Science.gov

Sample records for ah-1 cobra helicopter

  1. EM experiments for computational model validation for AH-1S Cobra Helicopter

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1997-04-06

    The effort described here describes a set of outdoor experiments performed on the AH-1S Cobra helicopter in order to validate and compare to the computational electromagnetic models of the bulk structure of the airframe in the frequency bands up to 4 GHz. Also included in this were coupling measurements to wires and cables inside of the airframe and various cavity to HPM pulse in this frequency range as part of other activities. Additionally, the low power modeling compression will be completed in this time frame.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Steady-State Maneuvering Effects on Transmission Vibration Patterns Recorded in an AH-1 Cobra Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Edward M.; Dzwonczyk, Mark; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Flight experiment was designed primarily to determine the extent to which steady-state maneuvers influence characteristic vibration patterns measured at the input pinion and output annulus gear locations of the main transmission. If results were to indicate that maneuvers systematically influence vibration patterns, more extensive studies would be planned to explore the response surface. It was also designed to collect baseline data for comparison with experimental data to be recorded at a later date from test stands at Glenn Research Center. Finally, because this was the first vibration flight study on the Cobra aircraft, considerable energy was invested in developing an in-flight recording apparatus, as well as exploring acceleration mounting methods, and generally learning about the overall vibratory characteristics of the aircraft itself.

  3. Structural Integrity Recording System (SIR) for U.S. Army AH-1G Helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. G.; Johnson, R. B.; Tyler, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A Structural Integrity Recording System (SIRS) was designed and developed to track the fatigue damage accumulation on 10 critical helicopter components for the subsequent timely replacement of such components for safer and more economical helicopter operation. SIRS comprises three discrete but interrelated subsystems: an airborne microprocessor-based recorder, a portable flight-line data retrieval unit, and a software system. The validation of SIRS, initially configured for the AH-1G helicopter, consisted of two phases. Phase I (Development Test and Evaluation - DT E) covered the design, fabrication, laboratory qualification testing, reliability analysis, and flight-testing of the prototype SIRS recorder. Phase II (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation - IOT E) covered the evaluation of the entire system operation and the resultant data acquired during a 3-month recording period with five AH-1G's, each equipped with a SIRS recorder. As the documentation of both DT E and IOT E, this report describes the characteristics and functions of the entire system and details the successful performance of the SIRS recorder in the laboratory qualification testing and the flight environment. The SIRS recorder performed as designed, operated reliably, and yielded valid data.

  4. Calculation of flight vibration levels of the AH-1G helicopter and correlation with existing flight vibration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ditaranto, R. A.; Sankewitsch, V.

    1989-01-01

    Boeing Helicopters, together with other U.S. Helicopter manufacturers, participated in a finite element applications program to give the United States a superior capability to utilize finite element analysis models in support of helicopter airframe design. The program was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. Under this program, an activity was sponsored to evaluate existing analysis methods applicable to calculate coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. The helicopter used in this evaluation was the AH-1G helicopter. The results of the Boeing Helicopters efforts are summarized. The planned analytical procedure is reviewed. Changes to the planned procedure are discussed, and results of the correlation study are presented.

  5. Investigation of difficult component effects on FEM vibration prediction for the AH-1G helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Secondary structure and damping were found to have significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. The nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomeric mounts on the low-frequency pylon modes below the main rotor were also significant.

  6. Calculation of flight vibration levels of the AH-1G helicopter and correlation with existing flight vibration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopher, R.; Twomey, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley is sponsoring a rotorcraft structural dynamics program with the objective to establish in the U.S. a superior capability to utilize finite element analysis models for calculations to support industrial design of helicopter airframe structures. In the initial phase of the program, teams from the major U.S. manufacturers of helicopter airframes will apply extant finite element analysis methods to calculate loads and vibrations of helicopter airframes, and perform correlations between analysis and measurements. The aforementioned rotorcraft structural dynamics program was given the acronym DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Method for Vibrations). Sikorsky's RDYNE Rotorcraft Dynamics Analysis used for the correlation study, the specifics of the application of RDYNE to the AH-1G, and comparisons of the predictions of the method with flight data for loads and vibrations on the AH-1G are described. RDYNE was able to predict trends of variations of loads and vibrations with airspeed, but in some instances magnitudes differed from measured results by factors of two or three to one. Sensitivities were studied of predictions to rotor inflow modeling, effects of torsional modes, number of blade bending modes, fuselage structural damping, and hub modal content.

  7. Coupled rotor/fuselage dynamic analysis of the AH-1G helicopter and correlation with flight vibrations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, J. C.; Cronkhite, J. D.; Dompka, R. V.; Perry, K. S.; Rogers, J. P.; Sadler, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Under a research program designated Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), existing analytical methods are used for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM), which has been developed, extensively documented, and correlated with ground vibration test. One procedure that was used for predicting coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations using the advanced Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Program C81 and NASTRAN is summarized. Detailed descriptions of the analytical formulation of rotor dynamics equations, fuselage dynamic equations, coupling between the rotor and fuselage, and solutions to the total system of equations in C81 are included. Analytical predictions of hub shears for main rotor harmonics 2p, 4p, and 6p generated by C81 are used in conjunction with 2p OLS measured control loads and a 2p lateral tail rotor gearbox force, representing downwash impingement on the vertical fin, to excite the NASTRAN model. NASTRAN is then used to correlate with measured OLS flight test vibrations. Blade load comparisons predicted by C81 showed good agreement. In general, the fuselage vibration correlations show good agreement between anslysis and test in vibration response through 15 to 20 Hz.

  8. AH-1S communication switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Shively, Robert; Bick, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    The C-6533/ARC communication system as installed on the test AH-1E Cobra helicopter was modified to allow discrete radio selection of all aircraft radios at the cyclic radio/intercommunication system switch. The current Cobra-fleet use of the C-6533 system is cumbersome, particularly during low-altitude operations. Operationally, the current system C-6533 configuration and design requires the pilot to estimate when he can safely remove his hand from an active flight control to select radios during low-altitude flight. The pilot must then physically remove his hand from the flight control, look inside the cockpit to select and verify the radio selection and then effect the selected radio transmission by activating the radio/ICS switch on the cyclic. This condition is potentially hazardous, especially during low-level flight at night in degraded weather. To improve pilot performance, communications effectiveness, and safety, manprint principles were utilized in the selection of a design modification. The modified C-6533 design was kept as basic as possible for potential Cobra-fleet modification. The communications system was modified and the design was subsequently flight-tested by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate and NASA at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California. The design modification enables the Cobra pilot to maintain hands-on flight controls while selecting radios during nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight without looking inside the cockpit which resulted in reduced pilot workload ratings, better pilot handling quality ratings and increased flight safety for the NOE flight environment.

  9. Investigation of difficult component effects on finite element model vibration prediction for the Bell AH-1G helicopter. Volume 1: Ground vibration test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.

    1989-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS) program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Previous correlations of the AH-1G showed good agreement between NASTRAN and tests through 15 to 20 Hz, but poor agreement in the higher frequency range of 20 to 30 Hz. Thus, this effort emphasized the higher frequency airframe vibration response correlations and identified areas that need further R and T work. To conduct the investigations, selected difficult components (main rotor pylon, secondary structure, nonstructural doors/panels, landing gear, engine, fuel, etc.) were systematically removed to quantify their effects on overall vibratory response of the airframe. The entire effort was planned and documented, and the results reviewed by NASA and industry experts in order to ensure scientific control of the testing, analysis, and correlation exercise. In particular, secondary structure and damping had significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. Also, the nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomer mounts were significant on the low frequency pylon modes below main rotor 1p (5.4 Hz). The results of the ground vibration testing are presented.

  10. Correlation of AH-1G helicopter flight vibration data and tailboom static test data with NASTRAN analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Wilson, H. E.; Berry, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Level flight airframe vibration at main rotor excitation frequencies was calculated. A NASTRAN tailboom analysis was compared with test data for evaluation of methods used to determine effective skin in a semimonocoque sheet-stringer structure. The flight vibration correlation involved comparison of level flight vibration for two helicopter configurations: clean wing, at light gross weight and wing stores at heavy gross weight. In the tailboom correlation, deflections and internal loads were compared using static test data and a NASTRAN analysis. An iterative procedure was used to determine the amount of effective skin of buckled panels under compression load.

  11. Cobra communications switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.; Haworth, Loran A.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Murray, F. Gerald

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a design modification to reduce the visual and manual workload associated with the radio selection and communications tasks in the U.S. Army AH-1 Cobra helicopter. The modification involves the integration of the radio selection and microphone actuating tasks into a single operation controlled by the transmit-intercom switch. Ground-based and flight tests were conducted to evaluate the modified configuration during twelve flight tasks. The results show that the proposed configuration performs twice as fast as the original configuration.

  12. The transition of a real-time single-rotor helicopter simulation program to a supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the conversion effort and results of a real-time flight simulation application transition to a CONVEX supercomputer. Enclosed is a detailed description of the conversion process and a brief description of the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) flight simulation application program structure. Currently, this simulation program may be configured to represent Sikorsky S-61 helicopter (a five-blade, single-rotor, commercial passenger-type helicopter) or an Army Cobra helicopter (either the AH-1 G or AH-1 S model). This report refers to the Sikorsky S-61 simulation program since it is the most frequently used configuration.

  13. Summary of the modeling and test correlations of a NASTRAN finite element vibrations model for the AH-1G helicopter, task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.; Dompka, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The AH-1G NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) is described and the correlations with measured data that were conducted to verify the model are summarized. Comparisons of the AH-1G NASTRAN FEM calculations with measured data include the following: (1) fuselage and tailboom static load deflection (stiffness) testing, (2) airframe ground vibration testing (0-30 H<), (3) airframe flight vibration testing (main rotor, 2,4, and 6/rev), and (4) tailboom effective skin static testing. A description of the modeling rationale and techniques used to develop the NASTRAN FEM is presented in conjunction with all previous correlation work. In general, the correlations show good agreement between analysis and test in stiffness and vibration response through 15 to 20 Hz. For higher frequencies (equal to or greater than 4/rev (21.6 Hz)), the vibration responses generally did not agree well. Also, the lateral (2/rev (10.8 Hz)) flight vibration responses were much lower in the FEM than test, indicating that there is a significant excitation source other than at the main rotor hub that is affecting the lateral vibrations, such as downwash impingement on the vertical tail.

  14. Modification Of A Communication Switch In A Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Shively, Robert; Bick, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes preliminary study of modification of electronic circuitry connected to communication-channel-selecting switches in AH-1 Cobra helicopter. Switches in question are foot switch and cyclic thumb-wheel switch mounted on joystick flight control. Modification enables pilots and other crewmembers to select radio channels or intercommunication with less diversion of attention from flight control and other critical tasks. Intended to enhance safety and performance in critical situations.

  15. Hot gas ingestion effects on fuel control surge recovery and AH-1 rotor drive train torque spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarski, Frank; Desai, Mihir; Books, Martin; Zagranski, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished through computer simulation to understand the impact of the hydromechanical turbine assembly (TA) fuel control on rocket gas ingestion induced engine surges on the AH-1 (Cobra) helicopter. These surges excite the lightly damped torsional modes of the Cobra rotor drive train and can cause overtorqueing of the tail rotor shaft. The simulation studies show that the hydromechanical TA control has a negligible effect on drive train resonances because its response is sufficiently attenuated at the resonant frequencies. However, a digital electronic control working through the TA control's separate, emergency fuel metering system has been identified as a solution to the overtorqueing problem. State-of-the-art software within the electronic control can provide active damping of the rotor drive train to eliminate excessive torque spikes due to any disturbances including engine surges and aggressive helicopter maneuvers. Modifications to the existing TA hydromechanical control are relatively minor, and existing engine sensors can be utilized by the electronic control. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) with hydromechanical backup using the existing TA control enhances flight safety, improves helicopter performance, reduces pilot workload, and provides a substantial payback for very little investment.

  16. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  17. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  18. 'Cobra Hoods'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between left and right eye images of the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center top). The images were taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. These pictures was captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  19. Correlation of AH-1G airframe test data with a NASTRAN mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Test data was provided for evaluating a mathematical vibration model of the Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe. The math model was developed and analyzed using the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program. Data from static and dynamic tests were used for comparison with the math model. Static tests of the fuselage and tailboom were conducted to verify the stiffness representation of the NASTRAN model. Dynamic test data were obtained from shake tests of the airframe and were used to evaluate the NASTRAN model for representing the low frequency (below 30 Hz) vibration response of the airframe.

  20. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  1. The COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. R.

    2008-07-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large array of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The COBRA collaboration are currently operating a small proto-type array of crystals in a low-background environment. This paper presents the current status of the experiment, results from current and previous proto-types and future prospects for COBRA.

  2. Collaborative Beamfocusing Radio (COBRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Jeremy P.; Hsu, Mark J.; Smith, David; Husain, Anis

    2013-05-01

    A Ziva team has recently demonstrated a novel technique called Collaborative Beamfocusing Radios (COBRA) which enables an ad-hoc collection of distributed commercial off-the-shelf software defined radios to coherently align and beamform to a remote radio. COBRA promises to operate even in high multipath and non-line-of-sight environments as well as mobile applications without resorting to computationally expensive closed loop techniques that are currently unable to operate with significant movement. COBRA exploits two key technologies to achieve coherent beamforming. The first is Time Reversal (TR) which compensates for multipath and automatically discovers the optimal spatio-temporal matched filter to enable peak signal gains (up to 20 dB) and diffraction-limited focusing at the intended receiver in NLOS and severe multipath environments. The second is time-aligned buffering which enables TR to synchronize distributed transmitters into a collaborative array. This time alignment algorithm avoids causality violations through the use of reciprocal buffering. Preserving spatio-temporal reciprocity through the TR capture and retransmission process achieves coherent alignment across multiple radios at ~GHz carriers using only standard quartz-oscillators. COBRA has been demonstrated in the lab, aligning two off-the-shelf software defined radios over-the-air to an accuracy of better than 2 degrees of carrier alignment at 450 MHz. The COBRA algorithms are lightweight, with computation in 5 ms on a smartphone class microprocessor. COBRA also has low start-up latency, achieving high accuracy from a cold-start in 30 ms. The COBRA technique opens up a large number of new capabilities in communications, and electronic warfare including selective spatial jamming, geolocation and anti-geolocation.

  3. The modified Cobra Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.J.; Drayer, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Cobra Seal was developed in response to the International Atomic Energy Agency's request for an in situ verifiable seal. The Type E metal cap seal, still widely used by the IAEA, must be removed and returned to Agency headquarters for verification. The Cobra Seal allows an inspector to verify seal identity and integrity on site, without removing the seal. The seal consists of a loop of multi-strand fiber optic cable, which can be routed around or through the object to be sealed, and a seal body that secures the ends of the fiber optic cable. A cutting blade in the seal body randomly cuts a portion of the optical fibers in the cable. After the seal assembly is completed, a reference image is recorded of the unique pattern of light spots produced when the seal face is illuminated. Subsequent photographs of the seal pattern are compared to the original to establish the seal identity and integrity. This paper reviews the improvements and the technology of the cobra seal system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  5. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  6. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  7. Helicopter Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Langley Research Center has done extensive research into the effectiveness of tail boom strakes on conventional tail rotor helicopters. (A strake is a "spoiler" whose purpose is to alter the airflow around an aerodynamic body.) By placing strakes on a tail boom, the air loading can be changed, thrust and power requirements of the tail rotor can be reduced, and helicopter low speed flight handling qualities are improved. This research led to the incorporation of tail boom strakes on three production-type commercial helicopters manufactured by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company.

  8. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Lattes, R; Jacob, N; de la Fuente, J; Fragale, G; Massari, P

    2010-04-01

    One of the concerns regarding the pandemic of novel influenza A/H1N1 virus is its potential to hamper transplant programs if the decision is made that organs from donors with influenza A/H1N1 should not be used. Evidence of transmissibility through organ transplantation is speculative at best. We report the outcome of 2 kidney transplant recipients who received kidneys from the same deceased donor, in whom the diagnosis of infection by the novel virus became available only after engraftment. The donor also had received a complete course of antiviral treatment before donation. The recipients were transplanted at 2 different facilities and were managed differently. Neither recipient developed flu syndrome, and both had an uneventful outcome. It is possible to speculate that kidneys from donors who have had confirmed influenza A/H1N1 and who have received antiviral treatment can be safely used in transplantation. PMID:20180928

  9. Status and perspectives of COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, M.; Zuber, K.

    2013-04-01

    The COBRA experiment is a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. Currently COBRA is collecting data from 32 coplanar grid (CPG) detectors installed in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. This serves as a prototype for a proposed design of over 100 kg target mass in order to achieve the sensitivity necessary to probe new parameter space for 0νββ. Pixelated detector allowing tracking and thus particle identification are also explored as a unique option in double beta searches.

  10. A compilation and analysis of helicopter handling qualities data. Volume 1: Data compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.; Vanwinkle, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A collection of basic descriptive data, stability derivatives and transfer functions for six degrees of freedom, quasi-static model is introduced. The data are arranged in a common, compact format for each of the five helicopters represented. The vehicles studied include the BO-105, AH-1h, and the CH53D.

  11. Helicopter theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentation is made of the engineering analysis methods used in the design, development and evaluation of helicopters. After an introduction covering the fundamentals of helicopter rotors, configuration and operation, rotary wing history, and the analytical notation used in the text, the following topics are discussed: (1) vertical flight, including momentum, blade element and vortex theories, induced power, vertical drag and ground effect; (2) forward flight, including in addition to momentum and vortex theory for this mode such phenomena as rotor flapping and its higher harmonics, tip loss and root cutout, compressibility and pitch-flap coupling; (3) hover and forward flight performance assessment; (4) helicopter rotor design; (5) rotary wing aerodynamics; (6) rotary wing structural dynamics, including flutter, flap-lag dynamics ground resonance and vibration and loads; (7) helicopter aeroelasticity; (8) stability and control (flying qualities); (9) stall; and (10) noise.

  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas. PMID:24565026

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  14. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  15. Whole-Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging pathogen of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of the septicemic A. hydrophila AH-1 strain, belonging to the serotype O11, and the first mesophilic Aeromonas with surface layer (S-layer) to be sequenced. PMID:27587829

  16. Twin Peaks: A/H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus Infection and Vaccination in Norway, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Dos Santos, Gaël; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaccination campaigns against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus (A/H1N1p) began in autumn 2009 in Europe, after the declaration of the pandemic at a global level. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of individuals vaccinated against A/H1N1p in Norway who were already infected (asymptomatically or symptomatically) by A/H1N1p before vaccination, using a mathematical model. Methods A dynamic, mechanistic, mathematical model of A/H1N1p transmission was developed for the Norwegian population. The model parameters were estimated by calibrating the model-projected number of symptomatic A/H1N1p cases to the number of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1p cases reported to the surveillance system, accounting for potential under-reporting. It was assumed in the base case that the likelihood of vaccination was independent of infection/disease state. A sensitivity analysis explored the effects of four scenarios in which current or previous symptomatic A/H1N1p infection would influence the likelihood of being vaccinated. Results The number of model-projected symptomatic A/H1N1p cases by week during the epidemic, accounting for under-reporting and timing, closely matched that of the laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1p cases reported to the surveillance system. The model-projected incidence of symptomatic A/H1N1p infection was 27% overall, 55% in people <10 years old and 41% in people 10–20 years old. The model-projected percentage of individuals vaccinated against A/H1N1p who were already infected with A/H1N1p before being vaccinated was 56% overall, 62% in people <10 years old and 66% in people 10–20 years old. The results were sensitive to assumptions about the independence of vaccination and infection; however, even when current or previous symptomatic A/H1N1p infection was assumed to reduce the likelihood of vaccination, the estimated percentage of individuals who were infected before vaccination remained at least 32% in all age groups. Conclusion This analysis suggests that over half the people vaccinated against A/H1N1p in Norway during the 2009 pandemic may already have been infected by A/H1N1p before being vaccinated. PMID:27010830

  17. Optimization of helicopter airframe structures for vibration reduction considerations, formulations and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, T. Sreekanta

    1988-01-01

    Several key issues involved in the application of formal optimization technique to helicopter airframe structures for vibration reduction are addressed. Considerations which are important in the optimization of real airframe structures are discussed. Considerations necessary to establish relevant set of design variables, constraints and objectives which are appropriate to conceptual, preliminary, detailed design, ground and flight test phases of airframe design are discussed. A methodology is suggested for optimization of airframes in various phases of design. Optimization formulations that are unique to helicopter airframes are described and expressions for vibration related functions are derived. Using a recently developed computer code, the optimization of a Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe is demonstrated.

  18. High Rate of A(H1N1)pdm09 Infections among Rural Thai Villagers, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khuntirat, Benjawan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Krueger, Whitney S.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Blair, Patrick J.; Putnam, Shannon D.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Buddhari, Darunee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L.; Friary, John A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 emerged in Thailand in 2009. A prospective longitudinal adult cohort and household transmission study of influenza-like illness (ILI) was ongoing in rural Thailand at the time of emergence. Symptomatic and subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infection rates in the cohort and among household members were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 800 Thai adults underwent active community-based surveillance for ILI from 2008–2010. Acute respiratory samples from ILI episodes were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRT-PCR; acute and 60-day convalescent blood samples were tested by A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Enrollment, 12-month and 24-month follow-up blood samples were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion by HI. Household members of influenza A-infected cohort subjects with ILI were enrolled in household transmission investigations in which day 0 and 60 blood samples and acute respiratory samples were tested by either qRT-PCR or HI for A(H1N1)pdm09. Seroconversion between annual blood samples without A(H1N1)pdm09-positive ILI was considered as subclinical infection. Results The 2-yr cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the cohort in 2009/2010 was 10.8% (84/781) with an annual incidence of 1.2% in 2009 and 9.7% in 2010; 83.3% of infections were subclinical (50% in 2009 and 85.9% in 2010). The 2-yr cumulative incidence was lowest (5%) in adults born ≤1957. The A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts was 47.2% (17/36); 47.1% of these infections were subclinical. The highest A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts (70.6%, 12/17) occurred among children born between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion Subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infections in Thai adults occurred frequently and accounted for a greater proportion of all A(H1N1)pdm09 infections than previously estimated. The role of subclinical infections in A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission has important implications in formulating strategies to predict and prevent the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 and other influenza virus strains. PMID:25188434

  19. Status of the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2009-11-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg×days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  20. Status of the COBRA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, Kai

    2009-11-09

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of {sup 113}Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kgxdays of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  1. 'Cobra Hoods' Coming At You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image taken by the left and right eyes of the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center). Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. The stereo pictures making up this image were captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  2. Course of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Dutch patients

    PubMed Central

    Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; Meijer, Adam; van Gageldonk‐Lafeber, Arianne B.; van der Lubben, Mariken; van Beek, Janko; Donker, Gé A.; Prins, Jan M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Boskamp, Simone; Isken, Leslie D.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Friesema et al. (2012). Course of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Dutch patients. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e16–e20. The clinical dynamics of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 infections in 61 laboratory‐confirmed Dutch cases were examined. An episode lasted a median of 7·5 days of which 2 days included fever. Respiratory symptoms resolved slowly, while systemic symptoms peaked early in the episode and disappeared quickly. Severity of each symptom was rated highest in the first few days. Furthermore, diarrhoea was negatively associated with viral load, but not with faecal excretion of influenza virus. Cases with comorbidities appeared to have higher viral loads than the cases without, suggesting a less effective immune response. These results complement information obtained through traditional surveillance. PMID:22372759

  3. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Awoume, Félix; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequenced and harbored 8 genes similar to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genes circulating in humans in 2012–2013, suggesting human-to-swine transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25778544

  4. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review

    PubMed Central

    Boëlle, Pierre‐Yves; Ansart, Séverine; Cori, Anne; Valleron, Alain‐Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Boëlle P‐Y et al. (2011) Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 306–316. Background  The new influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), identified in mid‐2009, rapidly spread over the world. Estimating the transmissibility of this new virus was a public health priority. Methods  We reviewed all studies presenting estimates of the serial interval or generation time and the reproduction number of the A/H1N1 (2009) virus infection. Results  Thirteen studies documented the serial interval from household or close‐contact studies, with overall mean 3 days (95% CI: 2·4, 3·6); taking into account tertiary transmission reduced this estimate to 2·6 days. Model‐based estimates were more variable, from 1·9 to 6 days. Twenty‐four studies reported reproduction numbers for community‐based epidemics at the town or country level. The range was 1·2–3·1, with larger estimates reported at the beginning of the pandemic. Accounting for under‐reporting in the early period of the pandemic and limiting variation because of the choice of the generation time interval, the reproduction number was between 1·2 and 2·3 with median 1·5. Discussion  The serial interval of A/H1N1 (2009) flu was typically short, with mean value similar to the seasonal flu. The estimates of the reproduction number were more variable. Compared with past influenza pandemics, the median reproduction number was similar (1968) or slightly smaller (1889, 1918, 1957). PMID:21668690

  5. Hospitalization in two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C N J; Mytton, O T; McLean, E M; Rutter, P D; Pebody, R G; Sachedina, N; White, P J; Hawkins, C; Evans, B; Waight, P A; Ellis, J; Bermingham, A; Donaldson, L J; Catchpole, M

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the population risks of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Understanding these risks is important for patients, clinicians and policy makers. This study aimed to clarify these uncertainties. A national surveillance system was established for patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England. Information was captured on demographics, pre-existing conditions, treatment and outcomes. The relative risks of hospitalization associated with pre-existing conditions were estimated by combining the captured data with population prevalence estimates. A total of 2416 hospitalizations were reported up to 6 January 2010. Within the population, 4·7 people/100,000 were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The estimated hospitalization rate of cases showed a U-shaped distribution with age. Chronic kidney disease, chronic neurological disease, chronic respiratory disease and immunosuppression were each associated with a 10- to 20-fold increased risk of hospitalization. Patients who received antiviral medication within 48 h of symptom onset were less likely to be admitted to critical care than those who received them after this time (adjusted odds ratio 0·64, 95% confidence interval 0·44-0·94, P=0·024). In England the risk of hospitalization with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has been concentrated in the young and those with pre-existing conditions. By quantifying these risks, this study will prove useful in planning for the next winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, and for future pandemics. PMID:21108872

  6. Adaptation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in experimental mouse models.

    PubMed

    Prokopyeva, E A; Sobolev, I A; Prokopyev, M V; Shestopalov, A M

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, three mouse-adapted variants of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were obtained by lung-to-lung passages of BALB/c, C57BL/6z and CD1 mice. The significantly increased virulence and pathogenicity of all of the mouse-adapted variants induced 100% mortality in the adapted mice. Genetic analysis indicated that the increased virulence of all of the mouse-adapted variants reflected the incremental acquisition of several mutations in PB2, PB1, HA, NP, NA, and NS2 proteins. Identical amino acid substitutions were also detected in all of the mouse-adapted variants of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, including PB2 (K251R), PB1 (V652A), NP (I353V), NA (I106V, N248D) and NS1 (G159E). Apparently, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus easily adapted to the host after serial passages in the lungs, inducing 100% lethality in the last experimental group. However, cross-challenge revealed that not all adapted variants are pathogenic for different laboratory mice. Such important results should be considered when using the influenza mice model. PMID:26829383

  7. COBRA meteor radar antenna designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohamad

    A meteor radar system is one of the effective remote sensing techniques in measuring atmospheric parameters such as wind velocities, temperature, pressure and density which are essential in understanding the atmospheric dynamics in the Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Previous studies of very high frequency (VHF) meteors radar systems suggest that the minimum error for the estimation of the horizontal wind velocity from a radar interferometry algorithm should occur when the main beams of the transmit and receive antennas are pointing to between 30° to 50° elevation angles. Therefore, an ideal antenna design for VHF meteor radar systems would produce a pencil beam radiation pattern at a 45° elevation angle. However, both the transmit and receive antenna of the COBRA meteor radar system have major beams are pointing to between 60° to 65° degree elevation angles above a perfect ground plane. Besides transmitting maximum power at low elevation angles, the current antennas of the COBRA meteor radar are highly dependent on the ground plane to radiate maximum gains to between 60° to 65° degree elevation angles. Typically, the earth ground is considered as a common ground plane for many VHF antenna with acceptable performance. However, the earth ground could not effectively reflect most of the power at all time. Because the antennas are dependent on ground to radiate power at certain direction, an artificial ground plane or ground screen has to be built for the COBRA antenna system at the South Pole station, which is located on top of more than 2000 meter thick of ice sheet. This dissertation focuses on the analysis of the performance of the individual current antenna design with four different conditions namely in free space, above an infinite ground, lossy ground and finite ground. In the analysis of finite ground, the effects of varying wire spacing and the size of finite ground to the radiation pattern of a cross folded dipole antenna are investigated

  8. Evaluation of Standard Gear Metrics in Helicopter Flight Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, M.; Pryor, A. H.; Huff, E. M.

