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Sample records for ah gases materials

  1. 30 CFR 18.25 - Combustible gases from insulating material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combustible gases from insulating material. 18... and Design Requirements § 18.25 Combustible gases from insulating material. (a) Insulating materials... impregnated with insulating materials shall be heat-treated to remove any combustible solvent(s)...

  2. 30 CFR 18.25 - Combustible gases from insulating material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible gases from insulating material. 18... and Design Requirements § 18.25 Combustible gases from insulating material. (a) Insulating materials... impregnated with insulating materials shall be heat-treated to remove any combustible solvent(s)...

  3. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-0542) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.840, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) materials. 177.840 Section 177.840... and Unloading § 177.840 Class 2 (gases) materials. (See also § 177.834 (a) to (j).) (a) Floors...

  4. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-0542) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.840, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) materials. 177.840 Section 177.840... and Unloading § 177.840 Class 2 (gases) materials. (See also § 177.834 (a) to (j).) (a) Floors...

  5. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-0542) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.840, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) materials. 177.840 Section 177.840... and Unloading § 177.840 Class 2 (gases) materials. (See also § 177.834 (a) to (j).) (a) Floors...

  6. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Mudge, Lyle K.; Brown, Michael D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  7. Screening materials for toxicity of pyrolysis gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The USF-NASA toxicity screening test method is primarily intended to indicate which materials are more toxic under specific test conditions, and not necessarily to explain why they are more toxic. Analysis of the test data obtained, however, in the light of the experience accumulated, can provide some insight into the mechanisms of toxicity and the importance of specific toxicants. The use of free-field movement offers both advantages and disadvantages relative to other behavioral paradigms, and the use of Swiss Webster mice offers both advantages and disadvantages relative to other species and strains.

  8. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... point of origin to destination. (b) Portable tank containers containing Class 2 (gases) materials shall... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Research Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for... without human intervention in the event of a leak or separation in the hose. (t) Unloading...

  9. 30 CFR 18.25 - Combustible gases from insulating material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combustible gases from insulating material. 18.25 Section 18.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  10. 30 CFR 18.25 - Combustible gases from insulating material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combustible gases from insulating material. 18.25 Section 18.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  11. Reactor for producing large particles of materials from gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagan, Richard C. (Inventor); Alam, Mohammed K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing large particles of material from gas, or gases, containing the material (e.g., silicon from silane) in a free-space reactor comprised of a tube (20) and controlled furnace (25). A hot gas is introduced in the center of the reactant gas through a nozzle (23) to heat a quantity of the reactant gas, or gases, to produce a controlled concentration of seed particles (24) which are entrained in the flow of reactant gas, or gases. The temperature profile (FIG. 4) of the furnace is controlled for such a slow, controlled rate of reaction that virtually all of the material released condenses on seed particles and new particles are not nucleated in the furnace. A separate reactor comprised of a tube (33) and furnace (30) may be used to form a seed aerosol which, after passing through a cooling section (34) is introduced in the main reactor tube (34) which includes a mixer (36) to mix the seed aerosol in a controlled concentration with the reactant gas or gases.

  12. The permeability of resin based composite materials to radiolytic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D.; Reed, R. P.

    When the insulation of a superconducting magnet is irradiated, the radiolytic gases will be produced in a condensed form and only mobilised when the magnet is warmed, following irradiation. The extent to which these gases will permeate through the resin or remain trapped within the polymer structure is not yet fully understood. Trapped gases may result in internal stress, cause swelling within the polymer and contribute to a degradation of electrical performance. The quantity of gas which remains trapped within the polymer structure is thought to be a function of the internal pressure, material thickness and the permeability of the various gases that may be formed. The study, detailed in this report, was undertaken to estimate the time scale and extent to which gases, produced and trapped following low temperature irradiation, will be lost by permeation through the insulation when it is warmed to 293 K. This work follows from an earlier report which showed that different amounts of gas were evolved when the same resin was irradiated in different geometric forms.

  13. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 174.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS.... (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2 (gases... prevent their overturning; (2) Loaded into racks securely attached to the car; (3) Packed in boxes...

  14. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  15. Circumstellar material in meteorites - Noble gases, carbon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward

    1988-01-01

    In addition to preserving a record of isotopically distinct reservoirs in the early solar system, some primitive meteorites contain discrete grains of presolar origin. Such grains are distinguished by the isotopically anomalous noble-gas components they contain. One such component consists of monoisotopic Ne-22, produced by decay of radioactive Na-22 with a 2.6 yr half-life. Two xenon components have also been identified: one synthesized apparently in a supernova, the other probably in a red giant star. Most of the grains that carry these noble-gas components are carbonaceous and contain isotopically anomalous C, N, or both. They include diamond and silicon carbide. Two unidentified carriers of isotopically anomalous nitrogen, unaccompanied by noble gases, occur in the brecciated stony iron meteorite, Bencubbin.

  16. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (flammable gas) material. (2) Cylinders for hydrogen, cryogenic liquid. A Specification DOT-4L cylinder containing hydrogen, cryogenic liquid may only be transported on a motor vehicle as follows: (i) The vehicle... the hydrogen venting rates, as marked, on the cylinders transported on one motor vehicle may...

  17. Trapping ultracold gases near cryogenic materials with rapid reconfigurability

    SciTech Connect

    Naides, Matthew A.; Turner, Richard W.; Lai, Ruby A.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate an atom chip trapping system that allows the placement and high-resolution imaging of ultracold atoms within microns from any ≲100 μm-thin, UHV-compatible material, while also allowing sample exchange with minimal experimental downtime. The sample is not connected to the atom chip, allowing rapid exchange without perturbing the atom chip or laser cooling apparatus. Exchange of the sample and retrapping of atoms has been performed within a week turnaround, limited only by chamber baking. Moreover, the decoupling of sample and atom chip provides the ability to independently tune the sample temperature and its position with respect to the trapped ultracold gas, which itself may remain in the focus of a high-resolution imaging system. As a first demonstration of this system, we have confined a 700-nK cloud of 8 × 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms within 100 μm of a gold-mirrored 100-μm-thick silicon substrate. The substrate was cooled to 35 K without use of a heat shield, while the atom chip, 120 μm away, remained at room temperature. Atoms may be imaged and retrapped every 16 s, allowing rapid data collection.

  18. An in-vitro comparative study for assessment of apical sealing ability of Epiphany/AH Plus sealer with Resilon/gutta-percha root canal filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Meraj; Musani, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Iffat M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Endodontic treatment is directed to eliminate microbial challenges from the root canal system and to create a complete seal. The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system and to compare it with the sealing abilities of different combinations of AH Plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany, and Resilon. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary incisor roots were treated endodontically. The samples were divided into groups A, B, C, and D, with each group containing 25 samples. Group A: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; Group B: Canals obturated with Resilon and Epiphany; Group C: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and Epiphany; Group D: Control group canals obturated with gutta-percha without a sealer. The sealing ability of each of the obturation techniques was tested using the dye penetration method followed by the clearing method using alcohol. Stereo microscope was used to measure the extent of dye penetration. Statistical data analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all the four groups. Apical extent of mean microleakage was maximum for gutta-percha, followed by Gutta-percha + AH-plus and Gutta-percha + Epiphany, and the least with Resilon + Epiphany. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was seen in the apical leakage. Conclusion: All the samples tested showed microleakage. The “Epiphany soft resin endodontic obturation system” showed a superior result compared to other obturation materials. PMID:27583220

  19. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section 173.245 Transportation Other Regulations... hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that..., when approved by the Associate Administrator. (b) Cargo tank motor vehicles and portable tanks,...

  20. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section 173.245 Transportation Other Regulations... hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that..., when approved by the Associate Administrator. (b) Cargo tank motor vehicles and portable tanks,...

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Goodson, Boyd M.

    1999-12-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials, and organisms.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Boyd M

    2002-04-01

    The sensitivity of conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques is fundamentally limited by the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This review describes the principles and magnetic resonance applications of laser-polarized noble gases. The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across numerous disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, NMR sensitivity enhancement via polarization transfer, and low-field NMR and MRI. PMID:12036331

  3. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Koutsoukos, Elias P.

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  4. Materials Data on Na3GaSe3 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on GaSe (SG:187) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Use of Less Reactive Materials and More Stable Gases to Reduce Corrosive Wear When Lubricating with Halogenated Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1960-01-01

    The gases CF2Cl-CF2Cl, CF2Cl2, and CF2Br-CF2Br were used to lubricate metals, cermets, and ceramics in this study. One of the criteria for determining the effectiveness of a reactive-gas-lubricated systems is the stability of the halogen-containing gas molecule. The carbon-to-halogen bond in the ethane molecule has extremely good thermal stability superior to the methane analogs (CF2Cl2 and CF2Br2) used in earlier research. For this reason, the ethane compounds CF2Cl-CF2Cl and CF2Br-CF2Br were considered as high-temperature lubricants. Friction and wear studies were made with a hemisphere (3/16-in. rad.) rider sliding in a circumferential path on the flat surface of a rotating disk (21/2-in. diam. ). The specimens of metal alloys, cermets, and ceramics were run In an atmosphere of the various gases with a load of 1200 grams, sliding velocities from 75 to 8000 feet per minute, and temperatures from 75 to 1400 F. The gas CF2Cl-CF2Cl was found to be an effective lubricant for the cermet LT-LB (59.0 Cr, 19.0 Al2O3, 20.0 Mo, 2.0 Ti) and the ceramic Al2O3 sliding on Stellite Star J (cobalt-base alloy) at temperatures to 1400 F. The bromine-containing gas CF2Br-CF2Br was found to give friction and wear values that can be considered to be in a region of effective boundary lubrication for the cermet K175D (nickel-bonded metal carbide) sliding on the metal Hastelloy R-235 (nickel-base alloy) at temperatures to 1200 F.

  7. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Carrier phase GPS for AHS vehicle control. Resource materials. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Galijan, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describs the results of a PSA contract awarded to SRI International to analyze applications of advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement techniques to provide data for lateral and longitudinal control of AHS vehicles. The report includes: (1) a review of control sensor requirements suggested by other PSA contractors and AHS researchers; (2) an indepth discussion of GPS principles of operation, advanced techniques for achieving extremely accurate GPS positioning and velocity data, and techniques for augmenting GPS to provide continuous high-accuracy data; (3) current and expected GPS capabilities and performance; (4) a review of other proposed sensor types for providing lateral and longitudinal control data; (5) a description of a notional architecture and operation of an AHS incorporating GPS; and (6) a preliminary evaluation by SRI of GPS operation in a typical AHS roadway environment.

  8. Modeling of Current Transport in Composite Materials in the Presence of Ambient Gases. Application to TIO2-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaryan, Andrei; Patton, Bruce

    1998-04-01

    It is widely believed that composite materials are good candidates for gas sensors. Experimentally, the problem is treated by measuring resistivity of the sample. To treat the problem theoretically one should take into account changes of electrostatic potential and thus the band structure in the presence of ambient gases. A model that takes into account presence of ambient gases was developed. Based on the model we computed height of the intergrain boundary and the resistivity of the intergrain region, which should mostly define the resistivity of the material. We also discuss their dependence on various number of parameters (ambient gas concentration, level of depletion, temperature, size of the grain).

  9. Survival of Influenza A(H1N1) on Materials Found in Households: Implications for Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Greatorex, Jane S.; Digard, Paul; Curran, Martin D.; Moynihan, Robert; Wensley, Harrison; Wreghitt, Tim; Varsani, Harsha; Garcia, Fayna; Enstone, Joanne; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of influenza transmission occurs in homes, schools and workplaces, where many frequently touched communal items are situated. However the importance of transmission via fomites is unclear since few data exist on the survival of virus on commonly touched surfaces. We therefore measured the viability over time of two H1N1 influenza strains applied to a variety of materials commonly found in households and workplaces. Methodology and Principal Findings Influenza A/PuertoRico/8/34 (PR8) or A/Cambridge/AHO4/2009 (pandemic H1N1) viruses were inoculated onto a wide range of surfaces used in home and work environments, then sampled at set times following incubation at stabilised temperature and humidity. Virus genome was measured by RT-PCR; plaque assay (for PR8) or fluorescent focus formation (for pandemic H1N1) was used to assess the survival of viable virus. Conclusions/Significance The genome of either virus could be detected on most surfaces 24 h after application with relatively little drop in copy number, with the exception of unsealed wood surfaces. In contrast, virus viability dropped much more rapidly. Live virus was recovered from most surfaces tested four hours after application and from some non-porous materials after nine hours, but had fallen below the level of detection from all surfaces at 24 h. We conclude that influenza A transmission via fomites is possible but unlikely to occur for long periods after surface contamination (unless re-inoculation occurs). In situations involving a high probability of influenza transmission, our data suggest a hierarchy of priorities for surface decontamination in the multi-surface environments of home and hospitals. PMID:22132172

  10. Formation of Residual Gases from Source Materials in Closed Crystal Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Different, non-constituent cases are present in crystal growth systems and may affect processes like growth rate in PVT or voids formation and detached solidification in melt growth systems. The presence of the gas may be detrimental or advantageous depending on its amount and composition, and on the process in question. The presence of the cases, their amount and composition, can be caused and changed by diffusion through and desorption from the growth container material. We have investigated these phenomena for silica glass ampoules. We also found, that residual cases can be generated by the source materials: even very high purity commercial elements and compounds may contain trace amounts of impurities, particularly oxides. The oxides may have low volatilities themselves but their reaction with other species, particularly carbon and hydrogen, may produce volatile compounds like water or carbon oxides. The amount of the gas and its composition is dependent on the original purity of the material (oxide contaminants) and the heat treatment of the source prior to sealing. In many cases. particularly at temperatures below about 900 C and in well-outgassed ampoules, this mechanism dominates. The problem is of a particular importance in sealed systems where the amount and composition of the gas cannot be directly controlled. Therefore, a reasonable knowledge and understanding of the origin, composition, magnitude, and change with time of gases present in sealed ampoules may be important for a meaningful control and interpretation of crystal growth processes. We have investigated this phenomenon in more details for a number of elements and compounds, primarily for II-VI and IV-VI materials. Different source pre-treatment and annealing procedures were applied, and subsequent consecutive annealings and measurements were done to determine the origin and development of the gas in the systems.

  11. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Activity area H: AHS roadway deployment analysis. Resource materials. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, D.; Markovetz, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify the issues and risks related to the deployment of the automated highway system (AHS) in urban and rural operating environments, from the perspective of impacts on the roadway for each of the representative system configurations (RSC). The purpose of this effort is to identify and evaluate the various issues and risks and to determine if a mitigation strategy can be identified that addreses the negative implications to a level that makes AHS deployment successful in a variety of operating environments when applied to the RSCs.

  12. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  13. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    PubMed

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  14. Dielectric function of Cu(In, Ga)Se2-based polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Shota; Kodera, Keita; Maekawa, Takuji; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Niki, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    The dielectric functions of Cu(In, Ga)Se2(CIGS)-based polycrystalline layers with different Ga and Cu compositions have been determined by applying spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in a wide energy range of 0.7-6.5 eV. To suppress SE analysis errors induced by rough surface and compositional fluctuation, quite thin CIGS layers (<60 nm) with high uniformity toward the growth direction have been characterized using a self-consistent SE analysis method. We find that the optical model used in many previous studies is oversimplified particularly for the roughness/overlayer contribution, and all the artifacts arising from the simplified analysis have been removed almost completely in our approach. The CIGS dielectric functions with the variation of the Ga composition [x = Ga/(In + Ga)] revealed that (i) the whole CIGS dielectric function shifts toward higher energies with x, (ii) the band gap increases linearly with x without the band-gap bowing effect, and (iii) the overall absorption coefficients are significantly smaller than those reported earlier. Furthermore, the reduction of the Cu composition [y = Cu/(In + Ga)] leads to (i) the linear increase in the band-edge transition energy and (ii) the decrease in the absorption coefficient, due to the smaller interaction of the Cu 3d orbitals near the valence band maximum in the Cu-deficient layers. When y > 1, on the other hand, the free-carrier absorption increases drastically due to the formation of a semi-metallic CuxSe phase with a constant band gap in the CIGS component. In this study, by using a standard critical-point line-shape analysis, the critical point energies of the CIGS-based layers with different Ga and Cu compositions have been determined. Based on these results, we will discuss the optical transitions in CIGS-based polycrystalline materials.

  15. Trapped solar wind noble gases, kr81/kr exposure ages and k/ar ages in apollo 11 lunar material.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, P; Geiss, J; Graf, H; Grögler, N; Krähenbühl, U; Schwaller, H; Schwarzmüller, J; Stettler, A

    1970-01-30

    Grain size and etching experiments show that the fine lunar material contains large amounts of trapped solar wind particles. Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases in solar material and in the terrestrial atmosphere are significantly different, except for the Ar(36)/ Ar(38) and the Kr isotope ratios. Exposure ages of two rocks and of the fine material are between 380 and 510 x 10(6) years. Feldspar concentrates give K/Ar ages of 3220 and 3300 x 10(6) years, significantly higher than the unseparated rock.

  16. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  17. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  18. Plasmonics-based detection of H2 and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Joy, Nicholas A; Grisafe, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO2 and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H2 and CO gases by employing a metal–metal oxide nanocomposite (gold–yttria stabilized zirconia (Au–YSZ)) film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD). The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H2, as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H2-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO2. Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H2. The distinction between H2 and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA). Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications. PMID:23213635

  19. Plasmonics-based detection of H(2) and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Joy, Nicholas A; Grisafe, Benjamin; Carpenter, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO(2) and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H(2) and CO gases by employing a metal-metal oxide nanocomposite (gold-yttria stabilized zirconia (Au-YSZ)) film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD). The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H(2), as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H(2)-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO(2). Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H(2). The distinction between H(2) and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA). Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications. PMID:23213635

  20. Plasmonics-based detection of H(2) and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Joy, Nicholas A; Grisafe, Benjamin; Carpenter, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO(2) and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H(2) and CO gases by employing a metal-metal oxide nanocomposite (gold-yttria stabilized zirconia (Au-YSZ)) film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD). The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H(2), as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H(2)-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO(2). Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H(2). The distinction between H(2) and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA). Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications.

  1. Shock-implanted noble gases. II - Additional experimental studies and recognition in naturally shocked terrestrial materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald; Horz, Friedrich; Johnson, Pratt

    1989-01-01

    The process by which ambient gases can be implanted into silicates by shocks was investigated by analyzing the noble-gas content of several experimentally and naturally shocked silicate samples. The retentivity of shock-implanted gas during stepwise heating in the laboratory was defined in terms of two parameters, namely, the activation energy for diffusion and the extraction temperature at which 50 percent of the gas is released, both of which correlate with the shock pressure. The experiments indicate that, with increasing shock pressure, gas implantation occurs through an increasing production of microcracks/defects in the silicate lattice. The degree of annealing of these defects control the degree of diffusive loss of implanted gas.

  2. Regulations for the transportation of hazardous materials, including liquefied gases, by vessels: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview covers the US domestic regulations enforced by the US Coast Guard and the international standards established by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization regarding the safe maritime transport of hazardous materials; the organizations involved; the types of regulatory requirements imposed; and the interplay between domestic and international standards for the transport of hazardous materials.

  3. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis gases from materials - Effects of chemical composition and test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Relative toxicity test data on 270 materials are presented, based on test procedures developed at the University of San Francisco. The effects of chemical composition, using data on 13 types of synthetic polymers and eight types of fabrics, are discussed. Selected materials were evaluated using nine test conditions with the USF method, and using methods developed at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute, Douglas Aircraft Company and San Jose State University.

  4. Materials compatibility with oxidizer-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of oxygen compatibility and resistance to ignition of candidate materials for use in a liquid rocket engine designed to incorporate an oxidizer rich preburner-LOX turbopump configuration was discussed. The program was divided into two basic tasks. The first task was to develop a preliminary design of an oxidizer turbopump preburner section complete with thermal and MS Parameter analyses and to develop a conceptual design of the main injector with a preliminary engine specification as the final product. The second task was directed totally at testing materials in oxygen-rich environments.

  5. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already

  6. Locating Gases in Porous Materials: Cryogenic Loading of Fuel-Related Gases Into a Sc-based Metal-Organic Framework under Extreme Pressures.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Jorge; Woodall, Christopher H; Allan, Dave R; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T; Kamenev, Konstantin V; Probert, Michael R; Wright, Paul A; Moggach, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    An alternative approach to loading metal organic frameworks with gas molecules at high (kbar) pressures is reported. The technique, which uses liquefied gases as pressure transmitting media within a diamond anvil cell along with a single-crystal of a porous metal-organic framework, is demonstrated to have considerable advantages over other gas-loading methods when investigating host-guest interactions. Specifically, loading the metal-organic framework Sc2BDC3 with liquefied CO2 at 2 kbar reveals the presence of three adsorption sites, one previously unreported, and resolves previous inconsistencies between structural data and adsorption isotherms. A further study with supercritical CH4 at 3-25 kbar demonstrates hyperfilling of the Sc2 BDC3 and two high-pressure displacive and reversible phase transitions are induced as the filled MOF adapts to reduce the volume of the system.

  7. Irradiation History of Itokawa Regolith Material Deduced from Noble Gases in the Hayabusa Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Miura, Yayoi N.; Osawa, Takahito; Bajo, Ken-ichi; Matsuda, Shintaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ireland, Trevor R.; Kitajima, Fumio; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Takaaki; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Zolensky, Michael E.; Uesugi, Masayuki; Shirai, Kei; Abe, Masanao; Yada, Toru; Ishibashi, Yukihiro; Fujimura, Akio; Mukai, Toshifumi; Ueno, Munetaka; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2011-08-01

    Noble gas isotopes were measured in three rocky grains from asteroid Itokawa to elucidate a history of irradiation from cosmic rays and solar wind on its surface. Large amounts of solar helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) trapped in various depths in the grains were observed, which can be explained by multiple implantations of solar wind particles into the grains, combined with preferential He loss caused by frictional wear of space-weathered rims on the grains. Short residence time of less than 8 million years was implied for the grains by an estimate on cosmic-ray-produced 21Ne. Our results suggest that Itokawa is continuously losing its surface materials into space at a rate of tens of centimeters per million years. The lifetime of Itokawa should be much shorter than the age of our solar system.

  8. Trapping Planetary Noble Gases During the Fischer-Tropsch-Type Synthesis of Organic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.; Meshik, A.

    2010-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO arc exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions!, Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these rcactions:u . The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic materiaL Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  9. [Removal of Mixed Waste Gases by a Biotrickling Filter Packed with a Novel Combined Packing Material].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu; Cheng, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Jia-de; Lu, Yin

    2015-12-01

    A pilot biotrickling filter (BTF) was set up for removal of a mixed waste gas containing toluene and ethanol. The packing material was composed of polyhedral sphere and polyhedral hollow column previously designed by our group. The results showed this BTF could successfully start up within only 8 d and the average eliminate capacities for toluene and ethanol were 97.14 and 113.10 g · (m³ · h)⁻¹, respectively. Empty bed residence time (EBRT) and the inlet concentration had effects on the removal of toluene. The maximum elimination capacity of toluene and ethanol was 123.34 and 206.36 g (m³ · h)⁻¹ under EBRT of 21.11 s, respectively. However, the effect of spray liquid density was not obvious, and the optimal value of solution and gas ratio was 6.82 L · m⁻³. The influence of unstable processing condition on its performance was also investigated. NaOH solution could effectively reduce the plugging of the filler layer, and the removal capability of pollutant could be recovered within 3 days. After the running was stopped for 10 d, the removal performance of this BTF could be quickly recovered.

  10. [Removal of Mixed Waste Gases by a Biotrickling Filter Packed with a Novel Combined Packing Material].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu; Cheng, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Jia-de; Lu, Yin

    2015-12-01

    A pilot biotrickling filter (BTF) was set up for removal of a mixed waste gas containing toluene and ethanol. The packing material was composed of polyhedral sphere and polyhedral hollow column previously designed by our group. The results showed this BTF could successfully start up within only 8 d and the average eliminate capacities for toluene and ethanol were 97.14 and 113.10 g · (m³ · h)⁻¹, respectively. Empty bed residence time (EBRT) and the inlet concentration had effects on the removal of toluene. The maximum elimination capacity of toluene and ethanol was 123.34 and 206.36 g (m³ · h)⁻¹ under EBRT of 21.11 s, respectively. However, the effect of spray liquid density was not obvious, and the optimal value of solution and gas ratio was 6.82 L · m⁻³. The influence of unstable processing condition on its performance was also investigated. NaOH solution could effectively reduce the plugging of the filler layer, and the removal capability of pollutant could be recovered within 3 days. After the running was stopped for 10 d, the removal performance of this BTF could be quickly recovered. PMID:27011972

  11. The kinetics of reaction of the by-products of ablative materials at high temperatures and the rate of heat transfer between hot surfaces and reactive gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spokes, G. N.; Beadle, P. C.; Gac, N. A.; Golden, D. M.; King, K. D.; Benson, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Research has been conducted by means of laboratory experiments to enhance understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions taking place during ablative processes that accompany the reentry or manned space vehicles into planetary atmospheres. Fundamental mechanisms of those chemical reactions believed to be important in the thermal degradation of ablative plastic heat shield materials, and the gases evolved, are described.

  12. Electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

  13. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  14. [Effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate content and nitrogenous gases emission under flooding condition].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong-Bin; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-Cong

    2012-01-01

    Applying large amount of nitrogen fertilizer into vegetable field can induce soil NO(3-)-N accumulation, while rapidly removing the accumulated NO(3-)-N can improve vegetable soil quality and extend its service duration. In this study, a vegetable soil containing 360 mg N x kg(-1) was amended with 0, 2500, 5000, and 7500 kg C x hm(-2) of ryegrass (noted as CK, C2500, C5000, and C7500), respectively, and incubated in a thermostat at 30 degrees C for 240 h under flooding condition, aimed to investigate the effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate concentration and nitrogenous gases emission. By the end of the incubation, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in CK was still up to 310 mg N x kg(-1). Ryegrass amendment could remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N effectively. In treatments C2500, C5000, and C7500, the duration for the soil NO(3-)-N concentration dropped below 10 mg N x kg(-1) was 240 h, 48 h, and 24 h, respectively. After the amendment of ryegrass, soil pH increased significantly, and soil EC decreased, with the increment and decrement increased with increasing amendment amount of ryegrass. The cumulative emissions of soil N2O and N2 in ryegrass amendment treatments amounted to 270-378 mg N x kg(-1), and the N2O/N2 ratio ranged from 0.6 to 1.5. Incorporating with ryegrass under flooding condition could rapidly remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N in vegetable soil, but the high N2O emission during this process should be attached importance to.

  15. [Effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate content and nitrogenous gases emission under flooding condition].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong-Bin; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-Cong

    2012-01-01

    Applying large amount of nitrogen fertilizer into vegetable field can induce soil NO(3-)-N accumulation, while rapidly removing the accumulated NO(3-)-N can improve vegetable soil quality and extend its service duration. In this study, a vegetable soil containing 360 mg N x kg(-1) was amended with 0, 2500, 5000, and 7500 kg C x hm(-2) of ryegrass (noted as CK, C2500, C5000, and C7500), respectively, and incubated in a thermostat at 30 degrees C for 240 h under flooding condition, aimed to investigate the effects of organic material amendment on vegetable soil nitrate concentration and nitrogenous gases emission. By the end of the incubation, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in CK was still up to 310 mg N x kg(-1). Ryegrass amendment could remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N effectively. In treatments C2500, C5000, and C7500, the duration for the soil NO(3-)-N concentration dropped below 10 mg N x kg(-1) was 240 h, 48 h, and 24 h, respectively. After the amendment of ryegrass, soil pH increased significantly, and soil EC decreased, with the increment and decrement increased with increasing amendment amount of ryegrass. The cumulative emissions of soil N2O and N2 in ryegrass amendment treatments amounted to 270-378 mg N x kg(-1), and the N2O/N2 ratio ranged from 0.6 to 1.5. Incorporating with ryegrass under flooding condition could rapidly remove the accumulated NO(3-)-N in vegetable soil, but the high N2O emission during this process should be attached importance to. PMID:22489487

  16. NOAA 26.5 Ah LEO characterization test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The General Electric (GE) 26.5 Ah NOAA-G flight nickel-cadmium cells were obtained from RCA-Astro Electronics to undergo performance characterization testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This lot of cells was manufactured with passivated positive plate, to control nickel structure attack duing active material impregnation, and less electrolyte than normal (less than 3cc/Ah). The cells were tested in a parametric low Earth orbit (LEO) cycling regime that was previously used to test and characterize standard 50 Ah cells. Life cycle testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), in Crane, followed. The results of the test showed nominal performance in comparison with previous test data on the standard 50. Life cycle testing in the NOAA orbital regime is continuing at NWSC.

