of the supply chain is stopped. In this case, a good re-schedule, involving parts from supply chains from other sites, could imply to reduce overall costs. In this paper, we propose a cooperative system to re-schedule a network chain. The algorithm proposed is described and analyzed analytically in detail. The re-schedule decision is taken based on the time and the cost reduction. In order to test its performance and the success of our proposal, we have simulated a stylized system based on an engine network chain using the Anylogic TM simulator. Our proposal allows cooperative multisite re-scheduling by selecting the type of transport for sending components from one site to another based on the costs and the deadline to assemble the final product.

  10. An expert system for planning and scheduling in a telerobotic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge based approach to assigning tasks to multi-agents working cooperatively in jobs that require a telerobot in the loop was developed. The generality of the approach allows for such a concept to be applied in a nonteleoperational domain. The planning architecture known as the task oriented planner (TOP) uses the principle of flow mechanism and the concept of planning by deliberation to preserve and use knowledge about a particular task. The TOP is an open ended architecture developed with a NEXPERT expert system shell and its knowledge organization allows for indirect consultation at various levels of task abstraction. Considering that a telerobot operates in a hostile and nonstructured environment, task scheduling should respond to environmental changes. A general heuristic was developed for scheduling jobs with the TOP system. The technique is not to optimize a given scheduling criterion as in classical job and/or flow shop problems. For a teleoperation job schedule, criteria are situation dependent. A criterion selection is fuzzily embedded in the task-skill matrix computation. However, goal achievement with minimum expected risk to the human operator is emphasized.

  11. Evaluation of 4 X 4 Block Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutter, Davida W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes 4 X 4 block scheduling and its advantages and disadvantages. Examines block scheduling's effects on a Virginia high school's students, teachers, and administration, based on school data and survey results. Most participants preferred block scheduling over the six-period schedule. Grades, attendance, and discipline improved; students…

  12. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator, at..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent...

  13. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator, at..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent...

  14. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator, at..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent...

  15. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR SCHEDULES § 525.2 Terminal schedules. (a) Marine terminal operator schedules. A marine terminal operator, at..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent...

  16. Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

  17. Block Scheduling's Missteps, Successes and Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Documents Virginia's history of adoption and implementation of block scheduling, highlights common forms of block scheduling, and describes mistakes that caused schools to abandon block scheduling. Describes three key variables (time, teachers, and students) in the use of block scheduling to improve student achievement. (PKP)

  18. An investigation of instructional scheduling arrangements for community-based instruction.

    PubMed

    Cihak, David F; Alberto, Paul A; Kessler, Kelby B; Taber, Teresa A

    2004-01-01

    The instructional scheduling arrangements of simulated and community-based instruction across an equivalent set of functional and vocational skills were examined. Five secondary age students with moderate intellectual disabilities participated in four instructional scheduling arrangements measuring skill acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of functional tasks. The four instructional scheduling arrangements examined were simulated-only instruction (SOI), community-based instruction only (CBI), combination of SOI and CBI on consecutive school days (CCD), and combination of SOI and CBI on the same school day (CSD). The CSD schedule was significantly more effective for student acquisition performance than SOI, CBI, and CCD schedules. Although the CBI schedule resulted in the fewest number of instructional sessions for students to acquire the targeted skill, fewer sessions for skill generalization were required for students during the combined simulation and community instruction CSD schedule. Overall, both combined instructional scheduling arrangements (e.g., CCD, CSD) produced more efficient outcomes for generalization than SOI and CBI scheduling arrangements. PMID:14733977

  19. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS 8-40431 "Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development Contract" (CSATD) during Option Year 3 (December 1, 1997 through November 30, 1998). This Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides technical products and deliverables in the form of parametric models, databases, methodologies, studies, and analyses to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PP03) and the Program Plans and Requirements Office (PP02) and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section IV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work performed, deliverables submitted, major meetings conducted, and other pertinent information. Therefore, this Final Report will summarize these activities at a higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 25,745 hours in the performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work. This represents approximately 14 full-time EPs. Included are the Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Tampa, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  20. Task Definition: A Motivating Task = Eager Learners!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers who design meaningful and developmentally appropriate tasks will motivate their students to engage in the content and as students work through the Big6 process, interacting with the content, they learn and practice information and technology skills. A valuable task definition technique is to develop questions that students in each group…

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  2. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  3. ComprehensiveBench: a Benchmark for the Extensive Evaluation of Global Scheduling Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, Laércio L.; Bozzetti, Tiago C.; Castro, Márcio; Navaux, Philippe O. A.; Méhaut, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Parallel applications that present tasks with imbalanced loads or complex communication behavior usually do not exploit the underlying resources of parallel platforms to their full potential. In order to mitigate this issue, global scheduling algorithms are employed. As finding the optimal task distribution is an NP-Hard problem, identifying the most suitable algorithm for a specific scenario and comparing algorithms are not trivial tasks. In this context, this paper presents ComprehensiveBench, a benchmark for global scheduling algorithms that enables the variation of a vast range of parameters that affect performance. ComprehensiveBench can be used to assist in the development and evaluation of new scheduling algorithms, to help choose a specific algorithm for an arbitrary application, to emulate other applications, and to enable statistical tests. We illustrate its use in this paper with an evaluation of Charm++ periodic load balancers that stresses their characteristics.

  4. IOPS advisor: Research in progress on knowledge-intensive methods for irregular operations airline scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borse, John E.; Owens, Christopher C.

    1992-01-01

    Our research focuses on the problem of recovering from perturbations in large-scale schedules, specifically on the ability of a human-machine partnership to dynamically modify an airline schedule in response to unanticipated disruptions. This task is characterized by massive interdependencies and a large space of possible actions. Our approach is to apply the following: qualitative, knowledge-intensive techniques relying on a memory of stereotypical failures and appropriate recoveries; and quantitative techniques drawn from the Operations Research community's work on scheduling. Our main scientific challenge is to represent schedules, failures, and repairs so as to make both sets of techniques applicable to the same data. This paper outlines ongoing research in which we are cooperating with United Airlines to develop our understanding of the scientific issues underlying the practicalities of dynamic, real-time schedule repair.

  5. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Scheduling and process migration in partitioned multiprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Gait, J. )

    1990-03-01

    A partitioned multiprocessor (PM) has a shared global bus and nonshared local memories. This paper studies a process scheduler, called the two-tier scheduler (TTS), for a PM. In a PM local scheduling amortizes the cost of loading processes in local memory. Global scheduling migrates processes to balance load. A tunable time quantum is adjusted so the average process completes execution on the processor on which it is first scheduled, and only relatively long lived processes are rescheduled globally.

  7. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  8. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  9. Design tool for multiprocessor scheduling and evaluation of iterative dataflow algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1995-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is defined for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. Graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool applies the design process to a given problem and includes performance optimization through the inclusion of additional precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks.