    2002-01-01

    sense that the rpm, torque and forces on the gear have been held steady. For gears used in a dynamic environment such as that occurring in aircraft, the rpm, torque and forces on the gear are constantly changing. The authors have measured significant variation in rpm and torque in the transmissions of helicopters in controlled steady flight conditions flown by highly proficient test pilots. Statistical analyses of the data taken in flight show significant nonstationarity in the vibration measurements. These deviations from stationarity may increase false alarms in gear monitoring during aircraft flight. In the proposed paper, the authors will study vibration measurements made in flight on an AH- 1 Cobra and an OH-58C Kiowa helicopters. The primary focus will be the development of a methodology to assess the impact of nonstationarity on false alarms. Issues to be addressed include how time synchronous averages are constructed from raw data as well as how lack of stationarity effects the behavior of single value metrics. Emphasis will be placed on the occurrence of false alarms with the use of standard metrics. In order to maintain an acceptable level of false alarms in the flight environment, this study will also address the determination of appropriate threshold levels, which may need to be higher than for test rigs.

  9. Field testing of the Cobra Seal System

    SciTech Connect

    Yellin, E.; Vodrazka, P. ); Ystesund, K.; Drayer, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The Cobra Seal System consists of a passive fiber optic seal and verification equipment which have been modified to take advantage of current technology. The seal permits on-site verification without requiring replacement of the seal. The modifications to the original Cobra Seal System extended the maximum fiber optic cable length from 1 meter to 10 meters. This improvement allowed the Cobra Seal to be considered for application on dry irradiated fuel storage canisters at two Canadian facilities. These canisters are located in an exterior environment exposed to extreme weather conditions. This paper describe the application of the Cobra Seal to these canisters, a housing for the protection of the Cobra Seal body from the environment, and some preliminary results of the IAEA field tests. 4 refs.

  10. Skycrane Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane helicopter, which saw service with the U.S.Army as the CH-54 Tarhe, flew at Langley in its later version, the CH-54B. The 'Crane' was used in studies into the handling of large helicopters, and as such sported various loads attached to the airframe. The Army retired its Skycranes in the 1970s and they were completely removed from military service in the 1980s. Ex-military Skycranes entered commercial service, where they are used in various heavy-lift roles, including the lumber industry. The U.S. military preferred a heavy-lift aircraft that also had a cabin capable of carrying cargo and troops.

  11. Helicopter Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Exterior and interior noise problems are addressed both from the physics and engineering as well as the human factors point of view. The role of technology in closing the gap between what the customers and regulating agencies would like to have and what is available is explored. Noise regulation concepts, design, operations and testing for noise control, helicopter noise prediction, and research tools and measurements are among the topics covered.

  12. An Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Hemagglutinin Vaccine Produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Yáñez, José M.; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Mendoza-Ochoa, Gonzalo I.; García-Echauri, Sergio A.; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Bulnes-Abundis, David; Salgado-Gallegos, Johari; Lara-Mayorga, Itzel M.; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; León-Angel, Felipe O.; Rivero-Aranda, Ramón E.; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Zertuche-Guerra, Manuel I.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; White, Stephen W.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Russell, Charles J.; Alvarez, Mario M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1/2009 influenza pandemic made evident the need for faster and higher-yield methods for the production of influenza vaccines. Platforms based on virus culture in mammalian or insect cells are currently under investigation. Alternatively, expression of fragments of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in prokaryotic systems can potentially be the most efficacious strategy for the manufacture of large quantities of influenza vaccine in a short period of time. Despite experimental evidence on the immunogenic potential of HA protein constructs expressed in bacteria, it is still generally accepted that glycosylation should be a requirement for vaccine efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings We expressed the globular HA receptor binding domain, referred to here as HA63–286-RBD, of the influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus in Escherichia coli using a simple, robust and scalable process. The recombinant protein was refolded and purified from the insoluble fraction of the cellular lysate as a single species. Recombinant HA63–286-RBD appears to be properly folded, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation and bio-recognition assays. It binds specifically to serum antibodies from influenza A/H1N1/2009 patients and was found to be immunogenic, to be capable of triggering the production of neutralizing antibodies, and to have protective activity in the ferret model. Conclusions/Significance Projections based on our production/purification data indicate that this strategy could yield up to half a billion doses of vaccine per month in a medium-scale pharmaceutical production facility equipped for bacterial culture. Also, our findings demonstrate that glycosylation is not a mandatory requirement for influenza vaccine efficacy. PMID:20661476

  13. Genetic variants associated with severe pneumonia in A/H1N1 influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, J; Buendía-Roldán, I; Zhao, Y; Jiménez, L; Torres, D; Romo, J; Ramírez, G; Cruz, A; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Sheu, C-C; Chen, F; Su, L; Tager, A M; Pardo, A; Selman, M; Christiani, D C

    2012-03-01

    The A/H1N1 influenza strain isolated in Mexico in 2009 caused severe pulmonary illness in a small number of exposed individuals. Our objective was to determine the influence of genetic factors on their susceptibility. We carried out a case-control association study genotyping 91 patients with confirmed severe pneumonia from A/H1N1 infection and 98 exposed but asymptomatic household contacts, using the HumanCVD BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Four risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly (p<0.0001) associated with severe pneumonia: rs1801274 (Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G, low-affinity IIA, receptor (FCGR2A) gene, chromosome 1; OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.69-4.25); rs9856661 (gene unknown, chromosome 3; OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.64-4.18); rs8070740 (RPA interacting protein (RPAIN) gene, chromosome 17; OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.63-4.39); and rs3786054 (complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) gene, chromosome 17; OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.89-5.17). All SNP associations remained significant after adjustment for sex and comorbidities. The SNPs on chromosome 17 were in linkage disequilibrium. These findings revealed that gene polymorphisms located in chromosomes 1 and 17 might influence susceptibility to development of severe pneumonia in A/H1N1 infection. Two of these SNPs are mapped within genes (FCGR2A, C1QBP) involved in the handling of immune complexes and complement activation, respectively, suggesting that these genes may confer risk due to increased activation of host immunity. PMID:21737555

  14. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14

    PubMed Central

    Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Fry, Alicia M.; Su, Su; Nguyen, Ha T.; Elal, Anwar Abd; Negron, Elizabeth; Hand, Julie; Garten, Rebecca J.; Barnes, John; Xiyan, Xu; Villanueva, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    We report characteristics of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and patients infected with these viruses in the United States. During 2013–14, fifty-nine (1.2%) of 4,968 analyzed US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses had the H275Y oseltamivir resistance–conferring neuraminidase substitution. Our results emphasize the need for local surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility among circulating influenza viruses. PMID:25532050

  15. Molecular and Chemical Analysis of the Lipopolysaccharide from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Canals, Rocío; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    A group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. veronii biovar sobria strains isolated from humans and fish have been described; these strains classified to serotype O11 are serologically related by their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (O-polysaccharide), and the presence of an S-layer consisting of multiple copies of a crystalline surface array protein with a molecular weight of 52 kDa in the form of a crystalline surface array which lies peripheral to the cell wall. A. hydrophila strain AH-1 is one of them. We isolated the LPS from this strain and determined the structure of the O-polysaccharide, which was similar to that previously described for another strain of serotype O11. The genetics of the O11-antigen showed the genes (wbO11 cluster) in two sections separated by genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the S-layer. The O11-antigen LPS is an example of an ABC-2-transporter-dependent pathway for O-antigen heteropolysaccharide (disaccharide) assembly. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of the LPS core (waaO11 cluster) were also identified in three different chromosome regions being nearly identical to the ones described for A. hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34). The genetic data and preliminary chemical analysis indicated that the LPS core for strain AH-1 is identical to the one for strain AH-3. PMID:25874921

  16. [Direct immunofluorescence assay performance in diagnosis of the Influenza A(H1N1) virus].

    PubMed

    Pianciola, Luis; González, Gladys; Mazzeo, Melina; Navello, Mariano; Quidel, Natalia; Bulgheroni, María Fernanda

    2010-06-01

    By 25 April 2009, less than one month after the first human with Influenza A(H1N1) virus was detected in Mexico, the disease had already spread to more than 40 countries, with over 10,000 cases reported. Due to its unpredictability, this type of virus requires appropriate, reliable, and safe diagnostic methods that are also accessible to clinical laboratories. Through the analysis of 291 samples taken from patients with suspected Influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in Neuquén, Argentina, this study compares the two diagnostic methods used simultaneously: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). DFA had a sensitivity of 44.4%, a specificity of 99.6%, a positive predictive value of 95.2%, and a negative predictive value of 90.7%. Positive results obtained with this method can be considered true positives. A negative result does not rule out the presence of the virus. In this case, the sample should be examined by RT-PCR. Out of a total of 291 samples, there were 45 positive results with RT-PCR and 21 positive results with DFA. PMID:20721445

  17. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  18. Evaluation of safety of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Francesco; Da Cas, Roberto; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Gramegna, Maria; Venegoni, Mauro; Zocchetti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes associated with the administration of an MF59 adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy. Design Historical cohort study. Setting Singleton pregnancies of the resident population of the Lombardy region of Italy. Participants All deliveries between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2010. Data on exposure to A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine, pregnancy, and birth outcomes were retrieved from regional databases. Vaccinated and non-vaccinated women were compared in a propensity score matched analysis to estimate risks of adverse outcomes. Main outcome measures Main maternal outcomes included type of delivery, admission to intensive care unit, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes; fetal and neonatal outcomes included perinatal deaths, small for gestational age births, and congenital malformations. Results Among the 86 171 eligible pregnancies, 6246 women were vaccinated (3615 (57.9%) in the third trimester and 2557 (40.9%) in the second trimester). No difference was observed in terms of spontaneous deliveries (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.08) or admissions to intensive care units (0.95, 0.47 to 1.88), whereas a limited increase in the prevalence of gestational diabetes (1.26, 1.04 to 1.53) and eclampsia (1.19, 1.04 to 1.39) was seen in vaccinated women. Rates of fetal and neonatal outcomes were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated women. A slight increase in congenital malformations, although not statistically significant, was present in the exposed cohort (1.14, 0.99 to 1.31). Conclusions Our findings add relevant information about the safety of the MF59 adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccine in pregnancy. Residual confounding may partly explain the increased risk of some maternal outcomes. Meta-analysis of published studies should be conducted to further clarify the risk of infrequent outcomes, such as specific congenital malformations. PMID:24874845

  19. Double Beta Decay Measurement with COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeanne R.

    2011-12-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large array of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Extensive simulation studies and data collected with a small proto-type experiment have been used to address the major design specifications for a large scale experiment sensitive to 116Cd half-lives in excess of 1026 years. The current and future prospects of the COBRA experiment are presented.

  20. Transmission of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic viruses in Australian swine

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi‐Mo; Iannello, Pina; Smith, Ina; Watson, James; Barr, Ian G.; Daniels, Peter; Komadina, Naomi; Harrower, Bruce; Wong, Frank Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Deng et al. (2012). Transmission of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic viruses in Australian swine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e42–e47. Background  Swine have receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses and are a natural host for influenza A viruses. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (H1N1pdm) virus that was derived from avian, human and swine influenza viruses has infected pigs in various countries. Objectives  To investigate the relationship between the H1N1pdm viruses isolated from piggery outbreaks in Australia and human samples associated with one of the outbreaks by phylogenetic analysis, and to determine whether there was any reassortment event occurring during the human‐pig interspecies transmission. Methods  Real‐time RT‐PCR and full genome sequencing were carried out on RNA isolated from nasal swabs and/or virus cultures. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Geneious package. Results  The influenza H1N1pdm outbreaks were detected in three pig farms located in three different states in Australia. Further analysis of the Queensland outbreak led to the identification of two distinct virus strains in the pigs. Two staff working in the same piggery were also infected with the same two strains found in the pigs. Full genome sequence analysis on the viruses isolated from pigs and humans did not identify any reassortment of these H1N1pdm viruses with seasonal or avian influenza A viruses. Conclusions  This is the first report of swine infected with influenza in Australia and marked the end of the influenza‐free era for the Australian swine industry. Although no reassortment was detected in these cases, the ability of these viruses to cross between pigs and humans highlights the importance of monitoring swine for novel influenza infections. PMID:22336333

  1. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted. PMID:23379315

  2. Modelling influenza A(H1N1) 2009 epidemics using a random network in a distributed computing environment.

    PubMed

    González-Parra, Gilberto; Villanueva, Rafael-J; Ruiz-Baragaño, Javier; Moraño, Jose-A

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a random network model for simulating and understanding the epidemics of influenza A(H1N1). The proposed model is used to simulate the transmission process of influenza A(H1N1) in a community region of Venezuela using distributed computing in order to accomplish many realizations of the underlying random process. These large scale epidemic simulations have recently become an important application of high-performance computing. The network model proposed performs better than the traditional epidemic model based on ordinary differential equations since it adjusts better to the irregularity of the real world data. In addition, the network model allows the consideration of many possibilities regarding the spread of influenza at the population level. The results presented here show how well the SEIR model fits the data for the AH1N1 time series despite the irregularity of the data and returns parameter values that are in good agreement with the medical data regarding AH1N1 influenza virus. This versatile network model approach may be applied to the simulation of the transmission dynamics of several epidemics in human networks. In addition, the simulation can provide useful information for the understanding, prediction and control of the transmission of influenza A(H1N1) epidemics. PMID:25559047

  3. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-07-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  4. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-01-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  5. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v viruses currently circulating in New Zealand are sensitive to oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Hall, R J; Peacey, M P; Ralston, J C; Bocacao, J; Ziki, M; Gunn, W; Quirk, A; Huang, Q S

    2009-07-30

    New Zealand, like other southern hemisphere countries with a temperate climate, has been in the winter period with seasonal influenza activity. New Zealand has also experienced a dramatic increase in the number of cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus. Early reports from the northern hemisphere at the beginning of the pandemic showed that the virus was sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir. In this study we report that pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v viruses currently circulating in New Zealand are sensitive to oseltamivir, but seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses - the co-circulating predominant seasonal strain, is resistant to oseltamivir. PMID:19643060

  6. Prototype COBRA near-real-time processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earp, Samuel L.; Marshall, J. W.; Anthony, E. R.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps COBRA countermine surveillance program has developed, as a risk- reduction alternative, a near real-time processor for the output of the COBRA multispectral camera. This processor has been tested using approximately 13.5 hours of video data from the COBRA DT-0 developmental test, representing approximately 243,000 frames of multispectral data. The results have been very encouraging--the system is robust and the minefield detection performance has met the goals of the COBRA program. The MITRE COBRA prototype processor is built from commercial-off-the-shelf VME bus technology. Video capture is provided by a Transtech TDM 435 capture/display VME card. Control is performed on a GMSV64 Super Sparc card that resides in two VME slots. The compute engine consists of two Pentek 4270 Quad TMS320C40 digital signal processing boards. There are two additional 6U VME boards to provide fast SCSI IO. The system is capable of capturing, digitizing and processing the COBRA data stream at between one-eighth and one-half real-time, depending on processing options. The nominal compute power of the system is 2.2 GOPS, 450 MFLOPS. The system is easily upgradeable due to the open architecture--one proposed upgrade will be to increase the number of available TMS320C40 processors to sixteen, providing real-time performance without compromising the current investment in software and hardware. The software for the system is primarily written in C, with hand-optimized assembler code for portions of the compute kernel. The algorithm that is implemented is based on the MITRE minefield detection algorithm detailed at AeroSense '95. The system development required a registration algorithm--this was the only algorithm development that was performed, the rest of the algorithms coming from previous MITRE effort on the COBRA program. Lessons learned from the development and upgrade/test plans will be presented.

  7. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Rose; Brownstein, John S; Naqvi, Raza; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Scales, David; Arino, Julien; MacDonald, Michael; Wang, Jun; Sears, Jennifer; Cetron, Martin S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the screening measures that would have been required to assess all travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico by air at the start of the 2009 pandemic. Methods Data from flight itineraries for travellers who flew from Mexico were used to estimate the number of international airports where health screening measures would have been needed, and the number of travellers who would have had to be screened, to assess all air travellers who could have transported the H1N1 influenza virus out of Mexico during the initial stages of the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Findings Exit screening at 36 airports in Mexico, or entry screening of travellers arriving on direct flights from Mexico at 82 airports in 26 other countries, would have resulted in the assessment of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico at the start of the pandemic. Entry screening of 116 travellers arriving from Mexico by direct or connecting flights would have been necessary for every one traveller at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09. Screening at just eight airports would have resulted in the assessment of 90% of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico in the early stages of the pandemic. Conclusion During the earliest stages of the A(H1N1) pandemic, most public health benefits potentially attainable through the screening of air travellers could have been achieved by screening travellers at only eight airports. PMID:23678200

  8. [Advances in the structure and function of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus HA protein].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Qiang; Song, Shao-Xia; Wang, Tong-Zhan

    2012-06-01

    Since March 2009, pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus has been spreading throughout many countries including China. The emerged virus caused great harm to human health and social economy. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the most important viral surface glycoprotein, mainly possessing three kinds of functions: (1) binding to host cell receptor, (2) triggering the fusion between viral envelop and target cell membrane, (3) stimulating the body to generate the neutralizing antibody. Advances in the structure, primary function, evolution and antigenicity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus HA protein are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22978172

  9. Helicopter Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Design of military and civil helicopters, produced by Bell Helicopter Textron, and aided by the use of COSMIC'S computer program VASP enables performance of more accurate analyses to insure product safety and improved production efficiency.

  10. Characterizing the Epidemiology of the 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 Pandemic in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Tamerius, James; Miller, Mark A.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mexico's local and national authorities initiated an intense public health response during the early stages of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. In this study we analyzed the epidemiological patterns of the pandemic during April–December 2009 in Mexico and evaluated the impact of nonmedical interventions, school cycles, and demographic factors on influenza transmission. Methods and Findings We used influenza surveillance data compiled by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, representing 40% of the population, to study patterns in influenza-like illness (ILIs) hospitalizations, deaths, and case-fatality rate by pandemic wave and geographical region. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) on the basis of the growth rate of daily cases, and used a transmission model to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies initiated during the spring pandemic wave. A total of 117,626 ILI cases were identified during April–December 2009, of which 30.6% were tested for influenza, and 23.3% were positive for the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus. A three-wave pandemic profile was identified, with an initial wave in April–May (Mexico City area), a second wave in June–July (southeastern states), and a geographically widespread third wave in August–December. The median age of laboratory confirmed ILI cases was ∼18 years overall and increased to ∼31 years during autumn (p<0.0001). The case-fatality ratio among ILI cases was 1.2% overall, and highest (5.5%) among people over 60 years. The regional R estimates were 1.8–2.1, 1.6–1.9, and 1.2–1.3 for the spring, summer, and fall waves, respectively. We estimate that the 18-day period of mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures implemented in the greater Mexico City area was associated with a 29%–37% reduction in influenza transmission in spring 2009. In addition, an increase in R was observed in late May and early June in the southeast states, after mandatory school suspension resumed and before summer vacation started. State-specific fall pandemic waves began 2–5 weeks after school reopened for the fall term, coinciding with an age shift in influenza cases. Conclusions We documented three spatially heterogeneous waves of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus in Mexico, which were characterized by a relatively young age distribution of cases. Our study highlights the importance of school cycles on the transmission dynamics of this pandemic influenza strain and suggests that school closure and other mitigation measures could be useful to mitigate future influenza pandemics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21629683

  11. A new approach to helicopter rotor blade research instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, V. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.

  12. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT) as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM), and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI) was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%). The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7), mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days). In four flights (19%), contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P < 0,05). Passenger locator cards did not improve timeliness of CI. In only three flights contact details were identified within 2 days after arrival. Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided during and after the flight. Public health authorities should take into account patient delays in seeking medical advise and laboratory confirmation in relation to maximum time to provide postexposure prophylaxis when deciding to install contact tracing measures. International standardization of CT guidelines is recommended. PMID:22204494

  13. 78 FR 13662 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition Take notice that on February 4, 2013, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. (Cobra) filed in Docket No. PR13-32-000 to correct a Tariff Record filed on...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  17. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  18. The COBRA Neutrinoless Double Beta Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2008-04-01

    The COBRA is a proposed experiment to detect neutrinoless double beta decays of the isotope 116Cd. The COBRA design is based on CZT room temperature solid state detectors. A prototype of the experiment made of 64 1cm^3 detectors is running in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. In this talk, I will discuss the design of the COBRA prototype experiment and possible designs of a large-scale experiment made of 410 kg of CZT detectors. We are currently evaluating the option to use CZT detector units with 200 micron spatial resolution. Such detectors would make it possible to track the electrons from double beta decays and to distinguish them from certain types of background events.

  19. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel

    PubMed Central

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H.; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J.; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cohen, Nicole J.; Fishbein, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1–7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission. PMID:23523241

  20. The early diversification of influenza A/H1N1pdm.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha; Spiro, David; Wentworth, David; Beck, Eric; Fan, Jiang; Ghedin, Elodie; Halpin, Rebecca; Bera, Jayati; Hine, Erin; Proudfoot, Kathleen; Stockwell, Tim; Lin, Xudong; Griesemer, Sara; Kumar, Swati; Bose, Michael; Viboud, Cecile; Holmes, Edward; Henrickson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Background Since its initial detection in April 2009, the A/H1N1pdm influenza virus has spread rapidly in humans, with over 5,700 human deaths. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of H1N1pdm and its geographic and temporal diversification.Methods Phylogenetic analysis was conducted upon the concatenated coding regions of whole-genome sequences from 290 H1N1pdm isolates sampled globally between April 1 - July 9, 2009, including relatively large samples from the US states of Wisconsin and New York. Results At least 7 phylogenetically distinct viral clades have disseminated globally and co-circulated in localities that experienced multiple introductions of H1N1pdm. The epidemics in New York and Wisconsin were dominated by two different clades, both phylogenetically distinct from the viruses first identified in California and Mexico, suggesting an important role for founder effects in determining local viral population structures. Conclusions Determining the global diversity of H1N1pdm is central to understanding the evolution and spatial spread of the current pandemic, and to predict its future impact on human populations. Our results indicate that H1N1pdm has already diversified into distinct viral lineages with defined spatial patterns. PMID:20029664

  1. [Effect of Yinghua Pinggan granule against influenza A/H1N1 virus in vivo].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xue-qian; He, Yu; Zhou, Hui-fen; Zhang, Yu-yan; Yang, Jie-hong; Chen, Jun-kui; Lu, Yi-yu; Wan, Hai-tong

    2015-10-01

    To study the effect of Yinghua Pinggan granule (YHPG) against influenza A/H1N1 virus in vivo and on the immunologic function of infected mice. The intranasal influenza virus infection was adopted in ICR mouse to establish the influenza virus pneumonia model. At the 3rd and 7th day after the infection, the lung index and pathologic changes in lung tissues of mice were detected. Realtime PCR and flow cytometry were employed to observe the virus load in lung tissues and the levels of CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ in peripheral blood. The result showed that at the 3rd and 7th day after the infection, YHPG (15, 30 g x kg(-1)) can significant decrease in the lung index and virus load in lung tissues of mice infected with influenza virus, alleviate the pathologic changes in lung tissues, significantly increase the levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio and reduce the levels of CD8+ in whole blood. This indicated that YHPG can inhibit the influenza virus replication, alleviate pulmonary damage and adjust the weak immunologic function of infected mice, with a certain therapeutic effect on mice infected by H1N1 virus in vivo. PMID:26975112

  2. Measured voluntary avoidance behaviour during the 2009 A/H1N1 epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bayham, Jude; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Gunn, Quentin; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-11-01

    Managing infectious disease is among the foremost challenges for public health policy. Interpersonal contacts play a critical role in infectious disease transmission, and recent advances in epidemiological theory suggest a central role for adaptive human behaviour with respect to changing contact patterns. However, theoretical studies cannot answer the following question: are individual responses to disease of sufficient magnitude to shape epidemiological dynamics and infectious disease risk? We provide empirical evidence that Americans voluntarily reduced their time spent in public places during the 2009 A/H1N1 swine flu, and that these behavioural shifts were of a magnitude capable of reducing the total number of cases. We simulate 10 years of epidemics (2003-2012) based on mixing patterns derived from individual time-use data to show that the mixing patterns in 2009 yield the lowest number of total infections relative to if the epidemic had occurred in any of the other nine years. The World Health Organization and other public health bodies have emphasized an important role for 'distancing' or non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our empirical results suggest that neglect for voluntary avoidance behaviour in epidemic models may overestimate the public health benefits of public social distancing policies. PMID:26511046

  3. Measured voluntary avoidance behaviour during the 2009 A/H1N1 epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Bayham, Jude; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Gunn, Quentin; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2015-01-01

    Managing infectious disease is among the foremost challenges for public health policy. Interpersonal contacts play a critical role in infectious disease transmission, and recent advances in epidemiological theory suggest a central role for adaptive human behaviour with respect to changing contact patterns. However, theoretical studies cannot answer the following question: are individual responses to disease of sufficient magnitude to shape epidemiological dynamics and infectious disease risk? We provide empirical evidence that Americans voluntarily reduced their time spent in public places during the 2009 A/H1N1 swine flu, and that these behavioural shifts were of a magnitude capable of reducing the total number of cases. We simulate 10 years of epidemics (2003–2012) based on mixing patterns derived from individual time-use data to show that the mixing patterns in 2009 yield the lowest number of total infections relative to if the epidemic had occurred in any of the other nine years. The World Health Organization and other public health bodies have emphasized an important role for ‘distancing’ or non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our empirical results suggest that neglect for voluntary avoidance behaviour in epidemic models may overestimate the public health benefits of public social distancing policies. PMID:26511046

  4. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel.