  17. Natural co-infection of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses resulting in a reassortant A/H3N2 virus

    PubMed Central

    Rith, Sareth; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann; Y, Phalla; Horm, Srey Viseth; Ly, Sovann; Buchy, Philippe; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite annual co-circulation of different subtypes of seasonal influenza, co-infections between different viruses are rarely detected. These co-infections can result in the emergence of reassortant progeny. Study design We document the detection of an influenza co-infection, between influenza A/H3N2 with A/H1N1pdm09 viruses, which occurred in a 3 year old male in Cambodia during April 2014. Both viruses were detected in the patient at relatively high viral loads (as determined by real-time RT-PCR CT values), which is unusual for influenza co-infections. As reassortment can occur between co-infected influenza A strains we isolated plaque purified clonal viral populations from the clinical material of the patient infected with A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09. Results Complete genome sequences were completed for 7 clonal viruses to determine if any reassorted viruses were generated during the influenza virus co-infection. Although most of the viral sequences were consistent with wild-type A/H3N2 or A/H1N1pdm09, one reassortant A/H3N2 virus was isolated which contained an A/H1N1pdm09 NS1 gene fragment. The reassortant virus was viable and able to infect cells, as judged by successful passage in MDCK cells, achieving a TCID50 of 104/ml at passage number two. There is no evidence that the reassortant virus was transmitted further. The co-infection occurred during a period when co-circulation of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 was detected in Cambodia. Conclusions It is unclear how often influenza co-infections occur, but laboratories should consider influenza co-infections during routine surveillance activities. PMID:26590689

  18. [?]Nonlinear Issues in the Aerothermochemistry of Gases and Materials and the Associated Physics and Dynamics of Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1996-01-01

    Our research and technology are focused on nonlinear issues in the aerothermochemistry of gases and materials and the associated physics and dynamics of interfaces. Our program is now organized to aggressively support the NASA Aeronautics Enterprise so as to: (a) develop a new generation of environmentally compatible, economic subsonic aircraft; (b) develop the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally compatible high-speed civil transport; (c) develop the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft; (d) develop hypersonic technologies for air-breathing flight; and (e) develop advanced concepts, understanding of physical phenomena, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools for advanced aerospace systems. The implications from our research for aeronautical and aerospace technology have been both broad and deep. For example, using advanced computational techniques, we have determined exact solutions for the Schrodinger equation in electron-molecule scattering allowing us to evaluate atmospheric models important to reentry physics. We have also found a new class of exact solutions for the Navier Stokes equations. In experimental fluid dynamics, we have found explicit evidence of turbulence modification of droplet sizes in shock tube flow with condensation. We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the direct estimation of flow velocities at MHz sampling rates in quasi-one dimensional turbulent flow. This procedure suggests an unexpected confirmation of the possibility of 'natural' closure in Reynolds stresses with deep implications for the development of turbulent models. A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of the expected relaminarization. A unique diamond-shaped nozzle has been

  19. 49 CFR 173.301 - General requirements for shipment of compressed gases and other hazardous materials in cylinders...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Compressed gases must be in UN pressure receptacles built in accordance with the UN standards or in metal... fusible plug device where the leak is through the fusible metal or between the fusible metal and the... with a metal pressure relief device. Fusible pressure relief devices are not authorized on a DOT...

  20. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  1. A fiber optic sensor with a metal organic framework as a sensing material for trace levels of water in industrial gases.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Miki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Toru; Nakamura, Nao; Sato, Yu-ki; Hirose, Yasuo; Toda, Kei

    2015-07-30

    Industrial gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium are easily contaminated with water during production, transfer and use, because there is a high volume fraction of water in the atmosphere (approximately 1.2% estimated with the average annual atmospheric temperature and relative humidity). Even trace water (<1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of H2O, dew point < -76 °C) in the industrial gases can cause quality problems in the process such as production of semiconductors. Therefore, it is important to monitor and to control trace water levels in industrial gases at each supplying step, and especially during their use. In the present study, a fiber optic gas sensor was investigated for monitoring trace water levels in industrial gases. The sensor consists of a film containing a metal organic framework (MOF). MOFs are made of metals coordinated to organic ligands, and have mesoscale pores that adsorb gas molecules. When the MOF, copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC), was used as a sensing material, we investigated the color of Cu-BTC with water adsorption changed both in depth and tone. Cu-BTC crystals appeared deep blue in dry gases, and then changed to light blue in wet gases. An optical gas sensor with the Cu-BTC film was developed using a light emitting diode as the light source and a photodiode as the light intensity detector. The sensor showed a reversible response to trace water, did not require heating to remove the adsorbed water molecules. The sample gas flow rate did not affect the sensitivity. The obtained limit of detection was 40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The response time for sample gas containing 2.5 ppmvH2O was 23 s. The standard deviation obtained for daily analysis of 1.0 ppmvH2O standard gas over 20 days was 9%. Furthermore, the type of industrial gas did not affect the sensitivity. These properties mean the sensor will be applicable to trace water detection in various industrial gases. PMID:26320652

  2. Trapped noble gases in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.

    1988-01-01

    The trapped noble gases in meteorites come in two main varieties, usually referred to as solar and planetary. The solar noble gases are implanted solar-wind or solar-flare materials, and thus their relative elemental abundances provide a good estimate of those of the sun. The planetary noble gases have relative elemental abundances similar to those in the terrestrial atmosphere, but there are also important distinctions. At least one other elemental pattern (subsolar) and several isotopic patterns have also been identified.

  3. RESULTS FROM THE AHS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study/Pesticide Exposure Study (AHS/PES) measured exposures resulting from agricultural use of 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos for a subset of applicators in the AHS cohort. Through on-farm measurements and observations, data collected in the exposure study will...

  4. Toxic gases from fires.

    PubMed

    Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F

    1978-06-23

    The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol. PMID:208143

  5. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  6. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. AHS roadway analysis: Final report. Volume 3. Report for 9 September 1993-30 October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The programs described by this eight-volume report, a resource materials document type, identified the issues and risks associated with the potential design, development, and operation of an Automated Highway System (AHS), a highway system that utilizes limited access roadways and provides `hands off` driving. The 17 task reports (A through P plus Representative Systems Configurations) are organized into 8 volumes. This volume, which describes roadway analyses, covers four tasks in three chapters. Urban and Rural AHS Analysis (Task A). AHS Roadway Deployment Analysis (Task H), Impact of Non-AHS Roads (Task I), AHS Roadway Operation Analysis (Task K).

  7. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  8. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health. PMID:26558458

  9. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. PMID:24239782

  10. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Thorsten; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned. PMID:25177995

  11. Wax: A benign hydrogen-storage material that rapidly releases H2-rich gases through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cortes, S.; Slocombe, D. R.; Xiao, T.; Aldawsari, A.; Yao, B.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Liberti, E.; Kirkland, A. I.; Alkinani, M. S.; Al-Megren, H. A.; Thomas, J. M.; Edwards, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is often described as the fuel of the future, especially for application in hydrogen powered fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV’s). However, its widespread implementation in this role has been thwarted by the lack of a lightweight, safe, on-board hydrogen storage material. Here we show that benign, readily-available hydrocarbon wax is capable of rapidly releasing large amounts of hydrogen through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. This discovery offers a new material and system for safe and efficient hydrogen storage and could facilitate its application in a HFCV. Importantly, hydrogen storage materials made of wax can be manufactured through completely sustainable processes utilizing biomass or other renewable feedstocks. PMID:27759014

  12. 49 CFR 173.301 - General requirements for shipment of compressed gases and other hazardous materials in cylinders...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cylinder containing a Class 8 liquid corrosive only to metal; (iii) A cylinder with a water capacity of 4.8... relief device, or bears evidence of physical abuse, fire or heat damage, or detrimental rusting or... that previously contained a Class 8 material must be requalified in accordance with § 180.205(e)...

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations of cadmium diffusion in vacancy-rich Cu(In, Ga)Se2 material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biderman, Norbert J.

    Copper indium gallium selenide (Cu(In,Ga)Se2 or CIGS) has become a significant topic of research and development for photovoltaic application. CIGS photovoltaic devices have demonstrated record conversion efficiencies however are still below the maximum solar conversion efficiency. Losses in performance have been attributed structural defects including vacancies, doping, grain boundaries, and compositional non-uniformity that are poorly understood and controlled. The cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer plays a critical role in high-performance CIGS photovoltaic devices, serving as the n-type component of the p-n junction formed with the p-type CIGS absorber layer. Cadmium diffusion into the CIGS surface during CdS deposition creates a buried p-n homojunction in addition to the CIGS/CdS p-n heterojunction. CdS is believed to assist in reducing carrier recombination at the CIGS/CdS interface, an important attribute of high-efficiency solar cells. In the present work, cadmium diffusion mechanisms in CIGS are experimentally investigated via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Two cadmium diffusion profiles with distinct Arrhenius diffusion kinetics within a single depth profile of the CIGS thin film are observed with SIMS and AES: an intense first-stage diffusion profile directly below the CIGS/CdS interface and a long-range, second-stage diffusion profile that extends deep into the thin film. Cadmium grain boundary diffusion is also detected in fine-grain CIGS samples. These multiple diffusion processes are quantified in the present work, and the two-stage cadmium diffusion profiles suggest distinctive lattice diffusion mechanisms. Calculations and modeling of general impurity diffusion via interstitial sites in CIGS are also conducted via numerical including cadmium, iron, and zinc. In the numerical simulations, the standard diffusion-reaction kinetics theory is extended to vacancy-rich materials like CIGS that contain 1 at

  14. Effect of SO2 on oxidation of metallic materials in CO2/H2O-rich gases relevant to oxyfuel environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huczkowski, P; Olszewski, T; Schiek, M; Lutz, B; Holcomb, G R; Shemet, V; Nowak, W; Meier, G H; Singheiser, L; Quadakkers, W J

    2014-01-01

    In an oxyfuel plant, heat exchanging metallic components will be exposed to a flue gas that contains substantially higher contents of CO2, water vapor, and SO2 than conventionalflue gases. In the present study, the oxidation behavior of the martensitic steel P92 was studied in CO2-and/or H2O-rich gas mixtures with and without addition of SO2. For this purpose, the corrosion of P92 at 550 8C up to 1000 h in Ar–H2O–SO2, Ar–CO2–SO2, Ar–CO2–O2–SO2 and simulated oxyfuel gas (Ar–CO2–H2O–O2–SO2) was compared with the behavior in selected SO2-free gases. The oxidation kinetics were estimated by a number of methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy and wave length dispersive X-ray analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction as well as transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the effect of SO2 addition on the materials behavior substantially differed, depending on the prevailing base gas atmosphere. The various types of corrosion attack affected by SO2 could not be explained by solely comparing equilibrium activities of the gas atmospheres with thermodynamic stabilities of possible corrosion products. The results were found to be strongly affected by relative rates of reactions of the various gas species occurring within the frequently porous corrosion scales as well as at the scale/gas-and scale/alloy interfaces.Whereas SO2 addition to Ar–CO2 resulted in formation of an external mixed oxide/sulflde layer, the presence of SO2 in oxyfuel gas and in Ar–H2O–SO2 resulted in Fe-sulflde formation near the interface between inner and outer oxide layer as well as Cr-sulflde formation in the alloy. In the latter gases, the presence of SO2 seemed to have no dramatic effect on oxide scale growth rates.

  15. Development and application of a hybrid inert/organic packing material for the biofiltration of composting off-gases mimics.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Jerónimo; Prado, Oscar J; Almarcha, Manuel; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David

    2010-06-15

    The performance of three biofilters (BF1-BF3) packed with a new hybrid (inert/organic) packing material that consists of spherical argyle pellets covered with compost was examined in different operational scenarios and compared with a biofilter packed with pine bark (BF4). BF1, BF2 and BF4 were inoculated with an enriched microbial population, while BF3 was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. A gas mixture containing ammonia and six VOCs was fed to the reactors with N-NH(3) loads ranging from 0 to 10 g N/m(3)h and a VOCs load of around 10 g C/m(3)h. A profound analysis of the fate of nitrogen was performed in all four reactors. Results show that the biofilters packed with the hybrid packing material and inoculated with the microbial pre-adapted population (BF1 and BF2) achieved the highest nitrification rates and VOCs removal efficiencies. In BF3, nitratation was inhibited during most of the study, while only slight evidence of nitrification could be observed in BF4. All four reactors were able to treat the VOCs mixture with efficiencies greater than 80% during the entire experimental period, regardless of the inlet ammonia load.

  16. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Bernhart, John Charles

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  17. Long-Term Cytotoxicity, pH and Dissolution Rate of AH Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da; Accorsi-Mendonça, Thais; Pedrosa, Ana Carolina; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Zaia, Alexandre A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the long-term cytotoxic effects of the MTA Fillapex and to compare them with AH Plus. Dissolution rate and pH were also evaluated. Human osteoblast cells were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from AH Plus and MTA Fillapex, and with elutes of the same specimens for 4 successive weeks. Elute's pH was evaluated at each time point. A multiparametric cell viability assay was performed. For dissolution rate, ISO methodology was used. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, complemented with the Tukey post-test (p<0.05). No significant difference was found among the materials when fresh mixed (p>0.05). After 1 week, AH Plus became non-cytotoxic on all three evaluated parameters. Conversely, MTA Fillapex remained severely and mildly cytotoxic over the entire experimental period (p<0.05). The dissolution rate of AH Plus was significantly lower than MTA Fillapex at all time points (p>0.05). The pH of AH Plus was significantly lower than MTA Fillapex at the second and third week (p<0.05). In the other tested time points no statistical difference was observed. In conclusion, MTA Fillapex remained cytotoxic after 4 weeks and its cytotoxicity may be related to the high dissolution rate of this material. PMID:27652704

  18. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  19. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  20. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  1. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  2. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  3. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems: Commercial vehicle and transit ahs analysis. Volume 6. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiger, F.; Chemnitz, H.D.; Doorman, J.; Franke, U.; Zimmerman, T.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report of the Automated Highway System (AHS). The activities of Commercial Vehicle and Transit AHS Analysis are reported on in this document. This document type is resource materials. This volume is the six in a series. There are nine other volumes in the series.

  4. Physicochemical properties and surfaces morphologies evaluation of MTA FillApex and AH plus.

    PubMed

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Orçati Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues Araújo; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-01-01

    The solubility, pH, electrical conductivity, and radiopacity of AH Plus and MTA FillApex were evaluated. In addition, the surfaces morphologies of the sealers were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. For pH test, the samples were immersed in distilled water at different periods of time. The same solution was used for electrical conductivity measurement. The solubility and radiopacity were evaluated according to ANSI/ADA. Statistical analyses were carried out at 5% level of significance. MTA FillApex presented higher mean value for solubility and electrical conductivity. No significant difference was observed in the mean values for pH reading. AH Plus presented higher radiopacity mean values. MTA FillApex presented an external surface with porosities and a wide range of sizes. In conclusion, the materials fulfill the ANSI/ADA requirements when considering the radiopacity and solubility. AH Plus revealed a compact and homogeneous surface with more regular aspects and equal particle sizes.

  5. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  7. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  8. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  9. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  10. Ah receptor ligands in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Löfroth, G; Rannug, A

    1988-08-01

    Tar particulates from cigarette smoke contain compounds with affinity for the Ah receptor. The sidestream activity is larger than that of the mainstream with a ratio of about 5. The compounds causing the affinity appear in the neutral fraction after chemical fractionation excluding basic and acidic components as major contributors to the affinity. The affinity cannot be explained by benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but it might be caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds and by oxidized tryptophan derivatives.

  11. AH Leo and the Blazhko Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    We obtained 563 V-Band observations of AH Leo between January 27 and May 12, 2004. All observations were obtained with a 12-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain located on the island of Saipan, in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We show that AH Leo is a type RRab RR Lyrae star with a minimum magnitude of V=14.658 magnitudes, a maximum amplitude of 0.989 magnitudes and a minimum amplitude of perhaps just 0.4 magnitudes. Its primary period is 0.4662609 days. Our observations also confirm the presence of the Blazhko effect, which had previously been detected by Smith and Gay (private communication) in 1993 and 1994. We estimate the Blazhko period to be roughly 20-days, however poor phase coverage at maximum light makes exact determination impossible. We also note that the bump during minimum, which is common in many RR Lyraes, varied throughout the Blazhko cycle, demonstrating amplitudes between 0 and 0.15 magnitudes. We would like to thank Sarah Maddison and Swinburne Astronomy Online for supporting this project

  12. Testing Update on 20 and 25-Ah Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Gregg C.; Mardikian, Pamella; Edwards, Sherri; Bugga, Kumar; Chin, Keith; Smart, Marshall; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2003-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Energy Products has worked on lithium ion batteries for approximately 8 years. During that period EPEPC developed and delivered several cell sizes on a program funded by the USAF and Canadian DND. Designs are wound cylindrical cells from 7 to 40-Ah. Most cells delivered were approximately 25-Ah due to requirements of Mars missions. Several iterations of cells were manufactured and delivered for evaluation. The first design was 20-Ah, Design I, and the second was a 25-Ah, Design II.

  13. 49 CFR 173.307 - Exceptions for compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions for compressed gases. 173.307 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.307 Exceptions for compressed gases. (a) The following materials are not subject to the requirements of this subchapter:...

  14. 49 CFR 173.307 - Exceptions for compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions for compressed gases. 173.307 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.307 Exceptions for compressed gases. (a) The following materials are not subject to the requirements of this subchapter:...

  15. 49 CFR 173.307 - Exceptions for compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for compressed gases. 173.307 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.307 Exceptions for compressed gases. (a) The following materials are not subject to the requirements of this subchapter:...

  16. 49 CFR 173.307 - Exceptions for compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for compressed gases. 173.307 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.307 Exceptions for compressed gases. (a) The following materials are not subject to the requirements of this subchapter:...

  17. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  18. Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

  19. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  20. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  1. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  2. Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery under GEO Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russel, N.; Curzon, D.; Ng, K.; Lee, L.; Rao, G.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is divided into the following sections: 1) AEA Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Life Testing; 2) AEA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 20 Ah Battery; 3) AEA/GSFC 80 Ah Battery; 4) Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) Life Test; 5) Test Results; 6) Correlation; 7) Conclusions.

  3. Induction of AhR-Mediated Gene Transcription by Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. Methods HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. Results All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. Conclusions By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health. PMID:25007155

  4. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  5. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.204 Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded...

  6. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, Dan

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  7. Tested Demonstrations: Diffusion of Gases--Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provided are procedures and list of materials needed to demonstrate that the pressure inside a container with a porous surface can be changed due to the rate of diffusion of low molecular weight gases. Typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  8. A comparison of apical sealing ability between GuttaFlow and AH plus: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prajakta; Rathore, Vishnu P. S.; Hotkar, Chetan; Savgave, Snehal S.; Raghavendra, K.; Ingale, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study aimed to compare apical sealing ability between GuttaFlow and AH Plus. Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth with fully formed apex and straight root were collected for this study. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using a standard step back preparation to size 60# master apical file at the established working length and divided into four groups: Group 1, GuttaFlow sealer with gutta-percha; Group 2, AH Plus sealer with gutta-percha; Group 3, positive control group (Teeth were instrumented and left without obturation); Group 4, negative control group (Teeth were totally coated with nail varnish) Dye leakage was carried out. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: The GuttaFlow group had a mean leakage of 1.38 mm whereas AH Plus had a mean of 1.425 mm. The standard deviation of GuttaFlow and AH Plus were 0.3861 and 0.3226, respectively. Student's unpaired t-test disclosed no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion: None of the sealers used in the study could completely seal the apical foramen to have a fluid-tight seal. GuttaFlow and AH Plus showed no statistically significant difference in microleakage; the better result was shown by GuttaFlow. PMID:27583228

  9. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  10. AH-1S communication switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Shively, Robert; Bick, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    The C-6533/ARC communication system as installed on the test AH-1E Cobra helicopter was modified to allow discrete radio selection of all aircraft radios at the cyclic radio/intercommunication system switch. The current Cobra-fleet use of the C-6533 system is cumbersome, particularly during low-altitude operations. Operationally, the current system C-6533 configuration and design requires the pilot to estimate when he can safely remove his hand from an active flight control to select radios during low-altitude flight. The pilot must then physically remove his hand from the flight control, look inside the cockpit to select and verify the radio selection and then effect the selected radio transmission by activating the radio/ICS switch on the cyclic. This condition is potentially hazardous, especially during low-level flight at night in degraded weather. To improve pilot performance, communications effectiveness, and safety, manprint principles were utilized in the selection of a design modification. The modified C-6533 design was kept as basic as possible for potential Cobra-fleet modification. The communications system was modified and the design was subsequently flight-tested by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate and NASA at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California. The design modification enables the Cobra pilot to maintain hands-on flight controls while selecting radios during nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight without looking inside the cockpit which resulted in reduced pilot workload ratings, better pilot handling quality ratings and increased flight safety for the NOE flight environment.

  11. A Study to Analyze the Permeation of High Density Gases and Propellant Vapors Through Single Layer Teflon or Teflon Structure Materials and Laminations. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Young, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1967-01-01

    This report contains the results of a fifteen month analytical and experimental study of the leakage rate of the pressurant gases (N2, He) and the propellant vapors (N2O4,N2H4) through bladder structures consisting of two layers of Teflon separated by a metallic foil diffusion barrier containing microscopic or larger holes. Results were obtained for the steady state leakage rate through circular holes and long rectangular openings in the barrier for arbitrary thicknesses of the two Teflon layers. The effect of hole shape and relative hole position on the leakage rate were studied. The transient problem was analyzed and it was shown that steady state calculations are adequate for estimating the leakage rate. A computer program entitled "Diffusion Analyzer Program" was developed to calculate the leakage rate, both transient and steady state. Finally, the analytical results were compared to experimentally determined values of the leakage rate through a model laminated bladder structure. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with experiment. The experimental effort (Part II of the Bladder Permeation Program) measured the solubility, diffusion coefficient and permeability of helium, nitrogen and nitrogen tetroxide vapor through Teflon TFE and FEP membranes. Data were obtained in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C at pressures ranging from near vacuum to about 20 atmospheres. Results of the experimental effort were compared with the limited data previously reported. As a verification to the applicability of results to actual bladder systems, counter diffusion tests were performed with a laminated sample containing aluminum foil with a selected group of holes.

  12. Geochemical characterization of gases in the deep hole of the siljan ring structure, Sweden: Chemical analysis of the black material. Topical report, October 25, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-25

    Results of the analyses of the black material recovered from a well in the Siljan Ring and the interpretation of the origin of the black material are presented. The report focuses on the non-mineral component of the black material, since the mineral component, magnetite with trace amounts of quartz and feldspar, was investigated in other studies. The non-mineral component is isotopically very similar to Torque Trim, a drilling material added to the well prior to the discovery of the black material. The drilling engineers were convinced that fluids from the formation could not have leaked inside the drillpipe prior to the discovery. The analysis, therefore, suggests that the black material is a product of the Torque Trim, added in concentrated form with caustic soda, which was hydrolized down-hole, forming glycerol and sodium salts of fatty acids, and precipitating as a solid mass similar to soap. The interpretation explains the available data satisfactorily though it does not preclude other explanations.

  13. Effect of the geometric parameters and of the elastic characteristics of materials on the durability of valves in pumps for liquified gases

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors determine the values of the angle and width of the valve seat for a specified pressure gradient delta-p and also to choose materials with such mechanical properties that plastic deformations do not occur at the place of contact. To improve the durability of valves of high-pressure pumps, the geometric parameters of the valves have to be determined with a view to the condition that the plastic deformations at the place of contact between the mushroom and the seat are impermissible. When the conditions of the expression presented are fulfilled, then the best hydraulic characteristics will be found in the valve in which the material of the mushroom is the titanium alloy VT5-1, and the material of the seat is steel 20Kh13.

  14. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  15. Physicochemical Properties and Surfaces Morphologies Evaluation of MTA FillApex and AH Plus

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Orçati Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues Araújo; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-01-01

    The solubility, pH, electrical conductivity, and radiopacity of AH Plus and MTA FillApex were evaluated. In addition, the surfaces morphologies of the sealers were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. For pH test, the samples were immersed in distilled water at different periods of time. The same solution was used for electrical conductivity measurement. The solubility and radiopacity were evaluated according to ANSI/ADA. Statistical analyses were carried out at 5% level of significance. MTA FillApex presented higher mean value for solubility and electrical conductivity. No significant difference was observed in the mean values for pH reading. AH Plus presented higher radiopacity mean values. MTA FillApex presented an external surface with porosities and a wide range of sizes. In conclusion, the materials fulfill the ANSI/ADA requirements when considering the radiopacity and solubility. AH Plus revealed a compact and homogeneous surface with more regular aspects and equal particle sizes. PMID:24883413

  16. Examination of design options for 35 Ah ambient temperature Li-TiS sub 2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Rao, S. S.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively engaged in the development of ambient temperature rechargable lithium cells for future NASA geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) missions. To achieve these ambitious goals, Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, and Li-V6O13 systems were examined in detail. Among these three, the Li-TiS2 system has shown the longest life cycle and highest rate capability. Experimental Li-TiS2 batteries (10.5 V, 0.4 Ah) developed in-house have completed eight simulated and accelerated GEO seasons successfully. Inview of the encouraging results, the design options were examined for a scaled-up Li-TiS2 cell. It is hoped that the results of these studies will provide guidelines for prioritizing the research efforts and guiding the selection of optimized materials. Designs for 35 Ah Li-TiS2 cell were examined because present day geosynchronous satellites are powered by batteries of 35 Ah capacity. A computer program was developed to evaluate the influence of various design parameters on the specific energy and the rate capability of the cells.

  17. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  18. Filter for cleaning hot gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gresch, H.; Holter, H.; Hubner, K.; Igelbuscher, H.; Weber, E.

    1981-10-20

    In an apparatus for cleaning hot gases a filter housing has an inlet for unfiltered gas and an outlet for filtered gas. A plurality of filtered inserts are placed within the housing in a manner capable of filtering undesirable components from the gas feed stream. Each filter insert is made of a fibrous filter material. Silicic-acid glass fibers have a silicic acid content of at least 90%. Coated upon the fibers and absorbed into their pores is a metal oxide of aluminum, titanium, zirconium, cromium, nickle or cobalt. A honeycombed cage filled with high temperature resistant perlite is located within the housing between the gas inlet and the fiber inserts. The cage has an inlet and outlet external to the housing for replacing the perlite. A combustion chamber mounted in the housing has a discharge nozzle located so that the nozzle is directed at the filter inserts. Combusting materials in the chamber causes an explosive backflow of gases through the filter inserts.

  19. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L A; Sack, G

    1986-12-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue.

  20. Effect of raw materials on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from the stack flue gases of secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-08-25

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of raw materials on PCDD/F emission from secondary aluminum smelters (ALS). Four plants each of aluminum ingot smelters (over 50% ingot) and secondary ALS (over 70% waste or recycled aluminum) were selected and the results compared. The secondary ALS yield much higher PCDD/Fs than the aluminum ingot smelters, or 7.94-22.76ng/Nm(3) versus 0.57-2.67ng/Nm(3), due to the large percentage of waste or recycled aluminum used. As for air pollution control devices (APCDs), the wet scrubber system in one of the aluminum ingot smelters exhibits an adverse effect on PCDD/F removal, due to the continuous recycle of the contaminated water through the scrubber system. Another ingot plant equipped with cartridge filter, there is a significant reduction in PCDD/F TEQ (52%). The powdered activated carbon injection at 2kg/h (110mg/Nm(3)) in one ALS reduces 70% of the total PCDD/Fs. The average emission factor of four secondary ALS is much higher than that of aluminum ingot smelters, or 20-fold higher based on either raw materials or product. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the emission reduction of PCDD/Fs from the secondary ALS, including installation of a secondary burner, additional APCDs and the pre-cleaning of raw materials.

  1. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation.

  2. Noxious gases in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932

  3. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  4. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. That seems to be particularly true under microgravity conditions where, due to weightlessness of the melt, the gases may lead to detached solidification and/or formation of voids and bubbles, as observed in the past. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases is important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical studies of the subject, summarized in this paper, include degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from different source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  5. Fischer-Tropsch-Type Production of Organic Materials in the Solar Nebula: Studies Using Graphite Catalysts and Measuring the Trapping of Noble Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.; Lucas, Christopher; Kimura, Yuki; Hohenberg, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Graphite is not a particularly good FTT catalyst, especially compared to iron powder or to amorphous iron silicate. However, like other silicates that we have studied, it gets better with exposure to CO. N2 and H2 over time: e.g., after formation of a macromolecular carbonaceous layer on the surfaces of the underlying gains. While amorphous iron silicates required only 1 or 2 experimental runs to achieve steady state reaction rates, graphite only achieved steady state after 6 or more experiments. We will present results showing the catalytic action of graphite grains increasing with increasing number of experiments and will also discuss the nature of the final "graphite" grains aster completion of our experiments.

  6. Transgenic Overexpression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor (AhRR) and AhR-Mediated Induction of CYP1A1, Cytokines, and Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christoph F.A.; Chang, W.L. William; Kado, Sarah; McCulloh, Kelly; Vogel, Helena; Wu, Dalei; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Yang, GuoXiang; Leung, Patrick S.C.; Matsumura, Fumio; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling, but very little is known regarding the role of the AhRR in vivo. Objective: This study tested the role of AhRR in vivo in AhRR overexpressing mice on molecular and toxic end points mediated through a prototypical AhR ligand. Methods: We generated AhRR-transgenic mice (AhRR Tg) based on the genetic background of C57BL/6J wild type (wt) mice. We tested the effect of the prototypical AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 and cytokines in various tissues of mice. We next analyzed the infiltration of immune cells in adipose tissue of mice after treatment with TCDD using flow cytometry. Results: AhRR Tg mice express significantly higher levels of AhRR compared to wt mice. Activation of AhR by TCDD caused a significant increase of the inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, and CXCL chemokines in white epididymal adipose tissue from both wt and AhRR Tg mice. However, the expression of IL-1β, CXCL2 and CXCL3 were significantly lower in AhRR Tg versus wt mice following TCDD treatment. Exposure to TCDD caused a rapid accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in white adipose tissue of wt and AhRR Tg mice. Furthermore we found that male AhRR Tg mice were protected from high-dose TCDD-induced lethality associated with a reduced inflammatory response and liver damage as indicated by lower levels of TCDD-induced alanine aminotransferase and hepatic triglycerides. Females from both wt and AhRR Tg mice were less sensitive than male mice to acute toxicity induced by TCDD. Conclusion: In conclusion, the current study identifies AhRR as a previously uncharacterized regulator of specific inflammatory cytokines, which may protect from acute toxicity induced by TCDD. Citation: Vogel CF, Chang WL, Kado S, McCulloh K, Vogel H, Wu D, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Yang GX, Leung PS, Matsumura F

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-30 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases. 151.50-30 Section 151.50-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-30 Compressed gases. (a) All tank... of gas will be directed vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the weatherdeck or...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-30 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gases. 151.50-30 Section 151.50-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-30 Compressed gases. (a) All tank... of gas will be directed vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the weatherdeck or...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-30 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 151.50-30 Section 151.50-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-30 Compressed gases. (a) All tank... of gas will be directed vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the weatherdeck or...