  10. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  12. Dynamically optimizing experiment schedules of a laboratory robot system with simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Cristina; Fine-Morris, Morgan; Pokross, Matthew; Kish, Kevin; Michalczyk, Stephen; Cahn, Matthew; Klei, Herbert; Russo, Mark F

    2014-12-01

    A scheduler has been developed for an integrated laboratory robot system that operates in an always-on mode. The integrated system is designed for imaging plates containing protein crystallization experiments, and it allows crystallographers to enter plates at any time and request that they be imaged at multiple time points in the future. The scheduler must rearrange tasks within the time it takes to image one plate, trading off the quality of the schedule for the speed of the computation. For this reason, the scheduler was based on a simulated annealing algorithm with an objective function that makes use of a linear programming solver. To optimize the scheduler, extensive computational simulations were performed involving a difficult but representative scheduling problem. The simulations explore multiple configurations of the simulated annealing algorithm, including both geometric and adaptive annealing schedules, 3 neighborhood functions, and 20 neighborhood diameters. An optimal configuration was found that produced the best results in less than 60 seconds, well within the window necessary to dynamically reschedule imaging tasks as new plates are entered into the system. PMID:25117530

  13. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  14. A planning and scheduling lexicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

    1989-01-01

    A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

  15. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  16. Acquisition and Maintenance of Time-Based Task Change Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To examine use of antecedent cues to complete a sequence of vocational tasks, five mildly to moderately mentally retarded students (aged 16-19) served as subjects. Written and pictorial prompts, introduced in a least intrusive manner, enabled the students to learn and maintain a sequenced time-based schedule that changed daily. (Author/JDD)

  17. An iterative expanding and shrinking process for processor allocation in mixed-parallel workflow scheduling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Wu, Wei-Ya; Wang, Feng-Jian; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Hung, Chun-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Parallel computation has been widely applied in a variety of large-scale scientific and engineering applications. Many studies indicate that exploiting both task and data parallelisms, i.e. mixed-parallel workflows, to solve large computational problems can get better efficacy compared with either pure task parallelism or pure data parallelism. Scheduling traditional workflows of pure task parallelism on parallel systems has long been known to be an NP-complete problem. Mixed-parallel workflow scheduling has to deal with an additional challenging issue of processor allocation. In this paper, we explore the processor allocation issue in scheduling mixed-parallel workflows of moldable tasks, called M-task, and propose an Iterative Allocation Expanding and Shrinking (IAES) approach. Compared to previous approaches, our IAES has two distinguishing features. The first is allocating more processors to the tasks on allocated critical paths for effectively reducing the makespan of workflow execution. The second is allowing the processor allocation of an M-task to shrink during the iterative procedure, resulting in a more flexible and effective process for finding better allocation. The proposed IAES approach has been evaluated with a series of simulation experiments and compared to several well-known previous methods, including CPR, CPA, MCPA, and MCPA2. The experimental results indicate that our IAES approach outperforms those previous methods significantly in most situations, especially when nodes of the same layer in a workflow might have unequal workloads. PMID:27504236

  18. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  19. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  20. Residential Consumption Scheduling Based on Dynamic User Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiatordi, Federica; Pallotti, Emiliano; Del Vecchio, Paolo; Capodiferro, Licia

    Deployment of household appliances and of electric vehicles raises the electricity demand in the residential areas and the impact of the building's electrical power. The variations of electricity consumption across the day, may affect both the design of the electrical generation facilities and the electricity bill, mainly when a dynamic pricing is applied. This paper focuses on an energy management system able to control the day-ahead electricity demand in a residential area, taking into account both the variability of the energy production costs and the profiling of the users. The user's behavior is dynamically profiled on the basis of the tasks performed during the previous days and of the tasks foreseen for the current day. Depending on the size and on the flexibility in time of the user tasks, home inhabitants are grouped in, one over N, energy profiles, using a k-means algorithm. For a fixed energy generation cost, each energy profile is associated to a different hourly energy cost. The goal is to identify any bad user profile and to make it pay a highest bill. A bad profile example is when a user applies a lot of consumption tasks and low flexibility in task reallocation time. The proposed energy management system automatically schedules the tasks, solving a multi-objective optimization problem based on an MPSO strategy. The goals, when identifying bad users profiles, are to reduce the peak to average ratio in energy demand, and to minimize the energy costs, promoting virtuous behaviors.

  1. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  2. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  3. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  4. Flexible shift scheduling of physicians.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Jens O; Bard, Jonathan F; Kolisch, Rainer

    2009-09-01

    This research addresses a shift scheduling problem in which physicians at a German university hospital are assigned to demand periods over a planning horizon that can extend up to several weeks. When performing the scheduling it is necessary to take into account a variety of legal and institutional constraints that are imposed by a national labor agreement, which governs all physicians in German university hospitals. Currently, most medical departments develop their staff schedules manually at great cost and time. To solve the problem, a new modeling approach is developed that requires shifts to be generated implicitly. Rather than beginning with a predetermined number of shift types and start times, shifts are allowed to start at every pre-defined period in the planning horizon and extend up to 13 h with an hour-long break included. The objective is to find an assignment such that the total hours that have to be paid out as overtime are minimal under the restrictions given by the labor agreement. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program and solved with CPLEX. During the solution process individual lines-of-work are constructed for each physician. Using data from an anesthesia department, computational results indicate that high quality schedules can be obtained much more quickly than by current practice. PMID:19739361

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  6. Electricity Usage Scheduling in Smart Building Environments Using Smart Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%. PMID:24453860

  7. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%. PMID:24453860

  8. TRU Waste Management Program cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, J.A. . Joint Integration Office); Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A. Corp., Boulder, CO )

    1985-10-01

    The cost/schedule optimization task is a necessary function to insure that program goals and plans are optimized from a cost and schedule aspect. Results of this study will offer DOE information with which it can establish, within institutional constraints, the most efficient program for the long-term management and disposal of contact handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU). To this end, a comprehensive review of program cost/schedule tradeoffs has been made, to identify any major cost saving opportunities that may be realized by modification of current program plans. It was decided that all promising scenarios would be explored, and institutional limitations to implementation would be described. Since a virtually limitless number of possible scenarios can be envisioned, it was necessary to distill these possibilities into a manageable number of alternatives. The resultant scenarios were described in the cost/schedule strategy and work plan document. Each scenario was compared with the base case: waste processing at the originating site; transport of CH-TRU wastes in TRUPACT; shipment of drums in 6-Packs; 25 year stored waste workoff; WIPP operational 10/88, with all sites shipping to WIPP beginning 10/88; and no processing at WIPP. Major savings were identified in two alternate scenarios: centralize waste processing at INEL and eliminate rail shipment of TRUPACT. No attempt was made to calculate savings due to combination of scenarios. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  9. Optimization of radiation dosing schedules for proneural glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Badri, H; Pitter, K; Holland, E C; Michor, F; Leder, K

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumor. Despite treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, these tumors remain uncurable and few significant increases in survival have been observed over the last half-century. We recently employed a combined theoretical and experimental approach to predict the effectiveness of radiation administration schedules, identifying two schedules that led to superior survival in a mouse model of the disease (Leder et al., Cell 156(3):603-616, 2014). Here we extended this approach to consider fractionated schedules to best minimize toxicity arising in early- and late-responding tissues. To this end, we decomposed the problem into two separate solvable optimization tasks: (i) optimization of the amount of radiation per dose, and (ii) optimization of the amount of time that passes between radiation doses. To ensure clinical applicability, we then considered the impact of clinical operating hours by incorporating time constraints consistent with operational schedules of the radiology clinic. We found that there was no significant loss incurred by restricting dosage to an 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. window. Our flexible approach is also applicable to other tumor types treated with radiotherapy. PMID:26094055

  10. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  11. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  12. Task Time Tracker

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  13. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  14. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  15. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms. PMID:27501046

  16. VM Capacity-Aware Scheduling within Budget Constraints in IaaS Clouds.

    PubMed

    Thanasias, Vasileios; Lee, Choonhwa; Hanif, Muhammad; Kim, Eunsam; Helal, Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cloud computing has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, bringing unprecedented changes to computing and information technology. The infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model offers new abilities such as the elastic provisioning and relinquishing of computing resources in response to workload fluctuations. However, because the demand for resources dynamically changes over time, the provisioning of resources in a way that a given budget is efficiently utilized while maintaining a sufficing performance remains a key challenge. This paper addresses the problem of task scheduling and resource provisioning for a set of tasks running on IaaS clouds; it presents novel provisioning and scheduling algorithms capable of executing tasks within a given budget, while minimizing the slowdown due to the budget constraint. Our simulation study demonstrates a substantial reduction up to 70% in the overall task slowdown rate by the proposed algorithms. PMID:27501046