    PubMed

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K; Kirking, Hannah L; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cohen, Nicole J; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1-7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission. PMID:23523241

  5. Contact tracing for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-infected passenger on international flight.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ananda G; Janmohamed, Kulsum; Olowokure, Babatunde; Smith, Gillian E; Hogan, Angela H; De Souza, Valerie; Wallensten, Anders; Oliver, Isabel; Blatchford, Oliver; Cleary, Paul; Ibbotson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In April 2009, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was confirmed in a person who had been symptomatic while traveling on a commercial flight from Mexico to the United Kingdom. Retrospective public health investigation and contact tracing led to the identification of 8 additional confirmed cases among passengers and community contacts of passengers. PMID:24377724

  6. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia associated with influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia after lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunocompromised patients, particularly after lung transplantation, are at high risk to develop atypical forms of pulmonary infections including influenza A/H1N1. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP) is a special histological pattern in acute respiratory failure with high mortality. Case presentation We describe a 66-year-old woman with double lung transplantation in August 2009 due to end stage pulmonary fibrosis. After prolonged weaning and subsequent promising course, she developed atypical pneumonia with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in both lungs in January 2010. Infection with influenza A/H1N1 virus was verified. The patient rapidly suffered from respiratory insufficiency and died eight days after this diagnosis. The post-mortem revealed especially in the lower parts of the lungs the classical histological pattern of pure AFOP. Molecular analyses of lung tissue were positive for influenza A/H1N1. Conclusion To our knowledge we present the first case of AFOP triggered by viral infection, here proven to be influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, also in the setting of viral infection the highly deadly differential diagnosis of AFOP must be considered. PMID:23683442

  7. Seroprevalence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus antibody, England, 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Hoschler, Katja; Thompson, Catherine; Andrews, Nick; Galiano, Monica; Pebody, Richard; Ellis, Joanna; Stanford, Elaine; Baguelin, Marc; Miller, Elizabeth; Zambon, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010-11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults. PMID:23092684

  8. Seroprevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Antibody, England, 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Catherine; Andrews, Nick; Galiano, Monica; Pebody, Richard; Ellis, Joanna; Stanford, Elaine; Baguelin, Marc; Miller, Elizabeth; Zambon, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The intense influenza activity in England during the 2010–11 winter resulted from a combination of factors. Population-based seroepidemiology confirms that the third wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulation was associated with a shift in age groups affected, with the highest rate of infection in young adults. PMID:23092684

  9. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North Ameri...

  10. SPATIOTEMPORAL TRENDS OF CASES OF PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A(H1N1)PDM09 IN ARGENTINA, 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    LEVEAU, Carlos M.; UEZ, Osvaldo; VACCHINO, Marta N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Argentina. A space-time permutation scan statistic was performed to test the non-randomness in the interaction between space and time in reported influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases. In 2009, two clusters were recorded in the east of Buenos Aires Province (May and June) and in the central and northern part of Argentina (July and August). Between 2011 and 2012, clusters near areas bordering other countries were registered. Within the clusters, in 2009, the high notification rates were first observed in the school-age population and then extended to the older population (15-59 years). From 2011 onwards, higher rates of reported cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 occurred in children under five years in center of the country. Two stages of transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 can be characterized. The first stage had high rates of notification and a possible interaction with individuals from other countries in the major cities of Argentina (pattern of hierarchy), and the second stage had an increased interaction in some border areas without a clear pattern of hierarchy. These results suggest the need for greater coordination in the Southern Cone countries, in order to implement joint prevention and vaccination policies. PMID:25923892

  11. Epidemiological aspects of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus from 2009 to 2011 in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yavarian, Jila; Naseri, Maryam; Shadab, Azadeh; Shafiei Jandaghi, Nazanin Z.; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Yavarian et al. (2012). Epidemiological aspects of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus from 2009 to 2011 in Iran. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(601), e74–e76. PMID:22487173

  12. A/H1N1 Vaccine Intentions in College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in college students who have not previously received the A/H1N1 vaccine. Participants: Undergraduate communication students at a metropolitan southern university. Methods: In January-March 2010, students from voluntarily participating communication classes completed a…

  13. Spatiotemporal trends of cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Argentina, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Leveau, Carlos M; Uez, Osvaldo; Vacchino, Marta N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Argentina. A space-time permutation scan statistic was performed to test the non-randomness in the interaction between space and time in reported influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases. In 2009, two clusters were recorded in the east of Buenos Aires Province (May and June) and in the central and northern part of Argentina (July and August). Between 2011 and 2012, clusters near areas bordering other countries were registered. Within the clusters, in 2009, the high notification rates were first observed in the school-age population and then extended to the older population (15-59 years). From 2011 onwards, higher rates of reported cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 occurred in children under five years in center of the country. Two stages of transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 can be characterized. The first stage had high rates of notification and a possible interaction with individuals from other countries in the major cities of Argentina (pattern of hierarchy), and the second stage had an increased interaction in some border areas without a clear pattern of hierarchy. These results suggest the need for greater coordination in the Southern Cone countries, in order to implement joint prevention and vaccination policies. PMID:25923892

  14. Cobra sealing system; From field evaluation to practical safeguards application

    SciTech Connect

    Vodrazka, P.; Cermak, L. )

    1991-01-01

    After a successful conclusion of the Cobra seal IAEA field trials, the Cobra Seal System was installed in two Canadian facilities. The seals permit on-site verification without needing to replace them in extreme weather conditions, thus allowing a substantial time reduction for inspectors as well as minimizing intrusiveness of these activities. The paper describes experiences with practical installations of almost sixty Cobra seals including the selection of environmental conduits and housing. Examples of the results of the first several inspections utilizing a new version of the Cobra seal verifier are also included. Possible future outdoor applications of Cobra seals are described and some suggested improvements are outlined.

  15. Clinical and Virological Factors Associated with Viremia in Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Herman; To, Kelvin K. W.; Wen, Xi; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Li, Iris W. S.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive detection of viral RNA in blood and other non-respiratory specimens occurs in severe human influenza A/H5N1 viral infection but is not known to occur commonly in seasonal human influenza infection. Recently, viral RNA was detected in the blood of patients suffering from severe pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 viral infection, although the significance of viremia had not been previously studied. Our study aims to explore the clinical and virological factors associated with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 viremia and to determine its clinical significance. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical data of patients admitted to hospitals in Hong Kong between May 2009 and April 2010 and tested positive for pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 was collected. Viral RNA was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) targeting the matrix (M) and HA genes of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus from the following specimens: nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), endotracheal aspirate (ETA), blood, stool and rectal swab. Stool and/ or rectal swab was obtained only if the patient complained of any gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 139 patients were included in the study, with viral RNA being detected in the blood of 14 patients by RT-PCR. The occurrence of viremia was strongly associated with a severe clinical presentation and a higher mortality rate, although the latter association was not statistically significant. D222G/N quasispecies were observed in 90% of the blood samples. Conclusion Presence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 viremia is an indicator of disease severity and strongly associated with D222G/N mutation in the viral hemagglutinin protein. PMID:21980333

  16. Rapid research response to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza pandemic (Revised)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When novel influenza viruses cause human infections, it is critical to characterize the illnesses, viruses, and immune responses to infection in order to develop diagnostics, treatments, and vaccines. The objective of the study was to collect samples from patients with suspected or confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that could be made available to the scientific community. Respiratory secretions, sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected sequentially (when possible) from patients presenting with suspected or previously confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections. Clinical manifestations and illness outcomes were assessed. Respiratory secretions were tested for the presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by means of isolation in tissue culture and real time RT-PCR. Sera were tested for the presence and level of HAI and neutralizing antibodies against the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Findings and conclusions Thirty patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were enrolled at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM). Clinical manifestations of illness were consistent with typical influenza. Twenty-eight of 30 had virological confirmation of illness; all recovered fully. Most patients had serum antibody responses or high levels of antibody in convalescent samples. Virus-positive samples were sent to J. Craig Venter Institute for sequencing and sequences were deposited in GenBank. Large volumes of sera collected from 2 convalescent adults were used to standardize antibody assays; aliquots of these sera are available from the repository. Aliquots of serum, PBMCs and stool collected from BCM subjects and subjects enrolled at other study sites are available for use by the scientific community, upon request. PMID:23641940

  17. The challenges of global case reporting during pandemic A(H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stephanie; Merianos, Angela; Mounts, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) asked all Member States to provide case-based data on at least the first 100 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases to generate an early understanding of the pandemic and provide appropriate guidance to affected countries. In reviewing the pandemic surveillance strategy, we evaluated the utility of case-based data collection and the challenges in interpreting these data at the global level. To do this, we assessed compliance with the surveillance recommendation and data completeness of submitted case records and described the epidemiological characteristics of up to the first 110 reported cases from each country, aggregated into regions. From April 2009 to August 2011, WHO received over 18 000 case records from 84 countries. Data reached WHO at different time intervals, in different formats and without information on collection methods. Just over half of the 18 000 records gave the date of symptom onset, which made it difficult to assess whether the cases were among the earliest to be confirmed. Descriptive epidemiological analyses were limited to summarizing age, sex and hospitalization ratios. Centralized analysis of case-based data had little value in describing key features of the pandemic. Results were difficult to interpret and would have been misleading if viewed in isolation. A better approach would be to identify critical questions, standardize data elements and methods of investigation, and create efficient channels for communication between countries and the international public health community. Regular exchange of routine surveillance data will help to consolidate these essential channels of communication. PMID:24391301

  18. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-01

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  19. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  20. The COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldorf, C.; Cobra Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on the isotope 116Cd. In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelisation allows also for tracking capabilities. This kind of semiconductor tracker is unique in the field. The current status of the experiment is shown including the latest half-life limits.

  1. The COBRA double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.; COBRA Collaboration

    2007-09-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 υββ). The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double-beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large-scale experiment are also described.

  2. Instant Print-Braille Compatibility with COBRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durre, Ingeborg K.; Durre, Imke

    1999-01-01

    Describes an eight-dot computer Braille notation, COBRA, with integrated mathematical and scientific notation that achieves immediate print-Braille compatibility through one-to-one representation of letters and other characters. Text can be entered from the Braille or the Qwerty Keyboard and can be viewed simultaneously on the Braille display and…

  3. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-28

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  4. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-17

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  5. Dual resistance to adamantanes and oseltamivir among seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses: 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Tiffany G; Fry, Alicia M; Garten, Rebecca J; Deyde, Varough M; Shwe, Thein; Bullion, Lesley; Peebles, Patrick J; Li, Yan; Klimov, Alexander I; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2011-01-01

    Two distinct genetic clades of seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses have cocirculated in the recent seasons: clade 2B oseltamivir-resistant and adamantane-susceptible viruses, and clade 2C viruses that are resistant to adamantanes and susceptible to oseltamivir. We tested seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses collected in 2008-2010 from the United States and globally for resistance to antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We report 28 viruses with both adamantane and oseltamivir (dual) resistance from 5 countries belonging to 4 distinct genotypes. Because of limited options for antiviral treatment, emergence of dual-resistant influenza viruses poses a public health concern, and their circulation needs to be closely monitored. PMID:21148491

  6. Dual Resistance to Adamantanes and Oseltamivir Among Seasonal Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses: 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Tiffany G.; Fry, Alicia M.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Deyde, Varough M.; Shwe, Thein; Bullion, Lesley; Peebles, Patrick J.; Li, Yan; Klimov, Alexander I.

    2011-01-01

    Two distinct genetic clades of seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses have cocirculated in the recent seasons: clade 2B oseltamivir-resistant and adamantane-susceptible viruses, and clade 2C viruses that are resistant to adamantanes and susceptible to oseltamivir. We tested seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses collected in 2008-2010 from the United States and globally for resistance to antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We report 28 viruses with both adamantane and oseltamivir (dual) resistance from 5 countries belonging to 4 distinct genotypes. Because of limited options for antiviral treatment, emergence of dual-resistant influenza viruses poses a public health concern, and their circulation needs to be closely monitored. PMID:21148491

  7. Natural A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection case in a pet ferret in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Wu, Wen-Ling; Chi, Chau-Hwa; Wang, Lih Chiann

    2014-11-01

    Ferrets have demonstrated high susceptibility to the influenza virus. This study discusses a natural 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infection in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) identified in Taiwan in 2013. The ferret was in close contact with family members who had recently experienced an influenza-like illness (ILI). The ferret nasal swab showed positive results for influenza A virus using one-step RT-PCR. The virus was isolated and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the eight segmented genes were closely related to the human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus linage isolated in Taiwan. This study may provide a perspective view on natural influenza A virus transmission from the local human population into pet ferrets. PMID:25597188

  8. Full Genome Analysis of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Peru, 2013.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carlos; Condori, Fredy; Huaringa, Maribel; Marcos, Pool; Rojas, Nancy; Gutierrez, Victoria; Cáceres, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been reported in Peru since 2009. We report the whole-genome sequence analysis of a viral isolate from an infection case that occurred during an influenza outbreak in 2013. This strain shows novel hemagglutinin (HA) mutations that may cause an antigenic drift that diminishes the protective effect of the vaccine. PMID:24744325

  9. Detection of influenza A(H1N1)v virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Panning, M; Eickmann, M; Landt, O; Monazahian, M; Olschläger, S; Baumgarte, S; Reischl, U; Wenzel, J J; Niller, H H; Günther, S; Hollmann, B; Huzly, D; Drexler, J F; Helmer, A; Becker, S; Matz, B; Eis-Hübinger, Am; Drosten, C

    2009-09-10

    Influenza A(H1N1)v virus was first identified in April 2009. A novel real-time RT-PCR for influenza A(H1N1)v virus was set up ad hoc and validated following industry-standard criteria. The lower limit of detection of the assay was 384 copies of viral RNA per ml of viral transport medium (95% confidence interval: 273-876 RNA copies/ml). Specificity was 100% as assessed on a panel of reference samples including seasonal human influenza A virus H1N1 and H3N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 and porcine influenza A virus H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 samples. The real-time RT-PCR assay for the influenza A matrix gene recommended in 2007 by the World Health Organization was modified to work under the same reaction conditions as the influenza A(H1N1)v virus-specific test. Both assays were equally sensitive. Clinical applicability of both assays was demonstrated by screening of almost 2,000 suspected influenza (H1N1)v specimens, which included samples from the first cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza imported to Germany. Measuring influenza A(H1N1)v virus concentrations in 144 laboratory-confirmed samples yielded a median of 4.6 log RNA copies/ml. The new methodology proved its principle and might assist public health laboratories in the upcoming influenza pandemic. PMID:19758541

  10. Risk of Guillain–Barré syndrome following pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccination in Germany†

    PubMed Central

    Prestel, Jürgen; Volkers, Peter; Mentzer, Dirk; Lehmann, Helmar C; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A prospective, epidemiologic study was conducted to assess whether the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in Germany almost exclusively using an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine (Pandemrix) impacts the risk of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variant Fisher syndrome (FS). Methods Potential cases of GBS/FS were reported by 351 participating hospitals throughout Germany. The self-controlled case series methodology was applied to all GBS/FS cases fulfilling the Brighton Collaboration (BC) case definition (levels 1–3 of diagnostic certainty) with symptom onset between 1 November 2009 and 30 September 2010 reported until end of December 2010. Results Out of 676 GBS/FS reports, in 30 cases, GBS/FS (BC levels 1–3) occurred within 150 days following influenza A(H1N1) vaccination. The relative incidence of GBS/FS within the primary risk period (days 5–42 post-vaccination) compared with the control period (days 43–150 post-vaccination) was 4.65 (95%CI [2.17, 9.98]). Similar results were found when stratifying for infections within 3 weeks prior to onset of GBS/FS and when excluding cases with additional seasonal influenza vaccination. The overall result of temporally adjusted analyses supported the primary finding of an increased relative incidence of GBS/FS following influenza A(H1N1) vaccination. Conclusions The results indicate an increased risk of GBS/FS in temporal association with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in Germany. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817531

  11. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the population. PMID:20129961

  12. Seropositivity for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus among Frontline Health Care Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Kumar; Hancock, Kathy; Ward, Mary Frances; Akerman, Meredith; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Branch, Alicia; De Cicco, Sandra; Steward-Clark, Evelene; McCullough, Megan; Tenner, Karen; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus among 193 emergency department health care personnel was similar among 147 non–health care personnel (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 0.8–2.4). Working in an acute care setting did not substantially increase risk for virus infection above risk conferred by community-based exposures. PMID:23260627

  13. Helicopter Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Helicopters are used by the military and civilian communities for a variety of tasks and must be capable of operating in poor weather conditions and at night. Accompanying extended helicopter operations is a significant increase in pilot workload and a need for better handling qualities. An overview of the status and problems in the development and specification of helicopter handling-qualities criteria is presented. Topics for future research efforts by government and industry are highlighted.

  14. [Pandemic influenza A/H1N1v--guidelines for infection control from the perspective of Polish ITUs].

    PubMed

    Becler, Robert; Andruszkiewicz, Paweł; Kański, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    In some countries, the influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, recently announced by WHO, was severe. Up to 10-30% of patients required ITU therapy due to rapidly increasing respiratory failure. In Poland, recommendations concerning the management of A/H1N1v infections, including those during ITU hospitalization, are vague and scattered. The WHO guidelines stress that the spread of infections should be limited by observance of personal hygiene rules, use of appropriate preventive measures and suitable administrative and technical actions. Only 30-60% of medical staff cleans their hands. Hand washing practices are inaccurate and too rare. Likewise, protective clothes and face masks are worn too rarely. FFP3 is believed to be the best mask in such cases, if properly used. Such masks should be individually adjusted, placed tightly over the face, without leaks around the edges. After use, masks and protective clothes should be considered as medical waste. Moreover, the guidelines for management of ITU patients diagnosed with A/H1N1v infections are extremely relevant in cases of other infections. PMID:20608215

  15. Structural characterization of a protective epitope spanning A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus neuraminidase monomers

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hongquan; Yang, Hua; Shore, David A.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Couzens, Laura; Gao, Jin; Jiang, Lianlian; Carney, Paul J.; Villanueva, Julie; Stevens, James; Eichelberger, Maryna C.

    2015-01-01

    A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses predominated in the 2013–2014 USA influenza season, and although most of these viruses remain sensitive to Food and Drug Administration-approved neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, alternative therapies are needed. Here we show that monoclonal antibody CD6, selected for binding to the NA of the prototypic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, A/California/07/2009, protects mice against lethal virus challenge. The crystal structure of NA in complex with CD6 Fab reveals a unique epitope, where the heavy-chain complementarity determining regions (HCDRs) 1 and 2 bind one NA monomer, the light-chain CDR2 binds the neighbouring monomer, whereas HCDR3 interacts with both monomers. This 30-amino-acid epitope spans the lateral face of an NA dimer and is conserved among circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. These results suggest that the large, lateral CD6 epitope may be an effective target of antibodies selected for development as therapeutic agents against circulating H1N1 influenza viruses. PMID:25668439

  16. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  17. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  18. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jeff; Hooper, Kathryn A; Petrie, Stephen; Lee, Raphael; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reh, Lucia; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Baas, Chantal; Xue, Lumin; Vitesnik, Sophie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; McVernon, Jodie; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; McCaw, James M; Bloom, Jesse D; Hurt, Aeron C

    2014-04-01

    Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide. PMID:24699865

  19. Theoretical studies on the susceptibility of oseltamivir against variants of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Youyong; Zhang, Liling; Hou, Tingjun

    2012-10-22

    The outbreak and high speed global spread of the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus in 2009 posed a serious threat to global health. It is more likely that drug-resistant influenza strains will arise after the extensive use of anti-influenza drugs. Consequently, the identification of the potential resistant sites for drugs in advance and the understanding of the corresponding molecular mechanisms that cause drug resistance are quite important in the design of new drug candidates with better potency to combat drug resistance. Here, we performed molecular simulations to evaluate the potency of oseltamivir to combat drug resistance caused by the mutations in 2009 A/H1N1 neuraminidase (NA). We examined three representative drug-resistant mutations in NA, consisting of H274Y, N294S, and Y252H. First, a theoretical structure of A/H1N1 NA in complex with oseltamivir was constructed using homology modeling. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations, and MM/GBSA free energy decomposition were used to characterize the binding of oseltamivir with the wild type (WT) and three mutated NAs. Our predictions show that N294S and H274Y, two popular drug-resistant mutations in different variants of NA, still cause significant resistance to oseltamivir. However, the Y252H mutation does not impair the interactions between oseltamivir and A/H1N1 NA. An examination of individual energy components shows that the loss of polar interactions is the key source for the resistance of the studied mutations to oseltamivir. Moreover, free energy decomposition analysis and structural analysis reveal that the N294S or H274Y mutation triggers the large-scale conformational changes of the binding pocket and then impairs the affinity of oseltamivir. We expect that our results will be useful for the rational design of NA inhibitors with high potency against drug-resistant A/H1N1 mutants. PMID:22998323

  20. Recent progress of the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldorf, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The COBRA experiment uses CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decays. The main focus is on the isotope 116Cd, with a decay energy of 2813.5 keV well above the highest naturally occurring gamma lines. Also 130Te and 106Cd, a double β+ emitter, are under investigation. An overview of the recent improvements of the COBRA low-background set-up at the LNGS underground laboratory is given, including first results obtained with new FADC readout electronics which allows background reduction by pulse-shape analysis. Furthermore studies on detector characterization, the use of liquid scintillator for background suppression and Monte-Carlo simulations of the shielding are presented. Also pixelated detectors and their capabilities of background reduction are discussed.

  1. Axial X Pinch Backlighting on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blesener, Isaac; Greenly, John; Pikuz, Sergey; Shelkovenko, Tatiania; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    X pinch backlighting is a useful imaging technique whereby two or more wires are crossed at a single point and driven with a high current (300-500 kA). At the crossing point, a micron-scale sub-nanosecond x-ray source is produced that acts as a point source and can be used for point-projection imaging. Axial x pinch backlighting is a new technique that allows an end-on image of Z pinches. New load geometry was developed at Cornell University to allow all standard diagnostics to be used on the same shot as the axial x pinch backlighting diagnostic. High density plasma features have been observed that correlate well with XUV self-emission images previously recorded on COBRA and simulation results from GORGON. Data and images will be presented illustrating the latest results from COBRA. Future applications include the possibility of shockwave imaging in the center of thing foil cylinders.

  2. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors § 1926.551 Helicopters. (a) Helicopter regulations. Helicopter cranes shall be expected to comply with...