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-30 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases. 151.50-30 Section 151.50-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-30 Compressed gases. (a) All tank... of gas will be directed vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the weatherdeck or...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-30 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases. 151.50-30 Section 151.50-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-30 Compressed gases. (a) All tank... of gas will be directed vertically upward to a point at least 10 feet above the weatherdeck or...

  12. Design and Performance Data for 81 Ah FNC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, F.; Anderman, Menahem

    1997-01-01

    Design and performance data for 81 Ah FNC cells are given. The conclusions are: that a sealed Ni-Cd cells are not limited to 50 Ah with the FNC design; energy densities of 40 Wh/kg in a conservative high Cd, high electrolyte design have been demonstrated; uniform ATP data and LEO cycling performance is being demonstrated; internal cell pressures remain low under all conditions; and no conditioning is necessary under any LEO profile; accelerated LEO cycling exhibits performance well beyond traditional space Ni-Cd cells.

  13. Kinetic Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...

  14. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  15. PESTICIDE TRADE NAMES AND THEIR ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN THE AHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detailed information on the use of specific pesticides is a major strength of exposure assessment conducted for the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). During the enrollment interviews, a check list was used to collect information on the frequency and duration of use for 28 p...

  16. Interaction of gases with lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, H. F.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Gammage, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative efforts to assess the surface properties of lunar fines, particularly water induced porosity are discussed. Data show that: (1) changes induced in lunar fines are not visible in high energy electron micrographs, (2) scanning micrographs show no change in particle size distribution as a result of reaction with water, (3) water induced changes are internal to the particles themselves, (4) normal laboratory atmosphere blocks alteration reaction with water, and (5) surface properties of mature lunar soils appear to be almost independent of chemical composition and mineralogy, but there are some variations in their reactivity toward water.

  17. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).

  18. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank... Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars. (a) Definitions. For definitions of compressed gases... any material that meets the criteria of Division 2.1 or 2.3 must have gaskets for manway cover...

  19. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  20. Effect of SO2 on oxidation of metallic materials in CO2/H2O-rich gases relevant to oxyfuel environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huczkowski, P.; Olszewski, T.; Schiek, M.; Lutz, B.; Holcomb, G.; Shemet, V.; Meier, G. H.; Singheiser, L.; Quadakkers, W. J.

    2012-09-19

    This report is a description of research performed by the Jülich Research Centre. Their conclusions outline the effects of SO2 additions on oxide formations and the interaction of other gases in oxvyfuel environments.

  1. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005.

    PubMed

    Adlhoch, C; Gossner, C; Koch, G; Brown, I; Bouwstra, R; Verdonck, F; Penttinen, P; Harder, T

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.

  2. An orbital period for the dwarf nova AH Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Shara, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    AH Her is the best-studied dwarf nova which displays rapid coherent oscillations at maximum light, yet its orbital period is not determined. Eleven nights of observations with the 1-meter Wise Observatory telescope with chopping secondary, and 'Nather' photometer, yield a period P = 0.247 + or - 0.008 day, in excellent agreement with that predicted from the decline rate of the outburst. The source of flickering in the system (presumably the hot spot) is shown to fluctuate with the same amplitude whether AH Her is in outburst or not. The implication is that the accretion stream, hot spot, and outer disk are unaffected by, and do not take part in the eruption.

  3. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  4. Phase transitions in real gases and ideal Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2011-05-01

    Based on number theory, we present a new concept of gas without the particle interaction taken into account in which there are first-order phase transitions for T < T cr on isotherms. We present formulas for new ideal gases, solving the Gibbs paradox, and also formulas for the transition to real gases based on the concept of the Zeno line.

  5. A.H. Cottrell at Harwell in the mid-1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Derek

    2013-09-01

    A.H. Cottrell led a large team of scientists and engineers as Deputy Director of the Metallurgy Division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, between 1955 and 1958. The team sought to develop a fundamental understanding of the effect of aggressive operating conditions on the properties and behaviour of materials used in the construction of reactors, which provided important and critical insights into their design, operation and safety. The story is told through the experiences and research activities of one of Cottrell's junior research staff. It offers an insight into the contributions made by Cottrell to the science and technology regarding materials used in the early days of building reactors for the generation of nuclear energy.

  6. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Activity area A. Urban and rural AHS comparison. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, A.; Culver, B.; Halseth, M.; Hayes, S.; Mangarelli, F.

    1995-05-01

    This activity analyzes the technical and operational requirements of an AHS in urban and rural environments. The characteristics of urban freeways and rural highways are compared to define common issues and risks and indicate areas of divergence in compatible system implementations. The comparison addresses three major areas: the trade among the goals of automated control in urban versus rural environments; the distinct operating characteristics of AHS subsystems in rural highways; and the design considerations for several AHS-specific elements. The issues and risks concerning the most cost effective approach to instrumentation content in terms of the control loop dynamics and potential market penetration in both environments are identified. This document type is resource materials.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of MTA Fillapex and AH 26 Root Canal Sealers at Different Time Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Farnaz; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Jafari, Sanaz; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Momeni, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of endodontic treatment is elimination of bacteria and their by-products from infected root canals. This study compared the antibacterial effect of two different sealers, AH 26 and MTA Fillapex, on 4 microorganisms 24, 48 and 72 h and 7 days after mixing. Methods and Materials: The microorganisms used in this study consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). This test is based on the growth of bacteria and turbidity measurement technique using a spectrophotometer, and direct contact was conducted. Multiple comparisons were carried out using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test and student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The antibacterial activity in the indirect technique was more than the technique with both sealers. In the direct technique the antibacterial activity on all microorganisms were lower for MTA Fillapex sealer. In the indirect technique, both sealers exhibited similar antibacterial properties. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of MTA Fillapex sealer was significantly less than that of AH 26 sealer in the direct technique. The antibacterial effects of both sealers were similar in the indirect technique. PMID:27471530

  8. Selective Growth of Noble Gases at Metal/Oxide Interface.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Oka, Hiroshi; Ohnuki, Somei

    2016-02-17

    The locations and roles of noble gases at an oxide/metal interface in oxide dispersed metal are theoretically and experimentally investigated. Oxide dispersed metal consisting of FCC Fe and Y2Hf2O7 (Y2Ti2O7) is synthesized by mechanical alloying under a saturated Ar gas environment. Transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory observes the strain field at the interface of FCC Fe {111} and Y2Hf2O7 {111} whose physical origin emerges from surface reconstruction due to charge transfer. Noble gases are experimentally observed at the oxide (Y2Ti2O7) site and calculations reveal that the noble gases segregate the interface and grow toward the oxide site. In general, the interface is defined as the trapping site for noble gases; however, transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory found evidence which shows that noble gases grow toward the oxide, contrary to the generally held idea that the interface is the final trapping site for noble gases. Furthermore, calculations show that the inclusion of He/Ar hardens the oxide, suggesting that material fractures could begin from the noble gas bubble within the oxides. Thus, experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that noble gases grow from the interface toward the oxide and that oxides behave as a trapping site for noble gases. PMID:26840881

  9. Functional Conservation and Divergence of Four Ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS–Box Genes Revealed by Analysis of Their Expression and Protein–Protein Interaction, and Ectopic Expression of AhFUL Gene in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juanjuan; Sun, Wei; Xia, Kuaifei; Liao, Jingping; Zhang, Mingyong

    2014-01-01

    Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger–lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS–box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS–box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6–like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL–AhSEP4, AhFUL–AhAGL6–like, AhFUL–AhSEP3b, AhSEP4–AhAGL6–like, AhSEP4–AhSEP3b, AhAGL6–like–AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b–AhSEP3b) were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal–like or leaf–like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS–box genes. PMID:25461565

  10. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological

  11. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89.312....312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure gases....

  12. Treatment of flue gas containing noxious gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dvirka, M.; Psihos, G.J.; Cosulich, J.J.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described of reducing the noxious gases such as chlorides including hydrogen chloride and chlorine from the flue gases derived from the incineration of solid waste materials in a furnace with a combustion chamber and a combustion zone to substantially reduce the formation of dioxins for a cleaner effluent gas to the atmosphere, comprising: introducing sodium bicarbonate into the flue gas of a furnace incinerating the waste materials, positioning introduction of sodium bicarbonate for at least one location along the path of the flue gas at a temperature below about 1564/sup 0/F but not below about 518/sup 0/F, heating the sodium bicarbonate in the flue gas for a time sufficient to drive off the water and carbon dioxide from the sodium bicarbonate, forming sodium carbonate particle during the heating of the sodium bicarbonate, the sodium carbonate having a higher porosity to produce a greater reaction area on the surface of the particles, contacting the porous sodium carbonate with chlorides in the flue gases for a sufficient time and temperature to react and produce sodium chloride and prevent their formation of dioxins; and separating the sodium chloride from the flue gas to produce a cleaner gas for exit to the atmosphere.

  13. Assessing Antigenic Drift of Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012-2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6-93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years.

  14. An Invitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy and Flow Characteristics for AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, CRCS and Gutta Flow 2 Root Canal Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prashant; Tikku, Aseem P; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Chandra, Anil; Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Bharti, Ramesh; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cleaning and shaping of root canal does not guarantee complete disinfection of the canal, regardless of the systems and techniques used for this purpose. Therefore, it becomes mandatory for the endodontic filling materials to have a good antimicrobial potential especially against E. faecalis. This research was aimed therefore to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy and flow properties of different root canal sealers. Aim To study invitro antimicrobial activity and flow characteristics for Resin based (AH Plus), Mineral Trioxide Aggregate based (MTA Fillapex), Calcium hydroxide based (CRCS) and Flowable Gutta-Percha (Gutta Flow 2) endodontic sealers on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was used to test antibacterial potential of sealers by Agar diffusion test (ADT) and Direct Contact Test (DCT). ADT was performed by punching the sealers on a well of 4×6mm diameter on Muller Hinton agar plates. These plates were inoculated with standard suspension of E. faecalis and the zone of inhibition was measured at 24 hours and after 7 days. All the sealers were prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Flow of sealers was measured according to ADA specification no. 57. Results All sealers showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis except Gutta Flow 2. At 24 hours, zone of inhibition was highest in Calcibiotic Root Canal Sealer (CRCS) and lowest in AH Plus. After 7 days the zone of inhibition decreased in AH plus, CRCS and MTA Fillapex. DCT showed a significant lower number of organisms in AH Plus, CRCS and MTA than controls at both the time intervals. Gutta Flow 2 did not show any significant antimicrobial action. Maximum and minimum flow was shown by AH Plus and CRCS respectively. Conclusion Highest microbial inhibition was shown by (CRCS), followed by MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. Gutta Flow 2 did not show any inhibition of E. faecalis by ADT. Maximum reduction in antibacterial property with

  15. Root canal filling in primary molars without successors: Mineral trioxide aggregate versus gutta-percha/AH-Plus.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Tugba; Ozgul, Betul Memiş; Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographical success of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and gutta-percha/AH-Plus used as a root canal filling material in primary second molars without successors. A total of 16 patients (9 girls, 7 boys) aged 6-13 years (mean: 10.5) were selected and randomly distributed into the treatment groups. Children were recalled for clinical and radiographic examination at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Differences in treatment outcomes were analysed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Clinically, there was no significant difference in the success rates between the groups at the end of a 3-year follow-up period (MTA: 100%; Gutta-percha/AH-Plus: 70%) (P > 0.05). However, radiographically, there was a significant difference between the groups (MTA: 80%; gutta-percha/AH-Plus: 30%) (P < 0.05). The present study showed that MTA can be recommended for use in root canal treatment of primary molars without successors based on better radiographic success.

  16. A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

  17. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  18. Noble gases in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

  19. Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.

  20. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongshan; Zhou, Jie; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Li, Cun; Wang, Dong; Yang, Dong; Zheng, Shufa; Hao, Ke; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-10-15

    The genetic predisposition to severe A(H1N1)2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) influenza was evaluated in 409 patients, including 162 cases with severe infection and 247 controls with mild infection. We prioritized candidate variants based on the result of a pilot genome-wide association study and a lung expression quantitative trait locus data set. The GG genotype of rs2070788, a higher-expression variant of TMPRSS2, was a risk variant (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.77; P = .01) to severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. A potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs383510, accommodated in a putative regulatory region was identified to tag rs2070788. Luciferase assay results showed the putative regulatory region was a functional element, in which rs383510 regulated TMPRSS2 expression in a genotype-specific manner. Notably, rs2070788 and rs383510 were significantly associated with the susceptibility to A(H7N9) influenza in 102 patients with A(H7N9) influenza and 106 healthy controls. Therefore, we demonstrate that genetic variants with higher TMPRSS2 expression confer higher risk to severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The same variants also increase susceptibility to human A(H7N9) influenza.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103). Where... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed gases (general requirements). 1910.101 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.101 Compressed...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103). Where... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed gases (general requirements). 1910.101 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.101 Compressed...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103). Where... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed gases (general requirements). 1910.101 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.101 Compressed...

  4. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  5. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  6. Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China.

    PubMed

    Millman, Alexander J; Havers, Fiona; Iuliano, A Danielle; Davis, C Todd; Sar, Borann; Sovann, Ly; Chin, Savuth; Corwin, Andrew L; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Lindblade, Kim A; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Kaewthong, Viriya; Kile, James C; Nguyen, Hien T; Pham, Dong V; Donis, Ruben O; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-05-01

    During February 2013-March 2015, a total of 602 human cases of low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported; no autochthonous cases were reported outside mainland China. In contrast, since highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) reemerged during 2003 in China, 784 human cases in 16 countries and poultry outbreaks in 53 countries have been reported. Whether the absence of reported A(H7N9) outside mainland China represents lack of spread or lack of detection remains unclear. We compared epidemiologic and virologic features of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) and used human and animal influenza surveillance data collected during April 2013-May 2014 from 4 Southeast Asia countries to assess the likelihood that A(H7N9) would have gone undetected during 2014. Surveillance in Vietnam and Cambodia detected human A(H5N1) cases; no A(H7N9) cases were detected in humans or poultry in Southeast Asia. Although we cannot rule out the possible spread of A(H7N9), substantial spread causing severe disease in humans is unlikely.

  7. Detecting Spread of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Beyond China

    PubMed Central

    Havers, Fiona; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Davis, C. Todd; Sar, Borann; Sovann, Ly; Chin, Savuth; Corwin, Andrew L.; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Lindblade, Kim A.; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Kaewthong, Viriya; Kile, James C.; Nguyen, Hien T.; Pham, Dong V.; Donis, Ruben O.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-01-01

    During February 2013–March 2015, a total of 602 human cases of low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported; no autochthonous cases were reported outside mainland China. In contrast, since highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) reemerged during 2003 in China, 784 human cases in 16 countries and poultry outbreaks in 53 countries have been reported. Whether the absence of reported A(H7N9) outside mainland China represents lack of spread or lack of detection remains unclear. We compared epidemiologic and virologic features of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) and used human and animal influenza surveillance data collected during April 2013–May 2014 from 4 Southeast Asia countries to assess the likelihood that A(H7N9) would have gone undetected during 2014. Surveillance in Vietnam and Cambodia detected human A(H5N1) cases; no A(H7N9) cases were detected in humans or poultry in Southeast Asia. Although we cannot rule out the possible spread of A(H7N9), substantial spread causing severe disease in humans is unlikely. PMID:25897654

  8. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  9. Mutagenicity of rubber vulcanization gases in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hedenstedt, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1981-01-01

    Gases formed by rubber and rubber additives in the vulcanization process were collected with a laboratory-scale glass apparatus. Mutagenicity testing of the vulcanization gases by the Salmonella/microsome test was conducted with strains TA1535, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 in the absence and presence of a metabolizing system from rat liver homogenates. The mutagenicity of gases derived by heating chloroprene rubber and ethylene propylene rubber was established with both base substitution- and frameshift-sensitive strains and that of a styrene-butadiene rubber was established with the base substitution-sensitive stain TA100. Tests on pyrolysis gases from a butadiene acrylonitrile rubber revealed only toxic effects. Curing systems, additives, and filling materials from various sources were represented in the material. Gases were collected at temperature levels corresponding to both mixing and curing of these particular rubbers in the industrial operations. Attempts were made to correlate the mutagenicity of the gases to the presence of mutagenic components in the rubber mixtures.

  10. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  11. Apparatus Measures Permeation Of Gases Through Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.; Morrow, Jim T.; David, Carey E.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus measures permeation of any variety of commercially available pure or mixed gases through polymeric or other material coupons of various thicknesses. Permeability measured at wide range of temperatures and pressures. Includes residual-gas-analyzer (RGA) sensor head and associated circuitry, and vacuum system. Also includes manifold with valves, through which gas of interest allowed to permeate through test coupon before traveling downstream to evacuated RGA sensor head. Temperature of test coupon monitored by thermocouple and maintained at specified value above ambient by use of electrical heating mantle or below ambient by use of bath of ethylene glycol, water, and dry ice.

  12. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polytetrafluoroethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using various test conditions of the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to death appears to be affected by the material of which the pyrolysis tube is made, with Monel tending to give longer times to death than quartz. When quartz tubes are used, time to death seems to be related to carbon monoxide concentration. When Monel tubes are used, carbon monoxide does not appear to be the principal toxicant.

  13. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  14. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  15. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  19. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  20. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  1. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  2. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  3. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92.112... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for... as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be single blends of propane using...

  4. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  6. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90.312... § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  7. Attack helicopter (AH-1T) cockpit systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This discussion summarizes the effort conducted by the BHTI Human Factors and Cockpit Arrangement group for a study and design of the integration of a cockpit control system for the AH 1T (TOW). The resulting design is a culmination of studies that were conducted using the existing configuration as a baseline and complementing it with new equipment and subsystems that fulfill the attack helicopter requirements for the foreseeable future. Of primary concern was the requirement to add a missile control system, with secondary considerations for improved NOE and night operations. In addition, growth capabilities for improved target acquisition, weapons delivery, and precise navigation was considered. Along with the addition of new equipment, the aircraft was assumed to have a central multiplex data bus system for information transfer throughout the aircraft and its subsystems.

  8. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic A(H7N7) Avian Influenza Virus, Italy, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Giada; Facchini, Marzia; Vaccari, Gabriele; Di Trani, Livia; Di Martino, Angela; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Cattoli, Giovanni; Bennett, Michael; McCauley, John W.; Rezza, Giovanni; Moro, Maria Luisa; Rangoni, Roberto; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Landini, Maria Paola; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    During an influenza A(H7N7) virus outbreak among poultry in Italy during August–September 2013, infection with a highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus was diagnosed for 3 poultry workers with conjunctivitis. Genetic analyses revealed that the viruses from the humans were closely related to those from chickens on affected farms. PMID:25271444

  9. Pityriazepin and other potent AhR ligands isolated from Malassezia furfur yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mexia, Nikitia; Gaitanis, George; Velegraki, Aristea; Soshilov, Anatoly; Denison, Michael S.; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia furfur yeast strains isolated from diseased human skin preferentially biosynthesize indole alkaloids which can be detected in human skin and are highly potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. Chemical analysis of an EtOAc extract of a M. furfur strain obtained from diseased human skin and grown on L-tryptophan agar revealed several known AhR active tryptophan metabolites along with a previously unidentified compound, pityriazepin. While its structure resembled that of the known alkaloid pityriacitrin, the comprised pyridine ring had been transformed into an azepinone. The indoloazepinone scaffold of pityriazepin is extremely rare in nature and has only been reported once previously. Pityriazepin, like the other isolated compounds, was found to be a potent activator of the AhR-dependent reporter gene assays in recombinant cell lines derived from four different species, although significant species differences in relative potency was observed. The ability of pityriazepin to competitively bind to the AhR and directly stimulate AhR DNA binding classified it as a new naturally-occurring potent AhR agonist. Malassezia furfur produces an expanded collection of extremely potent naturally occurring AhR agonists, which produce their biological effects in a species-specific manner.1 PMID:25721496

  10. A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus.

    PubMed

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

  11. A Modified Delphi Study to Define "Ah Ha" Moments in Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2015-01-01

    Ah ha moments are often mentioned in education literature. These moments are suggested to be a powerful aspect of learning, yet limited research is present regarding this topic. Ah ha learning moments have also not been defined in the education literature, resulting in the likelihood that each educator and learner may have differing definitions.…

  12. Use of natural AhR ligands as potential therapeutic modalities against inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Busbee, Philip B; Rouse, Michael; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss research involving ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and their role in immunomodulation. While activation of the AhR is well known for its ability to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals, more recently an exciting discovery has been made indicating that AhR ligation can also regulate T-cell differentiation, specifically through activation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and downregulation of the proinflammatory Th17 cells. Such findings have opened new avenues of research on the possibility of targeting the AhR to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Specifically, this review will discuss the current research involving natural and dietary AhR ligands. In addition, evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases will be highlighted. The importance of the AhR in immunological processes can be illustrated by expression of this receptor on a majority of immune cell types. In addition, AhR signaling pathways have been reported to influence a number of genes responsible for mediating inflammation and other immune responses. As interest in the AhR and its ligands increases, it seems prudent to consolidate current research on the contributions of these ligands to immune regulation during the course of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23731446

  13. TCDD and omeprazole prime platelets through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) non-genomic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Mónica; Lamé, Michael W; Walker, Naomi J; Huynh, Danh H; Tablin, Fern

    2015-05-19

    The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in hemostasis has recently gained increased attention. Here, we demonstrate, by qRT-PCR and western blot, that human platelets express both AhR mRNA and AhR protein. AhR protein levels increase in a dose dependent manner when incubated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or omeprazole. Treatment of platelets with puromycin blocks increased AhR protein synthesis in the presence of AhR activators. Additionally, treatment of platelets with either activator results in phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, two key signaling molecules in platelet activation pathways. Using the AhR competitive inhibitors alpha naphthoflavone and CH-223191, we show that phosphorylation of p38MAPK is AhR dependent. Further, inhibition of p38MAPK blocks downstream cPLA2 phosphorylation induced by TCDD or omeprazole. Treatment with AhR activators results in platelet priming, as demonstrated by increased platelet aggregation, which is inhibited by AhR antagonists. Our data support a model of the platelet AhR non-genomic pathway in which treatment with AhR activators results in increased expression of the AhR, phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, leading to platelet priming in response to agonist. PMID:25797602

  14. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Activity area K AHS roadway operational analysis. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.; Roper, D.; Tsao, J.; Michael, B.

    1995-05-01

    This study considers the roadway operational requirements of an automated highway system (AHS) in light of corresponding operational requirements for existing conventional highways with traffic operations centers (TOCs). Contrasts and similarities between TOC and AHS operations are identified. Maintenance operations and activities are the focus of the study. Similarities and contrasts between AHS and conventional highways are considered, analyzed, and discussed to raise issues risks. Urban/rural, passenger/heavy vehicle, and representative system configuration differences are covered insofar as there are significant differences among these categories of possible AHS operations. Maintenance needs and incident response requirements as they would impact as AHS operating agency are qualitatively analyzed. Two possible staged deployment scenarios for AHS are presented. The fault tolerance of the AHS is assessed. Results of interviews with personnel in charge of several existing TOCs have been summarized. The role of the driver in an AHS is discussed.

  15. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  16. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  17. Removing arsenic from copper smelter gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalewski, Frank

    1999-09-01

    The pyrometallurgical processing of nonferrous minerals found in association with sulfur and arsenic generates arsenic-bearing SO2 gases. Effective process gas cleaning presents technical problems due to the high volatility of the As2O3 compound and the elevated dew point of the sulfur-trioxidecontaining SO2 gas. Critical factors for gascleaning technology selection pertaining to technical feasibility, economic acceptability, and environmental compatibility are the arsenic-to-sulfur ratio in the feed material, the operating parameters of the pyrometallurgical and gas cooling process, the admissible arsenic concentration of the SO2 gas after arsenic elimination, and the most suitable form of the arsenic-bearing output material. Depending on these factors, the bulk of the arsenic can be eliminated from the process gas in concentrated form according to either the dry or wet method, after which final arsenic removal from the process gas to below the required admissible level must take place in a wet electrostatic precipitator.

  18. Results of investigating gases from inclusions in lunar glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgov, Y. A.; Shugurova, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    Common gases from inclusions in glass fragments and spherules of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station were investigated by the adsorption volumometric method. Inclusions from eight particles were analyzed. A gas mixture from the inclusions had two- (CO2 and H2), three- (CO2, H2 and N2 + inert gases), and (H2S, SO2, and NH3), H2,N2 + inert gases, and four component (H2S, SO2, and NH3), CO2, H2, and N2 + inert gases, compositions. Hydrogen in all analyses was 10 to 95 volume percent. Diffusional exchange with the terrestrial atmosphere was absent. An unexpectedly high density of gases in the vacuoles was obtained. The initial volume of the bubbles when the vacuoles were breached even rose 2.5 times and decreased in the limits of 2.3 to 54.5 times. Various possibilities for the formation in the lunar surface material of glass fragments and spherules are discussed.

  19. Suppressors made from intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James W; Muth, Thomas R; Cler, Dan L

    2014-11-04

    Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases. These and other exemplary suppressors are made from an intermetallic material composition for enhanced strength and oxidation resistance at high operational temperatures.

  20. Interaction quenches of Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.

  1. New frontiers with ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2005-05-05

    This article summarizes recent work at MIT, which was presented at ICAP 2004. These examples demonstrate the broad range of topics, which are covered by research on quantum-degenerate gases: boson and fermion mixtures, cold molecules, vortices, and interactions with surfaces.

  2. Flexible hose for liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, H.B.

    1984-05-01

    Flexible hose for liquefied gases, comprising a tubular body of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (2) arranged between an inner helically wound wire (3) and an outer helically wound wire (4), said wires being wound at the same pitch but having the windings displaced by half a pitch width from each other.

  3. Design of a multifunctional and portable detector for indoor gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Yutian; Li, Taishan

    2003-09-01

    With the increase of the living standards of city dwellers, home decoration has been more and more popular these years. Different kinds of material have come into people's home, which brings about beauties to the house as well as some bad effect. Because of differences in manufacturing techniques and quality, much of the material will emit poisonous gases more or less. Even if you have selected the qualified product, the toal amount of gases in you houses may not be guaranteed because of the simple reason that more than one kind of material are applied. Living in the complex environment for a long time will eventually have a bad effect on one's health. In addition the fear of the harm to be done will exert great impact psychologically. In another aspect, the coal-gas in the house-hood for cooking is also explosive and poisonous. In conclusion, the research on the indoor hazardous gases measurement and alarm device is of much economic and practical importance. The device is portable and versatile. We use rechargeable battery as the power supply. The device can detect the density of gases at the ppb level for the emission of the material and the measured value can be shown on the display. As for coal gas it can detect the percentage of LEL and make sound of alarm. We use two kinds of gas-sensors in the device, with catalytic combustion principal for coal gas detection and the PID method for the gas emissions of the decoration material. UV will destroy harmful material (such as: ammonia, dimethylamine, methyl-sulfhydrate, benzene etc.) into positive or negative ions. The sensor detects the electric charges of ionized gases and converts them into electric current signals. It is then amplified and changed into digits by amplifier and A/D. The digit signal is processed by micro-controller system of the device.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.101 Compressed gases... compressed gas cylinders under his control are in a safe condition to the extent that this can be...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.101 - Compressed gases (general requirements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1910.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.101 Compressed gases... compressed gas cylinders under his control are in a safe condition to the extent that this can be...

  6. Lithium-Ion-Battery Anode Materials with Improved Capacity from a Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Niu, Ji-Liang; Lin, Jia; Wei, Lei-Ming; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Yue-Peng

    2016-09-01

    We present a porous metal-organic framework (MOF) with remarkable thermal stability that exhibits a discharge capacity of 300 mAh g(-1) as an anode material for a lithium-ion battery. Pyrolysis of the obtained MOF gives an anode material with improved capacity (741 mAh g(-1)) and superior cyclic stability. PMID:27548622

  7. Induction of human UGT1A1 by bilirubin through AhR dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Shigeko; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2008-12-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) plays a key role to conjugate bilirubin and preventing jaundice, but there is no report showing the induction of human UGT1A1 (UGT1A1) by bilirubin. In this report, we show findings of the induction of the reporter gene (-3475/+14) of UGT1A1 in HepG2 cells by bilirubin at 50 microM, 100 microM, with human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR). We confirmed that induction of the reporter gene by bilirubin is dependent on the position of the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) (-3328/-3319) of UGT1A1, because the XRE deletion UGT1A1 gene did not respond to stimulation by a complex of bilirubin and hAhR. alpha-Naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) of a typical AhR antagonist at 50 microM inhibited induction by bilirubin, suggesting that bilirubin stimulates through binding with hAhR. Meanwhile, bilirubin itself did not stimulate the induction of AhR, because we detected no-elevation of the mRNA level of AhR by RT-PCR. These results indicate that the induction of UGT1A1 by bilirubin-AhR did not depend on the elevation of AhR but on ligand binding. From this result, we considered that high bilirubin in neonates must induce the elevation of UGT1A1 after birth to prevent jaundice, and bilirubin in adults also regulates the level of UGT1A1. This is the first report showing direct induction of UGT1A1 by a bilirubin through AhR pathway. PMID:19356098

  8. Bibliography of AV Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Lists commercially available audiovisual materials by subject area. Includes title, producer (addresses given), catalog number, format (film, filmstrip, cassette, slides), and prices. Subject areas include: elements; equilibrium; gases; laboratory techniques and experiments; general chemistry; introductory materials (including mathematics); and…

  9. A study of the toxicology of pyrolysis gases from synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W.; Hilado, C. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for evaluating the toxicity of pyrolysis gases from synthetic polymers are described. In each test, four Swiss albino mice are exposed in a 5-liter chamber to the gases from materials pyrolyzed at 700 C. The apparatus is simple in design, easy to clean, inexpensive and gives reproducible results. Data on several fluorine-containing and polyamide polymers are presented.