  17. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  18. Adaptive Parallel Job Scheduling with Flexible CoScheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, Eitan; Feitelson, Dror; Petrini, Fabrizio; Fernandez, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abstract—Many scientific and high-performance computing applications consist of multiple processes running on different processors that communicate frequently. Because of their synchronization needs, these applications can suffer severe performance penalties if their processes are not all coscheduled to run together. Two common approaches to coscheduling jobs are batch scheduling, wherein nodes are dedicated for the duration of the run, and gang scheduling, wherein time slicing is coordinated across processors. Both work well when jobs are load-balanced and make use of the entire parallel machine. However, these conditions are rarely met and most realistic workloads consequently suffer from both internal and external fragmentation, in which resources and processors are left idle because jobs cannot be packed with perfect efficiency. This situation leads to reduced utilization and suboptimal performance. Flexible CoScheduling (FCS) addresses this problem by monitoring each job’s computation granularity and communication pattern and scheduling jobs based on their synchronization and load-balancing requirements. In particular, jobs that do not require stringent synchronization are identified, and are not coscheduled; instead, these processes are used to reduce fragmentation. FCS has been fully implemented on top of the STORM resource manager on a 256-processor Alpha cluster and compared to batch, gang, and implicit coscheduling algorithms. This paper describes in detail the implementation of FCS and its performance evaluation with a variety of workloads, including large-scale benchmarks, scientific applications, and dynamic workloads. The experimental results show that FCS saturates at higher loads than other algorithms (up to 54 percent higher in some cases), and displays lower response times and slowdown than the other algorithms in nearly all scenarios.

  19. Stochastic optimization of the scheduling of a radiotherapy center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrain, Antoine; Fortin, Marie-Andrée; Lahrichi, Nadia; Rousseau, Louis-Martin; Widmer, Marino

    2015-05-01

    Cancer treatment facilities can improve their efficiency for radiation therapy by optimizing the utilization of the linear accelerators (linacs). We propose a method to schedule patients on such machines taking into account their priority for treatment, the maximum waiting time before the first treatment, the treatment duration, and the preparation of this treatment (dosimetry). At each arrival of a patient, the future workloads of the linacs and the dosimetry are inferred. We propose a genetic algorithm, which schedules future tasks in dosimetry and a constraint programming formulation to verify the feasibility of a planning of dosimetry. This approach ensures the beginning of the treatment on time and thus avoids the cancellation of treatment sessions on linacs. Preliminary results indicate the improvements of this new procedure.

  20. From Jobs to Work: Scheduling the Right Bioinformatics Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ries, James E.; Patrick, Timothy B.; Springer, Gordon K.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of effort has been expended toward scheduling computationally intensive jobs on Grids1,2 and other collections of high performance computing resources. Bioinformatics computer jobs are of particular interest as they are often highly computationally intensive. However, the problem has not been addressed from the viewpoint of the overall work that should be done. Here, we make a distinction between jobs and work. Jobs are specifically bound computational tasks (e.g., a request to run NCBI's BLAST tool or the GCG FASTA program) versus work requests, which are more general (e.g., a request to compare a set of sequences for similarity). We contend that biology researchers often wish to accomplish work rather than run a particular job. With this idea in mind, it is possible to improve resource usage by mapping work to jobs with the goal of choosing appropriate jobs that can best be scheduled at a given time.

  1. Secure Autonomous Automated Scheduling (SAAS). Rev. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walke, Jon G.; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Stephen P.; Miller, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the UK-DMC, is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC's availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL's mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL's and Universal Space Network's (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN's assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards

  2. Hypertext-based design of a user interface for scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, Irene W.; Biefeld, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Operations Mission Planner (OMP) is an ongoing research project at JPL that utilizes AI techniques to create an intelligent, automated planning and scheduling system. The information space reflects the complexity and diversity of tasks necessary in most real-world scheduling problems. Thus the problem of the user interface is to present as much information as possible at a given moment and allow the user to quickly navigate through the various types of displays. This paper describes a design which applies the hypertext model to solve these user interface problems. The general paradigm is to provide maps and search queries to allow the user to quickly find an interesting conflict or problem, and then allow the user to navigate through the displays in a hypertext fashion.

  3. Software reuse in spacecraft planning and scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David; Tuchman, Alan; Broseghini, Todd; Yen, Wen; Page, Brenda; Johnson, Jay; Bogovich, Lynn; Burkhardt, Chris; Mcintyre, James; Klein, Scott

    1993-01-01

    The use of a software toolkit and development methodology that supports software reuse is described. The toolkit includes source-code-level library modules and stand-alone tools which support such tasks as data reformatting and report generation, simple relational database applications, user interfaces, tactical planning, strategic planning and documentation. The current toolkit is written in C and supports applications that run on IBM-PC's under DOS and UNlX-based workstations under OpenLook and Motif. The toolkit is fully integrated for building scheduling systems that reuse AI knowledge base technology. A typical scheduling scenario and three examples of applications that utilize the reuse toolkit will be briefly described. In addition to the tools themselves, a description of the software evolution and reuse methodology that was used is presented.

  4. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  5. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  6. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  7. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  8. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  9. A DSN optimal spacecraft scheduling model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is described which uses mixed-integer linear programming to provide optimal DSN spacecraft schedules given a mission set and specified scheduling requirements. A solution technique is proposed which uses Bender's Method and a heuristic starting algorithm.

  10. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens Recommend on Facebook ... on track. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Preteens and Teens (7-18 years) 2016 ...

  11. Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heater, Don

    1995-01-01

    Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.

  12. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  13. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  14. Schedule shifts, cancer and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Julia; Halberg, Franz; de la Pena, Salvador Sanchez; Nelson, Walter; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Stoynev, Alexander; Haus, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Prompted by a recent report of the possible carcinogenic effect of shiftwork focusing on the disruption of circadian rhythms, we review studies involving shifts in schedule implemented at varying intervals in unicells, insects and mammals, including humans. Results indicate the desirability to account for a broader-than-circadian view. They also suggest the possibility of optimizing schedule shifts by selecting intervals between consecutive shifts associated with potential side-effects such as an increase in cancer risk. Toward this goal, marker rhythmometry is most desirable. The monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate present the added benefit of assessing cardiovascular disease risks resulting not only from an elevated blood pressure but also from abnormal variability in blood pressure and/or heart rate of normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects. PMID:19227006

  15. Engineering Task Plan for Hepa Filter Differential Pressure (DP) Fan Interlock Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    SIMONS, S.R.

    2000-05-19

    This document provides a plan for installation of Differential Pressure (DP) fan interlocks on the primary ventilation systems in selected Tank Farm facilities. This plan contains the engineering tasks required for installation and is summarized by the Acceptance for Beneficial Use list. Individuals responsible for each task are identified and scheduled accordingly.

  16. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  17. 10 CFR 30.71 - Schedule B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule B. 30.71 Section 30.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 30.71 Schedule B. Byproduct material Microcuries Antimony 122 (Sb 122) 100 Antimony 124 (Sb 124) 10 Antimony 125 (Sb 125) 10 Arsenic 73 (As 73)...

  18. Creating a Complex Schedule with "REFLEX."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, George M.; Christakes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "REFLEX," a software package for scheduling. Explores the program's applications in preparing a departmental class schedule. Explains that "REFLEX" includes a filter function and some attributes of a spreadsheet but lacks the ability to interact with other databases. Concludes that the program can make scheduling easier and more…

  19. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice... Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold a... the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please contact...

  20. 49 CFR 801.60 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee schedule. 801.60 Section 801.60 Transportation... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fee Schedule § 801.60 Fee schedule. (a) Authority. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(i... a fee waiver. These fees, however, are subject to the limitations of paragraph (d) of this...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2625 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.2625 Section 52.2625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wyoming § 52.2625 Compliance schedules. (a) The compliance schedules for the...