  4. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: risk of infection in primary healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Ben; Toop, Les; Mangin, Dee; Brunton, Cheryl; Jennings, Lance; Fletcher, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare workers in primary care are at risk of infection during an influenza pandemic. The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to assess this risk. Aim To measure the prevalence of seropositivity to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among primary healthcare workers in Canterbury, New Zealand, following the 2009 influenza pandemic, and to examine associations between seropositivity and participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, professional roles, work patterns, and seasonal influenza vaccination status. Design and setting An observational study involving a questionnaire and testing for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seropositivity in all primary healthcare workers in Canterbury, New Zealand between December 2009 and February 2010. Method Participants completed a questionnaire that recorded sociodemographic and professional data, symptoms of influenza-like illness, history of seasonal influenza vaccination, and work patterns. Serum samples were collected and haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 measured. Results Questionnaires and serum samples were received from 1027 participants, from a workforce of 1476 (response rate 70%). Seropositivity was detected in 224 participants (22%). Receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 3.3), recall of influenza (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.8), and age ≤45 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0 to 1.9) were associated with seropositivity. Conclusion A total of 22% of primary care healthcare workers were seropositive. Younger participants, those who recalled having influenza, and those who had been vaccinated against seasonal influenza were more likely to be seropositive. Working in a dedicated influenza centre was not associated with an increased risk of seropositivity. PMID:23735413

  5. Transmission of Novel Influenza A(H1N1) in Households with Post-Exposure Antiviral Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    van Boven, Michiel; Donker, Tjibbe; van der Lubben, Mariken; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Rianne B.; te Beest, Dennis E.; Koopmans, Marion; Meijer, Adam; Timen, Aura; Swaan, Corien; Dalhuijsen, Anton; Hahné, Susan; van den Hoek, Anneke; Teunis, Peter; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Wallinga, Jacco

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite impressive advances in our understanding of the biology of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus, little is as yet known about its transmission efficiency in close contact places such as households, schools, and workplaces. These are widely believed to be key in supporting propagating spread, and it is therefore of importance to assess the transmission levels of the virus in such settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimate the transmissibility of novel influenza A(H1N1) in 47 households in the Netherlands using stochastic epidemic models. All households contained a laboratory confirmed index case, and antiviral drugs (oseltamivir) were given to both the index case and other households members within 24 hours after detection of the index case. Among the 109 household contacts there were 9 secondary infections in 7 households. The overall estimated secondary attack rate is low (0.075, 95%CI: 0.037–0.13). There is statistical evidence indicating that older persons are less susceptible to infection than younger persons (relative susceptibility of older persons: 0.11, 95%CI: 0.024–0.43. Notably, the secondary attack rate from an older to a younger person is 0.35 (95%CI: 0.14–0.61) when using an age classification of ≤12 versus >12 years, and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.12–0.50) when using an age classification of ≤18 versus >18 years. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the overall household transmission levels of novel influenza A(H1N1) in antiviral-treated households were low in the early stage of the epidemic. The relatively high rate of adult-to-child transmission indicates that control measures focused on this transmission route will be most effective in minimizing the total number of infections. PMID:20628642

  6. Top leads for swine influenza A/H1N1 virus revealed by steered molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2010-12-27

    Since March 2009, the rapid spread of infection during the recent A/H1N1 swine flu pandemic has raised concerns of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus become resistant to current drug therapies. Currently oseltamivir (tamiflu) is intensively used for the treatment of influenza and is reported effective for 2009 A/H1N1 virus. However, as this virus is evolving fast, some drug-resistant strains are emerging. Therefore, it is critical to seek alternative treatments and identify roots of the drug resistance. In this paper, we use the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to estimate the binding affinity of ligands to the glycoprotein neuraminidase. Our idea is based on the hypothesis that the larger is the force needed to unbind a ligand from a receptor the higher its binding affinity. Using all-atom models with Gromos force field 43a1 and explicit water, we have studied the binding ability of 32 ligands to glycoprotein neuraminidase from swine flu virus A/H1N1. The electrostatic interaction is shown to play a more important role in binding affinity than the van der Waals one. We have found that four ligands 141562, 5069, 46080, and 117079 from the NSC set are the most promising candidates to cope with this virus, while peramivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are ranked 8, 11, and 20. The observation that these four ligands are better than existing commercial drugs has been also confirmed by our results on the binding free energies obtained by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. Our prediction may be useful for the therapeutic application. PMID:21090736

  7. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Methods Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Results Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the psychological response reported in this study was generally lower. Conclusions Data indicated that, contrary to widely publicised reports of 'panic' surrounding A/H1N1, that some of those most directly affected did not report excessive psychological responses; however, we concluded that there was sufficient evidence to support provision of limited psychological support to family caregivers. PMID:21129214

  8. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school-age children, the age group most affected during this early wave. PMID:21712984

  9. The value of radiographic findings for the progression of pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most illnesses caused by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (A/H1N1) infection are acute and self-limiting among children. However, in some children, disease progression is rapid and may require hospitalization and transfer to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We investigated factors associated with rapid disease progression among children admitted to hospital for A/H1N1 infection, particularly findings on initial chest radiographs. Methods In this retrospective study, we investigated the records of children who had received a laboratory or clinical diagnosis of A/H1N1 infection and were admitted to the largest children’s hospital in Japan between May 2009 and March 2010. The medical records were reviewed for age, underlying diseases, vital signs on admission, initial chest radiographic findings, and clinical outcomes. According to chest radiographic findings, patients were classified into 4 groups, as follows: [1] normal (n = 46), [2] hilar and/or peribronchial markings alone (n = 64), [3] consolidation (n = 64), and [4] other findings (n = 29). Factors associated with clinical outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Two hundreds and three patients (median 6.8 years) were enrolled in this study. Fifteen percent (31/203) of patients were admitted to PICU. Among 31 patients, 39% (12/31) of patients required mechanical ventilation (MV). When the initial chest radiographic findings were compared between patients with consolidation (n = 64) and those without consolidation (n = 139), a higher percentage of patients with consolidation were admitted to PICU (29.7% vs.8.6%, P < 0.001) and required MV (17.2% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.001). These findings remain significant when the data were analyzed with the logistic regression (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Consolidation on initial chest radiographs was the most significant factor to predict clinical course of hospitalized children with the 2009 A/H1N1 infection. PMID:24180416

  10. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, K-M; Linko, R; Herwald, H; Lindbom, L; Ruokonen, E; Ala-Kokko, T; Pettilä, V

    2013-12-01

    Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inducer of vascular endothelial leakage in severe infections. Fluid accumulation into alveoli is a general finding in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Severe acute respiratory failure with ARDS is a complication of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Accordingly, we studied the HBP levels in critically ill patients with infection of influenza A(H1N1).Critically ill patients in four intensive care units (ICUs) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed infection of influenza A(H1N1) were prospectively evaluated. We collected clinical data and blood samples at ICU admission and on day 2. Twenty-nine patients participated in the study. Compared with normal plasma levels, the HBP concentrations were highly elevated at baseline and at day 2: 98 ng/mL (62-183 ng/mL) and 93 ng/mL (62-271 ng/mL) (p 0.876), respectively. HBP concentrations were correlated with the lowest ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen (PF ratio) during the ICU stay (rho = -0.321, p <0.05). In patients with and without invasive mechanical ventilation, the baseline HBP levels were 152 ng/mL (72-237 ng/mL) and 83 ng/mL (58-108 ng/mL) (p 0.088), respectively. The respective values at day 2 were 223 ng/mL (89-415 ng/mL) and 81 ng/mL (55-97 ng/mL) (p <0.05). The patients with septic shock/severe sepsis (compared with those without) did not have statistically significant differences in HBP concentrations at baseline or day 2. HBP concentrations are markedly elevated in all critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection. The increase in HBP concentrations seems to be associated with more pronounced respiratory dysfunction. PMID:23402373

  11. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection. PMID:25022686

  12. Aminoterminal amphipathic α-helix AH1 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production.

    PubMed

    Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

    2014-10-01

    Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic α-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic α-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic α-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

  13. Prevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Resistant to Oseltamivir in Shiraz, Iran, During 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Khodadad, Nastaran; Moattari, Afagh; Shamsi Shahr Abadi, Mahmoud; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Sarvari, Jamal; Tavakoli, Forough; Pirbonyeh, Neda; Emami, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oseltamivir has been used as a drug of choice for the prophylaxis and treatment of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection across the world. However, the most frequently identified oseltamivir resistant virus, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, exhibit the H275Y substitution in NA gene. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Shiraz, Iran. Patients and Methods: Throat swab samples were collected from 200 patients with influenza-like disease from December 2012 until February 2013. A total of 77 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive strains were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Oseltamivir resistance was detected using quantal assay and nested-PCR method. The NA gene sequencing was conducted to detect oseltamivir-resistant mutants and establish the phylogeny of the prevalent influenza variants. Results: Our results revealed that A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses present in these samples were susceptible to oseltamivir, and contained 5 site specific mutations (V13G, V106I, V241I, N248D, and N369K) in NA gene. These mutations correlated with increasing expression and enzymatic activity of NA protein in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which were closely related to a main influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cluster isolated around the world. Conclusions: A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, identified in this study in Shiraz, Iran, contained 5 site specific mutations and were susceptible to oseltamivir. PMID:26464773

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section 54.4980B-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address...

  15. 76 FR 51963 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on August 12, 2011, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  16. Immunogenicity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Yumi; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yamazaki, Yuko; Morioka, Tomoaki; Emoto, Masanori; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Inaba, Masaaki; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Subjects with diabetes mellitus are considered to be at high risk of influenza infection and influenza-associated complications. To evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine among these subjects, we performed a prospective cohort study and measured hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 3 weeks after vaccination in 49 patients. No serious adverse events were reported. We were able to perform analyses for 48 patients, after excluding one patient with suspected infection. The vaccine induced a rise of about 9-fold in the mean antibody level. The sero-response proportion was 79%, and the sero-protection proportion was 73%. Patients with older age and lower body mass index tended to show lower immune response. Multivariate analysis indicated an independent negative effect of hemoglobin A1c level on the sero-protection proportion. A single A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination achieved a sufficient level of immunity among diabetic patients, but both clinicians and patients should be aware of the potential for reductions in immune response. PMID:24717236

  17. [Cases of children with influenza AH1N1/2009 in the district of Lodz in two epidemic waves].

    PubMed

    Majda-Stanisławska, Ewa; Sobieraj, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    High influenza morbidity due to new antigenic strain AH1N1 was announced in Mexico in spring 2009. Influenza pandemic caused by the virus AH1N1/2009 spread around the world. Two pandemic waves were noted in most European countries: the first one was due to summer months migration, the second wave started in the beginning of common influenza season. We present features of both waves in children from the district of Lodz. We describe mild clinical course in 14 children who came from holiday in Spain with influenza and who were hospitalized and treated with osltamimivir due to unpredictable course of new influenza. We also present 22 influenza cases of the autumn pandemic wave, when children with severe complications of influenza and children from high risk groups were hospitalized and treated with antivirals. Experience that we have gained during 2009 influenza pandemic indicates that International Influenza Control System is very efficient, however more flexibility is required in application of treatment and prophylaxis procedures with new influenza strains. Applied methods of control should mostly depend on the virulence of pandemic strain. PMID:22390048

  18. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Kelly M; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Twine, Susan M; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production) between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-"like" receptor 5 (TLR5). PMID:26633358

  19. CYP76AH1 catalyzes turnover of miltiradiene in tanshinones biosynthesis and enables heterologous production of ferruginol in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Yongjin J; Hillwig, Matthew L; Shen, Ye; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Wujun; Peters, Reuben J; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhao, Zongbao K; Huang, Luqi

    2013-07-16

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play major roles in generating highly functionalized terpenoids, but identifying the exact biotransformation step(s) catalyzed by plant CYP in terpenoid biosynthesis is extremely challenging. Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid naphthoquinones that are the main lipophilic bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Whereas the diterpene synthases responsible for the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate into the abietane miltiradiene, a potential precursor to tanshinones, have been recently described, molecular characterization of further transformation of miltiradiene remains unavailable. Here we report stable-isotope labeling results that demonstrate the intermediacy of miltiradiene in tanshinone biosynthesis. We further use a next-generation sequencing approach to identify six candidate CYP genes being coregulated with the diterpene synthase genes in both the rhizome and danshen hairy roots, and demonstrate that one of these, CYP76AH1, catalyzes a unique four-electron oxidation cascade on miltiradiene to produce ferruginol both in vitro and in vivo. We then build upon the previous establishment of miltiradiene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with incorporation of CYP76AH1 and phyto-CYP reductase genes leading to heterologous production of ferruginol at 10.5 mg/L. As ferruginol has been found in many plants including danshen, the results and the approaches that were described here provide a solid foundation to further elucidate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and related diterpenoids. Moreover, these results should facilitate the construction of microbial cell factories for the production of phytoterpenoids. PMID:23812755

  20. CYP76AH1 catalyzes turnover of miltiradiene in tanshinones biosynthesis and enables heterologous production of ferruginol in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Shen, Ye; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Wujun; Peters, Reuben J.; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play major roles in generating highly functionalized terpenoids, but identifying the exact biotransformation step(s) catalyzed by plant CYP in terpenoid biosynthesis is extremely challenging. Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid naphthoquinones that are the main lipophilic bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Whereas the diterpene synthases responsible for the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate into the abietane miltiradiene, a potential precursor to tanshinones, have been recently described, molecular characterization of further transformation of miltiradiene remains unavailable. Here we report stable-isotope labeling results that demonstrate the intermediacy of miltiradiene in tanshinone biosynthesis. We further use a next-generation sequencing approach to identify six candidate CYP genes being coregulated with the diterpene synthase genes in both the rhizome and danshen hairy roots, and demonstrate that one of these, CYP76AH1, catalyzes a unique four-electron oxidation cascade on miltiradiene to produce ferruginol both in vitro and in vivo. We then build upon the previous establishment of miltiradiene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with incorporation of CYP76AH1 and phyto-CYP reductase genes leading to heterologous production of ferruginol at 10.5 mg/L. As ferruginol has been found in many plants including danshen, the results and the approaches that were described here provide a solid foundation to further elucidate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and related diterpenoids. Moreover, these results should facilitate the construction of microbial cell factories for the production of phytoterpenoids. PMID:23812755

  1. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.

    PubMed

    Tom, B D M; Van Hoek, A J; Pebody, R; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Catchpole, M; De Angelis, D

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of the incubation time from infection to onset is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases. Attempts to estimate the incubation time distribution for novel A(H1N1v) have been, up to now, based on limited data or peculiar samples. We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. Separate analyses for the <15 years and ≥ 15 years age groups showed a significant (P<0·02) difference with a longer mean incubation time in the older age group. PMID:21087539

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of health professionals in relation to A/H1N1 influenza and its vaccine

    PubMed Central

    López-Picado, Amanda; Apiñaniz, Antxon; Ramos, Amaia Latorre; Miranda-Serrano, Erika; Cobos, Raquel; Parraza-Díez, Naiara; Amezua, Patricia; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Aizpuru, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the intention of health professionals, doctors and nurses, concerning whether or not to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus, and their perception of the severity of this pandemic compared with seasonal flu. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out based on an questionnaire e-mailed to health professionals in public healthcare centres in Vitoria between 6 and 16 November 2009; the percentage of respondents who wanted to be vaccinated and who perceived the pandemic flu to carry a high risk of death were calculated. Results A total of 115 people completed the questionnaire of whom 61.7% (n=71) were doctors and 38.3% (n=44) were nurses. Of these, 33.3% (n=23) of doctors and 13.6% (n=6) of nurses intended to be vaccinated (p=0.019). Even among those who considered themselves to be at a high risk, 70.6% (n=48) of doctors and 31.7% (n=13) of nurses participating in the study (p=0.001) planned to have the vaccination. Conclusions Most health professionals, and in particular nurses, had no intention to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza virus at the beginning of the vaccination campaign. PMID:22461846

  3. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11)

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Kelly M.; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Twine, Susan M.; Tomás, Juan M.; Merino, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production) between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-“like” receptor 5 (TLR5). PMID:26633358

  4. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.

    2007-06-01

    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  5. Nested X Pinches on the COBRA Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Knapp, P. F.; Wilhelm, H.; Hammer, D. A.; Sinars, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results of X pinch studies on the COBRA generator at Cornell University (peak current up to 1.2 MA and rise time of 100 ns) are presented. Using an initial configuration of wires before their twisting, similar to nested cylindrical wire arrays enables the assembly of a symmetric configuration at the X pinch crossing region. It also enables an investigation of multilayered X pinches. X pinches with different configurations, including with different materials in the inner and outer wire layers, were tested.

  6. Status of the double beta experiment COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2006-07-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large number of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the fourfold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  7. Nested X Pinches on the COBRA Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Knapp, P. F.; Wilhelm, H.; Hammer, D. A.; Sinars, D. B.

    2009-01-21

    Recent results of X pinch studies on the COBRA generator at Cornell University (peak current up to 1.2 MA and rise time of 100 ns) are presented. Using an initial configuration of wires before their twisting, similar to nested cylindrical wire arrays enables the assembly of a symmetric configuration at the X pinch crossing region. It also enables an investigation of multilayered X pinches. X pinches with different configurations, including with different materials in the inner and outer wire layers, were tested.

  8. 77 FR 71190 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on November 19, 2012, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. (Cobra) filed a Rate Election pursuant to 284.123(b)(1) of the Commissions regulations and to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions. Cobra proposes...

  9. COBRA/RELAP5; A merged version of the COBRA-TF and RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Jeong, J.J.; Kim, S.H. ); Chang, S.H.

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes RELAP5/MOD3 and COBRA-TF were adopted to the Apollo DN 10000 workstation and subsequently merged. This was done to combine the excellent features of the two codes and thus product a code with much enhanced capability. The resulting code was named COBRA/RELAP5. This code has features in common with COBRA/TRAC or TRAC-PF1; three-dimensional reactor vessel and one-dimensional loop modeling capability. The merging of the two codes is focused on the hydrodynamic model and numerical solution schemes. In COBRA/RELAP5, the system pressure matrices of the two codes are merged and solved simultaneously. The merged COBRA/RELAP5 calculations are done in process-level parallel mode on the Apollo DN10000 computer with two central processing units.

  10. Helicopter noise research at the Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Green, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise generated from a 1/4-scale AH-1G helicopter configuration was investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Microphones were installed in positions scaled to those for which flight test data were available. Model and tunnel conditions were carefully set to properly scaled flight conditions. Data presented indicate a high degree of similarity between model and flight test results. It was found that the pressure time history waveforms are very much alike in shape and amplitude. Blade slap when it occurred seemed to be generated in about the same location in the rotor disk as on the flight vehicle. If model and tunnel conditions were properly matched, including inflow turbulence characteristics, the intensity of the blade-slap impulse seemed to correlate well with flight.

  11. Apache Scale Model Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Centers (LaRC) Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) performs antenna radiation pattern measurements on a communications antenna mounted on a 1/7th scale model of a US ARMY Apache Helicopter. The NASA LaRC ERB participates in a government industry, and university sponsored helicopter consortium to advance computational electromagnetics (CEM) code development for antenna radiation pattern predictions. Scale model antenna measurements serve as verification tools and are an integral part of the CEM code development process.

  12. Diagnostics on the COBRA pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Chalenski, D. A.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2006-10-01

    The COBRA pulsed power generator has a variable current pulse wave form and amplitude (95-180ns rise time, up to 1MA peak current). It was designed to study wire array Z pinches and X pinches, including plasma formation, pinch implosion dynamics, and pinch plasma parameters as a function of current rise time. These loads have been studied using an extensive set of diagnostics with spatial and/or temporal resolution. The set of electrical diagnostics on the COBRA generator includes Rogowski coils to monitor the total load current and the current through individual return current posts, and there is also an inductive voltage monitor. A set of extreme ultraviolet and x-ray detectors is used to study the load radiation. Wire array and X pinch plasma formation and dynamics are studied using two-frame, point projection X-pinch x-ray imaging as well as with multiframe laser probing. Flat potassium acid phtalate crystal (KAP), convex, extreme luminosity imaging conical spectrograph, and focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution with mica crystal, pinhole cameras, and a camera with a slit and a step filter set (slip step-wedge camera) can be used in each pulse to monitor the x-ray emission from the X pinch(es) and arrays in several spectral bands.

  13. Diagnostics on the COBRA pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Chalenski, D. A.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2006-10-15

    The COBRA pulsed power generator has a variable current pulse wave form and amplitude (95-180 ns rise time, up to 1 MA peak current). It was designed to study wire array Z pinches and X pinches, including plasma formation, pinch implosion dynamics, and pinch plasma parameters as a function of current rise time. These loads have been studied using an extensive set of diagnostics with spatial and/or temporal resolution. The set of electrical diagnostics on the COBRA generator includes Rogowski coils to monitor the total load current and the current through individual return current posts, and there is also an inductive voltage monitor. A set of extreme ultraviolet and x-ray detectors is used to study the load radiation. Wire array and X pinch plasma formation and dynamics are studied using two-frame, point projection X-pinch x-ray imaging as well as with multiframe laser probing. Flat potassium acid phtalate crystal (KAP), convex, extreme luminosity imaging conical spectrograph, and focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution with mica crystal, pinhole cameras, and a camera with a slit and a step filter set (slip step-wedge camera) can be used in each pulse to monitor the x-ray emission from the X pinch(es) and arrays in several spectral bands.

  14. HIV-1 and Its gp120 Inhibits the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Life Cycle in an IFITM3-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Sacramento, Carolina Q.; Abrantes, Juliana L.; Costa, Eduardo; Temerozo, Jairo R.; Siqueira, Marilda M.; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Souza, Thiago Moreno L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1)pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-α. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA) gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010. PMID:24978204

  15. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia Due to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Higuera Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena; Vazquez Manriquez, Maria Eugenia; Martinez Valadez, Eduarda Leticia; Ramos, Leticia Alfaro; Izumi, Shinyu; Takasaki, Jin; Kudo, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methodology and Principal Findings A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm) and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post). All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1)pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. Conclusions Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic point of view. These socioeconomic factors may explain the different patterns of morbidity and mortality for H1N1 influenza observed among different countries and regions. PMID:22808184

  16. 2009 A(H1N1) Seroconversion Rates and Risk Factors among the General Population in Vientiane Capital, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Alexia; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Crépey, Pascal; Flaissier, Bruno; Souvong, Vimalay; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Salez, Nicolas; Babin, François-Xavier; Longuet, Christophe; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess 2009 A(H1N1) seroconversion rates and their determinants within an unvaccinated population in Vientiane Capital, Laos. Methods CoPanFlu Laos, a general population cohort of 807 households and 4,072 participants was established in March 2010. Sociodemographic data, epidemiological data, and capillary blood samples were collected from all the household members in March, and again in October 2010, in order to assess the level of antibodies to 2009 A(H1N1) with the haemagglutination inhibition assay. 2009 A(H1N1) seroconversion was defined as a fourfold or greater increase in titre between inclusion and follow-up. Determinants for pandemic influenza infection were studied using the generalized estimating equations model, taking household clustering into account. Results Between March and November 2010, 3,524 paired sera were tested. Prior to the pandemic, our cohort was almost completely vaccine-naive for seasonal influenza. The overall seroconversion rate among nonvaccinated individuals (n = 2,810) was 14.3% (95%CI [13.0, 15.6]), with the highest rate for participants under 20 yo (19.8%, 95%CI [17.4, 22.4]) and the lowest rate for participants over 60 yo (6.5%, 95%CI [3.7, 10.4]). Participants with lower baseline titres had significantly higher infection rates, with a dose-effect relationship. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 76.5 (95%CI [27.1, 215.8]), for those with a titre at inclusion of 1∶10, to 8.1 (95%CI [3.3, 20.4]), for those with a titre of 1∶40. Having another household member with a titre ≥1∶80 was associated with a higher likelihood of immunity (OR = 3.3, 95%CI [2.8, 3.9]). Conclusion The determinants and age distribution for seroconversion within a vaccine-naive population were similar to those found in developed countries. This pandemic was characterized by strong epidemiological determinants, regardless of geographical zone and level of development. Moreover, we detected pre-existing cross-reacting antibodies in participants over 60 yo, which could not have originated from former multiple vaccination as has been suggested elsewhere. PMID:23637928

  17. Household Transmission of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Itziar; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Burgui, Rosana; Irisarri, Fátima; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Navascués, Ana; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Aldaz, Pablo; Castilla, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background The transmission of influenza viruses occurs person to person and is facilitated by contacts within enclosed environments such as households. The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary attack rates and factors associated with household transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. Methods During the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons, 76 sentinel physicians in Navarra, Spain, took nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from patients diagnosed with influenza-like illness. A trained nurse telephoned households of those patients who were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to ask about the symptoms, risk factors and vaccination status of each household member. Results In the 405 households with a patient laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 977 susceptible contacts were identified; 16% of them (95% CI 14–19%) presented influenza-like illness and were considered as secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was 14% in 2009–2010 and 19% in the 2010–2011 season (p = 0.049), an increase that mainly affected persons with major chronic conditions. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of being a secondary case was higher in the 2010–2011 season than in the 2009–2010 season (adjusted odds ratio: 1.72; 95% CI 1.17–2.54), and in children under 5 years, with a decreasing risk in older contacts. Influenza vaccination was associated with lesser incidence of influenza-like illness near to statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio: 0.29; 95% CI 0.08–1.03). Conclusion The secondary attack rate in households was higher in the second season than in the first pandemic season. Children had a greater risk of infection. Preventive measures should be maintained in the second pandemic season, especially in high-risk persons. PMID:25254376

  18. COBRA ARRA Subsidies: Was the Carrot Enticing Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Graetz, Ilana; Reed, Mary; Fung, Vicki; Dow, William H; Newhouse, Joseph P; Hsu, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To help preserve continuity of health insurance coverage during the recent recession, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided a 65 percent Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) premium subsidy for workers laid off in 2008–2010. We examined COBRA enrollment levels with the subsidy and the health, access, and financial consequences of enrollment decisions. Study Design/Data Collection Telephone interviews linked with health system databases for 561 respondents who were laid off in 2009 and eligible for the COBRA subsidy (80 percent response rate). Principal Findings Overall, 38 percent reported enrolling in COBRA and 54 percent reported having some gaps in insurance coverage since being laid off. After adjustments, we found that those who had higher cost-sharing, who had higher incomes, were older, or were sicker were more likely to enroll in COBRA. COBRA enrollees less frequently reported access problems or that their health suffered because of poor access, but they reported greater financial stress due to health care spending. Conclusion Despite the substantial subsidy, a majority of eligible individuals did not enroll in COBRA, and many reported insurance coverage gaps. Nonenrollees reported more access problems and that their health worsened. Without a mandate, subsidies may need to be widely publicized and larger to encourage health insurance enrollment among individuals who suffer a negative income shock. PMID:22515835

  19. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Top view from gantry, showing helicopter in final position after sliding 23 feet from initial impact. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  20. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Overall view of the nose landing gear (originally from Sikorsky S-76 helicopter). Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  1. Excess mortality monitoring in England and Wales during the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, P; Andrews, N; Pebody, R

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from a novel surveillance system for detecting excess all-cause mortality by age group in England and Wales developed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 period from April 2009 to March 2010. A Poisson regression model was fitted to age-specific mortality data from 1999 to 2008 and used to predict the expected number of weekly deaths in the absence of extreme health events. The system included adjustment for reporting delays. During the pandemic, excess all-cause mortality was seen in the 5-14 years age group, where mortality was flagged as being in excess for 1 week after the second peak in pandemic influenza activity; and in age groups >45 years during a period of very cold weather. This new system has utility for rapidly estimating excess mortality for other acute public health events such as extreme heat or cold weather. PMID:21439100

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicating influenza A/H1N1v infection--a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agnieszka; Prystupa, Andrzej; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Borys, Michał; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Michalak, Anna; Pietrzak, Aldona; Chodorowska, Grażyna; Krupski, Witold; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    ARDS is defined as an acute inflammatory syndrome characterized with bilateral parenchymal lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and PaO2/FiO2 ratio<200 resulting from causes other than acute left ventricular dysfunction. Inflammatory lung lesions may be induced by different disorders, with sepsis being the leading cause of ARDS. Other causes include infectious pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, drugs, severe trauma, fat embolism, surface burn, massive blood transfusion. Influenza A/H1N1 infection seems to be responsible for the development of extremely severe type of ARDS with poor response to routine treatment. Despite great progress in the management of ARDS with novel agents and sophisticated techniques, including antimicrobial drugs, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, prostacyclin, exogenous surfactant administration and activated protein C, supportive treatment based mostly on advanced mechanical ventilation in the intensive care units seems to be the most important for the prognosis. PMID:24364461

  3. The COBRA-1B irradiation experiment in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Hins, A.G.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the forthcoming COBRA-1B experiment in EBR-II is to evaluate the effects of fast neutron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of candidate fusion structural materials. Of special interest in this experiment will be ITER-relevant temperature and exposure for the test specimens. Approximately 50% of the irradiation test volume will be devoted to vanadium-alloy specimens. Design of the COBRA-1B irradiation experiment began in this reporting period and is in progress. The target reactor insertion date for COBRA-1B is September 1994. Technical and programmatic feasibility approval for the experiment has been granted by EBR-II Operations.