  10. 46 CFR 194.05-15 - Compressed gases as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases as chemical stores-Detail requirements...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-15 Compressed gases as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Compressed...

  11. Techniques for the analysis of gases sequentially released from lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of two methods for the analysis of light gases that are sequentially evolved from 2 to 10 mg of lunar sample. A hydrofluoric acid hydrolysis of lunar material is achieved by repeated exposure of the sample to hydrogen fluoride. In the second technique, gases are evolved from lunar samples by the stepwise heating of these samples to 1400 C. The gases evolved by either hydrolysis or pyrolysis are analyzed in a gas chromatographic system using a helium ionization detector. The sensitivities of this detector for the gases, as analyzed, range from 20 picograms/sec for hydrogen to 0.2 picogram/sec for carbon dioxide.

  12. The 50 Ah NiH2 CPV qualification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, J. C.; Barnes, Wilbert L.; Hickman, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) started a program to qualify a large diameter common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries for use on future Navy/NRL spacecraft electrical power subsystems. NRL's involvement with the qualification of CPV NiH2 batteries dates back to 1988 when COMSAT and Johnson Controls, Inc. initiated a joint effort to fly the first ever NiH2 CPV in space. A later NRL-JCI cooperative research and development agreement led to the launch of a space experiment in 1993 and to the use of a single NiH2 CPV battery on the BMDO Clementine spacecraft in 1994. NRL initiated procurement of two, 50 Ah CPV NiH2 batteries in the Fall of 1992. The two batteries were delivered to NRL in June 1994. NiH2 CPV batteries have almost 2x the specific energy (Wh/kg) of nickel cadium batteries and 2x the energy density (Wh/l) of individual pressure vessel NiH2 CPV's. This presentation discusses the results of electrical and mechanical qualification tests conducted at NRL. The tests included electrical characterization, standard capacity, random vibration, peak load, and thermal vacuum. The last slides of the presentation show initial results from the life cycle tests of the second NiH2 CPV battery at 40% depth of discharge and a temperature of 10 C.

  13. The 50 Ah NiH2 CPV qualification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, J. C.; Barnes, Wilbert L.; Hickman, Gary L.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) started a program to qualify a large diameter common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries for use on future Navy/NRL spacecraft electrical power subsystems. NRL's involvement with the qualification of CPV NiH2 batteries dates back to 1988 when COMSAT and Johnson Controls, Inc. initiated a joint effort to fly the first ever NiH2 CPV in space. A later NRL-JCI cooperative research and development agreement led to the launch of a space experiment in 1993 and to the use of a single NiH2 CPV battery on the BMDO Clementine spacecraft in 1994. NRL initiated procurement of two, 50 Ah CPV NiH2 batteries in the Fall of 1992. The two batteries were delivered to NRL in June 1994. NiH2 CPV batteries have almost 2x the specific energy (Wh/kg) of nickel cadium batteries and 2x the energy density (Wh/l) of individual pressure vessel NiH2 CPV's. This presentation discusses the results of electrical and mechanical qualification tests conducted at NRL. The tests included electrical characterization, standard capacity, random vibration, peak load, and thermal vacuum. The last slides of the presentation show initial results from the life cycle tests of the second NiH2 CPV battery at 40% depth of discharge and a temperature of 10 C.

  14. Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Veronica J; Smit, Joost J; Huijgen, Veerle; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Roest, Manon; Kruijssen, Laura J W; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Hassing, Ine; Bleumink, Rob; Safe, Stephen; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin; Pieters, Raymond H H

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have shown that AhR activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses sensitization to peanut at least in part by inducing a functional shift toward CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Next to TCDD, numerous other AhR ligands have been described. In this study, we investigated the effect of three structurally different non-dioxin-like AhR ligands, e.g., 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF), on peanut sensitization. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized by administering peanut extract (PE) by gavage in the presence of cholera toxin. Before and during peanut sensitization, mice were treated with FICZ, β-NF, or 6-MCDF. AhR gene transcription in duodenum and liver was investigated on day 5, even as the effect of these AhR ligands on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Mice treated with TCDD were included as a positive control. Furthermore, the murine reporter cell line H1G1.1c3 (CAFLUX) was used to investigate the possible role of metabolism of TCDD, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF on AhR activation in vitro. TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF, suppressed sensitization to peanut (measured by PE-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and PE-induced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17a, IL-22, and interferon-γ). In addition, FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF treatments less effectively induced AhR gene transcription (measured by gene expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) compared with TCDD-treated mice. Furthermore, FICZ, β-NF and 6-MCDF did not increase the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes compared with PE-sensitized mice, in contrast to TCDD. Inhibition of metabolism in vitro increased AhR activation. Together, these data shows that TCDD, but not FICZ, β-NF, and 6-MCDF suppresses sensitization to peanut. Differences in metabolism, AhR binding and subsequent gene transcription might

  15. Laser driven electron acceleration in vacuum, gases and plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Krall, J.

    1996-04-19

    This paper discusses some of the important issues pertaining to laser acceleration in vacuum, neutral gases and plasmas. The limitations of laser vacuum acceleration as they relate to electron slippage, laser diffraction, material damage and electron aperture effects, are discussed. An inverse Cherenkov laser acceleration configuration is presented in which a laser beam is self guided in a partially ionized gas. Optical self guiding is the result of a balance between the nonlinear self focusing properties of neutral gases and the diffraction effects of ionization. The stability of self guided beams is analyzed and discussed. In addition, aspects of the laser wakefield accelerator are presented and laser driven accelerator experiments are briefly discussed.

  16. Dispersal of gases generated near a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Duric, Nebojsa; Sulkanen, Martin; Fernini, Ilias

    1990-10-01

    The dispersal of gases evolved by prospective lunar base operations is presently modeled analytically using continuous (mining and habitat-venting) and impulsive (primarily rocket exhaust) injections of gases. In the case of impulsive injection, the neutral atmosphere and associated ionosphere both decay on time-scales of about 20 min; in that of continuous injection, the atmosphere near the base grows and achieves a steady state after about 20 min. Both direct and diffusive transport mechanisms are considered, and it is concluded that for the injection rates and assumptions presently employed the artificial lunar atmospheres produced are not significantly detrimental to astronomical observations and high-vacuum materials processing operations.

  17. Fullerenes: A New Carrier Phase for Noble Gases in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The major focus of our research effort has been to measure the noble gases encapsulated within fullerenes, a new carbon carrier phase and compare it to the myriad of components found in the bulk meteorite acid residues. We have concentrated on the carbonaceous chondrites (Allende, Murchison and Tagish Lake) since they have abundant noble gases, typically with a planetary signature that dominates the stepped-release of the meteorite bulk acid residue. They also contain an extractable fullerene component that can be isolated and purified from the same bulk material.

  18. Equation of State for Detonation Product Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro

    2013-06-01

    Based on the empirical linear relationship between detonation velocity and loading density, an approximate description for the Chapman-Jouguet state for detonation product gases of solid phase high explosives has been developed. Provided that the Grüneisen parameter is a function only of volume, systematic and closed system of equations for the Grüneisen parameter and CJ volume have been formulated. These equations were obtained by combining this approximation with the Jones-Stanyukovich-Manson relation together with JWL isentrope for detonation of crystal density PETN. A thermodynamic identity between the Grüneisen parameter and another non-dimensional material parameter introduced by Wu and Jing can be used to derive the enthalpy-pressure-volume equation of state for detonation gases. This Wu-Jing parameter is found to be the ratio of the Grüneisen parameter and the adiabatic index. Behavior of this parameter as a function of pressure was calculated and revealed that their change with pressure is very gradual. By using this equation of state, several isentropes down from the Chapman-Jouguet states reached by four different lower initial density PETN have been calculated and compared with available cylinder expansion tests.

  19. Gases in ice cores

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Michael; Sowers, Todd; Brook, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Air trapped in glacial ice offers a means of reconstructing variations in the concentrations of atmospheric gases over time scales ranging from anthropogenic (last 200 yr) to glacial/interglacial (hundreds of thousands of years). In this paper, we review the glaciological processes by which air is trapped in the ice and discuss processes that fractionate gases in ice cores relative to the contemporaneous atmosphere. We then summarize concentration–time records for CO2 and CH4 over the last 200 yr. Finally, we summarize concentration–time records for CO2 and CH4 during the last two glacial–interglacial cycles, and their relation to records of global climate change. PMID:11607743

  20. Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains most of the papers, both invited and contributed, that were presented at the Workshop of Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies. This was the fifth in a biennial series associated with the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Subjects covered included the scattering and annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in various media, including those of astrophysical interest. In addition, the topics of antimatter and dark matter were covered.

  1. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Infection Among Egyptians: A Prospective, Controlled Seroepidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Elabd, Mona A.; Zeid, Dina Abu; Zaki, Shaimaa A.; El Rifay, Amira S.; Sherif, Lobna S.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    Background. A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) avian influenza viruses are enzootic in Egyptian poultry, and most A(H5N1) human cases since 2009 have occurred in Egypt. Our understanding of the epidemiology of avian viruses in humans remains limited. Questions about the frequency of infection, the proportion of infections that are mild or subclinical, and the case-fatality rate remain largely unanswered. Methods. We conducted a 3-year, prospective, controlled, seroepidemiological study that enrolled 750 poultry-exposed and 250 unexposed individuals in Egypt. Results. At baseline, the seroprevalence of anti-A(H5N1) antibodies (titer, ≥80) among exposed individuals was 2% significantly higher than that among the controls (0%). Having chronic lung disease was a significant risk factor for infection. Antibodies against A(H9N2) were not detected at baseline when A(H9N2) was not circulating in poultry. At follow-up, A(H9N2) was detected in poultry, and consequently, the seroprevalence among exposed humans was between 5.6% and 7.5%. Vaccination of poultry, older age, and exposure to ducks were risk factors for A(H9N2) infection. Conclusions. Results of this study indicate that the number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is much larger than the number of reported confirmed cases. In an area where these viruses are enzootic in the poultry, human exposure to and infection with avian influenza becomes more common. PMID:25355942

  2. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using...

  3. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  4. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  5. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using...

  6. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  7. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  8. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using...

  9. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using...

  10. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polypropylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polypropylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The gases from this sample appeared to be equivalent or less toxic than the gases from a sample of polyethylene under these particular test conditions. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant.

  11. Novel MRI Applications of Laser-Polarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, R. W.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-04-01

    Gas-phase NMR has great potential as a probe for a variety of interesting physical and biomedical problems that are not amenable to study by water or similar liquid. However, NMR of gases was largely neglected due to the low signal obtained from the thermally-polarized gases with very low sample density. The advent of optical pumping techniques for enhancing the polarization of the noble gases 3He and 129Xe has bought new life to this field, especially in medical imaging where 3He lung inhalation imaging is approaching a clinical application. However, there are numerous applications in materials science that also benefit from the use of these gases. We review primarily non-medical applications of laser-polarized noble gases for both NMR imaging and spectroscopy, and highlight progress with examples from our laboratory including high-resolution imaging at mT applied field strength and velocity imaging of convective flow. Porous media microstucture has been probed with both thermal and laser-polarized xenon, as xenon is an ideal probe due to low surface interaction with the grains of the porous media.

  12. [Prospects for Application of Gases and Gas Hydrates to Cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Shishova, N V; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, we tried to evaluate the known properties of gas hydrates and gases participating in the formation of gas hydrates from the point of view of the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection, to consider the papers on freezing biological materials in the presence of inert gases, and to analyze the perspectives for the development of this direction. For the purpose, we searched for the information on the physical properties of gases and gas hydrates, compared processes occured during the formation of gas hydrates and water ice, analyzed the influence of the formation and growth of gas hydrates on the structure of biological objects. We prepared a short review on the biological effects of xenon, krypton, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide especially on hypothermal conditions and probable application of these properties in cryopreservation technologies. The description of the existing experiments on cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases was analyzed. On the basis of the information we found, the most perspective directions of work in the field of cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases were outlined. An attempt was made to forecast the potential problems in this field. PMID:26591607

  13. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  14. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  15. AHS and CASI Processing for the REFLEX Remote Sensing Campaign: Methods and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Jiménez, Marcos; Pérez, Irene; de la Cámara, Óscar G.

    2015-12-01

    The airborne spectroradiometers AHS and CASI were used as a source of hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing data during the REFLEX campaign. Data geolocation and a first simple atmospheric correction was performed by INTA in near-real time with a specific on-site setup and distributed to all campaign participants. In this paper we present briefly the AHS and CASI REFLEX flight campaign followed by a detailed description of the methodology used for image processing and finally the results obtained in terms of image quality. As a conclusion, near-real time processing for AHS and CASI level 1 geolocated products was successful as most of CASI level 2 results but further work is needed for achieving accurate AHS level 2 products.

  16. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  17. The 50Ah NiH2 cell life test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamin, Thierry; Puig, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form for the 50 AhNiH2 cell life test results. Information is given on pressure vessel design, electrochemical/stack design, cell electrical characteristics, and cell life test results.

  18. Strong Second-Harmonic Generation in Atomic Layered GaSe.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Cheng, Jingxin; Zhou, Yubing; Cao, Ting; Hong, Hao; Liao, Zhimin; Wu, Shiwei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear effects in two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered materials have recently attracted increasing interest. Phenomena such as nonlinear optical edge response, chiral electroluminescence, and valley and spin currents beyond linear orders have opened up a great opportunity to expand the functionalities and potential applications of 2D materials. Here we report the first observation of strong optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) in monolayer GaSe under nonresonant excitation and emission condition. Our experiments show that the nonresonant SHG intensity of GaSe is the strongest among all the 2D atomic crystals measured up to day. At the excitation wavelength of 1600 nm, the SHG signal from monolayer GaSe is around 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that from monolayer MoS2 under the same excitation power. Such a strong nonlinear signal facilitates the use of polarization-dependent SHG intensity and SHG mapping to investigate the symmetry properties of this material: the monolayer GaSe shows 3-fold lattice symmetry with an intrinsic correspondence to its geometric triangular shape in our growth condition; whereas the bilayer GaSe exhibits two dominant stacking orders: AA and AB stacking. The correlation between the stacking orders and the interlayer twist angles in GaSe bilayer indicates that different triangular GaSe atomic layers have the same dominant edge configuration. Our results provide a route toward exploring the structural information and the possibility to observe other nonlinear effects in GaSe atomic layers.

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of health professionals in relation to A/H1N1 influenza and its vaccine

    PubMed Central

    López-Picado, Amanda; Apiñaniz, Antxon; Ramos, Amaia Latorre; Miranda-Serrano, Erika; Cobos, Raquel; Parraza-Díez, Naiara; Amezua, Patricia; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Aizpuru, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the intention of health professionals, doctors and nurses, concerning whether or not to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus, and their perception of the severity of this pandemic compared with seasonal flu. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out based on an questionnaire e-mailed to health professionals in public healthcare centres in Vitoria between 6 and 16 November 2009; the percentage of respondents who wanted to be vaccinated and who perceived the pandemic flu to carry a high risk of death were calculated. Results A total of 115 people completed the questionnaire of whom 61.7% (n=71) were doctors and 38.3% (n=44) were nurses. Of these, 33.3% (n=23) of doctors and 13.6% (n=6) of nurses intended to be vaccinated (p=0.019). Even among those who considered themselves to be at a high risk, 70.6% (n=48) of doctors and 31.7% (n=13) of nurses participating in the study (p=0.001) planned to have the vaccination. Conclusions Most health professionals, and in particular nurses, had no intention to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus at the beginning of the vaccination campaign. PMID:22461846

  3. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  4. Thickness dependence on the optoelectronic properties of multilayered GaSe based photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Pil Ju; Abderrahmane, Abdelkader; Takamura, Tsukasa; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials exhibit unique optoelectronic properties at atomic thicknesses. In this paper, we fabricated metal–semiconductor–metal based photodetectors using layered gallium selenide (GaSe) with different thicknesses. The electrical and optoelectronic properties of the photodetectors were studied, and these devices showed good electrical characteristics down to GaSe flake thicknesses of 30 nm. A photograting effect was observed in the absence of a gate voltage, thereby implying a relatively high photoresponsivity. Higher values of the photoresponsivity occurred for thicker layers of GaSe with a maximum value 0.57 AW‑1 and external quantum efficiency of of 132.8%, and decreased with decreasing GaSe flake thickness. The detectivity was 4.05 × 1010 cm Hz1/2 W‑1 at 532 nm laser wavelength, underscoring that GaSe is a promising p-type 2D material for photodetection applications in the visible spectrum.

  5. Thickness dependence on the optoelectronic properties of multilayered GaSe based photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Pil Ju; Abderrahmane, Abdelkader; Takamura, Tsukasa; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials exhibit unique optoelectronic properties at atomic thicknesses. In this paper, we fabricated metal-semiconductor-metal based photodetectors using layered gallium selenide (GaSe) with different thicknesses. The electrical and optoelectronic properties of the photodetectors were studied, and these devices showed good electrical characteristics down to GaSe flake thicknesses of 30 nm. A photograting effect was observed in the absence of a gate voltage, thereby implying a relatively high photoresponsivity. Higher values of the photoresponsivity occurred for thicker layers of GaSe with a maximum value 0.57 AW-1 and external quantum efficiency of of 132.8%, and decreased with decreasing GaSe flake thickness. The detectivity was 4.05 × 1010 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at 532 nm laser wavelength, underscoring that GaSe is a promising p-type 2D material for photodetection applications in the visible spectrum.

  6. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  7. Thermodynamics of Trapping Gases for Underwater Superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Patankar, Neelesh A

    2016-07-12

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness, and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag, enhance boiling, and reduce biofouling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. In this work, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g., air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data. PMID:27276525

  8. Adiabatic processes in monatomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera-Patiño, Martin E.

    1988-08-01

    A kinetic model is used to predict the temperature evolution of a monatomic ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression at a constant finite rate, and it is then generalized to treat real gases. The effects of interatomic forces are considered, using as examples the gas with the square-well potential and the van der Waals gas. The model is integrated into a Carnot cycle operating at a finite rate to compare the efficiency's rate-dependent behavior with the reversible result. Limitations of the model, rate penalties, and their importance are discussed.

  9. Method for transporting impellent gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papst, H.

    1975-01-01

    The described system DAL comprises a method and a device for transportation of buoyant impellent gases, without the need for expensive pipes and liquid tankers. The gas is self air-lifted from its source to a consignment point by means of voluminous, light, hollow bodies. Upon release of the gas at the consignment point, the bodies are filled with another cheap buoyant gas (steam or heated air) for the return trip to the source. In both directions substantial quantities of supplementary freight goods can be transported. Requirements and advantages are presented.

  10. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  11. Biological role of Trichoderma harzianum-derived platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) on stress response and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanjin; Fan, Lili; Wu, Qiong; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wang, Meng; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum. The enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with PAF-AH proteins from T. koningii and other microbial species. The optimum enzymatic activity of PAF-AH occurred at pH 6 in the absence of Ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of PAF-AH expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. Furthermore, PAF-AH knockout transformant growth occurred more slowly than wild type cells and over-expression strains grown in SM medium at 37°C and 42°C. In addition, PAF-AH expression significantly increased under a series of maize root induction assay. Eicosanoic acid and ergosterol levels decreased in the PAF-AH knockouts compared to wild type cells, as revealed by GC/MS analysis. We also determined stress responses mediated by PAF-AH were related to proteins HEX1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c. Finally, PAF-AH exhibited antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in plate confrontation assays. Our results indicate PAF-AH may play an important role in T. harzianum stress response and antagonism under diverse environmental conditions.

  12. Laser driven acceleration in vacuum and gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Hafizi, B.; Hubbard, R.; Krall, J.; Ting, A.

    1997-03-01

    Several important issues pertaining to particle acceleration in vacuum and gases are discussed. The limitations of laser vacuum acceleration as they relate to electron slippage, laser diffraction, material damage, and electron aperture effects are presented. Limitations on the laser intensity and particle self-fields due to material breakdown are quantified. In addition, the reflection of the self-fields associated with the accelerated particles places a limit on the number of particles. Two configurations for the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA) are considered, in which the electromagnetic driver is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. The acceleration gradient in the ICA is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization in the dielectric liner or gas. Ionization can lead to significant modification of the optical properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 {mu}m and a 1 mm wavelength driver. We show that the use of an unguided Bessel (axicon) beam can enhance the energy gain compared to a higher order Gaussian beam. The enhancement factor is N{sup 1/2}, where N is the number of lobes in the Bessel beam. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    PubMed

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus.

  14. Effects of traces of molecular gases (hydrogen, nitrogen) in glow discharges in noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steers, E. B. M.; Smid, P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2008-07-01

    The "Grimm" type of low pressure glow discharge source, introduced some forty years ago, has proved to be a versatile analytical source. A flat sample is used as the cathode and placed about 0.2mm away from the end of a hollow tubular anode leading to an obstructed discharge. When the source was first developed, it was used for the direct analysis of solid metallic samples by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), normally with argon as the plasma gas; it was soon found that, using suitable electrical parameters, the cathode material was sputtered uniformly from a circular crater of diameter equal to that of the tubular anode, so that the technique could be used for compositional depth profile analysis (CDPA). Over the years the capability and applications of the technique have steadily increased. The use of rf powered discharges now permits the analysis of non-conducting layers and samples; improved instrumental design now allows CDPA of ever thinner layers (e.g. resolution of layers 5 nm thick in multilayer stacks is possible). For the original bulk material application, pre-sputtering could be used to remove any surface contamination but for CDPA, analysis must start immediately the discharge is ignited, so that any surface contamination can introduce molecular gases into the plasma gas and have significant analytical consequences, especially for very thin layers; in addition, many types of samples now analysed contain molecular gases as components (either as occluded gas, or e.g. as a nitride or oxide), and this gas enters the discharge when the sample is sputtered. It is therefore important to investigate the effect of such foreign gases on the discharge, in particular on the spectral intensities and hence the analytical results. The presentation will concentrate mainly on the effect of hydrogen in argon discharges, in the concentration range 0-2 % v/v but other gas mixtures (e.g. Ar/N_2, Ne/H_2) will be considered for comparison. In general, the introduction of

  15. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  16. Phylodynamics of influenza A(H3N2) in South America, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Born, Priscila Silva; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Resende, Paola Cristina; Motta, Fernando Couto; Bello, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    The limited influenza A(H3N2) genetic data available from the Southern Hemisphere (particularly from Africa and Latin America), constrains the accurate reconstruction of viral dissemination dynamics within those regions. Our objective was to describe the spatial dissemination dynamics of influenza A(H3N2) within South America. A total of 469 sequences of the HA1 portion of the hemagglutinin gene (HA) from influenza A(H3N2) viruses sampled in temperate and tropical South American countries between 1999 and 2012 were combined with available contemporary sequences from Australia, Hong Kong, United Kingdom and the United States. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that influenza A(H3N2) sequences from South America were highly intermixed with sequences from other geographical regions, although a clear geographic virus population structure was detected globally. We identified 14 clades mostly (≥80%) composed of influenza sequences from South American countries. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of those clades support a significant role of both temperate and tropical regions in the introduction and dissemination of new influenza A(H3N2) strains within South America and identify an intensive bidirectional viral exchange between different geographical areas. These findings indicate that seasonal influenza A(H3N2) epidemics in South America are seeded by both the continuous importation of viral variants from other geographic regions and the short-term persistence of local lineages. This study also supports a complex metapopulation model of influenza A(H3N2) dissemination in South America, with no preferential direction in viral movement between temperate and tropical regions. PMID:27275847

  17. A microleakage study of gutta-percha/AH Plus and Resilon/Real self-etch systems after different irrigation protocols

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; SIMÃO, Renata Antoun; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the sealing of the root canal system is the key to the success of root canal treatment. The resin-based adhesive material has the potential to reduce the microleakage of the root canal because of its adhesive properties and penetration into dentinal walls. Moreover, the irrigation protocols may have an influence on the adhesiveness of resin-based sealers to root dentin. Objective The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigant protocols on coronal bacterial microleakage of gutta-percha/AH Plus and Resilon/Real Seal Self-etch systems. Material and Methods One hundred ninety pre-molars were used. The teeth were divided into 18 experimental groups according to the irrigation protocols and filling materials used. The protocols used were: distilled water; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)+eDTA; NaOCl+H3PO4; NaOCl+eDTA+chlorhexidine (CHX); NaOCl+H3PO4+CHX; CHX+eDTA; CHX+ H3PO4; CHX+eDTA+CHX and CHX+H3PO4+CHX. Gutta-percha/AH Plus or Resilon/Real Seal Se were used as root-filling materials. The coronal microleakage was evaluated for 90 days against Enterococcus faecalis. Data were statistically analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference was verified in the groups using chlorhexidine or sodium hypochlorite during the chemo-mechanical preparation followed by eDTA or phosphoric acid for smear layer removal. The same results were found for filling materials. However, the statistical analyses revealed that a final flush with 2% chlorhexidine reduced significantly the coronal microleakage. Conclusion A final flush with 2% chlorhexidine after smear layer removal reduces coronal microleakage of teeth filled with gutta-percha/AH Plus or Resilon/Real Seal SE. PMID:25025557

  18. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students’ preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, multiple-stage randomized sampling was used to select 300 female students in Isfahan who completed a questionnaire in December 2009. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire based on PMT. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate correlations, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression. Results: The mean age of participants was 15.62 (SE = 1.1) years old. Majority of participants were aware regarding pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (87.3%, 262 out of 300). Results showed that, protection motivation was highly significant relationship with preventive behavior and predicted 34% of its variance. We found all of the variables with the exception of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and response cost were related with protection motivation and explained 22% of its variance. Conclusion: Promotion of students’ self-efficacy, and intention to protect themselves from a health threat should be priorities of any programs aimed at promoting preventive behaviors among students. It is also concluded that the protection motivation theory may be used in developing countries, like Iran, as a framework for prevention interventions in an attempt to improve the preventive behaviors of students. PMID:24741647

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Evolutionary Markers of Human Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) Viruses May Guide Selection of Vaccine Strain Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Belanov, Sergei S.; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Benner, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Kai Lee, Hong; Wei-Tze Tang, Julian; Kainov, Denis E.

    2015-01-01

    Here we analyzed whole-genome sequences of 3,969 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4,774 A(H3N2) strains that circulated during 2009–2015 in the world. The analysis revealed changes at 481 and 533 amino acid sites in proteins of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively. Many of these changes were introduced as a result of random drift. However, there were 61 and 68 changes that were present in relatively large number of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively, that circulated during relatively long time. We named these amino acid substitutions evolutionary markers, as they seemed to contain valuable information regarding the viral evolution. Interestingly, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses acquired non-overlapping sets of evolutionary markers. We next analyzed these characteristic markers in vaccine strains recommended by the World Health Organization for the past five years. Our analysis revealed that vaccine strains carried only few evolutionary markers at antigenic sites of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The absence of these markers at antigenic sites could affect the recognition of HA and NA by human antibodies generated in response to vaccinations. This could, in part, explain moderate efficacy of influenza vaccines during 2009–2014. Finally, we identified influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, which contain all the evolutionary markers of influenza A strains circulated in 2015, and which could be used as vaccine candidates for the 2015/2016 season. Thus, genome-wide analysis of evolutionary markers of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses may guide selection of vaccine strain candidates. PMID:26615216

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Evolutionary Markers of Human Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) Viruses May Guide Selection of Vaccine Strain Candidates.

    PubMed

    Belanov, Sergei S; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Benner, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Kai Lee, Hong; Wei-Tze Tang, Julian; Kainov, Denis E

    2015-11-27

    Here we analyzed whole-genome sequences of 3,969 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4,774 A(H3N2) strains that circulated during 2009-2015 in the world. The analysis revealed changes at 481 and 533 amino acid sites in proteins of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively. Many of these changes were introduced as a result of random drift. However, there were 61 and 68 changes that were present in relatively large number of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively, that circulated during relatively long time. We named these amino acid substitutions evolutionary markers, as they seemed to contain valuable information regarding the viral evolution. Interestingly, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses acquired non-overlapping sets of evolutionary markers. We next analyzed these characteristic markers in vaccine strains recommended by the World Health Organization for the past five years. Our analysis revealed that vaccine strains carried only few evolutionary markers at antigenic sites of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The absence of these markers at antigenic sites could affect the recognition of HA and NA by human antibodies generated in response to vaccinations. This could, in part, explain moderate efficacy of influenza vaccines during 2009-2014. Finally, we identified influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, which contain all the evolutionary markers of influenza A strains circulated in 2015, and which could be used as vaccine candidates for the 2015/2016 season. Thus, genome-wide analysis of evolutionary markers of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses may guide selection of vaccine strain candidates.

  1. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia Due to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Higuera Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena; Vazquez Manriquez, Maria Eugenia; Martinez Valadez, Eduarda Leticia; Ramos, Leticia Alfaro; Izumi, Shinyu; Takasaki, Jin; Kudo, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methodology and Principal Findings A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm) and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post). All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1)pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. Conclusions Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic point of view. These

  2. Qualification Testing of General Electric 50 Ah Nickel-Cadmium Cells with New Separator and New Positive Plate Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985, for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a new nylon separator material Pellon 2536, and the new GE Positive Plate Nickel Attack Control Passivation process. Testing began in May, 1985, at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985, with approximately 1200 LEO cycles complete at this writting. Early test results show that cells with positive plate passivation exhibit higher than normal charge voltage characteristics. Other aspects of performance were nominal.