  2. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

  3. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  4. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1482 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1482 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1482 Compliance schedules. (a)-(b) (c) The compliance schedule revisions submitted for the sources identified below are disapproved...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1425 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1425 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nebraska § 52.1425 Compliance schedules. (a) The compliance schedules for the sources identified below are approved as revisions to the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1524 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1524 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1524 Compliance schedules. (a) Compliance schedules for the sources identified below are approved as meeting the requirements...

  8. 49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scheduling. 665.21 Section 665.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665.21 Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a...

  9. An Analysis of Research on Block Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Mayers, R. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In this analysis of 58 empirical studies of high school block scheduling, the authors report findings in and across five groupings. Within groups, data were inconsistent regarding whether teachers' practices changed, but teachers believed that staff development was necessary to teach in a block schedule. Block scheduling appeared to increase…

  10. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  11. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  12. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  13. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  14. 42 CFR 457.525 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public schedule. 457.525 Section 457.525 Public... Requirements: Enrollee Financial Responsibilities § 457.525 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the...

  15. 42 CFR 447.76 - Public schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public schedule. 447.76 Section 447.76 Public... Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.76 Public schedule. (a) The State must make available to the groups in paragraph (b) of this section a public schedule that contains the following information:...

  16. Putting ROSE to Work: A Proposed Application of a Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine for Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Muery, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Scheduling engines are found at the core of software systems that plan and schedule activities and resources. A Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) is one that processes a single request (adding a task to a timeline) and then waits for another request. For the International Space Station, a robust ROSE-based system would support multiple, simultaneous users, each formulating requests (defining scheduling requirements), submitting these requests via the internet to a single scheduling engine operating on a single timeline, and immediately viewing the resulting timeline. ROSE is significantly different from the engine currently used to schedule Space Station operations. The current engine supports essentially one person at a time, with a pre-defined set of requirements from many payloads, working in either a "batch" scheduling mode or an interactive/manual scheduling mode. A planning and scheduling process that takes advantage of the features of ROSE could produce greater customer satisfaction at reduced cost and reduced flow time. This paper describes a possible ROSE-based scheduling process and identifies the additional software component required to support it. Resulting changes to the management and control of the process are also discussed.

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  19. Scheduled Peripheral Component Interconnect Arbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Scott Alan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for arbitrating access of a communication bus. In one embodiment, a method includes performing steps on one or more processors. The steps include: receiving an access request from a device of the communication bus; evaluating a bus schedule to determine an importance of the device based on the access request; and selectively granting access of the communication bus to the device based on the importance of the device.

  20. Obtaining schedules for digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagadish, H. V.; Kailath, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A systematic technique is presented to derive correct schedules for a synchronous digital system, given a signal flow graph for an algorithm. It is also shown how to use this technique to derive designs that are optimal in having the lowest latency, the highest throughput, or the smallest number of registers. The same technique can also be used to verify digital systems that have already been designed.

  1. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  2. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  3. Nurse Scheduling by Cooperative GA with Effective Mutation Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Makoto

    In this paper, we propose an effective mutation operators for Cooperative Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to be applied to a practical Nurse Scheduling Problem (NSP). The nurse scheduling is a very difficult task, because NSP is a complex combinatorial optimizing problem for which many requirements must be considered. In real hospitals, the schedule changes frequently. The changes of the shift schedule yields various problems, for example, a fall in the nursing level. We describe a technique of the reoptimization of the nurse schedule in response to a change. The conventional CGA is superior in ability for local search by means of its crossover operator, but often stagnates at the unfavorable situation because it is inferior to ability for global search. When the optimization stagnates for long generation cycle, a searching point, population in this case, would be caught in a wide local minimum area. To escape such local minimum area, small change in a population should be required. Based on such consideration, we propose a mutation operator activated depending on the optimization speed. When the optimization stagnates, in other words, when the optimization speed decreases, the mutation yields small changes in the population. Then the population is able to escape from a local minimum area by means of the mutation. However, this mutation operator requires two well-defined parameters. This means that user have to consider the value of these parameters carefully. To solve this problem, we propose a periodic mutation operator which has only one parameter to define itself. This simplified mutation operator is effective over a wide range of the parameter value.

  4. The role of the production scheduling system in rescheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the rescheduling problem in the context of cooperation between production scheduling system (PSS) and other units in an integrated manufacturing environment - decision makers and software systems. The main aim is to discuss the PSS functionality for maximizing automation of the rescheduling process, reducing the response time and improving the quality of generated solutions. PSSs operate in the meeting of tactical and operational level of planning and control, and play an important role in the production preparation and control. On the basis of information about orders, technology and production system state (e.g. resources availability) they prepare and/or update a detailed plan of production flow - a schedule. All necessary data for scheduling and rescheduling are usually collected in other systems both from organizational and technical production preparation, e.g. ERP, PLM, MES, CAPP or others, as well as they are entered directly by the decision- makers/operators. Data acquired in this way are often incomplete and inconsistent. Therefore the existing rescheduling software works according to interactive method - rather support but does not replace the human decision maker in tasks planning. When rescheduling, due to the limited amount of time to make a decision this interaction is particularly important. An additional problem arises in data acquisition, in the process of data exchanging between systems or in the identification of new data sources and their processing. Different approaches to rescheduling were characterized, including those solutions, where all these operations are carried out by an autonomous system and those in which scheduling is performed only upon request from the outside, for the newly created scheduling data representing the current state of the production system.

  5. Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, V. Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

  6. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  7. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  8. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825.203 Section 825.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  11. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  12. Greedy scheduling of cellular self-replication leads to optimal doubling times with a log-Frechet distribution.

    PubMed

    Pugatch, Rami

    2015-02-24

    Bacterial self-replication is a complex process composed of many de novo synthesis steps catalyzed by a myriad of molecular processing units, e.g., the transcription-translation machinery, metabolic enzymes, and the replisome. Successful completion of all production tasks requires a schedule-a temporal assignment of each of the production tasks to its respective processing units that respects ordering and resource constraints. Most intracellular growth processes are well characterized. However, the manner in which they are coordinated under the control of a scheduling policy is not well understood. When fast replication is favored, a schedule that minimizes the completion time is desirable. However, if resources are scarce, it is typically computationally hard to find such a schedule, in the worst case. Here, we show that optimal scheduling naturally emerges in cellular self-replication. Optimal doubling time is obtained by maintaining a sufficiently large inventory of intermediate metabolites and processing units required for self-replication and additionally requiring that these processing units be "greedy," i.e., not idle if they can perform a production task. We calculate the distribution of doubling times of such optimally scheduled self-replicating factories, and find it has a universal form-log-Frechet, not sensitive to many microscopic details. Analyzing two recent datasets of Escherichia coli growing in a stationary medium, we find excellent agreement between the observed doubling-time distribution and the predicted universal distribution, suggesting E. coli is optimally scheduling its replication. Greedy scheduling appears as a simple generic route to optimal scheduling when speed is the optimization criterion. Other criteria such as efficiency require more elaborate scheduling policies and tighter regulation. PMID:25675498

  13. Observational Findings Regarding Independent Learning Behavior. The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldupp, Ocea

    The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule (CAOS) is designed to detect pattern shifts in a classroom during the absence of controlling adults. It is concerned with the independent learner who will continue school related tasks in a socially acceptable manner without supervision. The CAOS recording form notes activities and inappropriate…

  14. Block Scheduled versus Traditional Biology Teaching--An Educational Experiment Using the Water Lily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kranich, Konstanze; Eisele, Monika

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared a traditional teaching sequence (four distinct lessons) with a block schedule dealing with the ecological adaptations of the water lily. The educational unit contained original plant material and both experimental groups received the same tasks and working sheets. Pupils worked together in groups of three to four pupils…

  15. Personalized Education; Solving a Group Formation and Scheduling Problem for Educational Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahargam, Sanaz; Erdos, Dóra; Bestavros, Azer; Terzi, Evimaria

    2015-01-01

    Whether teaching in a classroom or a Massive Online Open Course it is crucial to present the material in a way that benefits the audience as a whole. We identify two important tasks to solve towards this objective; (1) group students so that they can maximally benefit from peer interaction and (2) find an optimal schedule of the educational…

  16. Discrete Self-Organising Migrating Algorithm for Flow Shop Scheduling with no Wait Makespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel discrete Self Organising Migrating Algorithm for the task of flowshop scheduling with no-wait makespan. The new algorithm is tested with the small and medium Taillard benchmark problems and the obtained results are competitive with the best performing heuristics in literature.