  4. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  5. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization. PMID:22506011

  6. New Influenza A/H1N1 (“Swine Flu”): information needs of airport passengers and staff

    PubMed Central

    Dickmann, P.; Rubin, G. J.; Gaber, W.; Wessely, S.; Wicker, S.; Serve, H.; Gottschalk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Dickmann et al. (2010) New Influenza A/H1N1 (“Swine Flu”): information needs of airport passengers and staff. . Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 39–46. Background  Airports are the entrances of infectious diseases. Particularly at the beginning of an outbreak, information and communication play an important role to enable the early detection of signs or symptoms and to encourage passengers to adopt appropriate preventive behaviour to limit the spread of the disease. Objectives  To determine the adequacy of the information provided to airport passengers and staff in meeting their information needs in relation to their concerns. Methods  At the start of the influenza A/H1N1 epidemic (29–30 April 2009), qualitative semi‐structured interviews (N = 101) were conducted at Frankfurt International Airport with passengers who were either returning from or going to Mexico and with airport staff who had close contact with these passengers. Interviews focused on knowledge about swine flu, information needs and fear or concern about the outbreak. Results  The results showed that a desire for more information was associated with higher concern – the least concerned participants did not want any additional information, while the most concerned participants reported a range of information needs. Airport staff in contact with passengers travelling from the epicentre of the outbreak showed the highest levels of fear or concern, coupled with a desire to be adequately briefed by their employer. Conclusions  Our results suggest that information strategies should address not only the exposed or potentially exposed but also groups that feel at risk. Identifying what information these different passenger and staff groups wish to receive will be an important task in any future infectious disease outbreak. PMID:21138539

  7. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:24187568

  8. RNA interference targeting CYP76AH1 in hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza reveals its key role in the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Meng, Fan-Yun; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Guo, Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-08-19

    Plant cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are well known as the largest family of enzymes that contribute to both primary metabolism and the chemical diversity of plant secondary metabolites. It is important to elucidate the in vivo role of CYPs in secondary metabolism, in order to apply them in the production of valuable metabolites in medicinal plants via metabolic engineering. CYP76AH1 has been suggested to catalyze the conversion of the carbon skeleton miltiradiene into the intermediate ferruginol, which is involved in the biosynthesis of tanshinones, the chief bioactive ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza. However, its role in planta remains to be elucidated. In this work, we constructed a CYP76AH1 RNAi system for hairy roots. Metabolic analysis of RNAi-AH1 hairy root lines showed a significantly increased accumulation of miltiradiene compared to the control lines. At the same time, the concentration of ferruginol decreased revealing the in vivo catalytic activity of CYP76AH1. The content of tanshinones decreased significantly after silencing of CYP76AH1, which verified its key role in the biosynthesis of tanshinones, and indicated that it could be used as a target for metabolic engineering. PMID:27291148

  9. Effectiveness of the monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in Navarre, Spain, 2009-2010: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Morán, Julio; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Fernández-Alonso, Mirian; Guevara, Marcela; Cenoz, Manuel García; Reina, Gabriel; Alvarez, Nerea; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Salcedo, Esther; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2011-08-11

    We defined a population-based cohort (596,755 subjects) in Navarre, Spain, using electronic records from physicians, to evaluate the effectiveness of the monovalent A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing influenza in the 2009-2010 pandemic season. During the 9-week period of vaccine availability and circulation of the A(H1N1)2009 virus, 4608 cases of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) were registered (46 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for sociodemographic covariables, outpatient visits and major chronic conditions, vaccination was associated with a 32% (95% CI: 8-50%) reduction in the overall incidence of MA-ILI. In a test negative case-control analysis nested in the cohort, swabs from 633 patients were included, and 123 were confirmed for A(H1N1)2009 influenza. No confirmed case had received A(H1N1)2009 vaccine versus 9.6% of controls (p<0.001). The vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 89% (95% CI: 36-100%) after adjusting for age, health care setting, major chronic conditions and period. Pandemic vaccine was effective in preventing MA-ILI and confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the 2009-2010 season. PMID:21723358

  10. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients: characteristics and outcomes following high-dose oseltamivir exposure.

    PubMed

    Watcharananan, S P; Suwatanapongched, T; Wacharawanichkul, P; Chantratitaya, W; Mavichak, V; Mossad, S B

    2010-04-01

    We report 2 cases of severe pneumonia due to the novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in kidney transplant recipients. Our patients initially experienced influenza-like illness that rapidly progressed to severe pneumonia within 48 h. The patients became hypoxic and required non-invasive ventilation. The novel influenza A/H1N1 2009 was identified from their nasal swabs. These cases were treated successfully with a relatively high dose of oseltamivir, adjusted for their renal function. Clinical improvement was documented only after a week of antiviral therapy. Despite early antiviral treatment, we showed that morbidity following novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection is high among kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20102550

  11. Triggered Reconnection at 1 MA on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, John; Blesener, Kate; Seyler, Charles; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-10-01

    We present new results in the study of magnetic reconnection of flux generated by two parallel currents in exploding Al wires driven to 1 MA by the Cornell COBRA pulser. Magnetic and thermal energy are stored in the system as the current rises in 200 ns. The stored energy is then dissipated in reconnection and outflows triggered at the time of voltage reversal and the decline of external magnetic pressure. Data are presented from a new optical spectroscopy diagnostic with high spatial and spectral resolution. The flows are supersonic. Strongly radiating shocks are associated with the current sheet and outflow boundaries. PERSEUS MHD and XMHD simulations are presented to compare with experiment and characterize the reconnection regime. Work supported by US DOE.

  12. Status and Perspectives of the COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonsak, Björn

    COBRA is a neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) experiment using an array of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride semiconductor detectors, the isotope of interest being 116Cd with a Q-value of 2814 keV. To investigate the experimental challenges of operating CdZnTe detectors in low background mode and to identify potential background components, a demonstrator setup is operated at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) in Italy, while additional studies are proceeding in surface laboratories. The experiment consists of monolithic, calorimetric detectors of coplanar grid design (CPG de- tectors). These detectors have a size of 1×1×1 cm3 and are arranged in four layers of 4×4 detectors. An overview of the current status and of future perspectives is given. Results of pulse shape analyses are presented as well as background estimates using the data collected so far.

  13. COBRA - Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on Cd-116, with a decay energy of 2814keV well above the highest naturally occurring gamma lines. Furthermore, Te-130, with a high natural abundance, and Cd-106, a double β+ emitter, are under investigation. Advantageous is the possibility to operate the detectors at room temperature. Besides coplanar grid detectors, pixelised detectors are considered. The latter ones would allow for particle discrimination, therefore providing efficient background reduction. The current status of the experiment is described, including the upgrade of the R&D set-up in spring 2011 at the LNGS underground laboratory, the different detector concepts and the latest half -life limits. Furthermore, studies on the use of liquid scintillator for background suppression and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  14. Nested X Pinches on the COBRA Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, David; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergei; McBride, Ryan; Knapp, Patrick; Wilhelm, Harold; Sinars, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Recent results of X pinch studies on the COBRA generator at Cornell University (peak current up to 1.2 MA and rise time of 100 ns) are presented. Increasing of the pulser current requires the use of loads with higher mass per unit length. Such loads can be made by increasing the number of wires or the wire diameters, which leads to increasing the size and complexity of the wire crossing region. Using an initial configuration of wires (before their twisting), similar to nested arrays enables the assembly of a more-nearly symmetric configuration at the X pinch crossing region. It also enables an investigation of multilayered X pinches. We will present experimental results obtained from X pinches with different configurations, including X pinches with different materials in the inner and outer wire layers.

  15. Study of Ion Back Flow suppression with thick COBRA GEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, K.

    2014-03-01

    Ion Back Flow (IBF) suppression is essential to avoid a space-charge distortion of the electric field under a high rate condition in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). A GEM technology is one possible solution to achieve a small IBF and to keep a good performance in terms of particle tracking and particle identification at high rates in TPC. We developed Thick COBRA GEMs to investigate the capability of further IBF suppression. It was found that the COBRA GEM can suppress IBF more effectively compared to a standard GEM. IBF reaches about 0.1-0.5% with a stack configuration consisting of one standard GEM facing to the drift field and two COBRA GEMs. In this paper, the current status of development of COBRA GEM is described.

  16. Spitting cobras adjust their venom distribution to target distance.

    PubMed

    Berthé, Ruben Andres; de Pury, Stéphanie; Bleckmann, Horst; Westhoff, Guido

    2009-08-01

    If threatened by a human, spitting cobras defend themselves by ejecting their venom toward the face of the antagonist. Circulating head movements of the cobra ensure that the venom is distributed over the face. To assure an optimal distribution of the venom, the amplitudes of head movements should decrease with increasing target distance. To find out whether cobras (Naja pallida and N. nigricollis) adjust their spitting behavior according to target distance we induced spitting from different distances and analyzed their spitting patterns. Our results show that the spray pattern of spitting cobras is not fixed. Instead the snake matches its venom distribution to the size of the target independent of target distance. PMID:19462171

  17. INGEN: A COBRA-NC input generator user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1986-12-01

    The INGEN (INput GENerator) computer program has been developed as a preprocessor to simplify input generation for the COBRA-NC computer program. INGEN uses several empirical correlations and geometric assumptions to simplify the data input requirements for the COBRA-NC computer code. The simplified input scheme is obtained at the expense of much flexibility provided by COBRA-NC. For more complex problems requiring additional flexibility however, INGEN may be used to provide a skeletal input file to which the more detailed input may be added. This report describes the input requirements for INGEN and describes the algorithms and correlations used to generate the COBRA-NC input. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Assessment of the computer code COBRA/CFTL

    SciTech Connect

    Baxi, C. B.; Burhop, C. J.

    1981-07-01

    The COBRA/CFTL code has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for thermal-hydraulic analysis of simulated gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core assemblies to be tested in the core flow test loop (CFTL). The COBRA/CFTL code was obtained by modifying the General Atomic code COBRA*GCFR. This report discusses these modifications, compares the two code results for three cases which represent conditions from fully rough turbulent flow to laminar flow. Case 1 represented fully rough turbulent flow in the bundle. Cases 2 and 3 represented laminar and transition flow regimes. The required input for the COBRA/CFTL code, a sample problem input/output and the code listing are included in the Appendices.

  19. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  20. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with 10-64C main rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation produced data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade section contour. The test envelope included hover, forward flight speeds from 34 to 83 m/sec (65 to 162 knots), and collective fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip speed ratio. The data set for each test point describes vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak to peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor. Detailed data for an advanced airfoil on an AH-1G are presented.

  1. Social class based on occupation is associated with hospitalization for A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. Comparison between hospitalized and ambulatory cases.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J; Godoy, P; Soldevila, N; Castilla, J; González-Candelas, F; Mayoral, J M; Astray, J; Garcia, S; Martin, V; Tamames, S; Delgado, M; Domínguez, A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74-1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01-2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23-0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza. PMID:26271901

  2. Optimization process in helicopter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, A. H.; Banerjee, D.

    1984-01-01

    In optimizing a helicopter configuration, Hughes Helicopters uses a program called Computer Aided Sizing of Helicopters (CASH), written and updated over the past ten years, and used as an important part of the preliminary design process of the AH-64. First, measures of effectiveness must be supplied to define the mission characteristics of the helicopter to be designed. Then CASH allows the designer to rapidly and automatically develop the basic size of the helicopter (or other rotorcraft) for the given mission. This enables the designer and management to assess the various tradeoffs and to quickly determine the optimum configuration.

  3. COBRA-SFS. Thermal Analysis Spent Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS is used for steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of spent fuel storage systems as well as other heat transfer and fluid flow problems. It is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions under a wide range of flow conditions, including mixed and natural convection. Two auxiliary programs, RADX1 and RADGEN, generate blackbody view factors and calculate radiation exchange factors for unconsolidated spent fuel assemblies to be supplied as input to COBRA-SFS.

  4. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  5. Helicopter Safety Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Rutkowski, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In response to the President's challenge to reduce civil aviation accidents by a factor of 10 by the year 2022, NASA has embarked on an ambitious safety program in partnership with other government agencies and industry. The helicopter element of the NASA initiative has been guided by a series of accident analyses aimed at identifying the most frequent causes and consequences and initiating research to prevent or mitigate these factors. This talk will summarize the key findings of three of the accident analyses, the major elements of the safety program, and how helicopter safety research relates to the safety program.

  6. Changes in severity of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza in England: a Bayesian evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pebody, R G; Paterson, B J; Tom, B D M; Birrell, P J; Charlett, A; Lipsitch, M; Angelis, D De

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in England during the two waves of activity up to end of February 2010 by estimating the probabilities of cases leading to severe events and the proportion of the population infected. Design A Bayesian evidence synthesis of all available relevant surveillance data in England to estimate severity of the pandemic. Data sources All available surveillance systems relevant to the pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak in England from June 2009 to February 2010. Pre-existing influenza surveillance systems, including estimated numbers of symptomatic cases based on consultations to the health service for influenza-like illness and cross sectional population serological surveys, as well as systems set up in response to the pandemic, including follow-up of laboratory confirmed cases up to end of June 2009 (FF100 and Fluzone databases), retrospective and prospective follow-up of confirmed hospitalised cases, and reported deaths associated with pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. Main outcome measures Age specific and wave specific probabilities of infection and symptomatic infection resulting in hospitalisation, intensive care admission, and death, as well as infection attack rates (both symptomatic and total). The probabilities of intensive care admission and death given hospitalisation over time are also estimated to evaluate potential changes in severity across waves. Results In the summer wave of A/H1N1 influenza, 0.54% (95% credible interval 0.33% to 0.82%) of the estimated 606 100 (419 300 to 886 300) symptomatic cases were hospitalised, 0.05% (0.03% to 0.08%) entered intensive care, and 0.015% (0.010% to 0.022%) died. These correspond to 3200 (2300 to 4700) hospital admissions, 310 (200 to 480) intensive care admissions, and 90 (80 to 110) deaths in the summer wave. In the second wave, 0.55% (0.28% to 0.89%) of the 1 352 000 (829 900 to 2 806 000) estimated symptomatic cases were hospitalised, 0.10% (0.05% to 0.16%) were admitted to intensive care, and 0.025% (0.013% to 0.040%) died. These correspond to 7500 (5900 to 9700) hospitalisations, 1340 (1030 to 1790) admissions to intensive care, and 240 (310 to 380) deaths. Just over a third (35% (26% to 45%)) of infections were estimated to be symptomatic. The estimated probabilities of infections resulting in severe events were therefore 0.19% (0.12% to 0.29%), 0.02% (0.01% to 0.03%), and 0.005% (0.004% to 0.008%) in the summer wave for hospitalisation, intensive care admission, and death respectively. The corresponding second wave probabilities are 0.19% (0.10% to 0.32%), 0.03% (0.02% to 0.06%), and 0.009% (0.004% to 0.014%). An estimated 30% (20% to 43%) of hospitalisations were detected in surveillance systems in the summer, compared with 20% (15% to 25%) in the second wave. Across the two waves, a mid-estimate of 11.2% (7.4% to 18.9%) of the population of England were infected, rising to 29.5% (16.9% to 64.1%) in 5-14 year olds. Sensitivity analyses to the evidence included suggest this infection attack rate could be as low as 5.9% (4.2% to 8.7%) or as high as 28.4% (26.0% to 30.8%). In terms of the probability that an infection leads to death in the second wave, these correspond, respectively, to a high estimate of 0.017% (0.011% to 0.024%) and a low estimate of 0.0027% (0.0024% to 0.0031%). Conclusions This study suggests a mild pandemic, characterised by case and infection severity ratios increasing between waves. Results suggest low ascertainment rates, highlighting the importance of systems enabling early robust estimation of severity, to inform optimal public health responses, particularly in light of the apparent resurgence of the 2009 A/H1N1 strain in the 2010-11 influenza season. PMID:21903689

  7. Studies of Influenza A/H1N1 A/Tomsk/13/2010 Virus Topology during Development of Infectious Process in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Potapova, O V; Kovner, A V; Anikina, A G; Cherdantseva, L A; Sharkova, T V; Shkurupy, V A; Vasil'eva, E V; Shestopalov, A M

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A/H1N1 A/Tomsk/13/2010 virus registered in Siberia in 2010 proved to be an extremely pathogenic strain. Dynamic study of the topology of this influenza virus strain in the lungs, liver, kidneys, lymph nodes, and great vessels of infected mice was carried out. Influenza A virus was detected by immunohistochemical methods in cells of different histogenesis in all the studied organs throughout the observation period (days 1-30 postinfection), which indicated effective replication and long persistence of influenza A/H1N1 A/Tomsk/13/2010 virus in mammalian cells. PMID:27025855

  8. Continued emergence and changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, United Kingdom, winter 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Lackenby, A; Moran Gilad, J; Pebody, R; Miah, S; Calatayud, L; Bolotin, S; Vipond, I; Muir, P; Guiver, M; McMenamin, J; Reynolds, A; Moore, C; Gunson, R; Thompson, C; Galiano, M; Bermingham, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M

    2011-01-01

    During the winter period 2010/11 27 epidemiologically unlinked, confirmed cases of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus infection have been detected in multiple, geographically dispersed settings. Three of these cases were in community settings, with no known exposure to oseltamivir. This suggests possible onward transmission of resistant strains and could be an indication of a possibility of changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus. PMID:21315056

  9. COBRA-Seq: Sensitive and Quantitative Methylome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Varinli, Hilal; Statham, Aaron L.; Clark, Susan J.; Molloy, Peter L.; Ross, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) quantifies DNA methylation at a specific locus. It does so via digestion of PCR amplicons produced from bisulfite-treated DNA, using a restriction enzyme that contains a cytosine within its recognition sequence, such as TaqI. Here, we introduce COBRA-seq, a genome wide reduced methylome method that requires minimal DNA input (0.1–1.0 μg) and can either use PCR or linear amplification to amplify the sequencing library. Variants of COBRA-seq can be used to explore CpG-depleted as well as CpG-rich regions in vertebrate DNA. The choice of enzyme influences enrichment for specific genomic features, such as CpG-rich promoters and CpG islands, or enrichment for less CpG dense regions such as enhancers. COBRA-seq coupled with linear amplification has the additional advantage of reduced PCR bias by producing full length fragments at high abundance. Unlike other reduced representative methylome methods, COBRA-seq has great flexibility in the choice of enzyme and can be multiplexed and tuned, to reduce sequencing costs and to interrogate different numbers of sites. Moreover, COBRA-seq is applicable to non-model organisms without the reference genome and compatible with the investigation of non-CpG methylation by using restriction enzymes containing CpA, CpT, and CpC in their recognition site. PMID:26512698

  10. COBRA-SFS. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codes for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form the latest release of the code, Cycle 2.

  11. A laser image generation system for helicopter Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) flight training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H. M.

    1983-11-01

    The training effectiveness of the camera-modelboard visual system for low-altitude, nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flights, particularly for helicopters, is well established. Traditional camera-modelboard technology, however, has a number of inherent limitations which have been overcome by using a laser image generator instead of a TV camera as in the current generation of camera-modelboard systems. The first full-scale Laser Image Generation (LIG) visual system, developed by Singer-Link under the AH-lS Cobra Helicopter Flight Weapons Simulator contract, will be delivered to the U.S. Army in the near future. This new visual system offers improvements in many areas, some of which are discussed in this paper, together with the visual system technology involved and performance parameters achieved on the AH-lS simulator.

  12. Point of Care Strategy for Rapid Diagnosis of Novel A/H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Gazin, Celine; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Charrel, Remi N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Within months of the emergence of the novel A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nA/H1N1v), systematic screening for the surveillance of the pandemic was abandoned in France and in some other countries. At the end of June 2009, we implemented, for the public hospitals of Marseille, a Point Of Care (POC) strategy for rapid diagnosis of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, in order to maintain local surveillance and to evaluate locally the kinetics of the pandemic. Methodology/Principal Findings Two POC laboratories, located in strategic places, were organized to receive and test samples 24 h/24. POC strategy consisted of receiving and processing naso-pharyngeal specimens in preparation for the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) and real-time RT-PCR assay (rtRT-PCR). This strategy had the theoretical capacity of processing up to 36 samples per 24 h. When the flow of samples was too high, the rtRT-PCR test was abandoned in the POC laboratories and transferred to the core virology laboratory. Confirmatory diagnosis was performed in the core virology laboratory twice a day using two distinct rtRT-PCR techniques that detect either influenza A virus or nA/N1N1v. Over a period of three months, 1974 samples were received in the POC laboratories, of which 111 were positive for nA/H1N1v. Specificity and sensitivity of RIDT were 100%, and 57.7% respectively. Positive results obtained using RIDT were transmitted to clinical practitioners in less than 2 hours. POC processed rtRT-PCR results were available within 7 hours, and rtRT-PCR confirmation within 24 hours. Conclusions/Significance The POC strategy is of benefit, in all cases (with or without rtRT-PCR assay), because it provides continuous reception/processing of samples and reduction of the time to provide consolidated results to the clinical practitioners. We believe that implementation of the POC strategy for the largest number of suspect cases may improve the quality of patient care and our knowledge of the epidemiology of the pandemic. PMID:20174646

  13. Outcomes of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results from Two International Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Wentworth, Deborah; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Herman-Lamin, Kathy; Cholewinska, Grazyna; David, Daniel; Kuetter, Stefan; Ternesgen, Zelalem; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Lane, H. Clifford; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were initiated: FLU 002 in outpatients and FLU 003 in hospitalized patients. Methods and Findings Between October 2009 and December 2012, adults with influenza-like illness (ILI) were enrolled; outpatients were followed for 14 days and inpatients for 60 days. Disease progression was defined as hospitalization and/or death for outpatients, and hospitalization for >28 days, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) if enrolled from general ward, and/or death for inpatients. Infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. 590 FLU 002 and 392 FLU 003 patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 were enrolled from 81 sites in 17 countries at 2 days (IQR 1–3) and 6 days (IQR 4–10) following ILI onset, respectively. Disease progression was experienced by 29 (1 death) outpatients (5.1%; 95% CI: 3.4–7.2%) and 80 inpatients [death (32), hospitalization >28 days (43) or ICU transfer (20)] (21.6%; 95% CI: 17.5–26.2%). Disease progression (death) for hospitalized patients was 53.1% (26.6%) and 12.8% (3.8%), respectively, for those enrolled in the ICU and general ward. In pooled analyses for both studies, predictors of disease progression were age, longer duration of symptoms at enrollment and immunosuppression. Patients hospitalized during the pandemic period had a poorer prognosis than in subsequent seasons. Conclusions Patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, particularly when requiring hospital admission, are at high risk for disease progression, especially if they are older, immunodeficient, or admitted late in infection. These data reinforce the need for international trials of novel treatment strategies for influenza infection and serve as a reminder of the need to monitor the severity of seasonal and pandemic influenza epidemics globally. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: FLU 002- NCT01056354, FLU 003- NCT01056185. PMID:25004134

  14. Influenza vaccination in the Americas: Progress and challenges after the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Kurtis, Hannah Jane; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. Methods: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI). Results: Since 2008, 25 countries/territories in the Americas have introduced new target groups for vaccination or expanded the age ranges of existing target groups. As of 2014, 40 (89%) out of 45 countries/territories have policies established for seasonal influenza vaccination. Currently, 29 (64%) countries/territories target pregnant women for vaccination, the highest priority group according to WHO´s Stategic Advisory Group of Experts and PAHO/WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases, compared to only 7 (16%) in 2008. Among 23 countries reporting coverage data, on average, 75% of adults ≥60 years, 45% of children aged 6–23 months, 32% of children aged 5–2 years, 59% of pregnant women, 78% of healthcare workers, and 90% of individuals with chronic conditions were vaccinated during the 2013–14 Northern Hemisphere or 2014 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccination activities. Difficulties however persist in the estimation of vaccination coverage, especially for pregnant women and persons with chronic conditions. Since 2007, 6 tropical countries have changed their vaccine formulation from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere formulation and the timing of their campaigns to April-May following the review of national evidence. LAC countries have also established an official network dedicated to evaluating influenza vaccines effectiveness and impact. Conclusion: Following the A(H1N1)2009 influenza pandemic, countries of the Americas have continued their efforts to sustain or increase seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among high risk groups, especially among pregnant women. Countries also continued strengthening influenza surveillance, immunization platforms and information systems, indirectly improving preparedness for future pandemics. Influenza vaccination is particularly challenging compared to other vaccines included in EPI schedules, due to the need for annual, optimally timed vaccination, the wide spectrum of target groups, and the limitations of the available vaccines. Countries should continue to monitor influenza vaccination coverage, generate evidence for vaccination programs and implement social communication strategies addressing existing gaps. PMID:27196006

  15. The Focke Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Focke, H; Kruger, K B

    1938-01-01

    This report presents some of the problems concerning tests of helicopters, such as forced landings, controllability and stability, general safety, piloting maneuvers, performance, servicing, and the production of lift of a propeller. Test flights are described including a 67.67 mph flight by Hanna Reitsch.

  16. Inherent Stability of Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocco, G Arturo

    1923-01-01

    The equilibrium, in still air, of a "stationary" helicopter (i.e., of one having neither vertical nor translational velocity, but a tendency to remain practically motionless within restricted limits of space) presents some difficulty in practice and justifies a theoretical investigation of its "inherent stability," i.e., independent of the pilot.

  17. Research In Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Schmitz, Frederic H.; Morse, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in aeroacoustical theory and experiments reviewed. Report summarizes continuing U.S. Army programs of research into causes of noise generated by helicopters. Topics of study include high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex-interaction noise, and low-frequency harmonic noise.