  3. Qualification testing of General Electric 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells with Pellon 2536 separator and passivated positive plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985 for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a nonwoven nylon separator material, Pellon 2536, and the GE positive plate nickel attack control gas passivation process. Testing began May, 1985 at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with GSFC standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985 with approximately 6500 LEO cycles and three GEO eclipse seasons completed. After early problems in maintaining test pack temperature control, all packs are performing well but are exhibiting higher than normal charge voltage characteristics.

  4. International Laboratory Comparison of Influenza Microneutralization Assays for A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) Influenza Viruses by CONSISE.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Karen L; Engelhardt, Othmar G; Wood, John; Heath, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Peiris, Malik; Hoschler, Katja; Hungnes, Olav; Zhang, Wenqing; Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2015-08-01

    The microneutralization assay is commonly used to detect antibodies to influenza virus, and multiple protocols are used worldwide. These protocols differ in the incubation time of the assay as well as in the order of specific steps, and even within protocols there are often further adjustments in individual laboratories. The impact these protocol variations have on influenza serology data is unclear. Thus, a laboratory comparison of the 2-day enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 3-day hemagglutination (HA) microneutralization (MN) protocols, using A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and A(H5N1) viruses, was performed by the CONSISE Laboratory Working Group. Individual laboratories performed both assay protocols, on multiple occasions, using different serum panels. Thirteen laboratories from around the world participated. Within each laboratory, serum sample titers for the different assay protocols were compared between assays to determine the sensitivity of each assay and were compared between replicates to assess the reproducibility of each protocol for each laboratory. There was good correlation of the results obtained using the two assay protocols in most laboratories, indicating that these assays may be interchangeable for detecting antibodies to the influenza A viruses included in this study. Importantly, participating laboratories have aligned their methodologies to the CONSISE consensus 2-day ELISA and 3-day HA MN assay protocols to enable better correlation of these assays in the future.

  5. CO2 capture from humid flue gases and humid atmosphere using a microporous coppersilicate.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Khumnoon, Chutharat; Lee, Zhen Hao; Moon, Won Kyung; Docao, Son; Nguyen, Thanh Huu; Hwang, In Chul; Moon, Dohyun; Oleynikov, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2015-10-16

    Capturing CO2 from humid flue gases and atmosphere with porous materials remains costly because prior dehydration of the gases is required. A large number of microporous materials with physical adsorption capacity have been developed as CO2-capturing materials. However, most of them suffer from CO2 sorption capacity reduction or structure decomposition that is caused by co-adsorbed H2O when exposed to humid flue gases and atmosphere. We report a highly stable microporous coppersilicate. It has H2O-specific and CO2-specific adsorption sites but does not have H2O/CO2-sharing sites. Therefore, it readily adsorbs both H2O and CO2 from the humid flue gases and atmosphere, but the adsorbing H2O does not interfere with the adsorption of CO2. It is also highly stable after adsorption of H2O and CO2 because it was synthesized hydrothermally.

  6. Synthesis and photoresponse of large GaSe atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Lei, Sidong; Ge, Liehui; Liu, Zheng; Najmaei, Sina; Shi, Gang; You, Ge; Lou, Jun; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-06-12

    We report the direct growth of large, atomically thin GaSe single crystals on insulating substrates by vapor phase mass transport. A correlation is identified between the number of layers and a Raman shift and intensity change. We found obvious contrast of the resistance of the material in the dark and when illuminated with visible light. In the photoconductivity measurement we observed a low dark current. The on-off ratio measured with a 405 nm at 0.5 mW/mm(2) light source is in the order of 10(3); the photoresponsivity is 17 mA/W, and the quantum efficiency is 5.2%, suggesting possibility for photodetector and sensor applications. The photocurrent spectrum of few-layer GaSe shows an intense blue shift of the excitation edge and expanded band gap compared with bulk material.

  7. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOEpatents

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  8. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  9. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  10. Studies on the role of the Ah receptor in hexachloro-benzene-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the effects of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) resemble those of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), whose effects are initiated by its binding to the AH receptor, the regulatory gene product of the Ah locus. I investigated the ability of HCB to interact with the AH receptor and the involvement of this protein in HCB-induced porphyria. The induction of two cytochrome P450 isozymes regulated by the Ah locus was also examined in light of their possible role in the pathogenesis of HCB- and TCDD-induced porphyria. HCB competitively inhibited the in vitro specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-TCDD to the rat hepatic Ah receptor (K{sub I} = 2.1 {mu}M) without affecting the solubility of ({sup 3}H)TCDD. Following the administration of HCB to rats, the number of ({sup 3}H)TCDD specific binding sites was reduced by up to 40%. HCB induced cytochromes P450b, P450e, P450c, and P450d, confirming that it is a mixed-type P450 inducer. The presence of porphyria in mice was assessed by measuring urinary and hepatic porphyrins and hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity.

  11. Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Herfst, Sander; Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Linster, Martin; Chutinimitkul, Salin; de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.; Sorrell, Erin M.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Burke, David F.; Smith, Derek J.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but thus far has not acquired the ability to be transmitted by aerosol or respiratory droplet (“airborne transmission”) between humans. To address the concern that the virus could acquire this ability under natural conditions, we genetically modified A/H5N1 virus by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent serial passage in ferrets. The genetically modified A/H5N1 virus acquired mutations during passage in ferrets, ultimately becoming airborne transmissible in ferrets. None of the recipient ferrets died after airborne infection with the mutant A/H5N1 viruses. Four amino acid substitutions in the host receptor-binding protein hemagglutinin, and one in the polymerase complex protein basic polymerase 2, were consistently present in airborne-transmitted viruses. The transmissible viruses were sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir and reacted well with antisera raised against H5 influenza vaccine strains. Thus, avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses can acquire the capacity for airborne transmission between mammals without recombination in an intermediate host and therefore constitute a risk for human pandemic influenza. PMID:22723413

  12. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  13. New perspectives for noble gases in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschbach, Werner

    2016-08-01

    Conditions prevailing in regions of deep water formation imprint their signature in the concentrations of dissolved noble gases, which are conserved in the deep ocean. Such "recharge conditions" including temperature, salinity, and interactions with sea ice are important in view of ocean-atmosphere CO2 partitioning. Noble gases, especially the temperature sensitive Kr and Xe, are well-established tracers to reconstruct groundwater recharge conditions. In contrast, tracer oceanography has traditionally focused on He isotopes and the light noble gases Ne and Ar, which could be analyzed at the required high precision. Recent developments of analytical and data interpretation methods now provide fresh perspectives for noble gases in oceanography.

  14. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  15. Large N model of bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Ke; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2009-10-01

    We construct the large N model of bose gases. Using an artificial parameter 1/N to do the perturbative analysis to study two models: U(N) bose gases and U(1) xO(N) bose gases. We find that for the U(N) model we get the same Bogoliubov spectrum and LHY thermal dynamical relations with ordinary bose gases. For the U(1) xO(N) model, however, we calculate dispersion relation, chemical potential and free energy when N goes to infinity and find that every quantities depends on the ration of two scattering length and √(na^3).

  16. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Nine samples of synthetic polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The materials were polyoxymethylene, polyethylene (five samples), polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. Of the five polyethylene samples, three contained known levels of chlorine. These test results were combined with earlier data to provide a comparison of 25 samples of synthetic polymers. Polyoxymethylene appeared to exhibit the greatest toxicity, and polystyrene the least toxicity, under these particular test conditions

  17. 49 CFR 173.306 - Limited quantities of compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sensitive to heat, the temperature of the bath must be set at between 20 °C (68 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) but... the contents are sensitive to heat, or if the container is made of plastic material which softens at... heat, and compressed gas or gases. Plastic containers must only contain 2.2 non-flammable soluble...

  18. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G; Scalettar, Richard T

    2015-12-11

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.

  19. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  20. Granular gases under extreme driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  1. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  2. AhR expression and polymorphisms are associated with risk of coronary arterial disease in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shian; Shui, Xiaorong; He, Yuan; Xue, Yiqiang; Li, Jianwen; Li, Guoming; Lei, Wei; Chen, Can

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the control of environmental toxicity, and modulates the development and pathogenesis of the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the role of AhR in coronary arterial disease (CAD) susceptibility. We therefore conducted a case-control study in a Chinese population, and assessed the potential association between AhR variants and CAD susceptibility. Compared with the controls, circulating AhR expression was found to be significantly increased in patients with CAD and its subtypes including ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and stable and unstable angina pectoris. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the effect of AhR on CAD progression showed it to be a potent biomarker for CAD. Genotype frequencies of AhR rs2066853 differed significantly between CAD and control subjects, while smoking and hyperlipidemia markedly promoted CAD risk relative to the AhR polymorphism. Moreover, a significant difference in AhR variant distribution was observed between the four CAD subtypes with different severities. The expression level and functional polymorphisms of circulating AhR may affect the susceptibility and progression of CAD in Chinese populations. This provides a novel view of the etiology and epidemiology of CAD, and will contribute to the diagnosis and therapy of this severe disease. PMID:25620626

  3. Identification and simulation evaluation of an AH-64 helicopter hover math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Watson, D. C.; Tischler, M. B.; Eshow, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Frequency-domain parameter-identification techniques were used to develop a hover mathematical model of the AH-64 Apache helicopter from flight data. The unstable AH-64 bare-airframe characteristics without a stability-augmentation system were parameterized in the convectional stability-derivative form. To improve the model's vertical response, a simple transfer-function model approximating the effects of dynamic inflow was developed. Additional subcomponents of the vehicle were also modeled and simulated, such as a basic engine response for hover and the vehicle stick dynamic characteristics. The model, with and without stability augmentation, was then evaluated by AH-64 pilots in a moving-base simulation. It was the opinion of the pilots that the simulation was a satisfactory representation of the aircraft for the tasks of interest. The principal negative comment was that height control was more difficult in the simulation than in the aircraft.

  4. Orbital Period Investigations of Two W UMa-type Binaries: AH Aur and V728 Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Ke

    2016-04-01

    The orbital period changes of two W UMa-type binaries, AH Aur and V728 Her, are investigated based on all available times of the light minimum taken from the databases and literature. It is revealed that the orbital period of AH Aur shows a long-term decrease at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.491× {10}-7 days yr-1. For V728 Her, we find that the orbital period exhibits a secular increase at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=3.793× {10}-7 days yr-1. The secular period changes suggest that AH Aur and V728 Her are undergoing rapid mass transfer between the primary star and the secondary companion.

  5. Solution structure of the isolated histone H2A-H2B heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Yoshihito; Yamane, Tsutomu; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Kurita, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Masahiko; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Shimojo, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    During chromatin-regulated processes, the histone H2A-H2B heterodimer functions dynamically in and out of the nucleosome. Although detailed crystal structures of nucleosomes have been established, that of the isolated full-length H2A-H2B heterodimer has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the solution structure of human H2A-H2B by NMR coupled with CS-Rosetta. H2A and H2B each contain a histone fold, comprising four α-helices and two β-strands (α1-β1-α2-β2-α3-αC), together with the long disordered N- and C-terminal H2A tails and the long N-terminal H2B tail. The N-terminal αN helix, C-terminal β3 strand, and 310 helix of H2A observed in the H2A-H2B nucleosome structure are disordered in isolated H2A-H2B. In addition, the H2A α1 and H2B αC helices are not well fixed in the heterodimer, and the H2A and H2B tails are not completely random coils. Comparison of hydrogen-deuterium exchange, fast hydrogen exchange, and {(1)H}-(15)N hetero-nuclear NOE data with the CS-Rosetta structure indicates that there is some conformation in the H2A 310 helical and H2B Lys11 regions, while the repression domain of H2B (residues 27-34) exhibits an extended string-like structure. This first structure of the isolated H2A-H2B heterodimer provides insight into its dynamic functions in chromatin. PMID:27181506

  6. Solution structure of the isolated histone H2A-H2B heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yoshihito; Yamane, Tsutomu; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Kurita, Jun-ichi; Sato, Masahiko; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Shimojo, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    During chromatin-regulated processes, the histone H2A-H2B heterodimer functions dynamically in and out of the nucleosome. Although detailed crystal structures of nucleosomes have been established, that of the isolated full-length H2A-H2B heterodimer has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the solution structure of human H2A-H2B by NMR coupled with CS-Rosetta. H2A and H2B each contain a histone fold, comprising four α-helices and two β-strands (α1–β1–α2–β2–α3–αC), together with the long disordered N- and C-terminal H2A tails and the long N-terminal H2B tail. The N-terminal αN helix, C-terminal β3 strand, and 310 helix of H2A observed in the H2A-H2B nucleosome structure are disordered in isolated H2A-H2B. In addition, the H2A α1 and H2B αC helices are not well fixed in the heterodimer, and the H2A and H2B tails are not completely random coils. Comparison of hydrogen-deuterium exchange, fast hydrogen exchange, and {1H}-15N hetero-nuclear NOE data with the CS-Rosetta structure indicates that there is some conformation in the H2A 310 helical and H2B Lys11 regions, while the repression domain of H2B (residues 27–34) exhibits an extended string-like structure. This first structure of the isolated H2A-H2B heterodimer provides insight into its dynamic functions in chromatin. PMID:27181506

  7. Ah-receptor controlled luciferase expression: A novel species-specific bioassay for Ah-receptor active compounds in environmental matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Murk, A.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Koeman, J.H.; Brouwer, A.; Denison, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate especially in sediments and in top predators of the aquatic foodchain. PHAHs elicit a number of common toxic responses, which are highly species-specific. The most toxic, planar, PHAHs share a common mechanism of action mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Based on this mechanism, the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept has been developed, allowing hazard and risk assessment for mixtures of PHAHs. The TEF-approach assumes additive responses, but also synergistic and antagonistic interactions have been observed. In addition, the often large number of compounds in a mixture, low levels of individual congeners, possible presence of unknown AhR-active substances, and species differences in inducibility, ask for an comprehensive approach in hazard assessment. A number of recombinant cell lines, including Hepa1c1c7 mouse and H411E rat hepatoma cell lines, were developed, showing AhR-mediated firefly (Photinuspyralis) luciferase gene expression. The response by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the CALUX (chemical activated luciferase expression) assay with these cell lines is dose-dependent, and not subjected to substrate inhibition at higher ligand concentrations. The detection limit for 2,3,7,8-TCDD is below 1 pM (0.2 fmol). The luciferase assay has been successfully applied for monitoring the amount of AhR-active compounds in small aliquots of blood plasma and in both sediment and pore-water samples, of which examples will be presented.

  8. Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording

  9. Functional and phenotypic effects of AhR activation in inflammatory dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bankoti, Jaishree; Rase, Ben; Simones, Tom; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-07-15

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells governing T cell activation and differentiation. However, the consequences of AhR activation in DCs are not fully defined. We hypothesized that AhR activation alters DC differentiation and generates dysfunctional DCs. To test this hypothesis, inflammatory bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from C57Bl/6 mice were generated in the presence of vehicle or TCDD. TCDD decreased CD11c expression but increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD25 expression on the BMDCs. The effects of TCDD were strictly AhR-dependent but not exclusively DRE-mediated. Similar effects were observed with two natural AhR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (ITE). TCDD increased LPS- and CpG-induced IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} production by BMDCs but decreased their NO production. TCDD decreased CpG-induced IL-12p70 production by BMDCs but did not affect their secretion of IL-10. TCDD downregulated LPS- and CpG-induced NF-kB p65 levels and induced a trend towards upregulation of RelB levels in the BMDCs. AhR activation by TCDD modulated BMDC uptake of both soluble and particulate antigens. Induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-{beta}3 has been implicated in the generation of regulatory T cells following AhR activation. TCDD increased IDO1, IDO2 and TGF-{beta}3 mRNA levels in BMDCs as compared to vehicle. Despite the induction of regulatory mediators, TCDD-treated BMDCs failed to suppress antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, AhR activation can directly alter the differentiation and innate functions of inflammatory DCs without affecting their ability to successfully interact with T cells.

  10. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  11. Physical Parameters of the Overcontact Binary AH Cnc in the Old Open Cluster M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.

    2006-04-01

    We present a photometric study of the overcontact binary AH Cnc. The CCD observations were done with the Russian-Turkish 1.5 m telescope and the light-curve was solved with the Wilson-Devinney code. The physical parameters of the components have been deduced as M1 = 1.22 Msun, M2 = 0.20 Msun, R1 = 1.37 Rsun, R2 = 0.66 Rsun, L1 = 2.65 Lsun and L2 = 0.63 Lsun from the obtained orbital parameters and the distance modules of M 67. AH Cnc has been compared with similar systems in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  12. Codes and regulations governing handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmen, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    To control the hazards associated with the handling, storage, use and release of toxic gases in the manufacturing process, a number of codes and regulations have been promulgated. At the forefront of these regulations are the Uniform Fire Code (UFC), Article 51, ``Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities Using Hazardous Production Materials,'' 1985 Edition; UFC Article 80, ``Hazardous Materials,'' 1987 Revision; and the Toxic Gas Model Ordinance, California Assembly Bill 1021. Article 51 of the UFC is specific for semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities and regulates the storage, handling and use of hazardous production materials. Article 80 of the UFC has a much broader scope and incorporates requirements for prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to hazardous materials. As it applies to toxic gases, Article 80 incorporates Article 51 requirements and in addition requires treatment systems to reduce discharge concentrations and mitigate unauthorized releases of toxic gases. The Toxic Gas Model Ordinance is specific to toxic gases and regulates storage, handling and use of toxic gases at new and existing facilities incorporating monitoring and treatment systems should an unauthorized release occur. This paper will focus on these regulations as they apply to toxic gases used by the semiconductor and photovoltaics industries.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  14. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  15. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  16. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91.312... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  18. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  19. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  20. Recognizing and Dealing with Dangerous Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bove, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    When handling hazardous gases, it is necessary to know their properties, precautions that can be taken to protect workers, and proper first aid. This article gives everyday rules for handling gas cylinders, and a brief first aid guide for 12 common toxic gases and vapors. (BB)

  1. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1065.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... with calibration gases. Use gases with contamination no higher than the highest of the following values in the gas cylinder or at the outlet of a zero-gas generator: (i) 2% contamination, measured...

  2. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  3. Analysis of gases in the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenden, P. D.

    1986-05-01

    To investigate the origin and fate of natural gas in the Earth's crust, approximately 700 gas samples have been analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotopic ratios of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. During the current reporting period, helium isotope measurements confirmed the presence of mantle volatiles in the Sacramento basin, a dry gas province in northern California. Methane carbon isotope ratios and N2/Ar ratios suggest that Sacramento basin commercial gases with up to 88% nitrogen are derived from metasedimentary rocks. Studies of seep gases in Los Angeles indicate that ethane and higher hydrocarbons may be retarded during natural gas migration and the propane is selectively attacked during bacterial alteration. Carbon dioxide reduction and acetate dissimilation, the two main pathways for microbial methane formation, are characterized by different methane hydrogen isotope ratios. Hydrogen isotope ratios of methane and carbon isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and ethane help to distinguish microbial gases, thermogenic gases, and mixed gases.

  4. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.114-94 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.114-94 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the CO...) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent; and...

  8. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the...

  10. AH-Questionnaire: An Adaptive Hierarchical Questionnaire for Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…

  11. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  12. Noble gases and the early history of the Earth: Inappropriate paradigms and assumptions inhibit research and communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The development of models as tracers of nobel gases through the Earth's evolution is discussed. A new set of paradigms embodying present knowledge was developed. Several important areas for future research are: (1) measurement of the elemental and isotopic compositions of the five noble gases in a large number of terrestrial materials, thus better defining the composition and distribution of terrestrial noble gases; (2) determinations of relative diffusive behavior, chemical behavior, and the distribution between solid and melt of noble gases under mantle conditions are urgently needed; (3) disequilibrium behavior in the nebula needs investigation, and the behavior of plasmas and possible cryotrapping on cold nebular solids are considered.

  13. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K.

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  14. Gene cloning and expression analysis of AhR and CYP4 from Pinctada martensii after exposed to pyrene.

    PubMed

    Du, Junqiao; Liao, Chenghong; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiaoping; Li, Yuhu; Zheng, Pengfei; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-10-01

    Pyrene, a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a common pollutant in the marine environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons initiate cellular detoxification in an exposed organism via the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Subsequent metabolism of these xenobiotics is mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes of the phase I detoxification system. Full-length complementary DNA sequences from the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (pm) encoding AhR and cytochrome P4 were cloned. The P. martensii AhR complementary DNA sequence constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 848 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated PmAhR showed high similarity with its homologues of other bivalve species. The cytochrome P(CYP)4 complementary DNA sequence of P. martensii constitutes an open reading frame that encodes for 489 amino acids. Quantitative real-time analysis detected both PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNA expressions in the mantle, gill, hepatapancreas and adductor muscle of P. martensii exposed to pyrene. The highest transcript-band intensities of PmAhR and PmCYP4 were observed in the gill. Temporal expression of PmAhR and PmCYP4 messenger RNAs induction was observed in gills and increased between 3 and 5 days post exposure; then returned to control level. These results suggest that messenger RNAs of PmAhR and PmCYP4 in pearl oysters might be useful parameters for monitoring marine environment pyrene pollution.

  15. Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in airway epithelial cells induces MUC5AC via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Gaku; Gondo, Hisaki; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-02-01

    The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) in the airway epithelial cell line. However, the mechanism for the production of mucin has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the role and pathway of AhR in airway epithelial cells by using selective agonists and antagonists. After stimulation with or without benzopyrene (B[a]P), an AhR agonist, MUC5AC expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The mechanism of AhR-induced MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells was studied in terms of the production of cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with B[a]P increased ROS generation in NCI-H₂₉₂ cells. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced MUC5AC upregulation and mucin production were inhibited by AhR siRNA or the use of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that the AhR-induced increase of mucin production is partially mediated by ROS generation. An antioxidant therapy approach may help to cure AhR-induced mucus hypersecretory diseases. PMID:20709182

  16. Fullerenes: An extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bunch, Ted E.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we report on the discovery of naturally occurring fullerenes (C60 to C400) in the Allende and Murchison meteorites and some sediment samples from the 65 million-year-old Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer (KTB). Unlike the other pure forms of carbon (diamond and graphite), fullerenes are extractable in an organic solvent (e.g., toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The recognition of this unique property led to the detection and isolation of the higher fullerenes in the Kratschmer/Huffmann arc evaporated graphite soot and in the carbon material in the meteorite and impact deposits. By further exploiting the unique ability of the fullerene cage structure to encapsulate and retain noble gases, we have determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerenes and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin. PMID:10725367

  17. Fullerenes: an extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Poreda, R J; Bunch, T E

    2000-03-28

    In this work, we report on the discovery of naturally occurring fullerenes (C60 to C400) in the Allende and Murchison meteorites and some sediment samples from the 65 million-year-old Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer (KTB). Unlike the other pure forms of carbon (diamond and graphite), fullerenes are extractable in an organic solvent (e.g., toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The recognition of this unique property led to the detection and isolation of the higher fullerenes in the Kratschmer/Huffmann arc evaporated graphite soot and in the carbon material in the meteorite and impact deposits. By further exploiting the unique ability of the fullerene cage structure to encapsulate and retain noble gases, we have determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerenes and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin.

  18. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  19. Molecular and Chemical Analysis of the Lipopolysaccharide from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Canals, Rocío; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    A group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. veronii biovar sobria strains isolated from humans and fish have been described; these strains classified to serotype O11 are serologically related by their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (O-polysaccharide), and the presence of an S-layer consisting of multiple copies of a crystalline surface array protein with a molecular weight of 52 kDa in the form of a crystalline surface array which lies peripheral to the cell wall. A. hydrophila strain AH-1 is one of them. We isolated the LPS from this strain and determined the structure of the O-polysaccharide, which was similar to that previously described for another strain of serotype O11. The genetics of the O11-antigen showed the genes (wbO11 cluster) in two sections separated by genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer. The O11-antigen LPS is an example of an ABC-2-transporter-dependent pathway for O-antigen heteropolysaccharide (disaccharide) assembly. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of the LPS core (waaO11 cluster) were also identified in three different chromosome regions being nearly identical to the ones described for A. hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34). The genetic data and preliminary chemical analysis indicated that the LPS core for strain AH-1 is identical to the one for strain AH-3. PMID:25874921

  20. ATel 7477: Classification of PS15ahs as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic observation of transient PS15ahs (Atel #7471) at 2015-05-06T00:57:23 UT. One spectrum was obtained in the visible (400-800nm) with resolution R~350 using the SPRAT spectrograph on the Liverpool Telescope located at Roque de los Muchachos. ...

  1. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  2. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  3. RNA polymerase II cofactor PC2 facilitates activation of transcription by GAL4-AH in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, M; Stelzer, G; Roeder, R G; Meisterernst, M

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated from a crude Hela cell cofactor fraction (USA) a novel positive cofactor that cooperates with the general transcription machinery to effect efficient stimulation of transcription by GAL4-AH, a derivative of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatory factor GAL4. PC2 was shown to be a 500-kDa protein complex and to be functionally and biochemically distinct from native TFIID and previously identified cofactors. In the presence of native TFIID and other general factors, PC2 was necessary and sufficient for activation by GAL4-AH. Cofactor function was specific for transcriptional activation domains of GAL4-AH. The repressor histone H1 further potentiated but was not required for activation of transcription by GAL4-AH. On the basis of the observation that PC2 exerts entirely positive effects on transcription, we propose a model in which PC2 increases the activity of the preinitiation complex in the presence of an activator, thereby establishing a specific pathway during activation of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:8196633

  4. AH-64 monocular HMD visual assessment during urban combat in operation Iraqi freedom (OIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, J. Kevin; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2007-04-01

    In the first two decades of the fielding of the monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) flown in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, a number of studies reported a significant incidence of physical visual symptoms and illusions. In 2004, a similar study looked at the presence of these complaints during the first combat phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The study found a general trend of a reduced frequency of complaints associated with the AH-64's HMD. A follow-up study has been conducted to validate this downward trend and to investigate the impact the shift in mission role of the AH-64 from one of open-field tank hunter to one of close-quarter urban combat. Thirty-eight AH-64D pilots were asked to complete a survey questionnaire that solicited data about the presence and frequency of the visual complaints reported in previous studies. Data for physical visual symptoms and static and dynamic illusions were found not to be significantly different from frequencies reported in the previous OIF study. Both OIF studies reported headache as the prominent physical complaint with height judgment and slope estimation as the most frequently reported static illusions and with undetected drift and faulty closure judgment as the two most frequently reported dynamic illusions.

  5. Stress analysis of 27% scale model of AH-64 main rotor hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Stress analysis of an AH-64 27% scale model rotor hub was performed. Component loads and stresses were calculated based upon blade root loads and motions. The static and fatigue analysis indicates positive margins of safety in all components checked. Using the format developed here, the hub can be stress checked for future application.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced.

  7. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern.

  8. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  9. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mette S.; Holm, Elisabeth; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Pedersen, Karl; Andresen, Lars O.; Abildstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Trine H.; Larsen, Lars E.

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June–August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined. PMID:25811098

  10. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas. PMID:24565026

  11. Potentially-toxic and essential elements profile of AH1N1 patients in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Mireya; Bautista, Edgar G.; Velázquez-González, Antonio; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; García-Arreola, María Elena; Castillejos, Manuel; Hernández, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    During spring of 2009, a new influenza virus AH1N1 spread in the world causing acute respiratory illness and death, resulting in the first influenza pandemic since 1968. Blood levels of potentially-toxic and essential elements of 40 pneumonia and confirmed AH1N1 were evaluated against two different groups of controls, both not infected with the pandemic strain. Significant concentrations of potentially-toxic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic) along with deficiency of selenium or increased Zn/Cu ratios characterized AH1N1 cases under study when evaluated versus controlled cases. Deficiency of selenium is progressively observed from controls I (influenza like illness) through controls II (pneumonia) and finally pneumonia -AH1N1 infected patients. Cases with blood Se levels greater than the recommended for an optimal cut-off to activate glutathione peroxidase (12.5 μg/dL) recovered from illness and survived. Evaluation of this essential element in critical pneumonia patients at the National Institutes is under evaluation as a clinical trial. PMID:23422930

  12. Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-3 (Serotype O34).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of poikilothermic animals, from fish to mammals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the A. hydrophila AH-3 strain, isolated from a fish farm goldfish septicemia outbreak in Spain, with a characterized polar and lateral flagellum glycosylation pattern. PMID:27587828

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  14. An in vitro rainbow trout cell bioassay for AhR-mediated toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, C.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Denison, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of PCBs, dioxins, and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHS) at environmentally relevant concentrations is in large part mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Bioassays which measure the activity of genes regulated by the receptor provide an integrative measure of the total AhR-mediated toxicity of a sample. The authors have recently developed and characterized a bioassay using recombinant rainbow trout hepatoma cells containing the firefly luciferase reporter gene under the regulation of the AhR. The cell line is designated Remodulated Lightning Trout (RLT). The RLT bioassay is relevant to fish, and is useful as a rapid screening device, a guide for chemical analysis, and a tool for studies of the AhR mechanism. The responses of the RLT cell line to various PCB congeners are similar to responses of in vivo fish bioassays. The authors now report on the responses of the bioassay to dioxins, dibenzofurans, and other related compounds as compared to in vivo fish bioassays. The authors will also report on the utility of the RLT bioassay in measuring the total TEQ of complex mixtures.