  17. One for All: Maintaining a Single Schedule Database for Large Development Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilscher, R.; Howerton, G.

    1999-01-01

    Efficiently maintaining and controlling a single schedule database in an Integrated Product Team environment is a significant challenge. It's accomplished effectively with the right combination of tools, skills, strategy, creativity, and teamwork. We'll share our lessons learned maintaining a 20,000 plus task network on a 36 month project.

  18. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  19. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Christine E; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the "contextual interference effect." While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  20. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  1. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  2. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  3. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  4. On the Feasibility of Dynamically Scheduling DAG Applications on Shared Heterogeneous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Aline P.; Sena, Alexandre; Boeres, Cristina; Rebello, Vinod E. F.

    Grid and Internet Computing have proved their worth executing large-scale bag-of-task class applications. Numerous middlewares have been developed to manage their execution in either dedicated environments or opportunistic and shared ad-hoc grids. While job dependencies are now being resolved by middleware capable of scheduling workflows, these environments have yet to be shown beneficial for message passing parallel applications. Obtaining high performance in these widely available environments without rewriting existing parallel applications is of up most importance to e-Science. The key to an efficient solution may be an alternative execution model and the efficient dynamic scheduling of application processes. This paper presents a hierarchical scheme for dynamically scheduling parallel DAG applications across a set of non-dedicated heterogeneous resources. In order to efficiently tackle process dependencies and adapt to varying system characteristics, dynamic schedulers are distributed within the application and operate in a collaborative and pro-active fashion to keep overheads low.

  5. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  6. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  7. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  8. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  9. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  10. Supporting Real-Time Operations and Execution through Timeline and Scheduling Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Pyrzak, Guy; Hashemi, Sam; Ahmed, Samia; McMillin, Kevin Edward; Medwid, Joseph Daniel; Chen, Diana; Hurtle, Esten

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, the NASA Ames Research Center has been actively involved in researching and advancing the state-of-the-art of planning and scheduling tools for NASA mission operations. Our planning toolkit SPIFe (Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration) has supported a variety of missions and field tests, scheduling activities for Mars rovers as well as crew on-board International Space Station and NASA earth analogs. The scheduled plan is the integration of all the activities for the day/s. In turn, the agents (rovers, landers, spaceships, crew) execute from this schedule while the mission support team members (e.g., flight controllers) follow the schedule during execution. Over the last couple of years, our team has begun to research and validate methods that will better support users during realtime operations and execution of scheduled activities. Our team utilizes human-computer interaction principles to research user needs, identify workflow processes, prototype software aids, and user test these. This paper discusses three specific prototypes developed and user tested to support real-time operations: Score Mobile, Playbook, and Mobile Assistant for Task Execution (MATE).

  11. SLS-PLAN-IT: A knowledge-based blackboard scheduling system for Spacelab life sciences missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lee, Seok-Hua

    1992-01-01

    The primary scheduling tool in use during the Spacelab Life Science (SLS-1) planning phase was the operations research (OR) based, tabular form Experiment Scheduling System (ESS) developed by NASA Marshall. PLAN-IT is an artificial intelligence based interactive graphic timeline editor for ESS developed by JPL. The PLAN-IT software was enhanced for use in the scheduling of Spacelab experiments to support the SLS missions. The enhanced software SLS-PLAN-IT System was used to support the real-time reactive scheduling task during the SLS-1 mission. SLS-PLAN-IT is a frame-based blackboard scheduling shell which, from scheduling input, creates resource-requiring event duration objects and resource-usage duration objects. The blackboard structure is to keep track of the effects of event duration objects on the resource usage objects. Various scheduling heuristics are coded in procedural form and can be invoked any time at the user's request. The system architecture is described along with what has been learned with the SLS-PLAN-IT project.

  12. Effects of contextual interference and conditions of movement task on acquisition, retention, and transfer of motor skills by women.

    PubMed

    Jarus, T; Wughalter, E H; Gianutsos, J G

    1997-02-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate varying conditions of contextual interference within two different conditions of movement tasks during acquisition on the acquisition and retention of a computerized task and transfer to a functional skill. Performance of head movements was conducted under open- or closed-task conditions and with random or blocked schedules of practice. Analysis indicated that learning under the open-task condition resulted in better retention and transfer than the closed-task condition. It is suggested that increasing the within-trial variability in the open-task condition produced a contextual interference effect. In this regard, support for Battig's predictions is provided by the current findings in that the high variability present during the open-task condition was more beneficial for retention and transfer than the low variability present during the closed-task condition. Differences between random and blocked schedules of practice on the retention and transfer data were not statistically significant. PMID:9132708

  13. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission authorization basis amendment task plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, T.G.

    1998-01-08

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and the Process Development group within the Waste Feed Delivery organization. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Waste Delivery Program, Project W-211, and Project W-TBD.

  14. Effects of n-dominance and group composition on task efficiency in laboratory triads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Task-oriented triads were formed into various homogeneous and heterogeneous combinations according to their scores on the n-dominance personality trait of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Five group categories were used. The group task required a consensus decision on each trial. High cooperation and interdependence were reinforced by partially restricting the communication network. Results showed heterogeneous groups significantly better at organizing their group communication processes. They consequently performed the task more efficiently than homogeneous triads.

  15. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  16. Debugging tasked Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainter, R. G.; Lindquist, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The applications for which Ada was developed require distributed implementations of the language and extensive use of tasking facilities. Debugging and testing technology as it applies to parallel features of languages currently falls short of needs. Thus, the development of embedded systems using Ada pose special challenges to the software engineer. Techniques for distributing Ada programs, support for simulating distributed target machines, testing facilities for tasked programs, and debugging support applicable to simulated and to real targets all need to be addressed. A technique is presented for debugging Ada programs that use tasking and it describes a debugger, called AdaTAD, to support the technique. The debugging technique is presented together with the use interface to AdaTAD. The component of AdaTAD that monitors and controls communication among tasks was designed in Ada and is presented through an example with a simple tasked program.

  17. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  18. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Devi, D. Chitra; Uthariaraj, V. Rhymend

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. PMID:26955656

  19. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks.