  18. Immunogenicity of a monovalent influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Yuichiro; Imamura, Yutaka; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ide, Saburo; Tsutsumi, Chiyo; Koga, Masahisa; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies have high risk for morbidity and mortality from influenza. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine among such subjects. Fifty subjects were vaccinated twice during the 2009–2010 season. The antibody response was expressed in terms of mean fold rise (MFR) of geometric mean titer, seroresponse proportion (sR), and seroprotection proportion (sP). The first vaccination induced only a small response, and additional antibody was acquired after the second dose (MFR 2.3 and 3.9, sR 32% and 54%, and sP 30% and 48% after the first and the second vaccination, respectively). Rituximab treatment showed an especially inhibitory effect (MFR 1.3, sR 9% and sP 0%). When analyzed using logistic regression models, only rituximab was found to have an independent effect; the adjusted odds ratio for sR was 0.09 (P = 0.05). Influenza vaccination of patients with hematological malignancies resulted in adepuate response, and the second vaccination induced additional antibody. It is therefore recommended to vaccinate this group twice. PMID:25424946

  19. Hospitalization Fatality Risk of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jessica Y.; Kelly, Heath; Cheung, Chung-Mei M.; Shiu, Eunice Y.; Wu, Peng; Ni, Michael Y.; Ip, Dennis K. M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza pandemic, uncertainty surrounding the severity of human infections with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus hindered the calibration of the early public health response. The case fatality risk was widely used to assess severity, but another underexplored and potentially more immediate measure is the hospitalization fatality risk (HFR), defined as the probability of death among H1N1pdm09 cases who required hospitalization for medical reasons. In this review, we searched for relevant studies published in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE between April 1, 2009, and January 9, 2014. Crude estimates of the HFR ranged from 0% to 52%, with higher estimates from tertiary-care referral hospitals in countries with a lower gross domestic product, but in wealthy countries the estimate was 1%–3% in all settings. Point estimates increased substantially with age and with lower gross domestic product. Early in the next pandemic, estimation of a standardized HFR may provide a picture of the severity of infection, particularly if it is presented in comparison with a similarly standardized HFR for seasonal influenza in the same setting. PMID:26188191

  20. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course. PMID:26379185

  1. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10−8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course. PMID:26379185

  2. Gene signatures related to HAI response following influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Oberg, Ann L; Kennedy, Richard B; Zimmermann, Michael T; Haralambieva, Iana H; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-05-01

    To assess gene signatures related to humoral response among healthy older subjects following seasonal influenza vaccination, we studied 94 healthy adults (50-74 years old) who received one documented dose of licensed trivalent influenza vaccine containing the A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus strain. Influenza-specific antibody (HAI) titer in serum samples and next-generation sequencing on PBMCs were performed using blood samples collected prior to (Day 0) and at two timepoints after (Days 3 and 28) vaccination. We identified a number of uncharacterized genes (ZNF300, NUP1333, KLK1 and others) and confirmed previous studies demonstrating specific genes/genesets that are important mediators of host immune responses and that displayed associations with antibody response to influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. These included interferon-regulatory transcription factors (IRF1/IRF2/IRF6/IRF7/IRF9), chemokine/chemokine receptors (CCR5/CCR9/CCL5), cytokine/cytokine receptors (IFNG/IL10RA/TNFRSF1A), protein kinases (MAP2K4/MAPK3), growth factor receptor (TGFBR1). The identification of gene signatures associated with antibody response represents an early stage in the science for which further research is needed. Such research may assist in the design of better vaccines to facilitate improved defenses against new influenza virus strains, as well as better understanding the genetic drivers of immune responses. PMID:27441275

  3. Changes in heterosubtypic antibody responses during the first year of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Boni, Maciej F.; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Seropositivity to avian influenza (AI) via low-level antibody titers has been reported in the general population and poultry-exposed individuals, raising the question whether these findings reflect true infection with AI or cross-reactivity. Here we investigated serological profiles against human and avian influenza viruses in the general population using a protein microarray platform. We hypothesized that higher antibody diversity across recent H1 and H3 influenza viruses would be associated with heterosubtypic reactivity to older pandemic- and AI viruses. We found significant heterogeneity in antibody profiles. Increased antibody diversity to seasonal influenza viruses was associated with low-level heterosubtypic antibodies to H9 and H7, but not to H5 AI virus. Individuals exposed to the recent 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic showed higher heterosubtypic reactivity. We show that there is a complex interplay between prior exposures to seasonal and recent pandemic influenza viruses and the development of heterosubtypic antibody reactivity to animal influenza viruses. PMID:26853924

  4. Beliefs and knowledge about vaccination against AH1N1pdm09 infection and uptake factors among Chinese parents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Kwong, Enid Wai Yung; Wong, Ho Ting; Lo, Suet Hang; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo

    2014-02-01

    Vaccination against AH1N1pdm09 infection (human swine infection, HSI) is an effective measure of preventing pandemic infection, especially for high-risk groups like children between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. This study used a cross-sectional correlation design and aimed to identify predicting factors of parental acceptance of the HSI vaccine (HSIV) and uptake of the vaccination by their preschool-aged children in Hong Kong. A total of 250 parents were recruited from four randomly selected kindergartens. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief framework was used for data collection. The results showed that a number of factors significantly affected the tendency toward new vaccination uptake; these factors included parental age, HSI vaccination history of the children in their family, preferable price of the vaccine, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and motivating factors for taking new vaccines. Using these factors, a logistic regression model with a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.63 was generated to explain vaccination acceptance. A strong correlation between parental acceptance of new vaccinations and the motivating factors of vaccination uptake was found, which indicates the importance of involving parents in policy implementation for any new vaccination schemes. Overall, in order to fight against pandemics and enhance vaccination acceptance, it is essential for the government to understand the above factors determining parental acceptance of new vaccinations for their preschool-aged children. PMID:24534766

  5. Bayesian modeling to unmask and predict influenza A/H1N1pdm dynamics in London.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Paul J; Ketsetzis, Georgios; Gay, Nigel J; Cooper, Ben S; Presanis, Anne M; Harris, Ross J; Charlett, André; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; White, Peter J; Pebody, Richard G; De Angelis, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    The tracking and projection of emerging epidemics is hindered by the disconnect between apparent epidemic dynamics, discernible from noisy and incomplete surveillance data, and the underlying, imperfectly observed, system. Behavior changes compound this, altering both true dynamics and reporting patterns, particularly for diseases with nonspecific symptoms, such as influenza. We disentangle these effects to unravel the hidden dynamics of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm pandemic in London, where surveillance suggests an unusual dominant peak in the summer. We embed an age-structured model into a bayesian synthesis of multiple evidence sources to reveal substantial changes in contact patterns and health-seeking behavior throughout the epidemic, uncovering two similar infection waves, despite large differences in the reported levels of disease. We show how this approach, which allows for real-time learning about model parameters as the epidemic progresses, is also able to provide a sequence of nested projections that are capable of accurately reflecting the epidemic evolution. PMID:22042838

  6. Bayesian modeling to unmask and predict influenza A/H1N1pdm dynamics in London

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Paul J.; Ketsetzis, Georgios; Gay, Nigel J.; Cooper, Ben S.; Presanis, Anne M.; Harris, Ross J.; Charlett, André; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; White, Peter J.; Pebody, Richard G.; De Angelis, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The tracking and projection of emerging epidemics is hindered by the disconnect between apparent epidemic dynamics, discernible from noisy and incomplete surveillance data, and the underlying, imperfectly observed, system. Behavior changes compound this, altering both true dynamics and reporting patterns, particularly for diseases with nonspecific symptoms, such as influenza. We disentangle these effects to unravel the hidden dynamics of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm pandemic in London, where surveillance suggests an unusual dominant peak in the summer. We embed an age-structured model into a Bayesian synthesis of multiple evidence sources to reveal substantial changes in contact patterns and health-seeking behavior throughout the epidemic, uncovering two similar infection waves, despite large differences in the reported levels of disease. We show how this approach, which allows for real-time learning about model parameters as the epidemic progresses, is also able to provide a sequence of nested projections that are capable of accurately reflecting the epidemic evolution. PMID:22042838

  7. Changes in heterosubtypic antibody responses during the first year of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Freidl, Gudrun S; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Boni, Maciej F; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2016-01-01

    Seropositivity to avian influenza (AI) via low-level antibody titers has been reported in the general population and poultry-exposed individuals, raising the question whether these findings reflect true infection with AI or cross-reactivity. Here we investigated serological profiles against human and avian influenza viruses in the general population using a protein microarray platform. We hypothesized that higher antibody diversity across recent H1 and H3 influenza viruses would be associated with heterosubtypic reactivity to older pandemic- and AI viruses. We found significant heterogeneity in antibody profiles. Increased antibody diversity to seasonal influenza viruses was associated with low-level heterosubtypic antibodies to H9 and H7, but not to H5 AI virus. Individuals exposed to the recent 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic showed higher heterosubtypic reactivity. We show that there is a complex interplay between prior exposures to seasonal and recent pandemic influenza viruses and the development of heterosubtypic antibody reactivity to animal influenza viruses. PMID:26853924

  8. Modelling the spatial-temporal progression of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Chowell, Gerardo; Mulet, Pep; Villada, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    A spatial-temporal transmission model of 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza across Chile, a country that spans a large latitudinal range, is developed to characterize the spatial variation in peak timing of that pandemic as a function of local transmission rates, spatial connectivity assumptions for Chilean regions, and the putative location of introduction of the novel virus into the country. Specifically, a metapopulation SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-removed) compartmental model that tracks the transmission dynamics of influenza in 15 Chilean regions is calibrated. The model incorporates population mobility among neighboring regions and indirect mobility to and from other regions via the metropolitan central region ('hub region'). The stability of the disease-free equilibrium of this model is analyzed and compared with the corresponding stability in each region, concluding that stability may occur even with some regions having basic reproduction numbers above 1. The transmission model is used along with epidemiological data to explore potential factors that could have driven the spatial-temporal progression of the pandemic. Simulations and sensitivity analyses indicate that this relatively simple model is sufficient to characterize the south-north gradient in peak timing observed during the pandemic, and suggest that south Chile observed the initial spread of the pandemic virus, which is in line with a retrospective epidemiological study. The 'hub region' in our model significantly enhanced population mixing in a short time scale. PMID:26776260

  9. [Pandemic influenza A(H1N1): the experience of the Spanish Laboratories of Influenza Network (ReLEG)].

    PubMed

    Cuevas González-Nicolás, María Teresa; Ledesma Moreno, Juan; Pozo Sánchez, Francisco; Casas Flecha, Inmaculada; Pérez-Breña, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, C. These viruses evolves constantly due to two main characteristics: the first one is the lack of the correction ability of the viral polymerase which causes the accumulation of single nucleotide mutations in the viral genes introduced by an error-prone viral RNA polymerase, (antigenic shift). The second one is the nature of their genome, formed by eight segments, which allows the interchange of genes between two different viral strains (antigenic drift). This viral plasticity, has allowed to the influenza A viruses to infect new host species and to cause infections with a pandemic characteristics. The Spanish influenza surveillance system, SVGE (its Spanish acronym), arises as a response to the possibility of facing a pandemic situation, especially after the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans. This surveillance system is formed by sixteen physician and paediatrics network, nineteen epidemiological services coordinated by the National Epidemiological Centre (CNE) and eighteen laboratories , the Spanish Laboratories of Influenza network (ReLEG), coordinated by the National Centre of Microbiology. The aim of this article is to show the action of the ReLEG, in the pandemic caused by the influenza virus A(H1N1) during the season 2009-2010. The main objective of this network is the surveillance of the circulating viruses by means of their detection and their subsequent antigenic and genetic characterization, including the detection of resistance mutations against the main drugs, such as Oseltamivir. PMID:21203714

  10. The Spread of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Madagascar Described by a Sentinel Surveillance Network

    PubMed Central

    Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Orelle, Arnaud; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Rajaona, Yolande Raoelina; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Richard, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. In Antananarivo, the first imported case was reported on August 12, 2009. This work describes the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar. Methods The diffusion of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar was explored using notification data from a sentinel network. Clinical data were charted to identify peaks at each sentinel site and virological data was used to confirm viral circulation. Results From August 1, 2009 to February 28, 2010, 7,427 patients with influenza-like illness were reported. Most patients were aged 7 to 14 years. Laboratory tests confirmed infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in 237 (33.2%) of 750 specimens. The incidence of patients differed between regions. By determining the epidemic peaks we traced the diffusion of the epidemic through locations and time in Madagascar. The first peak was detected during the epidemiological week 47-2009 in Antananarivo and the last one occurred in week 07-2010 in Tsiroanomandidy. Conclusion Sentinel surveillance data can be used for describing epidemic trends, facilitating the development of interventions at the local level to mitigate disease spread and impact. PMID:22615893

  11. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. PMID:24582319

  12. A Large Proportion of the Mexican Population Remained Susceptible to A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection One Year after the Emergence of 2009 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Veguilla, Vic; López-Gatell, Hugo; López-Martínez, Irma; Aparicio-Antonio, Rodrigo; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Rojo-Medina, Julieta; Gross, Felicia Liaini; Jefferson, Stacie N.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic initially affected Mexico from April 2009 to July 2010. By August 2010, a fourth of the population had received the monovalent vaccine against the pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). To assess the proportion of the Mexican population who remained potentially susceptible to infection throughout the summer of 2010, we estimated the population seroprevalence to A(H1N1)pdm09 in a serosurvey of blood donors. Methods We evaluated baseline cross-reactivity to the pandemic strain and set the threshold for seropositivity using pre-pandemic (2005–2008) stored serum samples and sera from confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infected individuals. Between June and September 2010, a convenience sample serosurvey of adult blood donors, children, and adolescents was conducted in six states of Mexico. Sera were tested by the microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, and regarded seropositive if antibody titers were equal or exceeded 1:40 for MN and 1:20 for HI. Age-standardized seroprevalence were calculated using the 2010 National Census population. Results Sera from 1,484 individuals were analyzed; 1,363 (92%) were blood donors, and 121 (8%) children or adolescents aged ≤19 years. Mean age (standard deviation) was 31.4 (11.5) years, and 276 (19%) were women. A total of 516 (35%) participants declared history of influenza vaccination after April 2009. The age-standardized seroprevalence to A(H1N1)pdm09 was 48% by the MN and 41% by the HI assays, respectively. The youngest quintile, aged 1 to 22 years, had the highest the seroprevalence; 61% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56, 66%) for MN, and 56% (95% CI: 51, 62%) for HI. Conclusions Despite high transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09 observed immediately after its emergence and extensive vaccination, over a half of the Mexican population remained potentially susceptible to A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. Subsequent influenza seasons with high transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09, as 2011–2012 and 2013–2014, are compatible with these findings. PMID:27003409

  13. One-Step Detection of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus by the RT-SmartAmp Assay and Its Clinical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yuki; Kimura, Yasumasa; Lezhava, Alexander; Kanamori, Hajime; Usui, Kengo; Hanami, Takeshi; Soma, Takahiro; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne; Saga, Satomi; Ishizu, Yuri; Aoki, Shintaro; Endo, Ryuta; Oguchi-Katayama, Atsuko; Kogo, Yasushi; Mitani, Yasumasa; Ishidao, Takefumi; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kurata, Hideshi; Furuya, Yumiko; Saito, Takayuki; Okazaki, Norio; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Hayashi, Eiji; Tsuruoka, Sei-ichi; Toguchi, Tokumichi; Saito, Yoshitomo; Ban, Toshiaki; Izumi, Shinyu; Uryu, Hideko; Kudo, Koichiro; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Aizan; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009, a pandemic (pdm) influenza A(H1N1) virus infection quickly circulated globally resulting in about 18,000 deaths around the world. In Japan, infected patients accounted for 16% of the total population. The possibility of human-to-human transmission of highly pathogenic novel influenza viruses is becoming a fear for human health and society. Methodology To address the clinical need for rapid diagnosis, we have developed a new method, the “RT-SmartAmp assay”, to rapidly detect the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus from patient swab samples. The RT-SmartAmp assay comprises both reverse transcriptase (RT) and isothermal DNA amplification reactions in one step, where RNA extraction and PCR reaction are not required. We used an exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent primer to specifically detect the HA segment of the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus within 40 minutes without cross-reacting with the seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), or B-type (Victoria) viruses. Results and Conclusions We evaluated the RT-SmartAmp method in clinical research carried out in Japan during a pandemic period of October 2009 to January 2010. A total of 255 swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness at three hospitals and eleven clinics located in the Tokyo and Chiba areas in Japan. The 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus was detected by the RT-SmartAmp assay, and the detection results were subsequently compared with data of current influenza diagnostic tests (lateral flow immuno-chromatographic tests) and viral genome sequence analysis. In conclusion, by the RT-SmartAmp assay we could detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus in patients' swab samples even in early stages after the initial onset of influenza symptoms. Thus, the RT-SmartAmp assay is considered to provide a simple and practical tool to rapidly detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus. PMID:22295077

  14. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of A/H1N1pdm Vaccine Among Subjects With Severe Motor and Intellectual Disability in the 2010/11 Influenza Season

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Megumi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Background While the immunogenicity and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines among subjects with severe motor and intellectual disability (SMID) are known to be diminished, the efficacy of the A/H1N1pdm vaccine has not been evaluated. Methods We prospectively evaluated 103 subjects with SMID (mean age, 41.7 years) who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2010/11 influenza season. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer was measured in serum samples collected pre-vaccination (S0), post-vaccination (S1), and end-of-season (S2) to evaluate subjects’ immunogenicity capacity. Vaccine efficacy was assessed based on antibody efficacy and achievement proportion. Results The proportions of seroprotection and seroconversion, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (GMT at S1/GMT at S0) for A/H1N1pdm were 46.0%, 16.0%, and 1.8, respectively—values which did not meet the European Medicines Evaluation Agency criteria. The achievement proportion was 26%. During follow-up, 11 of 43 subjects with acute respiratory illness were diagnosed with type A influenza according to a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), and A/H1N1pdm strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 5 of those 11 subjects. When either or both RIDT-diagnosed influenza or serologically diagnosed influenza (HI titer at S2/HI titer at S1 ≥2) were defined as probable influenza, subjects with A/H1N1pdm seroprotection were found to have a lower incidence of probable influenza (odds ratio, 0.31; antibody efficacy, 69%; vaccine efficacy, 18%). Conclusions In the present seasonal assessment, antibody efficacy was moderate against A/H1N1pdm among SMID subjects, but vaccine efficacy was low due to the reduced immunogenicity of SMID subjects. PMID:26780860

  15. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of the innate immune system, which plays a fundamental role in rapidly and effectively controlling infections and initiating adaptive immunity. There are no published data concerning the importance of polymorphisms of TLRs in conditioning susceptibility to influenza or the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether selected polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 influence the incidence and clinical picture of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Results The study involved 272 healthy children attending our Emergency Room for influenza-like illness (ILI), including 51 (18.8%) with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza as revealed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 164 healthy controls examined after minor surgery. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied: TLR2 rs5743708, TLR3 rs5743313, TLR3 rs5743315, TLR4 rs4986790 and TLR4 rs4986791. The TLR3 rs5743313/CT polymorphism was found in all of the children with pneumonia and influenza infection, but in a significantly smaller number of those with A/H1N1/2009 influenza without pneumonia (<0.0001). TLR2, TLR3 rs5743315/AC and TLR4 polymorphisms were equally distributed in all of the groups regardless of the presence of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus and clinical diagnosis. Viral load was comparable in all of the study groups. Conclusions There is a close relationship between the presence of TLR3 rs5743313/CT and an increased risk of pneumonia in children infected by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. PMID:23151015

  16. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  17. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display. PMID:20400637

  18. Verification and validation of COBRA-SFS transient analysis capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Michener, T.E.; Cuta, J.M.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides documentation of the verification and validation testing of the transient capability in the COBRA-SFS code, and is organized into three main sections. The primary documentation of the code was published in September 1995, with the release of COBRA-SFS, Cycle 2. The validation and verification supporting the release and licensing of COBRA-SFS was based solely on steady-state applications, even though the appropriate transient terms have been included in the conservation equations from the first cycle. Section 2.0, COBRA-SFS Code Description, presents a capsule description of the code, and a summary of the conservation equations solved to obtain the flow and temperature fields within a cask or assembly model. This section repeats in abbreviated form the code description presented in the primary documentation (Michener et al. 1995), and is meant to serve as a quick reference, rather than independent documentation of all code features and capabilities. Section 3.0, Transient Capability Verification, presents a set of comparisons between code calculations and analytical solutions for selected heat transfer and fluid flow problems. Section 4.0, Transient Capability Validation, presents comparisons between code calculations and experimental data obtained in spent fuel storage cask tests. Based on the comparisons presented in Sections 2.0 and 3.0, conclusions and recommendations for application of COBRA-SFS to transient analysis are presented in Section 5.0.

  19. Helicopter external noise requirements: FAA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Enactment of helicopter noise certification standards for the control of noise impact contributing to community annoyance is considered in terms of the development of helicopters as an environmentally compatible air transportation mode. Increased use of helicopters for commercial applications and public awareness of aircraft noise are cited as factors making development of helicopter noise standards necessary both for the protection of the environmental interest of the community and to ensure the orderly growth of the helicopter industry itself. Noise sources, technology trends in helicopter design, and design concepts to control helicopter noise are discussed along with the regulatory background and specific helicopter regulatory concepts.

  20. Shed king cobra and cobra skins as model membranes for in-vitro nicotine permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Prakongpan, Sompol; Panomsuk, Suwannee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Priprem, Aroonsri

    2002-10-01

    Shed king cobra skin (SKCS) and shed cobra skin (SCS) were investigated for use as barrier membranes, including some pre-hydration factors, for in-vitro nicotine permeation. Inter-specimen variations in nicotine fluxes using shed snake skin were compared with those using human epidermis. Nicotine in the form of 1% w/v aqueous buffer solution at pH 5 and transdermal patches (dose 14 mg day(-1)) were used. The nicotine fluxes across the shed snake skin were not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by temperature and duration of hydration pre-treatment. Scanning electron micrographs of SKCS and SCS revealed a remarkable difference in surface morphology, but the nicotine fluxes using both shed skins were not significantly different (P > 0.05). When compared with the results obtained using human epidermis, there were similarities in fluxes and permeation profiles of nicotine. Using nicotine solution, the nicotine permeation profiles of all membranes followed zero order kinetics. The amount of nicotine permeated provided good linearity with the square root of time over 24 h (R(2) > 0.98) when using nicotine patches. The nicotine fluxes using SKCS and SCS had less inter-specimen variation than those using human epidermis. The results suggest a potential use for SKCS or SCS as barrier membranes for in-vitro nicotine permeation studies. PMID:12396295

  1. Neutralization of cobra venom by cocktail antiserum against venom proteins of cobra (Naja naja naja).

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanaiyan, G; Vimal, S; Madan, N; Sundar Raj, N; Mohammed Yusuf Bilal, S; Nazeer Basha, A; Farook, M A; Sahul Hameed, A S; Sridevi, G

    2014-01-01

    Naja naja venom was characterized by its immunochemical properties and electrophoretic pattern which revealed eight protein bands (14 kDa, 24 kDa, 29 kDa, 45 kDa, 48 kDa, 65 kDa, 72 kDa and 99 kDa) by SDS-PAGE in reducing condition after staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. The results showed that Naja venom presented high lethal activity. Whole venom antiserum or individual venom protein antiserum (14 kDa, 29 kDa, 65 kDa, 72 kDa and 99 kDa) of venom could recognize N. naja venom by Western blotting and ELISA, and N. naja venom presented antibody titer when assayed by ELISA. The neutralization tests showed that the polyvalent antiserum neutralized lethal activities by both in vivo and in vitro studies using mice and Vero cells. The antiserum could neutralize the lethal activities in in-vivo and antivenom administered after injection of cobra venom through intraperitoneal route in mice. The cocktail antiserum also could neutralize the cytotoxic activities in Vero cell line by MTT and Neutral red assays. The results of the present study suggest that cocktail antiserum neutralizes the lethal activities in both in vitro and in vivo models using the antiserum against cobra venom and its individual venom proteins serum produced in rabbits. PMID:24176716

  2. Sikorski - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Roof instrument panel between pilot stations - left view. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  3. Sikorski - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Roof instrument panel between pilot stations, right view. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  4. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Left view of cockpit showing manikin head against panel. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  5. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Right view of cabin showing troop seat fabric failure. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  6. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Sub-floor, inside view showing details of limited crushing. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  7. Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

  8. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electing COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-6 Electing COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the manner in which COBRA...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-7 Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the duration of COBRA continuation...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-8 Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address paying for COBRA continuation coverage:...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-8 Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address paying for COBRA continuation coverage:...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-8 Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address paying for COBRA continuation coverage:...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electing COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-6 Electing COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the manner in which COBRA...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-7 Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the duration of COBRA continuation...

  15. Stalling of Helicopter Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, F B; Myers, G C , Jr

    1946-01-01

    Theoretical studies have predicted that operation of helicopter rotor beyond certain combinations of thrust, forward speed, and rotational speed might be prevented by rapidly increasing stalling of the retreating blade. The same studies also indicate that the efficiency of the rotor will increase until these limits are reached or closely approached, so that it is desirable to design helicopter rotors for operation close to the limits imposed by blade stalling. Inasmuch as the theoretical predictions of blade stalling involve numerous approximations and assumptions, an experimental investigation was needed to determine whether, in actual practice, the stall did occur and spread as predicted and to establish the amount of stalling that could be present without severe vibration or control difficulties being introduced. This report presents the results of such an investigation.

  16. Helicopter internal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesl, G.; Laudien, E.

    1994-09-01

    Compared to fixed wing aircraft, helicopter interior noise is higher, and subjectively more annoying. This is mainly due to discrete frequencies by the main transmission system, and also from other components like main and tail rotor, engines, or cooling fans. Up to now, mainly passive measures have been used for interior noise reduction. Despite intensive experimental and theoretical investigation to improve acoustic treatment, their weight penalties remain high especially in the low frequency range. Here, active noise control offers additional capacities without excessive weight efforts. Loud-speaker based systems are sufficiently well developed for implementing a prototype system in the helicopter. Two other principles are in development: active panel control which introduces mechanical actuators to excite the cabin walls, and active control of gearbox struts with actuators in the load path between gearbox and fuselage.

  17. Enhanced Mammalian Transmissibility of Seasonal Influenza A/H1N1 Viruses Encoding an Oseltamivir-Resistant Neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    Rahmat, Saad; Pica, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, oseltamivir resistance developed among seasonal influenza A/H1N1 (sH1N1) virus isolates at an exponential rate, without a corresponding increase in oseltamivir usage. We hypothesized that the oseltamivir-resistant neuraminidase (NA), in addition to being relatively insusceptible to the antiviral effect of oseltamivir, might confer an additional fitness advantage on these viruses by enhancing their transmission efficiency among humans. Here we demonstrate that an oseltamivir-resistant clinical isolate, an A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1)-like virus isolated in New York State in 2008, transmits more efficiently among guinea pigs than does a highly similar, contemporaneous oseltamivir-sensitive isolate. With reverse genetics reassortants and point mutants of the two clinical isolates, we further show that expression of the oseltamivir-resistant NA in the context of viral proteins from the oseltamivir-sensitive virus (a 7:1 reassortant) is sufficient to enhance transmissibility. In the guinea pig model, the NA is the critical determinant of transmission efficiency between oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant Brisbane/59-like sH1N1 viruses, independent of concurrent drift mutations that occurred in other gene products. Our data suggest that the oseltamivir-resistant NA (specifically, one or both of the companion mutations, H275Y and D354G) may have allowed resistant Brisbane/59-like viruses to outtransmit sensitive isolates. These data provide in vivo evidence of an evolutionary mechanism that would explain the rapidity with which oseltamivir resistance achieved fixation among sH1N1 isolates in the human reservoir. PMID:22532693

  18. Long Term Immune Responses to Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Baluch, Aliyah; Humar, Atul; Egli, Adrian; Gubbay, Jonathan; Lisboa, Luiz; Wilson, Leticia; Kumar, Deepali

    2011-01-01

    In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients it is unknown if natural infection with influenza confers protection from re-infection with the same strain during the next influenza season. The purpose of this study was to determine if infection with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) resulted in a long-term immunologic response. Transplant recipients with microbiologically proven pH1N1 infection in 2009/2010 underwent humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) testing for pH1N1 just prior to the next influenza season. Concurrent testing for A/Brisbane/59/2007 was done to rule-out cross-reacting antibody. We enrolled 22 adult transplant patients after pH1N1 infection. Follow up testing was done at a median of 7.4 months (range 5.8–15.4) after infection. After excluding those with cross-reactive antibody, 7/19 (36.8%) patients were seroprotected. Detectable pH1N1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ interferon-γ producing T-cells were found in 11/22 (50%) and 8/22 (36.4%) patients respectively. Humoral immunity had a significant correlation with a CD4 response. This is the first study in transplant patients to evaluate long-term humoral and cellular response after natural influenza infection. We show that a substantial proportion of SOT recipients with previous pH1N1 infection lack long-term humoral and cellular immune responses to pH1N1. These patients most likely are at risk for re-infection. PMID:22194870

  19. [Severe respiratory disease in an intensive care unit during influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemia].