  15. Development of a 10 Ah, Prismatic, Lithium-Ion Cell for NASA/GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Brian; Baker, John W.; George, Douglas S.; Isaacs, Nathan D.; Shah, Pinakin M.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    MSA's 10 Ah Li-ion cell is a rugged design suitable for the stringent requirements of aerospace applications. Eighteen cells demonstrate consistent cycling performance over a wide range of rates and temperatures. The cell passes qualification requirements for vibration survivability technology improvements at MSA continue to enhance cell performance.

  16. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  17. Human influenza A(H7N9) virus infection associated with poultry farm, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming; Huang, Biao; Wang, Ao; Deng, Liquan; Wu, Donglin; Lu, Xinrong; Zhao, Qinglong; Xu, Shuang; Havers, Fiona; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Jing; Yin, Yuan; Sun, Bingxin; Yao, Jianyi; Xiang, Nijuan

    2014-11-01

    We report on a case of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jilin Province in northeastern China. This case was associated with a poultry farm rather than a live bird market, which may point to a new focus for public health surveillance and interventions in this evolving outbreak.

  18. Novel reassortant influenza A(H5N8) viruses in domestic ducks, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Lihua; Jin, Changzhong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2014-08-01

    Domestic ducks are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and serve as reassortant hosts for new virus subtypes. We isolated 2 novel influenza A(H5N8) viruses from domestic ducks in eastern China, sequenced their genomes, and tested their pathogenicity in chickens and mice. Circulation of these viruses may pose health risks for humans.

  19. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

  20. French Experience of 2009 A/H1N1v Influenza in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dubar, Grégory; Azria, Elie; Tesnière, Antoine; Dupont, Hervé; Le Ray, Camille; Baugnon, Thomas; Matheron, Sophie; Luton, Dominique; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Launay, Odile; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Background The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. Methodology/Principal Findings A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes), 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes), and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes). The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%), notably the severe patients (70%), were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28%) were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–11.8) and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days) (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9–12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4–261.3, respectively). Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14%) were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. Conclusions This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the benefit of

  1. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems: Their Origin, Magnitude, and Dependence on the Processing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. Their presence may affect techniques requiring low pressures and affect the crystal quality in different ways. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases may be important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical study includes degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from various source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  2. Collisions of ions in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, T. L.

    1982-03-01

    This report is a summary description of research carried out under the ONR Project 'Collisions of Ions in Gases'. The work consisted of experimental studies of collisions of low-energy ions (4 < or = E sub L < or = 500 eV) with atoms and molecules, using the ion-beam gas-target technique, and of theoretical and computational studies done in support of the experiments. Three types of experiments were carried out: (a) measurements of relative differential cross-sections for elastic and inelastic (i.e., charge transfer) scattering in collisions of the He(++) ions with Ne, Ar, and Kr atoms, over the ion energy range 8 < or = E sub L < or = 60 eV; (b) kinematical studies of charge transfer in collisions of 30 < or = E sub L < or = 373 eV Ne(+), Ar(+), and Kr(+) ions with H2, D2, O2, and N2 molecules, in which the KE-distributions of the product H2(+), etc., were measured; and (c) measurements of the absolute total cross-sections for the charge transfer process He(++) + R = He(+) + R(+), where R = Ne, Ar, Kr, over the energy range 4 < or = E sub L < or = 500 eV. The experimental results, and their interpretations in terms of appropriate quantum scattering theory (where the latter was feasible) are discussed briefly. The effects of the thermal motions of collision participants (i.e., thermal broadening) in ion-atom and similar scattering experiments were investigated in computational studies, and a new crossed ion-supersonic atom/molecule beams apparatus, designed to remove the thermal broadening effect and to give high resolution in energy and angle, is discussed.

  3. AH Cam: A metal-rich RR Lyrae star with the shortest known Blazhko period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Horace A.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Lee, Kevin M.; Williams, Jeffrey; Silbermann, N. A.; Bolte, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 746 new V-band observations of the RR Lyrae star AH Cam obtained during 1989 - 1992 clearly show that its light curve cannot be described by a single period. In fact, at first glance, the Fourier spectrum of the photometry resembles that of a double-mode pulsator, with peaks at a fundamental period of 0.3686 d and an apparent secondary period of 0.2628 d. Nevertheless, the dual-mode solution is a poor fit to the data. Rather, we believe that AH Cam is a single-mode RR Lyrae star undergoing the Blazhko effect: periodic modulation of the amplitude and shape of its light curve. What was originally taken to be the period of the second mode is instead the 1-cycle/d alias of a modulation sidelobe in the Fourier spectrum. The data are well described by a modulation period of just under 11 d, which is the shortest Blazhko period reported to date in the literature and confirms the earlier suggestion by Goranskii. A low-resolution spectrum of AH Cam indicates that it is relatively metal rich, with delta-S less than or = 2. Its high metallicity and short modulation period may provide a critical test of at least one theory for the Blazhko effect. Moskalik's internal resonance model makes specific predictions of the growth rate of the fundamental model vs fundamental period. AH Cam falls outside the regime of other known Blazhko variables and resonance model predictions, but these are appropriate for metal-poor RR Lyrae stars. If the theory matches the behavior of AH Cam for a metal-rich stellar model, this would bolster the resonance hypothesis.

  4. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Wei; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Zijian

    2010-05-01

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333microg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The expressions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100microg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  5. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  6. Ultrasonic propagation in gases at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, C.; Carnevale, E. H.; Lynworth, L. C.; Uva, S.

    1970-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse method /1 to 3 MHz/ measures both sound speed and absorption in monatomic and polyatomic gases in a temperature range of 300 to 20000 degrees K at atmospheric pressure. Helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are investigated.

  7. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  8. Quantum Polarization Spectroscopy of Ultracold Spinor Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, K.; Zawitkowski, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.; Polzik, E. S.

    2007-03-09

    We propose a method for the detection of ground state quantum phases of spinor gases through a series of two quantum nondemolition measurements performed by sending off-resonant, polarized light pulses through the gas. Signatures of various mean-field as well as strongly correlated phases of F=1 and F=2 spinor gases obtained by detecting quantum fluctuations and mean values of polarization of transmitted light are identified.

  9. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  10. Nonhydrodynamic Transport in Trapped Unitary Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jasmine; Romatschke, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes. We review nonhydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge-gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data we find hints of nonhydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  11. Source gases: Concentrations, emissions, and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, Paul J.; Harriss, Robert; Penkett, Stuart A.; Makide, Yoshihiro; Sanhueza, Eugenio; Alyea, Fred N.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Don; Sasaki, Toru; Cunnold, Derek M.

    1991-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that influence levels of stratospheric ozone (O3) by transporting species containing halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen to the stratosphere. Examples are the CFC's, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Other source gases that also come under consideration in an atmospheric O3 context are those that are involved in the O3 or hydroxyl (OH) radical chemistry of the troposphere. Examples are CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC's). Most of the source gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O), are climatically significant and thus affect stratospheric O3 levels by their influence on stratospheric temperatures. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) could affect stratospheric O3 through maintenance of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer, which may be involved in heterogeneous chlorine-catalyzed O3 destruction. The previous reviews of trends and emissions of source gases, either from the context of their influence on atmospheric O3 or global climate change, are updated. The current global abundances and concentration trends of the trace gases are given in tabular format.

  12. Abiotic uptake of gases by organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    Methodological and experimental studies of the abiotic uptake of gaseous substances by organic soils were performed. The static adsorption method of closed vessels for assessing the interaction of gases with the solid and liquid soil phases and the dynamic method of determining the sorption isotherms of gases by soils were analyzed. The theoretical substantiation of the methods and their practical implementations on the basis of a PGA-7 portable gas analyzer (Russia) were considered. Good agreement between the equilibrium sorption isotherms of the gases and the Langmuir model was revealed; for the real ranges of natural gas concentrations, this model can be reduced to the linear Henry equation. The limit values of the gas sorption (Langmuir monolayer capacity) are typical for dry samples; they vary from 670 4000 g/m3 for methane and oxygen to 20 000 25 000 g/m3 for carbon dioxide. The linear distribution coefficients of gases between the solid and gas phases of organic soils (Henry constants) are 8 18 units for poorly sorbed gases (O2, CH4) and 40 60 units for CO2. The kinetics of the chemicophysical uptake of gases by the soil studied is linear in character and obeys the relaxation kinetic model of the first order with the corresponding relaxation constants, which vary from 1 h -1 in wet samples to 10 h -1 in dry samples.

  13. Structure of Inert Gases Adsorbed in MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Dylan; Sokol, Paul

    One-dimensional quantum liquids of 3He or 4He have generated recent interest for investigation in the Luttinger liquid model. Unfortunately, current studies lack a clear demonstration of definitively one-dimensional behavior. We propose using the templated, porous material, MCM-41, as a host for an atomic Luttinger liquid. In general, the pores of MCM-41 are too wide to provide a strictly one-dimensional environment, so we investigate preplating these pores with inert gases to effectively reduce their diameter. We present the results of studies of the structure of inert gases in MCM-41. Nitrogen sorption isotherms were used to characterize the sample. Then, using inert gases as adsorbates, we determined the minimum effective pore diameter that can be achieved in our sample before capillary condensation takes over. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was performed on the ideally preplated sample to investigate the structure of the adsorbates in the nanopores. The XRD measurements are compared to simulations of core-shell cylinder model scattering, and the validity of the model is assessed. The prospects for creating a definitively one-dimensional channel for the application of studying the structure and dynamics of helium confined in one dimension are discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DGE-1069091.

  14. Solar Noble Gases from ACFER 111 Metal Etched in Vacuo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroni, A.; Begemann, F.

    1992-07-01

    Regolith grains dissolved by stepwise etching release a mixture of near-surface implanted Solar Wind gases (SW) and a deeper- sited, isotopically heavier component attributed to Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) (1,2,3). In all regolith materials examined so far the elemental abundance ratios in both components are distinctly different from the canonical solar values (4). The differences are generally explained to be owing to diffusive elemental fractionation although there is no strong evidence that upon their implantation the composition of the gases was indeed solar. In contrast, the solar noble gases present in the H3-H6 chondritic regolith breccia Acfer 111 appear to be nearly unfractionated and thus offer a unique chance for more accurate analyses. A magnetic fraction of Acfer 111 matrix, consisting of approx. 80% metal and 20% silicates, was etched with a 60 g/mol aqueous solution of HNO3 in a high-vacuum extraction line similar to that in (1). The gases released were drawn off in steps and analyzed; the experiment was stopped when ~97% of the metal and ~50% of the silicates were dissolved. As etching proceeds, the isotopic composition of the released gases changes in a pattern similar to that observed previously in other regolithic materials. The isotopic composition of solar neon decreases from ^20Ne/^22Ne=13.1 in the first step to ^20Ne/^22Ne=11.6, which can be interpreted as a change of the mixing ratio of SW (^20Ne/^22Ne=13.7) and SEP (^20Ne/^22Ne=11.3) neon. The isotopic compositions of solar He, Ar, and Kr are consistent with their also being mixtures of SW and SEP having compositions reported previously (2,3), although our data are compromised to some extent by the presence of planetary gases extracted from the silicates and, in the first steps, by atmospheric contamination probably present in terrestrial weathering products (mostly rust). The elemental composition of noble gases released from Acfer 111 was distinct from previous experiments: The (^4He

  15. Solar wind record in the lunar regolith - Nitrogen and noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, Urs; Becker, Richard H.; Pepin, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    The measured elemental and isotopic abundances of noble gases and nitrogen have been measured in five different samples of lunar regolith material. It was found noble gases liberated by chemical attack on grain surfaces from two of the samples were solar. The Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio in the two grain surface reservoir is 13.5-13.6, compared to the average value of 13.7 + or - 0.3 measured in the Apollo solar wind collection foils (Gochsler and Geiss, 1977). It is suggested that the noble gases in grain interiors have suffered severe mass fractionation. The surface-sited N/Ar in an ilmenite sample exceeds the predicted solar ratio by more than a factor of 10. It is concluded that the solar system abundances of Cameron (1982) describe the elemental composition of the noble gases in the solar wind very well.

  16. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  17. The immune phenotype of AhR null mouse mutants: not a simple mirror of xenobiotic receptor over-activation.

    PubMed

    Esser, Charlotte

    2009-02-15

    Intrinsic and induced cell differentiation and the cellular response to endogenous and exogenous signals are hallmarks of the immune system. Specific and common signalling cascades ensure a highly flexible and adapted response. Increasing evidence suggests that gene modulation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is an important part of these processes. For decades the AhR has been studied mainly for its toxic effects after artificial activation by man-made chemical pollutants such as dioxins. These studies gave important, albeit to some extent skewed, evidence for a mechanistic link between the AhR and the immune system. AhR null mutants and other mutants of the AhR signalling pathway have been generated and used to analyse the physiological function of the AhR, including for the developing and antigen-responding immune system. In this review I look at the natural immunological function(s) of the AhR.

  18. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  19. Suggestions to the media to help us cope with the A/H7N9 crisis in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-04-01

    The A/H7N9 avian influenza virus sparked global concerns about public health. The media published numerous reports about emerging infectious diseases, including their clinical characteristics and genomic information. However, outbreaks of A/H7N9 posed a real challenge to China's emergency management and especially its dealing with the media. This study analyzes ways to deal with the media during A/H7N9 crises and it proposes a shift in public emergency management from an "Impact-Responsive" approach to a "Prevention-Active" approach. A "Prevention-Active" approach should be used when dealing with the media during subsequent outbreaks.

  20. MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.

    1960-01-26

    A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

  1. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Awoume, Félix; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequenced and harbored 8 genes similar to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genes circulating in humans in 2012–2013, suggesting human-to-swine transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25778544

  2. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of AH-7921 Into Schedule I. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-04-14

    With the issuance of this final order, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places the substance AH-7921 (Systematic IUPAC Name: 3,4-dichloro-N-[(1dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide), including its isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act and is required in order for the United States to discharge its obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. This action imposes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, import, export, engage in research or conduct instructional activities with, or possess), or propose to handle, AH-7921. PMID:27101639

  3. Detecting Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Ah Receptor and Fluorescence Quantitative PCR with Exonuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2010-11-01

    Tetrachlorobiphenyls as ligands were cultivated with goldfish, Ah receptors were extracted from the liver of goldfish and purified by hydroxyapatite. The complex of TCB ligands-receptors were analyzed by Surface Plasmon Resonance. DNA probes were amplified by PCR using Primers F1 and F2 with the DNA recognition site of responsive enhancer. DNA probes bound to the complex were not digested by exonuclease. The DNA that bound to the complex was quantified by real time PCR. A standard curve with TCB concentration to Ct values was obtained in the range of 10-12mol/L to 10-8 mol/L, according to TCB concentration in samples. The detection limit of the assay was below 10-12mol/L of TCB. Compared with HPLC, this assay is much more sensitive. These results suggest that fluorescence quantitative PCR with exonuclease by Ah receptors fits for detection of trace PCB.

  4. El Chichon - Composition of plume gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotra, J. P.; Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft measurements were made of trace gases, atmospheric particles, and condensed acid volatiles in the plume of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, in November 1982. Hydrogen sulfide was the primary gaseous sulfur species in the plume at the time of collection. Concentrations of 28 elements were determined by neutron activation analysis of particulate material from the plume. The volatile elements sulfur, chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, antimony, iodine, tungsten, and mercury were enriched relative to bulk pyroclastic material by factors of 60 to 20,000. Arsenic, antimony, and selenium were associated predominantly with small (not greater than 3 micrometer) particles. Calcium and sodium were present almost exclusively on larger particles and aluminum and manganese were bimodally distributed. Ashladen particulate material injected into the stratosphere during the early violent eruptions was enriched by factors of 10 to 30 relative to ash in some of the same elements observed in the quiescent plume.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.70 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compressed gases. 50-204... Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.70 Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  14. Pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Kim, Eun-Ha; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Choi, Eun-Ji; Si, Young-Jae; Lee, Ok-Jun; Shim, Woo-Sub; Kim, Si-Wook; Mo, In-Pil; Bae, Yeonji; Lim, Yong Taik; Sung, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Choi, Young Ki

    2014-10-01

    The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is imperative that their pathobiological properties be examined. Here, we characterized A/mallard duck/Korea/W452/2014 (MDk/W452(H5N8)), a representative virus, and evaluated its pathogenic and pandemic potential in various animal models. We found that MDk/W452(H5N8), which originated from the reassortment of wild bird viruses harbored by migratory waterfowl in eastern China, replicated systemically and was lethal in chickens, but appeared to be attenuated, albeit efficiently transmitted, in ducks. Despite predominant attachment to avian-like virus receptors, MDk/W452(H5N8) also exhibited detectable human virus-like receptor binding and replicated in human respiratory tract tissues. In mice, MDk/W452(H5N8) was moderately pathogenic and had limited tissue tropism relative to previous HPAI A(H5N1) viruses. It also induced moderate nasal wash titers in inoculated ferrets; additionally, it was recovered in extrapulmonary tissues and one of three direct-contact ferrets seroconverted without shedding. Moreover, domesticated cats appeared to be more susceptible than dogs to virus infection. With their potential to become established in ducks, continued circulation of A(H5N8) viruses could alter the genetic evolution of pre-existing avian poultry strains. Overall, detailed virological investigation remains a necessity given the capacity of H5 viruses to evolve to cause human illness with few changes in the viral genome. PMID:26038499

  15. Cellular responses to oxidative stress: The (Ah) gene battery as a paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Nebert, D.W.; Petersen, D.D.; Fornace, A.J. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    A major source of oxidative stress in animals is plant stress metabolites, also termed phytoalexins. The aromatic hydrocarbon-responsive (Ah) gene battery is considered here as a model system in which the authors can study metabolically coordinated enzymes that respond to phytoalexin-induced oxidative stress. In the mouse, the (Ah) battery comprises at least six genes: two Phase I genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2; and four Phase II genes, Nmo-1, Aldh-1, Ugt-1, and Gt-1. All six genes appear to be regulated positively by inducers such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other ligands of the Ah receptor. The radiation deletion homozygote c{sup 14CoS}/c{sup 14CoS} mouse is lacking about 1.1 centiMorgans of chromosome 7. Although having no detectable CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 activation, the untreated c{sup 14CoS}/c{sup 14CoS} mouse exhibits markedly elevated transcripts of the Nmo-1 gene and three growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible (gadd) genes. These data suggest that the missing region on chromosome 7 in the c{sup 14Cos}/c{sup 14CoS} mouse contains a gene(s), which they propose to call Nmo-1n, encoding a trans-acting factor(s) that is a negative effector of the Nmo-1 and gadd genes. The three other (Ah) battery Phase II genes behave similarly to Nmo-1 in the c{sup 14CoS}/c{sup 14CoS} mouse. This coordinated response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, by way of the release of a mammalian battery of genes from negative control, bears an interesting resemblance to the SOS response in bacteria.

  16. Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Isolated from Bactrian Camel, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Yondon, Myagmarsukh; Zayat, Batsukh; Nelson, Martha I.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; White, Sarah K.; Wentworth, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Because little is known about the ecology of influenza viruses in camels, 460 nasal swab specimens were collected from healthy (no overt illness) Bactrian camels in Mongolia during 2012. One specimen was positive for influenza A virus (A/camel/Mongolia/335/2012[H3N8]), which is phylogenetically related to equine influenza A(H3N8) viruses and probably represents natural horse-to-camel transmission. PMID:25418532

  17. Pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Kim, Eun-Ha; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Choi, Eun-Ji; Si, Young-Jae; Lee, Ok-Jun; Shim, Woo-Sub; Kim, Si-Wook; Mo, In-Pil; Bae, Yeonji; Lim, Yong Taik; Sung, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Choi, Young Ki

    2014-01-01

    The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is imperative that their pathobiological properties be examined. Here, we characterized A/mallard duck/Korea/W452/2014 (MDk/W452(H5N8)), a representative virus, and evaluated its pathogenic and pandemic potential in various animal models. We found that MDk/W452(H5N8), which originated from the reassortment of wild bird viruses harbored by migratory waterfowl in eastern China, replicated systemically and was lethal in chickens, but appeared to be attenuated, albeit efficiently transmitted, in ducks. Despite predominant attachment to avian-like virus receptors, MDk/W452(H5N8) also exhibited detectable human virus-like receptor binding and replicated in human respiratory tract tissues. In mice, MDk/W452(H5N8) was moderately pathogenic and had limited tissue tropism relative to previous HPAI A(H5N1) viruses. It also induced moderate nasal wash titers in inoculated ferrets; additionally, it was recovered in extrapulmonary tissues and one of three direct-contact ferrets seroconverted without shedding. Moreover, domesticated cats appeared to be more susceptible than dogs to virus infection. With their potential to become established in ducks, continued circulation of A(H5N8) viruses could alter the genetic evolution of pre-existing avian poultry strains. Overall, detailed virological investigation remains a necessity given the capacity of H5 viruses to evolve to cause human illness with few changes in the viral genome. PMID:26038499

  18. Relationship between Ah receptor-mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced humoral immunosuppression and thymic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L

    1985-12-01

    Thymic atrophy and humoral immunosuppression by certain polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice. We examined the relationship between these two toxic effects. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), which causes immunosuppression and thymic atrophy, and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl, which causes immunosuppression without thymic atrophy, were administered i.p. to C57BL/6 mice at 0, 35 and 350 mumol/kg b.wt. 2 days before i.v. immunization with 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Both congeners caused significant suppression of the day 4 anti-lipopolysaccharide plaque-forming cell response/spleen (less than or equal to 46% of control). TCB (350 mumol/kg) was also administered 2 days before either a primary or secondary i.p. immunization with sheep erythrocytes. TCB treatment before primary immunization had no effects on the day 5 secondary response, whereas treatment before the secondary immunization significantly inhibited both day 5 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G plaque-forming cells (less than 10 and less than 2% of control, respectively) and decreased serum antibody. TCB administered either 8 or 2 days before or 2 or 4 days after immunization with sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that significant suppression of both plaque-forming cells and serum antibody could occur without thymic atrophy. Immunity was most impaired when TCB was given 2 days before immunization. These results demonstrate that thymic atrophy does not always accompany the severe immunosuppression caused by Ah receptor ligands and suggests that it may not be a sensitive measure of Ah receptor-mediated immunosuppression. The data also suggests that differentiation of B lymphocytes into antibody producing cells is impaired during Ah receptor-mediated gene activation.

  19. Influenza A(H5N8) virus isolation in Russia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Susloparov, Ivan M; Kolosova, Nataliya P; Goncharova, Nataliya I; Shipovalov, Andrey V; Durymanov, Alexander G; Ilyicheva, Tatyana N; Budatsirenova, Lubov V; Ivanova, Valentina K; Ignatyev, Georgy A; Ershova, Svetlana N; Tulyahova, Valeriya S; Mikheev, Valeriy N; Ryzhikov, Alexander B

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the isolation of influenza A(H5N8) virus from a Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) in Sakha Republic of the Russian Far East. The strain A/wigeon/Sakha/1/2014 (H5N8) has been shown to be pathogenic for mammals. It is similar to the strains that caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry in Southeast Asia and Europe in 2014.

  20. Influenza A(H5N8) virus isolation in Russia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Susloparov, Ivan M; Kolosova, Nataliya P; Goncharova, Nataliya I; Shipovalov, Andrey V; Durymanov, Alexander G; Ilyicheva, Tatyana N; Budatsirenova, Lubov V; Ivanova, Valentina K; Ignatyev, Georgy A; Ershova, Svetlana N; Tulyahova, Valeriya S; Mikheev, Valeriy N; Ryzhikov, Alexander B

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the isolation of influenza A(H5N8) virus from a Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) in Sakha Republic of the Russian Far East. The strain A/wigeon/Sakha/1/2014 (H5N8) has been shown to be pathogenic for mammals. It is similar to the strains that caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry in Southeast Asia and Europe in 2014. PMID:26306756

  1. Cellular responses to oxidative stress: the [Ah] gene battery as a paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Nebert, D W; Petersen, D D; Fornace, A J

    1990-01-01

    A major source of oxidative stress in animals is plant stress metabolites, also termed phytoalexins. The aromatic hydrocarbon-responsive [Ah] gene battery is considered here as a model system in which we can study metabolically coordinated enzymes that respond to phytoalexin-induced oxidative stress. In the mouse, the [Ah] battery comprises at least six genes: two Phase I genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2; and four Phase II genes, Nmo-1, Aldh-1, Ugt-1, and Gt-1. All six genes appear to be regulated positively by inducers such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other ligands of the Ah receptor. In the absence of foreign inducer, the control of Nmo-1 gene expression is independent of the control of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 gene expression. The radiation deletion homozygote c14CoS/c14CoS mouse is lacking about 1.1 centiMorgans of chromosome 7. Although having no detectable CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 activation, the untreated c14CoS/c14CoS mouse exhibits markedly elevated transcripts of the Nmo-1 gene and three growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible (gadd) genes. These data suggest that the missing region on chromosome 7 in the c14CoS/c14CoS mouse contains a gene(s), which we propose to call Nmo-1n, encoding a trans-acting factor(s) that is a negative effector of the Nmo-1 and gadd genes. The three other [Ah] battery Phase II genes behave similarly to Nmo-1 in the c14CoS/c14CoS mouse. This coordinated response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, by way of the release of a mammalian battery of genes from negative control, bears an interesting resemblance to the SOS response in bacteria. PMID:2272308

  2. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  3. Sinulolides A-H, new cyclopentenone and butenolide derivatives from soft coral Sinularia sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wei, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingxia; Lin, Xiuping; Liu, Juan; Liao, Shengrong; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Wang, Lishu; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-10-01

    Eight new compounds, sinulolides A-H (1-8), along with two known compounds, α-methoxy-2,3-dimethyl-butenolide (9) and sinularone D (10), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations were determined on the basis of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis. Compounds 5 and 10 exhibited moderate effects for the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  4. Squishy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habdas, Piotr; Weeks, Eric R.; Lynn, David G.

    2006-05-01

    Most people do not realize that many substances they use in the kitchen and the bathroom are not simple liquids or solids. Everyone is familiar with three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. However, creams, shampoo, toothpaste, and ketchup all have properties of both liquids and solids. This paper describes demonstrations and laboratory exercises1 that show intriguing properties of squishy substances, defined as materials that are not unambiguously solid, liquid, or gas. Unlike some areas of physics, the concepts behind squishy materials are understandable even by beginning students. Squishy physics can be used to show physics questions arising from everyday life and to convey the excitement of current research.

  5. Renal AH Amyloidosis Associated With a Truncated Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Undetectable by Immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Shun; Hatano, Michiyasu; Yazaki, Masahide; Nitta, Kosaku; Nagata, Michio

    2015-12-01

    AH amyloidosis is a rare type of amyloidosis caused by deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain. The key diagnostic feature is positive immunostaining for a single class of immunoglobulin heavy chain. We report a case of AH amyloidosis with immunoglobulin G (IgG) λ monoclonal gammopathy that was diagnosed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after immunostaining of renal tissue for immunoglobulin heavy chain gave negative results. The molecular weight of the purified renal amyloid protein was ∼11kDa, which was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis to correspond to an amino acid sequence comprising the variable region and a truncated portion of the constant region of IgG heavy chain. The exact same truncated heavy chain was detected by LC-MS/MS of a protein isolated from the patient's serum, suggesting that the truncated serum protein was the precursor of the amyloid protein. Because antibodies to immunoglobulin heavy chain recognize the Fc portion, the large deletion in the constant region could explain the negative results upon immunostaining. Direct protein detection by LC-MS/MS is a powerful aid to diagnose renal AH amyloidosis, particularly when the findings of immunoglobulin staining are inconsistent with the background monoclonal gammopathy.

  6. Adaptation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in experimental mouse models.

    PubMed

    Prokopyeva, E A; Sobolev, I A; Prokopyev, M V; Shestopalov, A M

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, three mouse-adapted variants of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were obtained by lung-to-lung passages of BALB/c, C57BL/6z and CD1 mice. The significantly increased virulence and pathogenicity of all of the mouse-adapted variants induced 100% mortality in the adapted mice. Genetic analysis indicated that the increased virulence of all of the mouse-adapted variants reflected the incremental acquisition of several mutations in PB2, PB1, HA, NP, NA, and NS2 proteins. Identical amino acid substitutions were also detected in all of the mouse-adapted variants of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, including PB2 (K251R), PB1 (V652A), NP (I353V), NA (I106V, N248D) and NS1 (G159E). Apparently, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus easily adapted to the host after serial passages in the lungs, inducing 100% lethality in the last experimental group. However, cross-challenge revealed that not all adapted variants are pathogenic for different laboratory mice. Such important results should be considered when using the influenza mice model.

  7. Adaptation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in experimental mouse models.

    PubMed

    Prokopyeva, E A; Sobolev, I A; Prokopyev, M V; Shestopalov, A M

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, three mouse-adapted variants of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were obtained by lung-to-lung passages of BALB/c, C57BL/6z and CD1 mice. The significantly increased virulence and pathogenicity of all of the mouse-adapted variants induced 100% mortality in the adapted mice. Genetic analysis indicated that the increased virulence of all of the mouse-adapted variants reflected the incremental acquisition of several mutations in PB2, PB1, HA, NP, NA, and NS2 proteins. Identical amino acid substitutions were also detected in all of the mouse-adapted variants of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, including PB2 (K251R), PB1 (V652A), NP (I353V), NA (I106V, N248D) and NS1 (G159E). Apparently, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus easily adapted to the host after serial passages in the lungs, inducing 100% lethality in the last experimental group. However, cross-challenge revealed that not all adapted variants are pathogenic for different laboratory mice. Such important results should be considered when using the influenza mice model. PMID:26829383

  8. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  9. Human Antibody Responses to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Xi; Ren, Lili; Yu, Xuelian; Chen, Lijuan; Zhou, Hongli; Gao, Xin; Teng, Zheng; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Jiayu; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Xia; Zhu, Yiyi; Wang, Quanyi; Pang, Xinghuo; Jin, Qi; Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20–80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to achieve protective immunity. PMID:24447423

  10. Long life 80Ah standard IPV NiH2 battery cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armantrout, Jon D.; Waller, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    A standard Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) battery cell is needed to meet future low cost, high performance mission requirements for NASA, military, and civil space programs. A common or standard cell design has evolved from the heritage of HST, Milstar, and other Air Force Mantech cell designs with substantial flight experience, while incorporating some of the historical COMSAT cell design features described in a previous NASA publication. Key features include slurry process nickel electrodes having high strength, long life and high yield (lower cost), and dual layer zircar separators for improved KOH retention, uniformality, and longer life. The cell design will have a zirconium oxide wall wick inside the pressure vessel to redistribute electrolyte and extend life. The slurry electrode will be 35 mils thick to take advantage of qualified cell mechanical configurations and proven assembly and activation techniques developed by Eagle Picher Industries (EPI) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) RNH-90-3 and 'Generic HST' RNH-90-5 cell designs with back-to-back nickel electrodes produced by the dry sinter process. The 80Ah common cell design can be scaled to meet capacity requirements from 60Ah to 100Ah. Producibility, commonality, and long life performance will be enhanced with the robust cell design described herein.