    PubMed

    Devi, D Chitra; Uthariaraj, V Rhymend

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. PMID:26955656

  20. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  1. Architectures for statically scheduled dataflow

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.A.; Bier, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    When dataflow program graphs can be statically scheduled, little run-time overhead (software or hardware) is necessary. This paper describes a class of parallel architectures consisting of von Neumann processors and one or more shared memories, where the order of shared- memory access is determined at compile time and enforced at run time. The architecture is extremely lean in hardware, yet for a set of important applications it can perform as well as any shared-memory architecture. Dataflow graphs can be mapped onto it statically. Furthermore, it supports shared data structures without the run-time overhead of I-structures. A software environment has been constructed that automatically maps signal processing applications onto a simulation of such an architecture, where the architecture is implemented using Motorola DSP96002 microcomputers. Static (compile-time) scheduling is possible for a subclass of dataflow program graphs where the firing pattern of actors is data independent. This model is suitable for digital signal processing and some other scientific computation. It supports recurrences, manifest iteration, and conditional assignment. However, it does not support true recursion, data-dependent iteration, or conditional evaluation. An effort is under way to weaken the constraints of the model to determine the implications for hardware design.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  3. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  4. Schedules of controlled substances: rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products from schedule III to schedule II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-22

    With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration reschedules hydrocodone combination products from schedule III to schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act which requires that such actions be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing through formal rulemaking. This action imposes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule II controlled substances on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, dispense, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities with, conduct chemical analysis with, or possess) or propose to handle hydrocodone combination products. PMID:25167591

  5. Greedy scheduling of cellular self-replication leads to optimal doubling times with a log-Frechet distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pugatch, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial self-replication is a complex process composed of many de novo synthesis steps catalyzed by a myriad of molecular processing units, e.g., the transcription–translation machinery, metabolic enzymes, and the replisome. Successful completion of all production tasks requires a schedule—a temporal assignment of each of the production tasks to its respective processing units that respects ordering and resource constraints. Most intracellular growth processes are well characterized. However, the manner in which they are coordinated under the control of a scheduling policy is not well understood. When fast replication is favored, a schedule that minimizes the completion time is desirable. However, if resources are scarce, it is typically computationally hard to find such a schedule, in the worst case. Here, we show that optimal scheduling naturally emerges in cellular self-replication. Optimal doubling time is obtained by maintaining a sufficiently large inventory of intermediate metabolites and processing units required for self-replication and additionally requiring that these processing units be “greedy,” i.e., not idle if they can perform a production task. We calculate the distribution of doubling times of such optimally scheduled self-replicating factories, and find it has a universal form—log-Frechet, not sensitive to many microscopic details. Analyzing two recent datasets of Escherichia coli growing in a stationary medium, we find excellent agreement between the observed doubling-time distribution and the predicted universal distribution, suggesting E. coli is optimally scheduling its replication. Greedy scheduling appears as a simple generic route to optimal scheduling when speed is the optimization criterion. Other criteria such as efficiency require more elaborate scheduling policies and tighter regulation. PMID:25675498

  6. Steal Tree: Low-Overhead Tracing of Work Stealing Schedulers

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2013-06-16

    Work stealing is a popular approach to scheduling task-parallel programs. The flexibility inherent in work stealing when dealing with load imbalance results in seemingly irregular computation structures, complicating the study of its runtime behavior. In this paper, we present an approach to efficiently trace async-finish parallel programs scheduled using work stealing. We identify key properties that allow us to trace the execution of tasks with low time and space overheads. We also study the usefulness of the proposed schemes in supporting algorithms for data-race detection and retentive steal- ing presented in the literature. We demonstrate that the perturbation due to tracing is within the variation in the execution time with 99% confidence and the traces are concise, amounting to a few tens of kilobytes per thread in most cases. We also demonstrate that the traces enable significant reductions in the cost of detecting data races and result in low, stable space overheads in supporting retentive stealing for async-finish programs.

  7. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.

  8. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  9. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can

  10. On scheduling models for the frequency interval assignment problem with cumulative interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatmanaroj, Kata; Artigues, Christian; Houssin, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    In this article, models and methods for solving a real-life frequency assignment problem based on scheduling theory are investigated. A realistic frequency assignment problem involving cumulative interference constraints in which the aim is to maximize the number of assigned users is considered. If interferences are assumed to be binary, a multiple carrier frequency assignment problem can be treated as a disjunctive scheduling problem since a user requesting a number of contiguous frequencies can be considered as a non-preemptive task with a processing time, and two interfering users can be modelled through a disjunctive constraint on the corresponding tasks. A binary interference version of the problem is constructed and a disjunctive scheduling model is derived. Based on the binary representation, two models are proposed. The first one relies on an interference matrix and the second one considers maximal cliques. A third, cumulative, model that yields a new class of scheduling problems is also proposed. Computational experiments show that the case-study frequency assignment problem can be solved efficiently with disjunctive scheduling techniques.

  11. Bayesian learning in assisted brain-computer interface tasks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Schwartz, Andrew B; Chase, Steve M; Kass, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Successful implementation of a brain-computer interface depends critically on the subject's ability to learn how to modulate the neurons controlling the device. However, the subject's learning process is probably the least understood aspect of the control loop. How should training be adjusted to facilitate dexterous control of a prosthetic device? An effective training schedule should manipulate the difficulty of the task to provide enough information to guide improvement without overwhelming the subject. In this paper, we introduce a bayesian framework for modeling the closed-loop BCI learning process that treats the subject as a bandwidth-limited communication channel. We then develop an adaptive algorithm to find the optimal difficulty-schedule for performance improvement. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm yields faster learning rates than several other heuristic training schedules, and provides insight into the factors that might affect the learning process. PMID:23366492

  12. Resupply Scheduler Program Using Integer Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Reed, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Resupply Scheduling Modeler (RSM) fully menu-driven computer program using integer programming techniques to determine optimum schedule for replacing components on or before ends of fixed replacement periods. Written to analyze electrical power system on Space Station Freedom, also used to model resupply of almost any system subject to user-defined constraints on resources. Lifetimes of components, assembly schedules, and other constraints taken into account. Written in APL2(R).

  13. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  14. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  16. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  17. Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a

  18. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  19. Tool for Merging Proposals Into DSN Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Kwok, John; Call, Jared

    2008-01-01

    A Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) script called merge7da has been developed to facilitate determination, by a project scheduler in NASA's Deep Space Network, of whether a proposal for use of the DSN could create a conflict with the current DSN schedule. Prior to the development of merge7da, there was no way to quickly identify potential schedule conflicts: it was necessary to submit a proposal and wait a day or two for a response from a DSN scheduling facility. By using merge7da to detect and eliminate potential schedule conflicts before submitting a proposal, a project scheduler saves time and gains assurance that the proposal will probably be accepted. merge7da accepts two input files, one of which contains the current DSN schedule and is in a DSN-standard format called '7da'. The other input file contains the proposal and is in another DSN-standard format called 'C1/C2'. merge7da processes the two input files to produce a merged 7da-format output file that represents the DSN schedule as it would be if the proposal were to be adopted. This 7da output file can be loaded into various DSN scheduling software tools now in use.

  20. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables.

  1. Core-12: implementation of flexible scheduling.

    PubMed

    Arnold, B; Mills, M E

    1983-01-01

    Flexible scheduling and its impact on nursing are topics of growing interest among nurses. Described in this article is a flexible scheduling system developed by a surgical intensive care unit nursing staff around a core of 12 1/2-hour work shifts. As a result of careful consideration and planning, a master schedule, staffing guidelines, and a work agreement were prepared for a large department of nursing. Administrators of other departments of nursing implementing flexible scheduling should find this information useful. PMID:6553600

  2. Production scheduling and rescheduling with genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bierwirth, C; Mattfeld, D C

    1999-01-01

    A general model for job shop scheduling is described which applies to static, dynamic and non-deterministic production environments. Next, a Genetic Algorithm is presented which solves the job shop scheduling problem. This algorithm is tested in a dynamic environment under different workload situations. Thereby, a highly efficient decoding procedure is proposed which strongly improves the quality of schedules. Finally, this technique is tested for scheduling and rescheduling in a non-deterministic environment. It is shown by experiment that conventional methods of production control are clearly outperformed at reasonable run-time costs. PMID:10199993

  3. Payload crew training scheduler (PACTS) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of the payload specialist training scheduler (PACTS) is discussed in this user's manual which is used to schedule payload specialists for mission training on the Spacelab experiments. The PACTS program is a fully automated interactive, computerized scheduling program equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The PACTS program is designed to operate on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system, and has the capability to load output into a PDP 11/45 Interactive Graphics Display System for printing schedules. The program has the capacity to handle up to three overlapping Spacelab missions.