    PubMed

    Aquino-Esperanza, José; Rodríguez, Pablo O; Boughen, Santiago; Raimondi, Alejandro; Attie, Shiry; Maskin, Patricio; Bonelli, Ignacio; Valentini, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    We describe characteristics of patients admitted to our intensive care unit with severe acute respiratory illness and influenza-like syndrome during the first months of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in Argentina. We analyzed clinical data, severity scores, laboratory tests, microbiological and radiological findings at admission, clinical outcomes and in-hospital mortality. H1N1 was confirmed by RT-PCR. Data from positive and negative PCR patients were compared. We admitted 31 adult patients between June and July 2009; median age: 54 years (IQR 33-66). A 54% (17) had positive PCR; 16 patients presented underlying medical conditions. Bilateral interstitial opacities were observed in chest radiography in 20 cases; 5 had unilateral lobar consolidation. Bacterial co-infection (isolation or IgM antibodies for bacterial infections) was found in 21 patients. Mechanical ventilation was required in 23 patients and 18 developed ARDS. Lymphopenia and increased creatine kinase levels were frequently observed (83% and 65% among PCR+ and PCR- respectively). Six patients died (19%); they were all over 75 years old, had cancer or immune-suppression. Early antiviral treatment (≤ 48 hours from symptoms onset) was associated with less frequency of mechanical ventilation (54% vs. 89%, p: 0.043). There were no differences in analyzed variables when comparing H1N1 positive and H1N1 negative patients; which suggests this approach as a most correct in future epidemic outbreaks. H1N1 infection was associated with severe respiratory illness and ARDS. Fatal outcome was observed in very old patients, or in those with major co-morbidities. PMID:20920955

  20. Helicopter Visual Aid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of police helicopter effectiveness revealed a need for improved visual capability. A JPL program developed a method that would enhance visual observation capability for both day and night usage and demonstrated the feasibility of the adopted approach. This approach made use of remote pointable optics, a display screen, a slaved covert searchlight, and a coupled camera. The approach was proved feasible through field testing and by judgement against evaluation criteria.

  1. 77 FR 42459 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... (expiration date). For the MDHI Model MD900 helicopters, AD 2006-18-01 (71 FR 51095, August 29, 2006) already... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... the MDHI Model MD900 helicopters, AD 2006-18-01 (71 FR 51095, August 29, 2006) contains additional...

  2. 78 FR 7645 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model 412 and 412EP helicopters. This AD requires creating a component history card or equivalent record and begin counting and recording the number of accumulated landings for each high aft crosstube assembly (crosstube). Also, this AD requires installing ``caution'' decals regarding towing of a......

  3. 78 FR 35773 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI), Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... the MDHI Model MD900 helicopters with certain main rotor blade (MRB) retention bolts (bolts) installed...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... MD 900 helicopters with a main rotor blade retention bolt (bolt), part number (P/N)...

  4. 77 FR 42421 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... (76 FR 66609, October 27, 2011) for Bell Model 407 helicopters with a servo, part number (P/N) 206-076... issued AD 2011-15-51 (76 FR 66609, October 27, 2011), Transport Canada issued AD No. CF-2011-17R1, dated... helicopters. AD Requirements This AD retains the inspection requirements of AD 2011-15-51 (76 FR...

  5. Characterization of drug-resistant influenza virus A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) variants selected in vitro with laninamivir.

    PubMed

    Samson, Mélanie; Abed, Yacine; Desrochers, François-Marc; Hamilton, Stephanie; Luttick, Angela; Tucker, Simon P; Pryor, Melinda J; Boivin, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) play a major role for managing influenza virus infections. The widespread oseltamivir resistance among 2007-2008 seasonal A(H1N1) viruses and community outbreaks of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 strains highlights the need for additional anti-influenza virus agents. Laninamivir is a novel long-lasting NAI that has demonstrated in vitro activity against influenza A and B viruses, and its prodrug (laninamivir octanoate) is in phase II clinical trials in the United States and other countries. Currently, little information is available on the mechanisms of resistance to laninamivir. In this study, we first performed neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assays to determine the activity of laninamivir against a set of influenza A viruses containing NA mutations conferring resistance to one or many other NAIs. We also generated drug-resistant A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses under in vitro laninamivir pressure. Laninamivir demonstrated a profile of susceptibility that was similar to that of zanamivir. More specifically, it retained activity against oseltamivir-resistant H275Y and N295S A(H1N1) variants and the E119V A(H3N2) variant. In vitro, laninamivir pressure selected the E119A NA substitution in the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 A(H1N1) background, whereas E119K and G147E NA changes along with a K133E hemagglutinin (HA) substitution were selected in the A/Quebec/144147/2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. In the A/Brisbane/10/2007 A(H3N2) background, a large NA deletion accompanied by S138A/P194L HA substitutions was selected. This H3N2 variant had altered receptor-binding properties and was highly resistant to laninamivir in plaque reduction assays. Overall, we confirmed the similarity between zanamivir and laninamivir susceptibility profiles and demonstrated that both NA and HA changes can contribute to laninamivir resistance in vitro. PMID:24957832

  6. Cobra venom cytotoxins; apoptotic or necrotic agents?

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Karim; Shirazi, Farshad H; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Vatanpour, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Organs homeostasis is controlled by a dynamic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Failure to induction of apoptosis has been implicated in tumor development. Cytotoxin-I (CTX-I) and cytotoxin-II (CTX-II) are two physiologically active polypeptides found in Caspian cobra venom. Anticancer activity and mechanism of cell death induced by these toxins have been studied. The toxins were purified by different chromatographic steps and their cytotoxicity and pattern of cell death were determined by MTT, LDH release, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) double staining, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and neutral red assays. The IC50 of CTX-II in MCF-7, HepG2, DU-145 and HL-60 was 4.1 ± 1.3, 21.2 ± 4.4, 9.4 ± 1.8 μg/mL and 16.3 ± 1.9 respectively while the IC50 of this toxin in normal MDCK cell line was 54.5 ± 3.9 μg/mL. LDH release suddenly increase after a specific toxins concentrations in all cell lines. AO/EtBr double staining, flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity assay confirm dose and time-dependent induction of apoptosis by both toxins. CTX-I and CTX-II treated cells lost their lysosomal membrane integrity and couldn't uptake neutral red day. CTX-I and CTX-II showed significant anticancer activity with minimum effects on normal cells and better IC50 compared to current anticancer drug; cisplatin. They induce their apoptotic effect via lysosomal pathways and release of cathepsins to cytosol. These effects were seen in limited rage of toxins concentrations and pattern of cell death rapidly changes to necrosis by increase in toxin's concentration. In conclusion, significant apoptogenic effects of these toxins candidate them as a possible anticancer agent. PMID:26482932

  7. Helicopter simulation: Making it work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The opportunities for improved training and checking by using helicopter simulators are greater than they are for airplane pilot training. Simulators permit the safe creation of training environments that are conducive to the development of pilot decision-making, situational awareness, and cockpit management. This paper defines specific attributes required in a simulator to meet a typical helicopter operator's training and checking objectives.

  8. Helicopter Acoustics, part 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Exterior and interior helicopter noise problems are addressed from the physics and engineering as well as the human factors point of view. Noise regulation concepts, human factors and criteria, rotor noise generation and control, design, operations and testing for noise control, helicopter noise prediction, and research tools and measurements are covered.

  9. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Koersel, Antonius C.

    2000-07-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the acoustic signal. The user-interface and the signal processing software are written in MatLabTM. The demonstrator detects the noise from helicopters; the classification is performed using a database with helicopter-specific features. The demonstrator currently contains information of 11 different helicopter types, but can easily be expanded to include additional types of helicopters. The input signal is analyzed in real time, the result is a classification ranging from `no target' to `helicopter type x', e.g. Lynx Mk2. If the helicopter is classified, its relative speed is estimated as well. The algorithm was developed and tested using a database of different helicopters (hovering and moving) recorded at distances ranging from 90 meter up to 8 kilometer. The sensitivity to noise was investigated using jet, tank, artillery and environmental (wind and turbulence) noise as input.

  10. Algebraic analysis of social networks for bio-surveillance: the cases of SARS-Beijing-2003 and AH1N1 influenza-México-2009.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic analysis of social networks exhibited by SARS-Beijing-2003 and AH1N1 flu-México-2009 was realized. The main tools were the Tutte polynomials and Maple package Graph-Theory. The topological structures like graphs and networks were represented by invariant polynomials. The evolution of a given social network was represented like an evolution of the algebraic complexity of the corresponding Tutte polynomial. The reduction of a given social network was described like an involution of the algebraic complexity of the associated Tutte polynomial. The outbreaks of SARS and AH1N1 Flu were considered like represented by a reduction of previously existing contact networks via the control measures executed by health authorities. From Tutte polynomials were derived numerical indicators about efficiency of control measures. PMID:21431617

  11. Serum activin A and B, and follistatin in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and severe respiratory failure are complications of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which in experimental studies increases after activin A release, is known to be related to the severity of H1N1 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 and their association with the severity of respiratory failure in critically ill H1N1 patients. Methods A substudy of a prospective, observational cohort of H1N1 patients in Finnish intensive care units (ICU). Clinical information was recorded during ICU treatment, and serum activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at admission to ICU and on days 2 and 7. Results Blood samples from 29 patients were analysed. At the time of admission to intensive care unit, elevated serum levels above the normal range for respective age group and sex were observed in 44% for activin A, 57% for activin B, and 39% for FS. In 13 of the 29 patients, serial samples at all time points were available and in these the highest activin A, activin B and FS were above the normal range in 85%, 100% and 46% of the patients, respectively. No difference in baseline or highest activin A or activin B was found in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS (P > 0.05 for all). Peak levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in ALI/ARDS patients. Peak activin A and activin A/FS were associated with ventilatory support free-days, severity of acute illness and length of ICU stay (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Higher than normal values of these proteins were common in patients with H1N1 infection but we found no association with the severity of their respiratory failure. PMID:24885241

  12. Production impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on fattening pigs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Er, Chiek; Skjerve, Eystein; Brun, Edgar; Hofmo, Peer Ola; Framstad, Tore; Lium, Bjørn

    2016-02-01

    Newly emerged influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pigs, although often observed in a subclinical form, can lower the pig's growth performance by reducing feed efficiency in terms of a poorer feed conversion ratio. Infected pigs would consume more feed and require protracted production time to reach market weight. In our observational longitudinal study, growth performance data from 728 control pigs and 193 infected pigs with known viral shedding time points were analyzed using mixed linear regression models to give estimates of the marginal effects of infection. Gaussian curves describing the variability of the estimates at the individual pig level formed the fundamental inputs to our stochastic models. The models were constructed to simulate the summed negative effects of the infection at the batch level of 150 fattening pigs growing from 33 to 100 kg. Other inputs of variability and uncertainty were 1) batch transmission points, 2) pig infection points to reflect the disease transmission dynamics of the virus, and 3) final prevalence of infected pigs in the batch. Monte Carlo random sampling gave 5,000 estimates on the outputs of the marginal effects for each pig. These results were summed up to provide estimates for a batch size of 150 pigs. This figure was adjusted by our final prevalence distribution function, which was also derived from the longitudinal study with 12 cohorts of infected pigs. For a 150-fattening-pig herd randomly selected from the population, the marginal effects of the infection were 1) 835 kg (fifth percentile) to 1,350 kg (95th percentile) increased feed intake and 2) 194 (fifth percentile) to 334 (95th percentile) pig days in excess of expected figures for an uninfected batch. A batch infected during growth phase 3 (81 to 100 kg BW) gave the worst results since the longitudinal study showed that a pig infected during growth phase 3 required more feed and a greater protracted production time compared to younger infected pigs. Sensitivity analysis showed that final prevalence had the greatest impact on the conditional mean and variation of the marginal effects of infections. Batch transmission point was the next most influential factor. Lowering the final prevalence and preventing older fattening pigs from being infected will have the greatest benefit in saving feed cost and reducing delay in getting the pigs to the market. PMID:27065145

  13. Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Gachara, George; Symekher, Samuel; Otieno, Michael; Magana, Japheth; Opot, Benjamin; Bulimo, Wallace

    2016-06-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the UK and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability. PMID:26921801

  14. Risk factors for mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 influenza hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010.

    PubMed

    Chowell, G; Ayala, A; Berisha, V; Viboud, C; Schumacher, M

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR)  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21), non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9), and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03) compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009). Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4), cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8), immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9), and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5) were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients. PMID:22844347

  15. Detection of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus Infection in different age groups by using rapid influenza diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengxiang; Loring, Carol; Laviolette, Michael; Bolton, Denise; Daly, Elizabeth R.; Bean, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Gao et al. (2011) Detection of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus Infection in different age groups by using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e30–e34. Background  The performance of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) in detecting influenza A(H1N1) 2009 has varied widely. Evaluations of RIDTs among infected individuals across all age groups have not been described in depth. Objectives  Determine RIDT clinical sensitivity in comparison with influenza detection using real‐time RT‐PCR among patients infected with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 across all age groups. Study design  This study analyzed respiratory specimens received by the New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NHPHL) from September 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. RIDT performance was evaluated among different age groups of patients determined to be infected with influenza A (H1N1) 2009, and the association between age and RIDT sensitivity was determined. Results  Of 1373 specimens examined, 269 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 by real‐time RT‐PCR (rRT‐PCR) and had RIDT results available. Overall clinical sensitivity and specificity of RIDTs were 53·9 and 98·5%, respectively. By age group, clinical sensitivity was 85·7% in patients <2 years old, 60·3% in patients between 2‐ and 39 years old, and 33·3% in patients aged 40 and older. Logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing age was negatively associated with RIDT performance. Conclusion  Rapid influenza diagnostic test sensitivity decreased significantly with increasing age. Findings from this study may impact a clinician’s interpretation of RIDT test results and ultimately have implications in clinical decision‐making. PMID:22114876

  16. Characterization of Quasispecies of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A Virus (A/H1N1/2009) by De Novo Sequencing Using a Next-Generation DNA Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Makoto; Katano, Harutaka; Nakajima, Noriko; Tobiume, Minoru; Ainai, Akira; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Tashiro, Masato; Sasaki, Yuko; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Hata, Satoru; Watanabe, Masahide; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A virus (A/H1N1/2009) has emerged globally. In this study, we performed a comprehensive detection of potential pathogens by de novo sequencing using a next-generation DNA sequencer on total RNAs extracted from an autopsy lung of a patient who died of viral pneumonia with A/H1N1/2009. Among a total of 9.4×106 40-mer short reads, more than 98% appeared to be human, while 0.85% were identified as A/H1N1/2009 (A/Nagano/RC1-L/2009(H1N1)). Suspected bacterial reads such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and other oral bacteria flora were very low at 0.005%, and a significant bacterial infection was not histologically observed. De novo assembly and read mapping analysis of A/Nagano/RC1-L/2009(H1N1) showed more than ×200 coverage on average, and revealed nucleotide heterogeneity on hemagglutinin as quasispecies, specifically at two amino acids (Gly172Glu and Gly239Asn of HA) located on the Sa and Ca2 antigenic sites, respectively. Gly239 and Asn239 on antigenic site Ca2 appeared to be minor amino acids compared with the highly distributed Asp239 in H1N1 HAs. This study demonstrated that de novo sequencing can comprehensively detect pathogens, and such in-depth investigation facilitates the identification of influenza A viral heterogeneity. To better characterize the A/H1N1/2009 virus, unbiased comprehensive techniques will be indispensable for the primary investigations of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:20428231

  17. Risk Factors for Mortality among 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Hospitalizations in Maricopa County, Arizona, April 2009 to March 2010

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, G.; Ayala, A.; Berisha, V.; Viboud, C.; Schumacher, M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed individual-level data on pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm hospitalizations from the enhanced surveillance system of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, AZ, USA from April 1st, 2009 to March 31st, 2010. We also assessed the the risk of death among A/H1N1 hospitalizations using multivariate logistic regression. Hospitalization rates were significantly higher among Native Americans (risk ratio (RR)  =  6.2; 95% CI: 6.15, 6.21), non-Hispanic Black (RR = 3.84; 95% CI: 3.8, 3.9), and Hispanics (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.01) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Throughout the spring, 59.2% of hospitalized patients received antiviral treatment; the proportion of patients treated increased significantly during the fall to 74.4% (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001). In our best-fit logistic model, the adjusted risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients was significantly higher during the fall wave (August 16, 2009 to March 31, 2010, OR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.72, 9.03) compared to the spring wave (April 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009). Moreover, chronic lung disease (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 7.4), cancer within the last 12 months (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.3, 14.8), immuno-suppression (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84, 8.9), and admission delays (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2, 9.5) were significantly associated with an increased the risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients. PMID:22844347

  18. 46 CFR 108.653 - Helicopter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...”. (c) Each access to a helicopter landing area must be marked: “BEWARE OF TAIL ROTOR”. (d) Each marking... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter...

  19. Trends in Langley helicopter noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Maglieri, D. J.; Stephens, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    A broad perspective of needs in helicopter exterior and interior control is presented. Emphasis is given to those items which support noise certification of civil helicopters and which result in reduced environmental noise impact to community residents as well as to helicopter passengers. The activities described are related to the Langley responsibilities for helicopter acoustics as defined by NASA roles and missions.

  20. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  1. Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in England and Scotland 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, P; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; SebastianPillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

    2011-01-01

    Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines in preventing confirmed pandemic influenza infection. Some 5,982 individuals with influenza-like illness seen in general practices between November 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled. Those testing positive on PCR for pandemic influenza were assigned as cases and those testing negative as controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the relative reduction in odds of confirmed infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Fourteen or more days after immunisation with the pandemic vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21% to 90%). If protection was assumed to start after seven or more days, the adjusted VE was 71% (95% CI: 37% to 87%). Pandemic influenza vaccine was highly effective in preventing confirmed infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 from one week after vaccination. No evidence of effectiveness against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was found for the 2009/10 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (adjusted VE of -30% (95% CI: -89% to 11%)). PMID:21251487

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) associated to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and revealed after influenza AH1N1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Remiche, Gauthier; Abramowicz, Marc; Mavroudakis, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Neurological complications of AH1N1 vaccination such as Guillain-Barré syndrome were described in the previous years. Several reports suggest that hereditary neuropathies may be a predisposing factor for immune-mediated neuropathies. We report the case of a 54-year-old female who developed chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) 5 weeks after AH1N1 vaccination. She had no previous neurological history, but neurophysiological features led us to suspect an underlying hereditary neuropathy. PMP22 gene analysis showed a typical deletion, confirming the diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). We observed a significant clinical and neurophysiological improvement of the neuropathy after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of CIDP potentially triggered by AH1N1 vaccination. This and previous observations suggest that genetic-determined neuropathies could predispose to the occurrence of immune-mediated neuropathies. One must recall the possibility of a superimposed hereditary neuropathy like HNPP in patients with a clinical presentation of CIDP, especially when positive family history or unexpected neurophysiological features are present. PMID:24146347

  3. Angiogenic and inflammatory markers in acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal injury associated to A/H1N1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Edgar; Arcos, Magali; Jimenez-Alvarez, Luís; García-Sancho, Ma Cecilia; Vázquez, María E; Peña, Erika; Higuera, Anjarath; Ramírez, Gustavo; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; García-Moreno, Sara A; Urrea, Francisco; Ramírez, Remedios; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Pérez-Padilla, José Rogelio; Zúñiga, Joaquín

    2013-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to influenza A/H1N1 virus infection. The profile of angiogenic and inflammatory factors in ARDS patients may be relevant for AKI. We analyzed the serum levels of several angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in 32 patients with A/H1N1 virus infection (17 with ARDS/AKI and 15 ARDS patients who did not developed AKI) and in 18 healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 in ARDS/AKI patients were detected. Adjusting by confusing variables, levels of MCP-1 ≥150 pg/mL (OR=12.0, p=0.04) and VEGF ≥225 pg/mL (OR=6.4, p=0.03) were associated with the development of AKI in ARDS patients. Higher levels of MCP-1 and IP-10 were significantly associated with a higher risk of death in patients with ARDS (hazard ratio (HR)=10.0, p=0.02; HR=25.5, p=0.03, respectively) even taking into account AKI. Patients with influenza A/H1N1 infection and ARDS/AKI have an over-production of MCP-1, VEGF and IP-10 possibly contributing to kidney injury and are associated to a higher risk of death. PMID:23542734

  4. Detection of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 in Brazil: can community transmission be ruled out?

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago Moreno L; Resende, Paola C; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Gregianini, Tatiana Schaffer; Ikuta, Nilo; Fernandes, Sandra Bianchini; Cury, Ana Luisa Furtado; Rosa, Maria do Carmo Debur; Siqueira, Marilda M

    2013-01-01

    Although surveillance efforts that monitor the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza are critical, systematic analysis is overlooked in most developing countries. We report on the occurrence of strains of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with resistance and decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir (OST) in Brazil in 2009, 2011 and 2012. We found 7 mutant viruses, 2 with the mutation S247N and other 5 with the mutation H275Y. Most of these viruses were from samples concentrated in the southern region of Brazil. Some of these resistant viruses were detected prior to the initiation of OST treatment, suggesting that community transmission of mutant viruses may exist. Moreover, we show that one of these OST-resistant (H275Y) strains of A(H1N1)pdm09 was discovered in the tri-border region between Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, highlighting that this strain could also be found in other Latin American countries. Our findings reinforce the importance of enhanced antiviral resistance surveillance in Brazil and in other Latin American countries to confirm or rule out the community transmission of OST-resistant strains of A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:24244615

  5. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  6. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program : Bell Helicopter Textron accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate vibration prediction for helicopter airframes is needed to 'fly from the drawing board' without costly development testing to solve vibration problems. The principal analytical tool for vibration prediction within the U.S. helicopter industry is the NASTRAN finite element analysis. Under the NASA DAMVIBS research program, Bell conducted NASTRAN modeling, ground vibration testing, and correlations of both metallic (AH-1G) and composite (ACAP) airframes. The objectives of the program were to assess NASTRAN airframe vibration correlations, to investigate contributors to poor agreement, and to improve modeling techniques. In the past, there has been low confidence in higher frequency vibration prediction for helicopters that have multibladed rotors (three or more blades) with predominant excitation frequencies typically above 15 Hz. Bell's findings under the DAMVIBS program, discussed in this paper, included the following: (1) accuracy of finite element models (FEM) for composite and metallic airframes generally were found to be comparable; (2) more detail is needed in the FEM to improve higher frequency prediction; (3) secondary structure not normally included in the FEM can provide significant stiffening; (4) damping can significantly affect phase response at higher frequencies; and (5) future work is needed in the areas of determination of rotor-induced vibratory loads and optimization.

  7. Helicopter crashworthiness research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Carden, Huey D.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from the U.S. Army-Aerostructures Directorate/NASA-Langley Research Center joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness. Through the on-going research program an in-depth understanding was developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

  8. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  9. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  10. Materials for helicopter gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Some of the power train transmission gears in helicopter drive systems can become critical components as performance requirements are increased; accordingly, increasing attention must be paid to new alloys in order to obtain required performance reliability and survivability. Candidate advanced alloys, with improved high temperature properties, while increasing the resistance to scoring and scuffing, tend to have lower ductility and fracture toughness. An attempt is made to identify design materials, and process problems and requirements. In addition, it is recommended that the characterization of candidate steels be accelerated; preliminary investigation indicates that new alloys may provide improved capability against surface distress.

  11. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for topics not addressed in §§ 54.4980B-1 through 54.4980B-10? A-2: For purposes of section 4980B, for topics relating to the COBRA continuation coverage requirements of section 4980B that are not...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee and spouse who have no children divorce on May 1, 2001, and the spouse elects COBRA continuation... children who do not remain in the employee's custody. An employee and spouse with three dependent children... is a child born to or placed for adoption with a covered employee during a period of...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee and spouse who have no children divorce on May 1, 2001, and the spouse elects COBRA continuation... children who do not remain in the employee's custody. An employee and spouse with three dependent children... is a child born to or placed for adoption with a covered employee during a period of...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee and spouse who have no children divorce on May 1, 2001, and the spouse elects COBRA continuation... children who do not remain in the employee's custody. An employee and spouse with three dependent children... is a child born to or placed for adoption with a covered employee during a period of...