  11. A generalized dynamic balancing procedure for the AH-64 tail rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Newkirk, Mark C.

    2009-09-01

    The tail rotors on the AH-64A Apache and AH-64D Longbow Apache incorporate a unique design, which includes two, two-bladed teetering rotors that have an azimuth spacing of 55°, instead of the more usual 90°. Maintainers have observed that some Apache tail rotors can be extraordinarily difficult to balance dynamically. This investigation uses RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) numerical simulations of tail rotor response when mass is added to the tips of single and adjacent blades to investigate possible causes for this balancing difficulty. The simulations show that the 1/rev, vertical, vibratory force response due to added tip mass varies as a function of the mass distribution between two adjacent blades, and the azimuth spacing between the two blades. As a result, the tail rotor balance sensitivity coefficients, if used as for a single blade, will be inaccurate; and may be a prime contributor to the problems observed while balancing tail rotors. An analytical model of the AH-64D tail rotor, with characteristics similar to the RCAS model, and which incorporates the influence of structural impedance through the balance sensitivity coefficients and phase angles, is used to develop a method for accurately determining the amount of tip mass required to reduce the 1/rev vibrations to acceptable levels.

  12. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mark A.; Davis, Sonnet S.; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M.; Mitchell, Kylie P.; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y.; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H.; Hubbard, Troy D.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2′-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice. PMID:27364765

  13. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  14. A Newly Emerged Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Dampens Host Antiviral Immunity but Induces Potent Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weiping; Mishina, Margarita; Ranjan, Priya; De La Cruz, Juan A; Kim, Jin Hyang; Garten, Rebecca; Kumar, Amrita; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Katz, Jacqueline M; Gangappa, Shivaprakash; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2015-12-15

    We compared the innate immune response to a newly emerged swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant containing the M gene from 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), termed "A(H3N2)vpM," to the immune responses to the 2010 swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant and seasonal influenza A(H3N2). Our results demonstrated that A(H3N2)vpM-induced myeloid dendritic cells secreted significantly lower levels of type I interferon (IFN) but produced significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and induced potent inflammasome activation. The reduction in antiviral immunity with increased inflammatory responses upon A(H3N2)vpM infection suggest that these viruses have the potential for increased disease severity in susceptible hosts. PMID:26068782

  15. The Life of Jorjani: One of the Persian Pioneers of Medical Encyclopedia Compiling: On the Occasion of His 1000th Birthday Anniversary (434, A.H. - 1434, A.H.)

    PubMed Central

    Moattar, Fariborz; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Seyyed Esmaeil Jorjani is one of the most prominent pioneers and scientists of Islamic and Iranian traditional medicine in the 11th and 12th centuries (4th and 5th centuries A.H.). The number of his books is not certainly clear, but it is signified that he has written a couple of great books concerning medicine for Persians and too many treatises in such fields as philosophy, theology, medical ethics, human anatomy, chemistry, pharmacy and other sciences. His most famous and important book is “Zakhireh Khwarazmshahi” or “The Treasure of King Khwarazm”, which is really a complete and valuable medical encyclopedia in Persian language. Materials and Methods In the present study, authors have attempted to state the life and time of Jorjani and his views by studying the history, old medical sources, and other provided recent medical literature in these fields. Results The biography of Hakim Jorjani has been well reviewed and described precisely. Conclusions Based on our findings, it is clear that Jorjani described and explained the symptoms, signs and treatments of several diseases, introduced the activities of various medicinal plants, and compound formulations. He achieved all of this during his continuous visits to prestigious medical centers and famous people of his time. PMID:24616781

  16. HealthLines: Quick Tips for Seasonal Health, Safety and Fun... "Ah, when the sun beats down…"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photo courtesy of Vitality Communications "Ah, when the sun beats down …" The National Cancer Institute estimates there ... prevent skin cancer is to guard against the sun. For children, it's especially important from an early ...

  17. Identification of Amino Acid Substitutions Supporting Antigenic Change of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koel, Björn F.; Mögling, Ramona; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Fraaij, Pieter L.; Burke, David F.; van der Vliet, Stefan; de Wit, Emmie; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smith, Derek J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of currently circulating influenza A(H1N1) viruses are antigenically similar to the virus that caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. However, antigenic variants are expected to emerge as population immunity increases. Amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin protein can result in escape from neutralizing antibodies, affect viral fitness, and change receptor preference. In this study, we constructed mutants with substitutions in the hemagglutinin of A/Netherlands/602/09 in an attenuated backbone to explore amino acid changes that may contribute to emergence of antigenic variants in the human population. Our analysis revealed that single substitutions affecting the loop that consists of amino acid positions 151 to 159 located adjacent to the receptor binding site caused escape from ferret and human antibodies elicited after primary A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. The majority of these substitutions resulted in similar or increased replication efficiency in vitro compared to that of the virus carrying the wild-type hemagglutinin and did not result in a change of receptor preference. However, none of the substitutions was sufficient for escape from the antibodies in sera from individuals that experienced both seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus infections. These results suggest that antibodies directed against epitopes on seasonal A(H1N1) viruses contribute to neutralization of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigenic variants, thereby limiting the number of possible substitutions that could lead to escape from population immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin protein can result in escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. This allows the virus to reinfect individuals that have acquired immunity to previously circulating strains through infection or vaccination. To date, the vast majority of A(H1N1)pdm09 strains remain antigenically similar to the virus

  18. Bromine-containing source gases during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, P. ); Borchers, R.; Kourtidis, K. )

    1994-06-22

    The authors report three different vertical profile measurements of three bromine containing gases which are thought to be the major sources of active bromine in the stratosphere. These gases are CBrClF[sub 2] (Halon-1211), CBrF[sub 3] (Halon-1301) and methyl bromide (CH[sub 3]Br). They were sampled using cryogenic samplers from balloon borne flights from Kiruna during January, February and March 1992. The two halons are of anthropogenic origin, while methyl bromide is thought to have a relatively large natural origin. Consistent with the decrease in concentration of these gases with altitude was an increase in the density of BrO[sub x] with altitude.

  19. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  20. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    AGAGE comprises continuous high frequency in-situ gas chromatographic FID/ECD measurements of two biogenic/anthropogenic gases (CH4, N2O) and five anthropogenic gases (CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, CF2ClCFCl2, CCl4) which are carried out at five globally distributed sites (Ireland, California, Barbados, Samoa, Tasmania). Also, high frequency in-situ gas-chromatographic mass spectrometric measurements of about 30 species including chlorofluorocarbon replacements and many natural halocarbons are made at two sites (Ireland, Tasmania), and will soon begin at the other three sites. Finally, high frequency in-situ gas chromatographic HgO-RD measurements of CO and H2 are performed at two sites (Ireland, Tasmania). The goal is quantitative determination of the sources, sinks, and circulation of these environmentally important gases.

  1. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-12-12

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as {radical}(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  2. Rare gases in cyclosilicates and cogenetic minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Dragon, J. C.; Zashu, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclosilicate minerals, beryl, tourmaline, and cordierite, typically contain large amounts of He-4 and Ar-40 which are not in situ radiogenic products. In the study of excess rare gases in cyclosilicates, one of the most enigmatic observations is the age effect, a qualitative tendency for geologically older samples to contain more excess He-4 and Ar-40 than younger samples. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the abundance and isotopic composition of all five rare gases in a number of cyclosilicates as well as in their cogenetic minerals. The significance of the obtained data is discussed. The data indicate that cyclosilicates sample the rare gases present in the environment in which they crystallize. This 'sampling' involves major elemental fractionations which are variable but mineral specific. Cyclosilicates can, therefore, be used to probe the isotopic ratios and elemental compositions.

  3. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  4. The future of energy gases

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO {sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO {sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce each 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions stemming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane is known to exist in the mantle and lower crust. Near the Earth`s surface, methane occurs in enormous oil and/or gas reservoirs in rock, and is absorbed in coal, dissolved in water, and trapped in a latticework of ice-like material called gas hydrate. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, methane accounts for roughly 25 percent of current U.S. consumption, but its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  5. AhR activation underlies the CYP1A autoinduction by A-998679 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Michael J.; Lee, Chih-Hung; Liu, Hong; Ciurlionis, Rita; Ditewig, Amy C.; Doktor, Stella; Andracki, Mark E.; Gagne, Gerard D.; Waring, Jeffrey F.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Blomme, Eric A. G.; Yang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 [3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) benzonitrile], was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound's plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95%) and 100 mg/kg (80%). Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyp1a, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A-related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23112805

  6. Activation of A-H bonds (A = B, C, N, O, Si) by using monovalent phosphorus complexes [RP→M].

    PubMed

    Mathey, Francois; Duan, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    The available data on the activation of A-H sigma bonds by electrophilic terminal phosphinidene complexes are reviewed. Theoretical computations allow us to rationalize the experimental results. It appears that a successful insertion needs an initial interaction between the phosphinidene and the A-H bond, such as a donor-acceptor complex with a lone pair, a Coulombic interaction due to a negative charge on A or H, or a proximity effect.

  7. Experimental study of the efficiency of oxidized dextran for prevention of influenza A/H5N1.

    PubMed

    Shkurupy, V A; Potapova, O V; Sharkova, T V; Troitskii, A V; Gulyaeva, E P; Bystrova, T N; Shestopalov, A M

    2014-11-01

    Oxidized dextran is suggested for prevention of infection induced by influenza A/H5N1 viruses, methods of its use and doses are determined. Two intravenous injections of dextran 3 and 1 days before experimental infection of outbred mice by influenza A/H5N1 A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 virus resulted in a high preventive dose-dependent effect: the mean lifespan was 25% prolonged, the mortality decreased 3-fold. PMID:25403410

  8. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  9. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14

    PubMed Central

    Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Fry, Alicia M.; Su, Su; Nguyen, Ha T.; Elal, Anwar Abd; Negron, Elizabeth; Hand, Julie; Garten, Rebecca J.; Barnes, John; Xiyan, Xu; Villanueva, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    We report characteristics of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and patients infected with these viruses in the United States. During 2013–14, fifty-nine (1.2%) of 4,968 analyzed US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses had the H275Y oseltamivir resistance–conferring neuraminidase substitution. Our results emphasize the need for local surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility among circulating influenza viruses. PMID:25532050

  10. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  11. NMR studies and applications of perfluorocarbon gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yulin

    Hyperpolarized 3He has been very successful in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs. It provides ways to study the physiological properties of the lungs and lung function. However, the high costs of the polarizing apparatus and the complicated polarizing procedure are preventing this technique from being clinically used routinely. Recent developments have shown that several fluorinated gases have the potential to replace 3He in some of its applications. This thesis presents some preliminary results of human excised lung imaging using C2F6 and C3F8. These two fluorinated gases were able to yield images with good signal-to-noise ratio and reasonable resolutions in a 1.5 T magnet. Using diffusion MRI of these two gases can distinguish emphysematous lungs from healthy ones. An important application of these gases would be to determine local lung surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio in vivo, which requires the unrestricted (free) diffusivity in each pixel to be known. We present data in this thesis which allow free diffusivities to be calculated from the relaxation time T1. Samples of pure C 2F6 and C3F8 at different pressures and in mixtures with oxygen at different concentrations were made. Measurements were done at two different magnetic fields and temperature was regulated to study the temperature dependence over a small range. These two gases were also used in studies of carbon-block filters, where the strong adsorption of the gases to the high surface-area carbon is beneficial. A brief review of our work on mouse lung imaging using hyperpolarized 3He is presented in Appendix A; Appendix B is a study of the longitudinal spin magnetization in the presence of a strong magnetic field gradient; the construction of the pulsed field gradient waveform measurement coils and some experimental results using these coils are contained in Appendix C.

  12. The composition of lunar noble gases traped 2.5 AE and 3.5 AE ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1986-01-01

    The times when the soils 74001 and 73261 were exposed on the lunar surface were determined by the U-235 - Xe-136 dating method. The isotopic composition of the trapped noble gases in these two soils is compared with that of the surface correlated noble gases in the young soils 12001 and in the present day solar wind. The surface correlated trapped gases are a mixture of implanted solar wind particles and retrapped lunar atmospheric gases. The observed changes are interpreted as a result of decreasing outgassing of radiogenic Ar-40 and perhaps He-4 and of fissiogenic Xe from the lunar crust. The old soils probably also contain surface correlated Kr-80 and Kr-82 produced by secondary cosmic ray neutron capture of adsorbed or retrapped bromine. To some extent the isotopic composition of the trapped gases in old lunar soil may also have been altered due to diffusion loss from material of low retentivity.

  13. Determination of permeabilities for two gases from recording the partial pressure of one gas.

    PubMed

    Hoofd, L; de Koning, J; Kreuzer, F; Lamboo, A

    1986-09-01

    When a flexible diffusion layer separates two closed gas chambers containing different mixtures of several gases, the different permeabilities of the layer for these gases lead to differences in the total gas pressures of the two chambers resulting in bulging of the layer and consequent changes in the chamber volumes. Application of the gas laws to binary gas mixtures provides two equations relating the partial pressure changes of one gas in any of the two chambers to the partial pressure difference between the two chambers across the layer. This permits the calculation of the two unknown factors, permeability (or Krogh's diffusion coefficient) of the layer for the measured gas and the permeability ratio of the two gases. Thus the permeabilities of both gases can be determined from recording the partial pressure of one of the gases only. We filled the gas chambers with different mixtures of oxygen and a second gas (nitrogen or carbon dioxide) at atmospheric pressure, closed the chambers, and measured the diffusion of the gases across thin (12-500 microns) layers of various materials by recording the oxygen partial pressure in both chambers with polarographic oxygen electrodes. Permeabilities of these layers for oxygen and the other gas were determined for plastic layers (MEM213, Silastic, Teflon), as well as water and methemoglobin solutions either in a fluid layer or soaked in Millipore filters. The data agreed well with those obtained from other studies in most cases.

  14. Temporally multiplexed quantum repeaters with atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Christoph; Riedmatten, Hugues de; Afzelius, Mikael

    2010-07-15

    We propose a temporally multiplexed version of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) quantum-repeater protocol using controlled inhomogeneous spin broadening in atomic gases. A first analysis suggests that the advantage of multiplexing is negated by noise due to spin-wave excitations corresponding to unobserved directions of Stokes photon emission. However, this problem can be overcome with the help of a moderate-finesse cavity which is in resonance with Stokes photons, but invisible to the anti-Stokes photons. Our proposal promises greatly enhanced quantum repeater performance with atomic gases.

  15. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  16. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  17. Xenon and other noble gases in shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    The isotopic composition of the xenon component trapped in EETA 79001's lithologies B and C has been determined, and other noble gases were measured in some samples. The Xe component was found to have light isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The trapped component has a Xe-129/Xe-132 ratio of about 2.4, and is enhanced in Xe-134 and Xe-136 relative to the terrestrial atmosphere or the average carbonaceous chondrite. Similarities between values for Ar-40/Ar-36, Xe-129/Xe-132, and N-15/N-14 and the corresponding Martian atmospheric values suggest Martian origin of the trapped gases.

  18. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  19. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-09-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~ 16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long-stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  20. Measurement and interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed

    Syabbalo, N

    1997-01-01

    Arterial blood gases and pH are routinely being measured in clinical practice, both to provide diagnosis and to guide therapy in critically ill patients. Oximetry is clinically useful in establishing the presence of hypoxaemia in patients with respiratory diseases. Oximetry is also a simple and reliable method for monitoring patients undergoing anaesthesia, sleep studies and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The search continues for new innovative techniques for continuous transcutaneous and intra-arterial blood gas monitoring. This is essential in the management of critically ill patients because blood analysers provide only intermittent monitoring of arterial blood gases. PMID:9293061

  1. Stationary light in cold-atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoghosyan, Gor; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2009-07-15

    We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counterpropagating control fields in {lambda}-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case, the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general nonexponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

  2. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  3. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  4. Atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Modugno, G.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlando, F.; Ott, H.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    We report on the first experiments with atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices. We have studied the properties of non interacting fermions and of an interacting boson-fermion mixture in a 1D lattice in presence of additional linear or harmonic potentials. These systems have allowed to study for the first time the fundamental quantum transport properties of a perfect crystal and to confirm the role of interactions in real crystals. We have found that the combination of Fermi gases and optical lattices can also have important applications, such as high-resolution force sensing.

  5. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Beechem, Thomas E. Brumbach, Michael T.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Howell, Stephen W.; Ohta, Taisuke; Kowalski, Brian M.; Pask, Jesse A.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Spataru, Catalin D.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and amorphous Se. Photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  6. Myelinated Ah-type trigeminal ganglion neurons in female rats: neuroexcitability, chemosensitivity to histamine, and potential clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xin, Ting; He, Wei; Li, Fang; Su, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate-to-severe headaches often associated with numerous autonomic nervous system symptoms, and it is more prevalent in women. To fully understand the underlying mechanism, standard electrophysiology was performed with trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs) isolated from adult rats of both genders using the whole-cell patch clamp technique to test the distribution, neuroexcitability, and chemosensitivity to histamine. In addition to traditionally classified A- and C-type TGNs, myelinated Ah-type TGNs were also observed in females. The electrophysiological features showed low firing threshold and the capability to fire repetitively upon stimulation. Ah-type neurons also functionally expressed persistent TTX-R Na(+) channels with more hyperpolarized activating voltage. Iberiotoxin and NS11021 significantly altered the discharge profiles of Ah-type TGNs. Finally, Ah-type TGNs showed a more potent reaction to histamine, with relatively larger inward currents and membrane depolarization compared with C-types. These data provide evidence of the gender-specific distribution of myelinated Ah-type TGNs in adult female rats, characterized by a low threshold and high frequency of firing that are at least partially attributable to persistent TTX-R Na(+) and BK-KCa channel expression and potent chemosensitivity to histamine, suggesting that Ah-type TGNs may play a key role in gender differences in migraine. PMID:24686179

  7. Myelinated Ah-type trigeminal ganglion neurons in female rats: neuroexcitability, chemosensitivity to histamine, and potential clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xin, Ting; He, Wei; Li, Fang; Su, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate-to-severe headaches often associated with numerous autonomic nervous system symptoms, and it is more prevalent in women. To fully understand the underlying mechanism, standard electrophysiology was performed with trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs) isolated from adult rats of both genders using the whole-cell patch clamp technique to test the distribution, neuroexcitability, and chemosensitivity to histamine. In addition to traditionally classified A- and C-type TGNs, myelinated Ah-type TGNs were also observed in females. The electrophysiological features showed low firing threshold and the capability to fire repetitively upon stimulation. Ah-type neurons also functionally expressed persistent TTX-R Na(+) channels with more hyperpolarized activating voltage. Iberiotoxin and NS11021 significantly altered the discharge profiles of Ah-type TGNs. Finally, Ah-type TGNs showed a more potent reaction to histamine, with relatively larger inward currents and membrane depolarization compared with C-types. These data provide evidence of the gender-specific distribution of myelinated Ah-type TGNs in adult female rats, characterized by a low threshold and high frequency of firing that are at least partially attributable to persistent TTX-R Na(+) and BK-KCa channel expression and potent chemosensitivity to histamine, suggesting that Ah-type TGNs may play a key role in gender differences in migraine.

  8. Interaction of nanodiamonds materials with influenza viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.

    2012-02-01

    The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.

  9. Environmental Isotope Characteristics of Landfill Leachates and Gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Coleman, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate and gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are unique relative to the aqueous and gaseous media in most other natural geologic environments. The ??13 C of the CO2 in landfills is significantly enriched in 13C, with values as high as +20??? reported. The ?? 13C and ??D values of the methane fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced primarily by the acetate-fermentation process. The ??D of landfill leachate is strongly enriched in deuterium, by approximately 30??? to nearly 60??? relative to local average precipitation values. This deuterium enrichment is undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of a landfill. The concentration of the radiogenic isotopes, 14C and 3H, are significantly elevated in both landfill leachate and methane. The 14C values range between approximately 120 and 170 pMC and can be explained by the input of organic material that was affected by the increased 14C content of atmospheric CO2 caused by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. The tritium measured in leachate, however, is often too high to be explained by previous atmospheric levels and must come from material buried within the landfill. The unique isotopic characteristics observed in landfill leachates and gases provide a very useful technique for confirming whether contamination is from a municipal landfill or some other local source.

  10. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  11. Functionality of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and implications for the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-15

    Worldwide, populations of sturgeons are endangered, and it is hypothesized that anthropogenic chemicals, including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), might be contributing to the observed declines in populations. DLCs elicit their toxic action through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is believed to regulate most, if not all, adverse effects associated with exposure to these chemicals. Currently, risk assessment of DLCs in fishes uses toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) that are based on studies of embryo-lethality with salmonids. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs, and it is uncertain whether TEFs developed by the WHO are protective of these fishes. Sturgeons are evolutionarily distinct from salmonids, and the AhRs of sturgeons differ from those of salmonids. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to DLCs in vitro via the use of luciferase reporter gene assays using COS-7 cells transfected with AhR1 or AhR2 of white sturgeon. Specifically, activation and relative potencies (RePs) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzofuran, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl were determined for each AhR. It was demonstrated that white sturgeon expresses AhR1s and AhR2s that are both activated by DLCs with EC50 values for 2,3,7,8-TCDD that are lower than those of any other AhR of vertebrates tested to date. Both AhRs of white sturgeon had RePs for polychlorinated dibenzofurans more similar to TEFs for birds, while RePs for polychlorinated biphenyls were most similar to TEFs for fishes. Measured concentrations of select DLCs in tissues of white sturgeon from British Columbia, Canada, were used to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) by use of TEFs for fishes used by the WHO and TCDD

  12. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  13. Thickness dependence on the optoelectronic properties of multilayered GaSe based photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ko, Pil Ju; Abderrahmane, Abdelkader; Takamura, Tsukasa; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2016-08-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials exhibit unique optoelectronic properties at atomic thicknesses. In this paper, we fabricated metal-semiconductor-metal based photodetectors using layered gallium selenide (GaSe) with different thicknesses. The electrical and optoelectronic properties of the photodetectors were studied, and these devices showed good electrical characteristics down to GaSe flake thicknesses of 30 nm. A photograting effect was observed in the absence of a gate voltage, thereby implying a relatively high photoresponsivity. Higher values of the photoresponsivity occurred for thicker layers of GaSe with a maximum value 0.57 AW(-1) and external quantum efficiency of of 132.8%, and decreased with decreasing GaSe flake thickness. The detectivity was 4.05 × 10(10) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) at 532 nm laser wavelength, underscoring that GaSe is a promising p-type 2D material for photodetection applications in the visible spectrum. PMID:27354428

  14. Catalytic desulfurization of industrial waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, Th.

    1985-07-30

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organosulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  15. Elimination of gases and contamination from water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Filtration system with membrane type hydrophilic and hydrophobic filters gives absolute filtration with automatic venting of freed gases, and prevents backward transmission of contamination with no bacterial growth through the filters. Filter aids in degassing industrial solutions and in removing oxygen from sea water.

  16. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  17. Refractive Indices of Gases at Microwave Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhead, D. T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple microwave interferometer capable of measuring small phase shifts. Proposes laboratory exercises involving the use of the interferometer in the determination of refractive indices of gases and the analysis of the reflection in a test chamber. (Author/CP)

  18. Collective modes in cold paramagnetic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, T L; Rubin, P L

    2014-02-28

    We have obtained a condition for the emergence of spin waves in paramagnetic gases Re >> ImÂ, which is fulfilled only at temperatures of the order of 1 μK. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Removing Sulphur Dioxide From Stack Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    Process types, process concepts, claims and counterclaims, cost factors, and the level of developed technology for sulfur dioxide control in stack gases are focused upon and evaluated. Wet and dry processes as well as recovery and throwaway processes are compared. (BL)

  20. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from foam plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-three samples of flexible foams and twelve samples of rigid foams were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the USF toxicity screening test method. Polychloroprene among the flexible foams, and polystyrene among the rigid foams, appeared to exhibit the least toxicity under these particular test conditions.

  1. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  2. Fullerenes and the Nature of Planetary Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Nuth, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several decades, two issues have dominated the discussion of planetary noble gas patterns: 1) the general resemblance of the noble gas abundances in carbonaceous chondrites to those measured in the Earth s atmosphere and; 2) atmospheric inventories of argon and neon that fall off significantly with increasing distance from the Sun. The recognition of the latter has led to the conclusion that the planetary component is not found on planets. In particular, the inability to explain the missing xenon reservoir, once thought to be sequestered in crustal rocks has been extremely troublesome. Some models have focused on various fractionations of solar wind rather than condensation as the process for the evolution of noble gases in the terrestrial planets. However, these models cannot explain the observed gradient of the gases, nor do they account for the similar Ne/Ar ratios and the dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have focused on hydrodynamic escape to explain the fractionation of gases, like neon, in the atmosphere and the mantle. Escape theory also seems to explain, in part, the isotopically heavy argon on Mars, however, it does not explain the discrepancies observed for the abundances of argon and neon on Venus and the Earth. This has led to the assumption that some combination of solar wind implantation, absorption and escape are needed to explain the nature of planetary noble gases.

  3. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L.; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R.; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P.

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and “SunOleic95R”—a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism. PMID:27610115

  4. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and "SunOleic95R"-a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism. PMID:27610115

  5. Insights into the Indian Peanut Genotypes for ahFAD2 Gene Polymorphism Regulating Its Oleic and Linoleic Acid Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Nawade, Bhagwat; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Rathnakumar, Arulthambi L.; Kumar, Abhay; Dobaria, Jentilal R.; Kundu, Rahul; Mishra, Gyan P.

    2016-01-01

    In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfill the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and “SunOleic95R”—a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A) mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA) mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89%) than in ssp. fastigiata (17%). This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  6. Agonistic effect of selected isoflavones on arylhydrocarbon receptor in a novel AZ-AhR transgenic gene reporter human cell line.

    PubMed

    Bialesova, Lucia; Novotna, Aneta; Macejova, Dana; Brtko, Julius; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. Structurally diverse compounds bind to AhR and act as AhR agonists. Well characterised family of natural AhR ligands are isoflavones, which are compounds found predominantly in soy beans or red clover. In this study we have examined agonistic effect of selected isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, formononetin and equol) on AhR in the novel transgenic gene reporter human cell line AZ-AhR, a stably transfected AhR-responsive cell line allowing rapid and sensitive assessment of AhR transcriptional activity. We demonstrated that biochanin A, formononetin and genistein at concentration 10(-4) mol/l exerted agonistic effects on AhR with fold activation of 309- fold, 108-fold and 27-fold, which is about 84.8%, 29.6% and 7.4%, respectively, of the value attained by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Daidzein and equol did not show any significant effects on AhR. PMID:25926549

  7. Effect of foam age on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyurethane flexible foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Murphy, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some samples of polyurethane flexible foams appears to have decreased with age, while other samples seem to exhibit no significant change with age in this respect. The changes observed were greater than could be accounted for by variations in the material, or test variations or artifacts.

  8. Noble Gases in Nakhla and Three Nakhlites Miller Range 090030, 090032, and 090136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Park, J.; Choi, J.; Baek, J. M.; Park, C.; Lee, J. I.; Lee, M. J.; Mikouchi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B. D.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III

    2016-08-01

    Noble gas compositions of the Miller Range nakhlites release Kr and Xe with low 84Kr/132Xe of ≤1 and high 129Xe/132Xe of 1.95-2.13 at low heating temperature (300-400°C). The gases would be heavily fractionated martian atmosphere trapped in aqueously altered materials.

  9. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquids. 174.204 Section 174.204 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND..., including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded unless... property. (2) The following tank cars may not be delivered and unloaded on carrier tracks unless the...

  10. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquids. 174.204 Section 174.204 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND..., including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded unless... property. (2) The following tank cars may not be delivered and unloaded on carrier tracks unless the...

  11. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquids. 174.204 Section 174.204 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND..., including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded unless... property. (2) The following tank cars may not be delivered and unloaded on carrier tracks unless the...

  12. 49 CFR 174.204 - Tank car delivery of gases, including cryogenic liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquids. 174.204 Section 174.204 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND..., including cryogenic liquids. (a) A tank car containing Class 2 (gases) material may not be unloaded unless... property. (2) The following tank cars may not be delivered and unloaded on carrier tracks unless the...

  13. Fractal structures of dendrites in GaSe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, N. N.; Borisenko, E. B.; Borisenko, D. N.; Bozhko, S. I.