  4. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a)...

  5. Network-Aware HEFT Scheduling for Grid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a network-aware HEFT. The original HEFT does not take care of parallel network flows while designing its schedule for a computational environment where computing nodes are physically at distant locations. In the proposed mechanism, such data transfers are stretched to their realistic completion time. A HEFT schedule with stretched data transfers exhibits the realistic makespan of the schedule. It is shown how misleading a schedule can be if the impact of parallel data transfers that share a bottleneck is ignored. A network-aware HEFT can be used to yield a benefit for Grid applications. PMID:24587719

  6. CASSIUS: The Cassini Uplink Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellinger, Earl

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Uplink Scheduler (CASSIUS) is cross-platform software used to generate a radiation sequence plan for commands being sent to the Cassini spacecraft. Because signals must travel through varying amounts of Earth's atmosphere, several different modes of constant telemetry rates have been devised. These modes guarantee that the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network agree with respect to the data transmission rate. However, the memory readout of a command will be lost if it occurs on a telemetry mode boundary. Given a list of spacecraft message files as well as the available telemetry modes, CASSIUS can find an uplink sequence that ensures safe transmission of each file. In addition, it can predict when the two on-board solid state recorders will swap. CASSIUS prevents data corruption by making sure that commands are not planned for memory readout during telemetry rate changes or a solid state recorder swap.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  8. Rail mounted gantry crane scheduling optimization in railway container terminal based on hybrid handling mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Rail mounted gantry crane (RMGC) scheduling is important in reducing makespan of handling operation and improving container handling efficiency. In this paper, we present an RMGC scheduling optimization model, whose objective is to determine an optimization handling sequence in order to minimize RMGC idle load time in handling tasks. An ant colony optimization is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments on a specific railway container terminal are conducted to illustrate the proposed model and solution algorithm. The results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the idle load time of RMGC. PMID:25538768

  9. Workflow Scheduling in Grid Computing Environment using a Hybrid GAACO Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, Kuppani; RamaMohan Reddy, A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent trends, grid computing is one of the emerging areas in computing platform which supports parallel and distributed environments. The main problem for grid computing is scheduling of workflows in terms of user specifications is a stimulating task and it also impacts the performance. This paper proposes a hybrid GAACO approach, which is a combination of Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm. The GAACO approach proposes different types of scheduling heuristics for the grid environment. The main objective of this approach is to satisfy all the defined constraints and user parameters.

  10. MAS Equipped with Ant Colony Applied into Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kai; Zhang, Ren Feng; Yang, Yan Qing

    This paper presents a methodology adopting the new structure of MAS(multi-agent system) equipped with ACO(ant colony optimization) algorithm for a better schedule in dynamic job shop. In consideration of the dynamic events in the job shop arriving indefinitely schedules are generated based on tasks with ant colony algorithm. Meanwhile, the global objective is taken into account for the best solution in the actual manufacturing environment. The methodology is tested on a simulated job shop to determine the impact with the new structure.

  11. Effective scheduling of looking and talking during rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter C; Hoedemaker, Renske S

    2016-05-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly related to literacy gains in developing readers, reading disabilities, and reading ability in children and adults. Because successful RAN performance depends on the close coordination of a number of abilities, it is unclear what specific skills drive this RAN-reading relationship. The current study used concurrent recordings of young adult participants' vocalizations and eye movements during the RAN task to assess how individual variation in RAN performance depends on the coordination of visual and vocal processes. Results showed that fast RAN times are facilitated by having the eyes 1 or more items ahead of the current vocalization, as long as the eyes do not get so far ahead of the voice as to require a regressive eye movement to an earlier item. These data suggest that optimizing RAN performance is a problem of scheduling eye movements and vocalization given memory constraints and the efficiency of encoding and articulatory control. Both RAN completion time (conventionally used to indicate RAN performance) and eye-voice relations predicted some aspects of participants' eye movements on a separate sentence reading task. However, eye-voice relations predicted additional features of first-pass reading that were not predicted by RAN completion time. This shows that measurement of eye-voice patterns can identify important aspects of individual variation in reading that are not identified by the standard measure of RAN performance. We argue that RAN performance predicts reading ability because both tasks entail challenges of scheduling cognitive and linguistic processes that operate simultaneously on multiple linguistic inputs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689309

  12. Development of a scheduling algorithm and GUI for autonomous satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-woo; Han, Sun-mi; Cho, Kyeum-rae; Lee, Dae-woo; Yang, Jang-sik; Bainum, Peter M.; Kim, Hae-dong

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a scheduling optimization algorithm is developed and verified for autonomous satellite mission operations. As satellite control and operational techniques continue to develop, satellite missions become more complicated and the overall quantity of tasks within the missions also increases. These changes require more specific consideration and a huge amount of computational resources, for scheduling the satellite missions. In addition, there is a certain level of repetition in satellite mission scheduling activities, and hence it is highly recommended that the operation manager carefully considers and builds some appropriate strategy for performing the operations autonomously. A good strategy to adopt is to develop scheduling optimization algorithms, because it is difficult for humans to consider the many mission parameters and constraints simultaneously. In this paper, a new genetic algorithm is applied to simulations of an actual satellite mission scheduling problem, and an appropriate GUI design is considered for an autonomous satellite mission operation. It is expected that the scheduling optimization algorithm and the GUI can improve the overall efficiency in practical satellite mission operations.

  13. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Secretary's scheduling responsibilities under the CSA, with the concurrence of NIDA. 50 FR 9518. In addition... provisions of the CSA. 76 FR 55616. Following this, on October 21, 2011, DEA published a Final Order in the... Schedule I of the CSA pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of 21 U.S.C. 811(h). 76 FR...

  14. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  15. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  16. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  17. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  18. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  19. 78 FR 26701 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... scheduling responsibilities under the CSA, with the concurrence of NIDA. 50 FR 9518. In addition, because the..., ``Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin into Schedule IV'' on December 19, 2012 (77 FR... referenced were zopiclone (70 FR 16935), pregabalin (70 FR 43633), and ezogabine (76 FR 77895). DEA...

  20. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  1. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  2. Space station task force perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, C.

    1984-01-01

    Space station planning quidelines; architecture; functions; preliminary mission data base; scope for international and commercial participation; schedules; servicing capability; technology development; and space station program interfaces are discussed.

  3. Task-specific Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Russotto, Diego; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific dystonias are primary focal dystonias characterized by excessive muscle contractions producing abnormal postures during selective motor activities that often involve highly skilled, repetitive movements. Historically these peculiar postures were considered psychogenic but have now been classified as forms of dystonia. Writer’s cramp is the most commonly identified task-specific dystonia and has features typical of this group of disorders. Symptoms may begin with lack of dexterity during performance of a specific motor task with increasingly abnormal posturing of the involved body part as motor activity continues. Initially, the dystonia may manifest only during the performance of the inciting task, but as the condition progresses it may also occur during other activities or even at rest. Neurological exam is usually unremarkable except for the dystonia-related abnormalities. Although the precise pathophysiology remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests reduced inhibition at different levels of the sensorimotor system. Symptomatic treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, neurosurgical procedures, and adaptive strategies. Prognosis may vary depending upon body part involved and specific type of task affected. Further research may reveal new insights into the etiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and improved treatment of these conditions. PMID:18990127

  4. 40 CFR 52.1677 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1677 Section 52.1677 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1677 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements of § 51.261 of...

  5. 5 CFR 838.132 - Payment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment schedules. 838.132 Section 838.132 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.132 Payment schedules....