    2008-07-01

    Solidification of melts at substantial supercooling is associated with instability on the growth front. This causes growth of dendrites, which form as a branched tree in a crystal. In the layered melt-grown GaSe crystals dendrites are observed, if growth rates are rather high [N.N. Kolesnikov, E.B. Borisenko, D.N. Borisenko, V.K. Gartman, Influence of growth conditions on microstructure and properties of GaSe crystals, J. Crystal Growth 300 (2) (2007) 294-298]. Models based on solution of the thermal diffusion problem are traditionally used to describe dendrite growth. Solution of this problem requires information about several physical parameters, such as diffusion coefficient, heat conductivity coefficient and supercooling at the solid/liquid interface. The study of scale invariance of dendrites formed in a crystal provides a new approach to solution of the dynamic growth problem. The calculated fractal dimensionality of the experimentally observed dendrites in GaSe crystals is D=1.7. It coincides with dimensionality of the clusters obtained through computer simulation in terms of the model of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). This result provides a new approach to description of the dynamics of dendrite growth. We have shown that the dendrite growth mechanism in the layered semiconductor crystals can be described by a two-dimensional DLA model. It is shown that probabilistic simulation can be used to show the development of a dendrite in any material. In contrast to the classical theories of dendrite growth, this approach does not require information on physical parameters.

  14. An Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Hemagglutinin Vaccine Produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Yáñez, José M.; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Mendoza-Ochoa, Gonzalo I.; García-Echauri, Sergio A.; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Bulnes-Abundis, David; Salgado-Gallegos, Johari; Lara-Mayorga, Itzel M.; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; León-Angel, Felipe O.; Rivero-Aranda, Ramón E.; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Zertuche-Guerra, Manuel I.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; White, Stephen W.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Russell, Charles J.; Alvarez, Mario M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1/2009 influenza pandemic made evident the need for faster and higher-yield methods for the production of influenza vaccines. Platforms based on virus culture in mammalian or insect cells are currently under investigation. Alternatively, expression of fragments of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in prokaryotic systems can potentially be the most efficacious strategy for the manufacture of large quantities of influenza vaccine in a short period of time. Despite experimental evidence on the immunogenic potential of HA protein constructs expressed in bacteria, it is still generally accepted that glycosylation should be a requirement for vaccine efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings We expressed the globular HA receptor binding domain, referred to here as HA63–286-RBD, of the influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus in Escherichia coli using a simple, robust and scalable process. The recombinant protein was refolded and purified from the insoluble fraction of the cellular lysate as a single species. Recombinant HA63–286-RBD appears to be properly folded, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation and bio-recognition assays. It binds specifically to serum antibodies from influenza A/H1N1/2009 patients and was found to be immunogenic, to be capable of triggering the production of neutralizing antibodies, and to have protective activity in the ferret model. Conclusions/Significance Projections based on our production/purification data indicate that this strategy could yield up to half a billion doses of vaccine per month in a medium-scale pharmaceutical production facility equipped for bacterial culture. Also, our findings demonstrate that glycosylation is not a mandatory requirement for influenza vaccine efficacy. PMID:20661476

  15. Photometric solution and period analysis of the contact binary system AH Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-Jiang; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Deng, Li-Cai; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jian-Feng; Yan, Zheng-Zhou; Pan, Yang; Fang, Wei-Jing; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Tang, De-Lin; Liu, Qi-Li; Sun, Jin-Jiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Photometric observations of AH Cnc, a W UMa-type system in the open cluster M67, were carried out by using the 50BiN telescope. About 100 h of time-series B- and V -band data were taken, based on which eight new times of light minima were determined. By applying the Wilson-Devinney method, the light curves were modeled and a revised photometric solution of the binary system was derived. We confirmed that AH Cnc is a deep contact (f = 51%), low mass-ratio (q = 0.156) system. Adopting the distance modulus derived from study of the host cluster, we have re-calculated the physical parameters of the binary system, namely the masses and radii. The masses and radii of the two components were estimated to be respectively 1.188(±0.061) M ⊙, 1.332(±0.063) R ⊙ for the primary component and 0.185(±0.032) M ⊙, 0.592(±0.051) R ⊙ for the secondary. By adding the newly derived minimum timings to all the available data, the period variations of AH Cnc were studied. This shows that the orbital period of the binary is continuously increasing at a rate of dp/dt = 4.29 × 10‑10 d yr‑1. In addition to the long-term period increase, a cyclic variation with a period of 35.26 yr was determined, which could be attributed to an unresolved tertiary component of the system.

  16. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  17. Ah Receptor–Mediated Suppression of Liver Regeneration through NC-XRE–Driven p21Cip1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel P.; Li, Hui; Mitchell, Kristen A.; Joshi, Aditya D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in hepatocyte-derived cell lines and the whole liver established that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) can disrupt G1-phase cell cycle progression following exposure to persistent AhR agonists, such as TCDD (dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Growth arrest was attributed to inhibition of G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity. The present study examined the effect of TCDD exposure on liver regeneration following 70% partial hepatectomy in mice lacking the Cip/Kip inhibitors p21Cip1 or p27Kip1 responsible for regulating CDK2 activity. Assessment of the regenerative process in wild-type, p21Cip1 knockout, and p27Kip1 knockout mice confirmed that TCDD-induced inhibition of liver regeneration is entirely dependent on p21Cip1 expression. Compared with wild-type mice, the absence of p21Cip1 expression completely abrogated the TCDD inhibition, and accelerated hepatocyte progression through G1 phase during the regenerative process. Analysis of the transcriptional response determined that increased p21Cip1 expression during liver regeneration involved an AhR-dependent mechanism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that p21Cip1 induction required AhR binding to the newly characterized nonconsensus xenobiotic response element, in conjunction with the tumor suppressor protein Kruppel-like factor 6 functioning as an AhR binding partner. The evidence also suggests that AhR functionality following partial hepatectomy is dependent on a p21Cip1-regulated signaling process, intimately linking AhR biology to the G1-phase cell cycle program. PMID:24431146

  18. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. PMID:23648424

  19. Influenza A(H1N1) Oseltamivir Resistant Viruses in the Netherlands During the Winter 2007/2008

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Frederika; Jonges, Marcel; van Beek, Ruud; Donker, Gé A; Schellevis, François G; Koopmans, Marion; van der Sande, Marianne A.B; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E; Boucher, Charles A.B; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Meijer, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antiviral susceptibility surveillance in the Netherlands was intensified after the first reports about the emergence of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in Norway in January, 2008. Methods: Within the existing influenza surveillance an additional questionnaire study was performed to retrospectively assess possible risk factors and establish clinical outcome of all patients with influenza virus A(H1N1) positive specimens. To discriminate resistant and sensitive viruses, fifty percent inhibitory concentrations for the neuramidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir were determined in a neuraminidase inhibition assay. Mutations previously associated with resistance to neuramidase inhibitors and M2 blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) were searched for by nucleotide sequencing of neuraminidase and M2 genes respectively. Results: Among 171 patients infected with A(H1N1) viruses an overall prevalence of oseltamivir resistance of 27% (95% CI: 20-34%) was found. None of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses tested was resistant against amantadine or zanamivir. Patient characteristics, underlying conditions, influenza vaccination, symptoms, complications, and exposure to oseltamivir and other antivirals did not differ significantly between patients infected with resistant and sensitive A(H1N1) viruses. Conclusion: In 2007/2008 a large proportion of influenza A(H1N1) viruses resistant to oseltamivir was detected. There were no clinical differences between patients infected with resistant and sensitive A(H1N1) viruses. Continuous monitoring of the antiviral drug sensitivity profile of influenza viruses is justified, preferably using the existing sentinel surveillance, however, complemented with data from the more severe end of the clinical spectrum. In order to act timely on emergencies of public health importance we suggest setting up a surveillance system that can guarantee rapid access to the latter. PMID:22253652

  20. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  1. A highly immunogenic vaccine against A/H7N9 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weiping; Liepkalns, Justine S; Hassan, Ahmed O; Kamal, Ram P; Hofstetter, Amelia R; Amoah, Samuel; Kim, Jin Hyang; Reber, Adrian J; Stevens, James; Katz, Jacqueline M; Gangappa, Shivaprakash; York, Ian A; Mittal, Suresh K; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2016-02-01

    Since the first case of human infection in March 2013, continued reports of H7N9 cases highlight a potential pandemic threat. Highly immunogenic vaccines to this virus are urgently needed to protect vulnerable populations who lack protective immunity. In this study, an egg- and adjuvant-independent adenoviral vector-based, hemagglutinin H7 subtype influenza vaccine (HAd-H7HA) demonstrated enhanced cell-mediated immunity as well as serum antibody responses in a mouse model. Most importantly, this vaccine provided complete protection against homologous A/H7N9 viral challenge suggesting its potential utility as a pandemic vaccine.

  2. EM experiments for computational model validation for AH-1S Cobra Helicopter

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1997-04-06

    The effort described here describes a set of outdoor experiments performed on the AH-1S Cobra helicopter in order to validate and compare to the computational electromagnetic models of the bulk structure of the airframe in the frequency bands up to 4 GHz. Also included in this were coupling measurements to wires and cables inside of the airframe and various cavity to HPM pulse in this frequency range as part of other activities. Additionally, the low power modeling compression will be completed in this time frame.

  3. Analysis of environmental issues for nursing aboard the USNS Mercy (T-AH 19).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R T; Boren, D M

    2001-06-01

    The USNS Mercy (T-AH 19) is a unique environment for its staff and patients. Several environmental influences distinctively affect health, medical, and nursing care. Six main areas of environmental concern for operational nursing were examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the internal environment of a hospital ship were explored. Findings indicate that the USNS Mercy meets or exceeds many environmental standards. However, there is significant room for improvement and nursing involvement in issues related to the management of infectious diseases, patient transport, care of patients with nuclear, biological, or chemical agents, and management of wastes aboard the ship. Nursing implications for research and practice are proposed.

  4. New end station for the study of gases, liquids, and solid films at the MAX laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, S.; Forsell, J.; Siegbahn, H.; Ausmees, A.; Bray, G.; Soedergren, S.; Sundin, S.; Osborne, S.J.; Aksela, S.; Nommiste, E.; Jauhiainen, J.; Jurvansuu, M.; Karvonen, J.; Barta, P.; Salaneck, W.R.; Evaldsson, A.; Loegdlund, M.; Fahlman, A.

    1996-06-01

    A new end station equipped with a very high-resolution SES-200 electron energy analyzer has been constructed for the study of gases and soft molecular materials. The analyzer is rotatable around the direction of the photon beam, allowing angular-dependent studies. The system has been built in a way allowing the investigation of free molecules and atoms, metal vapors, liquid interfaces as well as solid films. The first electron spectroscopy results for gases, liquids, and polymer films are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  6. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  7. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  8. Differences in the Epidemiology of Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) Viruses Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ying; Horby, Peter W.; Tsang, Tim K.; Chen, Enfu; Gao, Lidong; Ou, Jianming; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Duong, Tran Nhu; Gasimov, Viktor; Feng, Luzhao; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Xiang; Peng, Zhibin; Li, Sa; Li, Ming; Zheng, Jiandong; Liu, Shelan; Hu, Shixiong; Hong, Rongtao; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Gao, George F.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) remains an unresolved but critically important question. Methods. We compared the characteristics of sporadic and clustered cases of human H5N1 and H7N9 infection, estimated the relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts, and the reproduction number (R). Results. We assembled and analyzed data on 720 H5N1 cases and 460 H7N9 cases up to 2 November 2014. The severity and average age of sporadic/index cases of H7N9 was greater than secondary cases (71% requiring intensive care unit admission vs 33%, P = .007; median age 59 years vs 31, P < .001). We observed no significant differences in the age and severity between sporadic/index and secondary H5N1 cases. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for R was 0.12 for H5N1 and 0.27 for H7N9. A higher proportion of H5N1 infections occurred in clusters (20%) compared to H7N9 (8%). The relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts of cases compared to unrelated contacts was 8.96 for H5N1 (95% CI, 1.30, 61.86) and 0.80 for H7N9 (95% CI, .32, 1.97). Conclusions. The results are consistent with an ascertainment bias towards severe and older cases for sporadic H7N9 but not for H5N1. The lack of evidence for ascertainment bias in sporadic H5N1 cases, the more pronounced clustering of cases, and the higher risk of infection in blood-related contacts, support the hypothesis that susceptibility to H5N1 may be limited and familial. This analysis suggests the potential pandemic risk may be greater for H7N9 than H5N1. PMID:25940354

  9. Method for the drying and removal of hydrocarbons from gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicht, B.S.; Beise, H.; Burk, W.; Gross, M.; Lindner, O.; Minak, H.; Sonntag, C.; Wehner, K.

    1984-10-30

    The invention relates to a method for the drying and removal of hydrocarbons from gases. It is the object of the invention to increase the absorption ability of the solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene and water, to save material and energy, to lower the investment- and operating costs, as well as to avoid operational disturbances and to increase the safety during gas treatment, gas transmittance and gas distribution. This object is accomplished by the invention in that a mixture of glycol, N-methyl-e-caprolactam and water is used as solvent. The mixture comprises 79.9 to 97 percent by weight of glycol, 2 to 20 percent by weight of N-methyl-e-caprolactam and 0.1 to 1 percent by weight of water. The regeneration temperature of the charged solvent mixture is 150/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/ C., preferably 170/sup 0/ C. 3 to 15 percent by weight, preferably 10 percent by weight, of crude benzene is added to the charged solvent mixture. The invention is especially useful for the purification and drying of coal degasification and cracking gases in customary absorption and desorption apparatuses.

  10. The isotopic composition of solar flare noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    The relative elemental and isotopic abundances of noble gases provide insights into a number of topics related to the solar system. Neon is in many ways the most diagnostic of the noble gases. The diagnostic character is mainly related to the variation in the relative abundance of the two most abundant neon isotopes, Ne-20 and Ne-22. The available evidence suggests that trapped neon found in meteorites and in lunar samples consists of as many as five isotopically distinct components, including neon A, B, C, D, and E. Neon B has been shown to be due to solar wind neon which has been directly implanted into the material found in a meteorite. It appears that neon E is extrasolar in origin. There exist ambiguities regarding the origins of the remaining three components. The present investigation is concerned with a reexamination of the existing data in an effort to eliminate or at least clarify these ambiguities. It is found that neon C is apparently due to directly implanted, low-energy solar flare neon nuclei.

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Gresback, Ryan G; Tian, Mengkun; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; McGuire, Michael A; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B

    2014-01-01

    Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

  12. FACT disrupts nucleosome structure by binding H2A-H2B with conserved peptide motifs

    PubMed Central

    Kemble, David J.; McCullough, Laura L.; Whitby, Frank G.; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY FACT, a heterodimer of Spt16 and Pob3, is an essential histone chaperone. We show that the H2A-H2B binding activity that is central to FACT function resides in short acidic regions near the C-termini of each subunit. Mutations throughout these regions impact binding and cause correlated phenotypes that range from mild to lethal, with the largest individual contributions unexpectedly coming from an aromatic residue and a nearby carboxylate residue within each domain. Spt16 and Pob3 bind overlapping sites on H2A-H2B, and Spt16-Pob3 heterodimers simultaneously bind two H2A-H2B dimers, the same stoichiometry as the components of a nucleosome. An Spt16:H2A-H2B crystal structure explains the biochemical and genetic data, provides a model for Pob3 binding, and implies a mechanism for FACT reorganization that we confirm biochemically. Moreover, unexpected similarity to binding of ANP32E and Swr1 with H2A.Z-H2B reveals that diverse H2A-H2B chaperones use common mechanisms of histone binding and regulating nucleosome functions. PMID:26455391

  13. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Turick, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  14. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  15. Impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on circulation dynamics of seasonal influenza strains in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Majanja, Janet; Njoroge, Rose N; Achilla, Rachel; Wurapa, Eyako K; Wadegu, Meshack; Mukunzi, Silvanos; Mwangi, Josephat; Njiri, James; Gachara, George; Bulimo, Wallace

    2013-05-01

    We describe virus variations from patients with influenza-like illness before and after the appearance of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Kenya during January 2008-July 2011. A total of 11,592 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from consenting patients. Seasonal influenza B, A/H1N1, A/H3N2, A/H5N1, and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Of patients enrolled, 2073 (17.9%) had influenza. A total of 1,524 (73.4%) of 2,073 samples were positive for influenza A virus and 549 (26.6%) were positive for influenza B virus. Influenza B virus predominated in 2008 and seasonal A(H1N1) virus predominated in the first half of 2009. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus predominated in the second half of 2009. Influenza A/H3N2 virus predominated in 2010, and co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and influenza B virus predominated the first half of 2011. The reduction and displacement of seasonal A(H1N1) virus was the most obvious effect of the arrival of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The decision of the World Health Organization to replace seasonal A(H1N1) virus with the pandemic virus strain for the southern hemisphere vaccine was appropriate for Kenya.

  16. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.

    2015-04-01

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH3OH, C2H5OH, C6H6, and C6H5CH3, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300 K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (α - η) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  17. Quantum fluctuations in dipolar Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Aristeu R. P.; Pelster, Axel

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the influence of quantum fluctuations upon dipolar Bose gases by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Thereby, we make use of the local density approximation to evaluate the dipolar exchange interaction between the condensate and the excited particles. This allows to obtain the Bogoliubov spectrum analytically in the limit of large particle numbers. After discussing the condensate depletion and the ground-state energy correction, we derive quantum-corrected equations of motion for harmonically trapped dipolar Bose gases by using superfluid hydrodynamics. These equations are subsequently applied to analyze the equilibrium configuration, the low-lying oscillation frequencies, and the time-of-flight dynamics. We find that both atomic magnetic and molecular electric dipolar systems offer promising scenarios for detecting beyond mean-field effects.

  18. Efimov Resonances in Ultracold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlaino, F.; Zenesini, A.; Berninger, M.; Huang, B.; Nägerl, H.-C.; Grimm, R.

    2011-11-01

    Ultracold atomic gases have developed into prime systems for experimental studies of Efimov three-body physics and related few-body phenomena, which occur in the universal regime of resonant interactions. In the last few years, many important breakthroughs have been achieved, confirming basic predictions of universal few-body theory and deepening our understanding of such systems. We review the basic ideas along with the fast experimental developments of the field, focussing on ultracold cesium gases as a well-investigated model system. Triatomic Efimov resonances, atom-dimer Efimov resonances, and related four-body resonances are discussed as central observables. We also present some new observations of such resonances, supporting and complementing the set of available data.

  19. Itinerant ferromagnetism in ultracold Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Heiselberg, H.

    2011-05-15

    Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature, a second-order transition is found at ak{sub F}{approx_equal}0.90 compatible with results of quantum-Monte-Carlo (QMC) calculations. Thermodynamic functions and observables, such as the compressibility and spin susceptibility and the resulting fluctuations in number and spin, are calculated. For trapped gases, the resulting cloud radii and kinetic energies are calculated and compared to recent experiments. Spin-polarized systems are recommended for effective separation of large ferromagnetic domains. Collective modes are predicted and tricritical points are calculated for multicomponent systems.

  20. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Kurylo, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We seek funding from NASA for the third year (2005) of the four-year period January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006 for continued support of the MIT contributions to the multi-national global atmospheric trace species measurement program entitled Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). The case for real-time high-frequency measurement networks like AGAGE is very strong and the observations and their interpretation are widely recognized for their importance to ozone depletion and climate change studies and to verification issues arising from the Montreal Protocol (ozone) and Kyoto Protocol (climate). The proposed AGAGE program is distinguished by its capability to measure over the globe at high frequency almost all of the important species in the Montreal Protocol and almost all of the significant non-CO2 gases in the Kyoto Protocol.

  1. Dilute spin-orbit Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Mundo, Daniel; He, Lianyi; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    We study repulsive Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in two and three dimensions when they are dilute enough that a single branch of the spectrum is occupied in the non-interacting ground state. We develop an effective renormalizable theory for fermions in the lower branch and obtain the energy of the system in three dimensions to second order in the renormalized coupling constant. We then exploit the non-Galilean-relativistic nature of spin-orbit coupled gases. We find that at finite momentum, the two-dimensional Fermi sea is deformed in a non-trivial way. Using mean-field theory to include interactions, we show that the ground-state of the system acquires a finite momentum, and is consequently deformed, when the interaction is stronger than a critical value. Heriot-Watt University. CM-DTC. SUPA. EPSRC.

  2. Fitter apparatus for purifying exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Oyobe, K.; Fukutani, M.; Ito, K.; Matsui, K.; Miwa, N.; Nomura, E.

    1985-05-28

    Filter apparatus having a honeycomb structure and a heater for purifying exhaust gases consists of cells or passages defined by porous partition walls. Alternate passages are provided respectively with upstream plugs and downstream plugs. Particulates in exhaust gases are trapped in the honeycomb structure and ignited by the heater. The upstream plugs define spaces upstream thereof in which particulates are trapped in addition to those trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. The heat of burning of the particulates trapped in the spaces facilitates the burning of the particulates trapped in the passages having downstream plugs. Therefore, the exhaust gas particualtes trapped and collected in the downstream portion of the structure can also be easily burned to regenerate the structure over its entire length.

  3. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.; Koo, Jackson C.; Rosencwaig, Allan

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  4. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOEpatents

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  5. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  6. Current fluctuations in stochastic lattice gases.

    PubMed

    Bertini, L; De Sole, A; Gabrielli, D; Jona-Lasinio, G; Landim, C

    2005-01-28

    We study current fluctuations in lattice gases in the macroscopic limit extending the dynamic approach for density fluctuations developed in previous articles. More precisely, we establish a large deviation theory for the space-time fluctuations of the empirical current which include the previous results. We then estimate the probability of a fluctuation of the average current over a large time interval. It turns out that recent results by Bodineau and Derrida [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 180601 (2004)

  7. Global Reactive Gases in the MACC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    In preparation for the planned atmospheric service component of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, the EU FP7 project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) developed a preoperational data assimilation and modelling system for monitoring and forecasting of reactive gases, greenhouse gases and aerosols. The project is coordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the system is built on ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) which has been coupled to the chemistry transport models MOZART-3 and TM5. In order to provide daily forecasts of up to 96 hours for global reactive gases, various satellite retrieval products for ozone (total column and profile data), CO, NO2, CH2O and SO2 are either actively assimilated or passively monitored. The MACC system is routinely evaluated with in-situ data from ground-based stations, ozone sondes and aircraft measurements, and with independent satellite retrievals. Global MACC reactive gases forecasts are used in the planning and analysis of large international field campaigns and to provide dynamical chemical boundary conditions to regional air quality models worldwide. Several case studies of outstanding air pollution events have been performed, and they demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of chemical data assimilation based on current satellite data products. Besides the regular analyses and forecasts of the tropospheric chemical composition, the MACC system is also used to monitor the evolution of stratospheric ozone. A comprehensive reanalysis simulation from 2003 to 2010 provides new insights into the interannual variability of the atmospheric chemical composition.

  8. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  9. Noble Gases in the Chelyabinsk Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haba, Makiko K.; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke; Mikouchi, Takashi; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fell in Russia on February 15, 2013 and was classified as LL5 chondrite. The diameter before it entered the atmosphere has been estimated to be about 20 m [1]. Up to now, numerous fragments weighing much greater than 100 kg in total have been collected. In this study, all noble gases were measured for 13 fragments to investigate the exposure history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite and the thermal history of its parent asteroid.

  10. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Vanleer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1988-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations or auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  11. Distribution of inert gases in fines from the Cayley-Descartes region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Lakatos, S.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    The inert gases in 14 different fines and in one sample of 2 to 4 mm fines from Apollo 16 were measured by mass spectroscopy with respect to trapped solar wind gases, cosmogenic gases, and 'parentless' Ar-40. Such studies are helpful for the understanding of regolith evolution, of transport of regolith fines, and of the lunar atmosphere. The Apollo 16 soils are unique because they represent, after Luna 20, the second and much more extensive record from the lunar highlands. The landing site presents the problem of materials from the Cayley Formation vs those from the Descartes Formation. There are two large, relatively fresh craters in the area, North Ray and South Ray, whose ejecta patterns may be recognized in the inert-gas record.

  12. Cooling through quantum criticality and many-body effects in condensed matter and cold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Bernd; Honecker, Andreas; Hofstetter, Walter; Tutsch, Ulrich; Lang, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some recent developments for new cooling technologies in the fields of condensed matter physics and cold gases, both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The main idea is to make use of distinct many-body interactions of the system to be cooled which can be some cooling stage or the material of interest itself, as is the case in ultracold gases. For condensed matter systems, we discuss magnetic cooling schemes based on a large magnetocaloric effect as a result of a nearby quantum phase transition and consider effects of geometrical frustration. For ultracold gases, we review many-body cooling techniques, such as spin-gradient and Pomeranchuk cooling, which can be applied in the presence of an optical lattice. We compare the cooling performance of these new techniques with that of conventional approaches and discuss state-of-the-art applications.

  13. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time.

  14. Behavioural response in educated young adults towards influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Hsieh, N H; You, S H; Wang, C H; Liao, C M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine how contact behaviour change influences the indoor transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among school children. We incorporated transmission rate matrices constructed from questionnaire responses into an epidemiological model to simulate contact behaviour change during an influenza epidemic. We constructed a dose-response model describing the relationships between contact rate, viral load, and respiratory symptom scores using published experimental human infection data for A(H1N1)pdm09. Findings showed that that mean numbers of contacts were 5.66 ± 6.23 and 1.96 ± 2.76 d-1 in the 13-19 and 40-59 years age groups, respectively. We found that the basic reproduction number (R 0) was <1 during weekends in pandemic periods, implying that school closures or class suspensions are probably an effective social distancing policy to control pandemic influenza transmission. We conclude that human contact behaviour change is a potentially influential factor on influenza infection rates. For substantiation of this effect, we recommend a future study with more comprehensive control measures.

  15. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  16. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell, is to store and deliver energy for long term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures, the catalyzed wall wick cells however, are performing better.

  17. Structural Integrity Recording System (SIR) for U.S. Army AH-1G Helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. G.; Johnson, R. B.; Tyler, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A Structural Integrity Recording System (SIRS) was designed and developed to track the fatigue damage accumulation on 10 critical helicopter components for the subsequent timely replacement of such components for safer and more economical helicopter operation. SIRS comprises three discrete but interrelated subsystems: an airborne microprocessor-based recorder, a portable flight-line data retrieval unit, and a software system. The validation of SIRS, initially configured for the AH-1G helicopter, consisted of two phases. Phase I (Development Test and Evaluation - DT E) covered the design, fabrication, laboratory qualification testing, reliability analysis, and flight-testing of the prototype SIRS recorder. Phase II (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation - IOT E) covered the evaluation of the entire system operation and the resultant data acquired during a 3-month recording period with five AH-1G's, each equipped with a SIRS recorder. As the documentation of both DT E and IOT E, this report describes the characteristics and functions of the entire system and details the successful performance of the SIRS recorder in the laboratory qualification testing and the flight environment. The SIRS recorder performed as designed, operated reliably, and yielded valid data.

  18. Liver Biochemistry During the Course of Influenza A/H1N1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Seretis, Charalampos; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Salemis, Nikolaos; Pappas, Apostolos; Gemenetzis, George; Seretis, Fotios; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    Despite the multi-systemic effects of influenza A/H1N1 virus, the occurrence of hepatic injury during the natural course of the infection remains a matter of debate. We performed a review of the published clinical studies which assess the above mentioned relationship, reviewing the studies published in PubMed database (English literature), using the key words “H1N1”, “influenza A” and “liver”. We excluded case reports and clinical studies that referred to pediatric and transplanted patients, pregnants and patients with known history of chronic liver diseases. From a total of 96 results, a total of 78 papers met one or more of the exclusion criteria set. Evaluating the remaining 18 published papers, 14 more were excluded as they did not provide any sufficient data, relevant to the subject of our review. Although the analysis of the remaining studies revealed the existence of conflicting results concerning the exact degree and the potential mechanisms of liver injury in H1N1 positive patients, it can be assumed that influenza A/H1N1 virus is -or at least could be- a hepatotropic virus.

  19. AH-64 aviator impressions of IHADSS HMD flight in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2005-05-01

    As part of a 2003 survey during Operation Iraqi Freedom, forty AH-64 Apache aviators were interviewed regarding their experience using the AH-64"s monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD). Participants represented a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours in the OIF theatre of operation. The interview consisted of 12 questions that addressed previously identified potential problem areas (e.g., maintaining full field-of-view [FOV], combiner breakage, and sensor slew rate) and requested participant opinion on the best and worst features of the IHADSS, day versus night use of the IHADSS, and the acceptance of a hypothetical binocular IHADSS design. Participants expressed a desire for a larger FOV; emphasized the impact of poor helmet fit on ability to achieve and maintain a full FOV; decried the overall performance of the current FLIR sensors; and reported that the current slew rates for the PNVS and TADS are slower than desired (worse for TADS), necessitating compensation in normal head movement rates.

  20. Public sources of information and information needs for pandemic influenza A(H1N1).

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching

    2010-12-01

    Providing health information during disease outbreaks is a fundamental component of outbreak control strategies. This study aimed to explore sources of influenza A(H1N1)-related information, specific information needs and preferences of the lay public during the peak of the outbreak. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview of 1,050 respondents was conducted in Malaysia between July 11 and September 12, 2009. Newspaper, television and family were three main sources of information about A(H1N1). There were substantial ethnic differences; the Malays were significantly more likely to identify television as main source, while newspapers and family were identified as the main sources by the Chinese and Indians, respectively. Overall, the two main information needs identified were prevention and treatment. The Malays expressed lesser need for overall information than other ethnic groups. The three most preferred sources of information were television, newspapers and healthcare providers. There were significant positive correlations between amount of information received with knowledge (r = 0.149), perceived susceptibility to infection (r = 0.177), and other behavioral responses. Health information dissemination should be dedicated to meeting the information needs of diverse sociodemographic and ethnic groups. The findings highlight the importance of providing information that increases awareness and behavioral changes in disease prevention yet reduce fear.