  6. A Heuristic Approach to Scheduling University Timetables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, E. H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Categories of facilities utilization and scheduling requirements to be considered when using a heuristic approach to timetabling are described together with a nine-step algorithm and the computerized timetabling system, Timetable Schedules System (TTS); TTS utilizes heuristic approach. An example demonstrating use of TTS and a program flowchart…

  7. 44 CFR 5.46 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fee schedule. 5.46 Section 5.46 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Fees § 5.46 Fee schedule. (a) Manual searches for records. FEMA will charge at the salary...

  8. 29 CFR 4901.32 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fee schedule. 4901.32 Section 4901.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INTERNAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND PROCEDURES EXAMINATION AND COPYING OF PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION RECORDS Fees § 4901.32 Fee schedule. (a) Charges for searching and...

  9. 5 CFR 1631.14 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fee schedule. 1631.14 Section 1631.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Production or Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552 § 1631.14 Fee schedule. (a) Manual searches for records. The Board...

  10. 44 CFR 5.46 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fee schedule. 5.46 Section 5.46 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Fees § 5.46 Fee schedule. (a) Manual searches for records. FEMA will charge at the salary...

  11. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2.85 Section 2.85 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system....

  12. Four-Day Week Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    What does research say about the four-day week as an alternative school schedule? More than 100 districts in at least 12 states currently use a four-day week alternative schedule. Most are located in rural areas, serve less than 1000 students, and made the move to a shorter school week with longer instructional days for financial reasons. Although…

  13. "Contingency" or "Career" Schedules for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Jessie

    1978-01-01

    The notion of contingency scheduling for women is presented in this discussion of how women schedule their futures--marriage, child-bearing, professional training, and career development--and how colleges and universities can be more responsive to their needs. (Author/AF)

  14. Soil water monitoring equipment for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment for monitoring soil water content and sometimes bulk electrical conductivity can be used for scheduling irrigations if the accuracy of the equipment is sufficient to avoid damanging plants and wasting water and fertilizer. Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when to irrigate a...

  15. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100... .1 Germanium-71 100 1 Gold-198 10 .1 Gold-199 10 .1 Hafnium-181 1 .01 Holmium-166 10 .1...

  16. 10 CFR 33.100 - Schedule A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule A. 33.100 Section 33.100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES OF BROAD SCOPE FOR BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 33.100... .1 Germanium-71 100 1 Gold-198 10 .1 Gold-199 10 .1 Hafnium-181 1 .01 Holmium-166 10 .1...

  17. How Block Scheduling Reform Effects Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Flinders, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices. This paper reports on…

  18. 10 CFR 217.34 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... receipt dates). If the conflicting orders are scheduled to be delivered or performed on the same day, the... production items or services, in a timely manner to satisfy the delivery requirements of each rated order. Modifying production or delivery schedules is necessary only when required delivery dates for rated...

  19. 10 CFR 217.34 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receipt dates). If the conflicting orders are scheduled to be delivered or performed on the same day, the... production items or services, in a timely manner to satisfy the delivery requirements of each rated order. Modifying production or delivery schedules is necessary only when required delivery dates for rated...

  20. 10 CFR 217.34 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receipt dates). If the conflicting orders are scheduled to be delivered or performed on the same day, the... production items or services, in a timely manner to satisfy the delivery requirements of each rated order. Modifying production or delivery schedules is necessary only when required delivery dates for rated...

  1. 49 CFR 224.107 - Implementation schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... brake test as prescribed by 49 CFR 232.305. (ii) A freight rolling stock owner may elect not to follow... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation schedule. 224.107 Section 224.107... Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.107 Implementation schedule. (a) Railroad freight cars....

  2. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local... part. Area-specific PAMS operating schedules must be included as part of the PAMS network description... remains once every six days. No less frequently than as part of each 5-year network assessment, the...

  3. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local... part. Area-specific PAMS operating schedules must be included as part of the PAMS network description... remains once every six days. No less frequently than as part of each 5-year network assessment, the...

  4. A scheduling algorithm for Spacelab telescope observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grone, B.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for sequencing and scheduling of observations of stellar targets by equipment on Spacelab. The method is a general one. The scheduling problem is defined and examined. The method developed for its solution is documented. Suggestions for further development and implementation of this method are made.

  5. Arapahoe High School Variable Student Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapahoe County School District 6, Littleton, CO.

    This document describes the variable student scheduling program at Arapahoe High School in Littleton, a suburb of Denver, Colorado. Under this plan students have Monday-Wednesday-Friday classes and Tuesday-Thursday classes of approximately one hour. Four- and five-day-a-week classes are also scheduled. The program is now in its third year of…

  6. Scheduling Sanity in the Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curatilo, Joseph S.

    1983-01-01

    Use of the music block schedule for elementary band, chorus, and orchestra programs has many advantages. For example, it eliminates the need to pull students from class and abates classroom teacher and music teacher friction. Solutions to other problems often encountered in scheduling are also discussed. (RM)

  7. 24 CFR 965.307 - Compliance schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance schedule. 965.307 Section 965.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 965.307 Compliance schedule. All energy conservation measures determined by energy audits to be...

  8. 40 CFR 716.60 - Reporting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting schedule. 716.60 Section 716.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.60 Reporting schedule. (a) General requirements. Except as provided in § 716.5...

  9. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating schedules. 58.12 Section 58.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local governments shall collect ambient air quality data...

  10. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local... part. Area-specific PAMS operating schedules must be included as part of the PAMS network description... to the historical PM 2.5 data quality assessments, the location of current PM 2.5 design value...

  11. 40 CFR 52.576 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.576 Section 52.576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.576 Compliance schedules. (a) (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.576 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.576 Section 52.576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.576 Compliance schedules. (a) (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.576 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.576 Section 52.576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.576 Compliance schedules. (a) (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.576 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.576 Section 52.576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.576 Compliance schedules. (a) (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.576 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.576 Section 52.576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.576 Compliance schedules. (a) (b)...

  16. 29 CFR 1952.151 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS North Carolina § 1952.151 Developmental schedule. The North Carolina Plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of the developmental... after ratification of the draft bill. (q) The State of North Carolina will be fully operational...

  17. 29 CFR 1952.151 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS North Carolina § 1952.151 Developmental schedule. The North Carolina Plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of the developmental... after ratification of the draft bill. (q) The State of North Carolina will be fully operational...

  18. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  19. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  20. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  1. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  2. 40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.778 Section 52.778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.778 Compliance schedules. (a) The requirements of § 51.262(a) of this chapter are...

  3. 5 CFR 838.132 - Payment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment schedules. 838.132 Section 838.132 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Procedures Applicable to All Court Orders § 838.132 Payment schedules....

  4. 75 FR 39629 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ..., 2010 the Board published for comment in the Federal Register its Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 75 FR... Federal Register and went into effect on May 1, 2009, 74 FR 20934. Board Action Accordingly, the Board... 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment...

  5. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Schedule, 76 FR 28194. In response to the notice, one comment was received regarding excessive fees. The... was published in the Federal Register and went into effect on June 15, 2010, 75 FR 39629. Board Action... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  6. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there…

  7. 7 CFR 1.18 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fee schedule. 1.18 Section 1.18 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.18 Fee schedule. Pursuant to § 2.28 of this title, the Chief Financial Officer is delegated authority to promulgate...

  8. 7 CFR 1.18 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee schedule. 1.18 Section 1.18 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.18 Fee schedule. Pursuant to § 2.28 of this title, the Chief Financial Officer is delegated authority to promulgate...

  9. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  10. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  11. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  14. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  15. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  16. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  17. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  18. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  19. 40 CFR 52.825 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.825 Section 52.825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.825 Compliance schedules. (a) (b) Regulation for increments of progress. (1) Except...

  20. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.