  16. Target tracking during venom ‘spitting’ by cobras

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Guido; Boetig, Melissa; Bleckmann, Horst; Young, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Spitting cobras, which defend themselves by streaming venom towards the face and/or eyes of a predator, must be highly accurate because the venom they spit is only an effective deterrent if it lands on the predator's cornea. Several factors make this level of accuracy difficult to achieve; the target is moving, is frequently >1 m away from the snake and the venom stream is released in approximately 50 ms. In the present study we show that spitting cobras can accurately track the movements of a potentially threatening vertebrate, and by anticipating its subsequent (short-term) movements direct their venom to maximize the likelihood of striking the target's eye. Unlike other animals that project material, in spitting cobras the discharge orifice (the fang) is relatively fixed so directing the venom stream requires rapid movements of the entire head. The cobra's ability to track and anticipate the target's movement, and to perform rapid cephalic oscillations that coordinate with the target's movements suggest a level of neural processing that has not been attributed to snakes, or other reptiles, previously. PMID:20472765

  17. Clinical epidemiology and predictors of outcome in children hospitalised with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009: a prospective national study

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Gulam; Zurynski, Yvonne; Ridley, Greta; Buttery, Jim; Marshall, Helen; Richmond, Peter C; Royle, Jenny; Gold, Michael; Walls, Tony; Whitehead, Bruce; McIntyre, Peter; Wood, Nicholas; Booy, Robert; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few large-scale, prospective studies of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in children that identify predictors of adverse outcomes. Objectives We aimed to examine clinical epidemiology and predictors for adverse outcomes in children hospitalised with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Australia. Methods Active hospital surveillance in six tertiary paediatric referral centres (June–September, 2009). All children aged <15 years admitted with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were studied. Results Of 601 children admitted with laboratory-confirmed influenza, 506 (84·2%) had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Half (51·0%) of children with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were previously healthy. Hospital stay was longer in children with pre-existing condition (mean 6·9 versus 4·9 days; P = 0·02) as was paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay (7·0 versus 2·3 days; P = 0·005). Rapid diagnosis decreased both antibiotic use and length of hospital and PICU stay. Fifty (9·9%) children were admitted to a PICU, 30 (5·9%) required mechanical ventilation and 5 (0·9%) died. Laboratory-proven bacterial co-infection and chronic lung disease were significant independent predictors of PICU admission (OR 6·89, 95% CI 3·15–15·06 and OR 3·58, 95% CI 1·41–9·07, respectively) and requirement for ventilation (OR 5·61, 95% CI 2·2–14·28 and OR 5·18, 95% CI 1·8–14·86, respectively). Chronic neurological disease was a predictor of admission to PICU (OR 2·30, 95% CI 1·14–4·61). Conclusions During the 2009 pandemic, influenza was a major cause of hospitalisation in tertiary paediatric hospitals. Co-infection and underlying chronic disease increased risk of PICU admission and/or ventilation. Half the children admitted were previously healthy, supporting a role for universal influenza vaccination in children. PMID:25263176

  18. Highly Predictive Model for a Protective Immune Response to the A(H1N1)pdm2009 Influenza Strain after Seasonal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jürchott, Karsten; Schulz, Axel Ronald; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Pohlmann, Dominika; Stervbo, Ulrik; Warth, Sarah; Mälzer, Julia Nora; Waldner, Julian; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Olek, Sven; Grützkau, Andreas; Babel, Nina; Thiel, Andreas; Neumann, Avidan Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the immune response after vaccination against new influenza strains is highly important in case of an imminent influenza pandemic and for optimization of seasonal vaccination strategies in high risk population groups, especially the elderly. Models predicting the best sero-conversion response among the three strains in the seasonal vaccine were recently suggested. However, these models use a large number of variables and/or information post- vaccination. Here in an exploratory pilot study, we analyzed the baseline immune status in young (<31 years, N = 17) versus elderly (≥50 years, N = 20) donors sero-negative to the newly emerged A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain and correlated it with the serological response to that specific strain after seasonal influenza vaccination. Extensive multi-chromatic FACS analysis (36 lymphocyte sub-populations measured) was used to quantitatively assess the cellular immune status before vaccination. We identified CD4+ T cells, and amongst them particularly naive CD4+ T cells, as the best correlates for a successful A(H1N1)pdm09 immune response. Moreover, the number of influenza strains a donor was sero-negative to at baseline (NSSN) in addition to age, as expected, were important predictive factors. Age, NSSN and CD4+ T cell count at baseline together predicted sero-protection (HAI≥40) to A(H1N1)pdm09 with a high accuracy of 89% (p-value = 0.00002). An additional validation study (N = 43 vaccinees sero-negative to A(H1N1)pdm09) has confirmed the predictive value of age, NSSN and baseline CD4+ counts (accuracy = 85%, p-value = 0.0000004). Furthermore, the inclusion of donors at ages 31-50 had shown that the age predictive function is not linear with age but rather a sigmoid with a midpoint at about 50 years. Using these results we suggest a clinically relevant prediction model that gives the probability for non-protection to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza strain after seasonal multi-valent vaccination as a continuous function of age, NSSN and baseline CD4 count. PMID:26954292

  19. Highly Predictive Model for a Protective Immune Response to the A(H1N1)pdm2009 Influenza Strain after Seasonal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetti, Cecilia; Pohlmann, Dominika; Stervbo, Ulrik; Warth, Sarah; Mälzer, Julia Nora; Waldner, Julian; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Olek, Sven; Grützkau, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the immune response after vaccination against new influenza strains is highly important in case of an imminent influenza pandemic and for optimization of seasonal vaccination strategies in high risk population groups, especially the elderly. Models predicting the best sero-conversion response among the three strains in the seasonal vaccine were recently suggested. However, these models use a large number of variables and/or information post- vaccination. Here in an exploratory pilot study, we analyzed the baseline immune status in young (<31 years, N = 17) versus elderly (≥50 years, N = 20) donors sero-negative to the newly emerged A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain and correlated it with the serological response to that specific strain after seasonal influenza vaccination. Extensive multi-chromatic FACS analysis (36 lymphocyte sub-populations measured) was used to quantitatively assess the cellular immune status before vaccination. We identified CD4+ T cells, and amongst them particularly naive CD4+ T cells, as the best correlates for a successful A(H1N1)pdm09 immune response. Moreover, the number of influenza strains a donor was sero-negative to at baseline (NSSN) in addition to age, as expected, were important predictive factors. Age, NSSN and CD4+ T cell count at baseline together predicted sero-protection (HAI≥40) to A(H1N1)pdm09 with a high accuracy of 89% (p-value = 0.00002). An additional validation study (N = 43 vaccinees sero-negative to A(H1N1)pdm09) has confirmed the predictive value of age, NSSN and baseline CD4+ counts (accuracy = 85%, p-value = 0.0000004). Furthermore, the inclusion of donors at ages 31–50 had shown that the age predictive function is not linear with age but rather a sigmoid with a midpoint at about 50 years. Using these results we suggest a clinically relevant prediction model that gives the probability for non-protection to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza strain after seasonal multi-valent vaccination as a continuous function of age, NSSN and baseline CD4 count. PMID:26954292

  20. Occurrence of AH1N1 viral infection and clinical features in symptomatic patients who received medical care during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical identification of this flu posed a challenge to medical staff. This study aimed at estimating the AH1N1 infection, hospitalization and mortality rates, and at identifying related clinical features in persons who received medical care during the influenza pandemic. Methods Retrospective study with persons with flu-like illness who received public or private medical care in SLP from 15.03.09 to 30.10.09. Physicians purposely recorded many clinical variables. Samples from pharyngeal exudate or bronchoalveolar lavage were taken to diagnose AH1N1 using real-time PCR. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with infection as a dependent variable. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Analyses were stratified by age group based on the distribution of positive cases. Results From the 6922 persons with flu symptoms 6158 had available laboratory results from which 44.9% turned out to be positive for AH1N1. From those, 5.8% were hospitalized and 0.7% died. Most positive cases were aged 5–14 years and, in this subgroup, older age was positively associated with A H1N1 infection (95% CI 1.05-1.1); conversely, in patients aged 15 years or more, older age was negatively associated with the infection (95% CI 0.97-0.98). Fever was related in those aged 15 years or more (95% CI 1.4-3.5), and headache (95% CI 1.2-2.2) only in the 0–14 years group. Clear rhinorrhea and cough were positively related in both groups (p < 0.05). Arthralgia, dyspnea and vaccination history were related to lesser risk in persons aged 15 years or more, just as dyspnea, purulent rhinorrhea and leukocytosis were in the 0–14 years group. Conclusion This study identified various signs and symptoms for the clinical diagnosis

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of cell-derived MF59®-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine for children

    PubMed Central

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della

    2015-01-01

    Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–<3, 3–8, and 9–17 y cohorts; however, 2 vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–<3 and 3–8 y cohorts. Among children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children <12 months) and 7.5_fullMF59 vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884

  2. Low Acceptability of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in French Adult Population: Did Public Health Policy Fuel Public Dissonance?

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Flicoteaux, Rémi; Cortarenoda, Sébastien; Obadia, Yolande; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%). The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated (“Yes, certainly”, “Yes, probably”). Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7%) of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001); older age (p = .002); highest or lowest level of education (p = .016); non-clerical occupation (p = .011); having only one child (p = .008); and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001). Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9%) and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8%) (p = .002). Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively). In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001). Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. Conclusions/Significance Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat, while vaccine safety was a major issue. This dissonance may have been amplified by having not involved primary care physicians in the mass vaccination campaign. PMID:20421908

  3. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  4. Helicopter Rotor Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Cable, Vaughn P.

    2001-01-01

    This effort was directed toward demonstration of the efficacy of a concept for mitigation of the rotor blade modulation problem in helicopter communications. An antenna is envisioned with radiating elements mounted on the rotor and rotating with it. The rf signals are coupled to the radio stationary with respect to the airframe via a coupler of unique design. The coupler has an rf cavity within which a mode is established and the field distribution of this mode is sampled by probes rotating with the radiating elements. In this manner the radiated pattern is "despun" with respect to the rotor. Theoretical analysis has indicated that this arrangement will be less susceptible to rotor blade modulation that would be a conventional fixed mounted antenna. A small coupler operating at S-band was designed, fabricated, and mounted on a mockup representative of a helicopter body. A small electric motor was installed to rotate the rotor portion of the coupler along with a set of radiating elements during testing. This test article was be evaluated using the JPL Mesa Antenna Measurement Facility to establish its ability to mitigate rotor blade modulation. It was found that indeed such a coupler will result in a despun pattern and that such a pattern can be effective in mitigation of rotor blade modulation.

  5. 77 FR 12991 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-12-10, Amendment 39-16717 (76 FR 35330, June 17, 2011.... That AD applies to Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R22, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22...

  6. AN/FPS-108 COBRA DANE Space Surveillance Mission Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorman, P.; Boggs, J.

    2013-09-01

    It has been ten years since the COBRA DANE radar was restored to continuous full power operations in a more dedicated role of space debris tracking. Over this time, the satellite catalog population has grown and the overall average RCS value of cataloged objects has decreased dramatically, due to a combination of breakups and collisions together with the increased sensitivity offered by COBRA DANE's support to the network. This shift in catalog composition places new challenges on COBRA DANE and other debris tracking radars (PARCS and Eglin/FPS-85) to consistently track the ever-increasing number of small objects. Space Surveillance Network radars now operate at the limits of their detection performance, tracking several thousand new objects in a size category that only the most powerful and sensitive radars can observe (i.e., < 10 cm diameter). However, for much of the last decade, COBRA DANE's inherent Spacetrack mission software functionality remained better tuned for its original support role against the larger (known) orbital objects than for its more modern role in acquiring and reporting small debris in an appreciable number -- that is, until now. Several newly-identified software changes offer promise of significantly increased data yield that will make COBRA DANE an even more important asset for this evolving mission. In the course of assisting JSpOC, AFSPC, and USSTRATCOM with the ongoing challenges of lost satellite management, it was discovered that the radar's performance is being artificially restricted by mission software, rather than by the system's overall architectural design (power-aperture envelope and radar resources). This paper captures specific opportunities to improve COBRA DANE's Spacetrack mission performance, several of which are currently implemented and slated to become operational with the next two software releases. With one of the more prominent enhancements, COBRA DANE will be capable of autonomously 'fence tasking' all newly

  7. Helicopter noise regulations: An industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review of helicopter noise measurement programs and noise reduction/economic studies of FAA is given along with a critique of a study which addresses the economic impact of noise reduction on helicopter noise. Modification of several helicopters to reduce noise and demonstrate the economic impact of the application of the current state-of-the-art technology is discussed. Specific helicopters described include Boeing Vertol 347 Helicopter, Hughes OH-6 Helicopter, and Hughes 269C Helicopter. Other topics covered include: (1) noise trends and possible noise limits; (2) accuracy of helicopter noise prediction techniques; (3) limited change possibilities of derivatives; and (4) rotor impulsive noise. The unique operational capabilities of helicopters and the implications relative to noise regulations and certification are discussed.

  8. Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector (SHAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlowe, H. D.

    1982-05-01

    The Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector was developed to provide a low cost alternative to radar for countering the helicopter threat at new DOE facilities. The main buildings of these new designs are generally hardened to provide significant delay to a helicopter borne adversary team. Under these circumstances the sensor is only required to detect helicopters that are in their final landing phase and at close range (less than 75 m). This short detection range allows the use of a fairly simple acoustic detection algorithm without making the system overly sensitive to wind noise, motor vehicles, and ventilation/heat exchange blowers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

  9. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Sub-floor, inside view between station 175 and 143, showing limited crushing. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  10. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  11. COBRA-PI: an extension of the COBRA-3M code dynamically dimensioned to accept pin bundles of any size. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Froehle, P.H.; Bauer, T.H.

    1983-03-28

    COBRA, in general, performs a thermal-hydraulic analysis of an actual pin bundle by subdividing the bundle cross-section into coolant subchannels, pin sectors, duct wall sectors. Its calculation includes heat convected axially upward through coolant mass flow, heat flow between pin sectors and adjoining subchannels, and heat and mass flow between coolant subchannels. COBRA-3M is a version of COBRA built for LMFBR applications, that includes a sophisticated thermal model of fuel pins and duct wall. COBRA-3M that can explicitly model a wider variety of pin bundle configurations than 3M would allow and includes significant improvements to its thermal modeling. COBRA-PI is currently being used for thermal-hydraulic analysis of hypothetical LMFBR accident transients in both power and flow. Pin bundles currently being analyzed explicitly range from 7 to 37 pins of axial lengths ranging from approx. 0.3-2.0 meters.

  12. Helicopter Model Rotor-Blade Vortex Interaction Impulsive Noise: Scalability and Parametric Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model-scale data were compared with averaged full-scale, in-flight acoustic data under similar non-dimensional test conditions using an improved data analysis technique. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 - 0.194), the BVI impulsive noise data scale remarkably well in level, waveform, and directivity patterns. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 - 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model-scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full-scale BVI noise. Presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Measured BVI noise radiation is highly sensitive to all of the four governing nondimensional parameters--hover tip Mach number, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient.

  13. Integrated Displays For Helicopter Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Paulk, Clyde H., Jr.; Kilmer, Robert L.; Kilmer, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Report evaluates three similar video displays for guidance of helicopter pilots in low-level flight at night in adverse weather. Computer produces guidance information for pilot by integrating data from terrain-following radar, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery, and data from such autonomous navigation instruments as inertial navigation systems and Doppler radar. FLIR imagery, information on status of helicopter, and command symbols incorporated in one head-down display.

  14. The evolution of helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  15. Helicopters for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.

  16. Use of Cumulative Incidence of Novel Influenza A/H1N1 in Foreign Travelers to Estimate Lower Bounds on Cumulative Incidence in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitch, Marc; Lajous, Martin; O'Hagan, Justin J.; Cohen, Ted; Miller, Joel C.; Goldstein, Edward; Danon, Leon; Wallinga, Jacco; Riley, Steven; Dowell, Scott F.; Reed, Carrie; McCarron, Meg

    2009-01-01

    Background An accurate estimate of the total number of cases and severity of illness of an emerging infectious disease is required both to define the burden of the epidemic and to determine the severity of disease. When a novel pathogen first appears, affected individuals with severe symptoms are more likely to be diagnosed. Accordingly, the total number of cases will be underestimated and disease severity overestimated. This problem is manifest in the current epidemic of novel influenza A/H1N1. Methods and Results We used a simple approach to leverage measures of incident influenza A/H1N1 among a relatively small and well observed group of US, UK, Spanish and Canadian travelers who had visited Mexico to estimate the incidence among a much larger and less well surveyed population of Mexican residents. We estimate that a minimum of 113,000 to 375,000 cases of novel influenza A/H1N1 have occurred in Mexicans during the month of April, 2009. Such an estimate serves as a lower bound because it does not account for underreporting of cases in travelers or for nonrandom mixing between Mexican residents and visitors, which together could increase the estimates by more than an order of magnitude. Conclusions We find that the number of cases in Mexican residents may exceed the number of confirmed cases by two to three orders of magnitude. While the extent of disease spread is greater than previously appreciated, our estimate suggests that severe disease is uncommon since the total number of cases is likely to be much larger than those of confirmed cases. PMID:19742302

  17. Molecular characterization of the predominant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in Mexico, December 2011-February 2012.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Zamboni, Daniela; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel A; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Carranco-Arenas, Ana Paola; Ormsby, Christopher E; Cummings, Craig A; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Hernández-Hernández, Víctor A; Orozco-Sánchez, Carmen O; la Barrera, Claudia Alvarado-de; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    When the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza virus moved into the post-pandemic period, there was a worldwide predominance of the seasonal influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses. However, A(H1N1)pdm09 became the prevailing subtype in the 2011-2012 influenza season in Mexico and most of Central America. During this season, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs of individuals presenting with influenza-like illness at our institution in Mexico City. Samples were tested for seasonal A(H3N2) and B influenza viruses, as well as A(H1N1)pdm09 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Of 205 samples tested, 46% were positive to influenza, all of them A(H1N1)pdm09. The clinical characteristics of patients showed a similar pattern to the 2009 pandemic cases. Using next generation sequencing, we obtained whole genome sequences of viruses from 4 different patients, and in 8 additional viruses we performed partial Sanger sequencing of the HA segment. Non-synonymous changes found in the Mexican isolates with respect to the prototype isolate H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) included HA S69T, K163R and N260D unique to 2012 Mexican and North American isolates and located within or adjacent to HA antigenic sites; HA S143G, S185T, A197T and S203T previously reported in viruses from the 2010-2011 season, located within or adjacent to HA antigenic sites; and HA E374K located in a relevant site for membrane fusion. All Mexican isolates had an oseltamivir-sensitive genotype. Phylogenetic analysis with all 8 influenza gene segments showed that 2012 Mexican sequences formed a robust, distinct cluster. In all cases, 2012 Mexican sequences tended to group with 2010-2011 Asian and European sequences, but not with 2009 Mexican sequences, suggesting a possible recent common ancestor between these latter regions and the 2012 Mexican viruses. It remains to be defined if these viral changes represent an important antigenic drift that would enable viral immune evasion and/or affect influenza vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23209653

  18. Siaα2-3Galβ1- Receptor Genetic Variants Are Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Santos, Mirleide Cordeiro; Barbagelata, Luana; Moraes, Milene Raiol; Alencar de Mello, Wyller; Gusmão, Leonor; Sousa, Rita Catarina Medeiros; Emanuel Batista dos Santos, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Different host genetic variants may be related to the virulence and transmissibility of pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influencing events such as binding of the virus to the entry receptor on the cell of infected individuals and the host immune response. In the present study, two genetic variants of the ST3GAL1 gene, which encodes the Siaα2-3Galβ1- receptor to which influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus binds for entry into the host cell, were investigated in an admixed Brazilian population. First, the six exons encoding the ST3GAL1 gene were sequenced in 68 patients infected with strain A(H1N1)pdm09. In a second phase of the study, the rs113350588 and rs1048479 polymorphisms identified in this sample were genotyped in a sample of 356 subjects from the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil with a diagnosis of pandemic influenza. Functional analysis of the polymorphisms was performed in silico and the influence of these variants on the severity of infection was evaluated. The results suggest that rs113350588 and rs1048479 may alter the function of ST3GAL1 either directly through splicing regulation alteration and/or indirectly through LD with SNP with regulatory function. In the study the rs113350588 and rs1048479 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium in the population studied (D’ = 0.65). The GC haplotype was associated with an increased risk of death in subjects with influenza (OR = 4.632, 95% CI = 2.10;1.21). The AT haplotype was associated with an increased risk of severe disease and death (OR = 1.993, 95% CI = 1.09;3.61 and OR 4.476, 95% CI = 2.37;8.44, respectively). This study demonstrated for the first time the association of ST3GAL1 gene haplotypes on the risk of more severe disease and death in patients infected with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:26436774

  19. Autoimmune disorders after immunisation with Influenza A/H1N1 vaccines with and without adjuvant: EudraVigilance data and literature review.

    PubMed

    Isai, Alina; Durand, Julie; Le Meur, Steven; Hidalgo-Simon, Ana; Kurz, Xavier

    2012-11-19

    All suspected autoimmune disorders (AID) reported as adverse reactions to EudraVigilance from 1 October 2009 to 31 December 2010 for adjuvanted (Celtura™, Fluval P™, Focetria™ and Pandemrix™) and non-adjuvanted (Cantgrip™, Celvapan™ and Panenza™) pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 vaccines were analysed to determine whether adjuvanted vaccines were associated with higher reporting of AID than non-adjuvanted ones. AID were identified based on the corresponding MedDRA High Level Group Term. Reports of type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis were also included in the analysis. Causality was assessed based on WHO causality assessment for adverse events following immunisation and Brighton Collaboration criteria for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Of the 50,221 adverse reactions received in EudraVigilance for A/H1N1 vaccines (adjuvanted: 46,173, non-adjuvanted: 4048), 314 were AID (adjuvanted: 276, non-adjuvanted: 38). GBS was the AID with the highest number of reports (125, adjuvanted: 109, non-adjuvanted: 16). Reporting ratios as calculated by the percentages of AID amongst all reported adverse reactions were 0.60% (95% CI: 0.53-0.67) and 0.94% (95% CI: 0.64-1.24) for adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines, and were 0.26% (95% CI: 0.22-0.31) and 0.37% (95% CI: 0.18-0.56) in a restricted analysis based on diagnostic certainty, causal relationship and plausible temporal association. Reporting rates for all reports of AID using the estimated number of vaccinees as denominator were 6.87 (95% CI: 6.06-7.68) and 9.98 (95% CI: 6.81-13.16) per million for adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines, and 3.01 (95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and 3.94 (95% CI: 1.95-5.94) per million in the restricted analysis. These results do not suggest a difference in the reporting of AID between adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccines. In a literature review performed on 31 August 2011, GBS was also the AID the most frequently discussed in association with A/H1N1 vaccination; reporting rates were generally within expected background rates. PMID:23022149

  20. Viral Pneumonitis Is Increased in Obese Patients during the First Wave of Pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Jen; Blyth, Christopher C.; Foo, Hong; Bailey, Michael J.; Pilcher, David V.; Webb, Steven A.; Seppelt, Ian M.; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is conflicting data as to whether obesity is an independent risk factor for mortality in severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09). It is postulated that excess inflammation and cytokine production in obese patients following severe influenza infection leads to viral pneumonitis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Demographic, laboratory and clinical data prospectively collected from obese and non-obese patients admitted to nine adult Australian intensive care units (ICU) during the first A(H1N1)pdm09 wave, supplemented with retrospectively collected data, were compared. Results Of 173 patients, 100 (57.8%), 73 (42.2%) and 23 (13.3%) had body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) and ≥40 kg/m2 (morbidly obese) respectively. Compared to non-obese patients, obese patients were younger (mean age 43.4 vs. 48.4 years, p = 0.035) and more likely to develop pneumonitis (61% vs. 44%, p = 0.029). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was greater in morbidly obese compared to non-obese patients (17.4% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.04). Higher mortality rates were observed in non-obese compared to obese patients, but not after adjusting for severity of disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and hospital length of stay (LOS) were similar. Amongst ICU survivors, obese patients had longer ICU LOS (median 11.9 vs. 6.8 days, p = 0.017). Similar trends were observed when only patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 were examined. Conclusions Among patients admitted to ICU during the first wave of A(H1N1)pdm09, obese and morbidly obese patients with severe infection were more likely to develop pneumonitis compared to non-obese patients, but mortality rates were not increased. CRP is not an accurate marker of pneumonitis. PMID:23418448

  1. Siaα2-3Galβ1- Receptor Genetic Variants Are Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Severity.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Alvino; Sortica, Vinicius Albuquerque; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Santos, Mirleide Cordeiro; Barbagelata, Luana; Moraes, Milene Raiol; Alencar de Mello, Wyller; Gusmão, Leonor; Sousa, Rita Catarina Medeiros; Emanuel Batista Dos Santos, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Different host genetic variants may be related to the virulence and transmissibility of pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influencing events such as binding of the virus to the entry receptor on the cell of infected individuals and the host immune response. In the present study, two genetic variants of the ST3GAL1 gene, which encodes the Siaα2-3Galβ1- receptor to which influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus binds for entry into the host cell, were investigated in an admixed Brazilian population. First, the six exons encoding the ST3GAL1 gene were sequenced in 68 patients infected with strain A(H1N1)pdm09. In a second phase of the study, the rs113350588 and rs1048479 polymorphisms identified in this sample were genotyped in a sample of 356 subjects from the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil with a diagnosis of pandemic influenza. Functional analysis of the polymorphisms was performed in silico and the influence of these variants on the severity of infection was evaluated. The results suggest that rs113350588 and rs1048479 may alter the function of ST3GAL1 either directly through splicing regulation alteration and/or indirectly through LD with SNP with regulatory function. In the study the rs113350588 and rs1048479 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium in the population studied (D' = 0.65). The GC haplotype was associated with an increased risk of death in subjects with influenza (OR = 4.632, 95% CI = 2.10;1.21). The AT haplotype was associated with an increased risk of severe disease and death (OR = 1.993, 95% CI = 1.09;3.61 and OR 4.476, 95% CI = 2.37;8.44, respectively). This study demonstrated for the first time the association of ST3GAL1 gene haplotypes on the risk of more severe disease and death in patients infected with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:26436774

  2. Why were Turks unwilling to accept the A/H1N1 influenza-pandemic vaccination? People's beliefs and perceptions about the swine flu outbreak and vaccine in the later stage of the epidemic.

    PubMed

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Gaygısız, Esma; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2010-12-16

    This study investigated the acceptability of the A/H1N1 influenza vaccination and related factors among 1137 adults in the later stage of the A/H1N1 outbreak in Turkey. Having already been vaccinated or intending to get vaccinated were related to trust in the vaccine effectiveness, perceived risk of the side effects, and benefits of getting vaccinated. Perceived long term consequences of the A/H1N1 infection, perceptions of the A/H1N1 information in media, and barriers for getting vaccinated were related to intention whereas anticipated epidemic situation in Turkey, being chronically ill, and being not married were related to having already been vaccinated. PMID:20979988

  3. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, G. G.; Dias, D. H. J. N.; de Oliveira, R. A. H.; Ferreira, A. C.; De Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2014-05-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  4. 77 FR 27116 - Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration, Elizabeth River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion... Norfolk, VA to support the Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Naval Helicopter...

  5. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg × days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  6. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutta, B.; Cobra Collaboration

    2011-08-01

    COBRA is an R&D project, using CdZnTe (CZT) semiconductor detectors to search for the 0νββ decay. CZT is a room temperature semiconductor detector with good energy resolution. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelated detectors allow for tracking, further reducing the background significantly. The current status of the experiment is presented, including the latest analysis results.

  7. The status of the COBRA double-beta-decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2010-04-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the fourfold-forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double-beta-decay limits for Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented, based on 18 kg× days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description of the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  8. The Arabidopsis COBRA Protein Facilitates Cellulose Crystallization at the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Nadav; Sorek, Hagit; Kijac, Aleksandra; Szemenyei, Heidi J.; Bauer, Stefan; Hématy, Kian; Wemmer, David E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Arabidopsis COBRA gene lead to defects in cellulose synthesis but the function of COBRA is unknown. Here we present evidence that COBRA localizes to discrete particles in the plasma membrane and is sensitive to inhibitors of cellulose synthesis, suggesting that COBRA and the cellulose synthase complex reside in close proximity on the plasma membrane. Live-cell imaging of cellulose synthesis indicated that, once initiated, cellulose synthesis appeared to proceed normally in the cobra mutant. Using isothermal calorimetry, COBRA was found to bind individual β1–4-linked glucan chains with a KD of 3.2 μm. Competition assays suggests that COBRA binds individual β1–4-linked glucan chains with higher affinity than crystalline cellulose. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the cell wall of the cobra mutant also indicated that, in addition to decreases in cellulose amount, the properties of the cellulose fibrils and other cell wall polymers differed from wild type by being less crystalline and having an increased number of reducing ends. We interpret the available evidence as suggesting that COBRA facilitates cellulose crystallization from the emerging β1–4-glucan chains by acting as a “polysaccharide chaperone.” PMID:25331944

  9. The Arabidopsis COBRA protein facilitates cellulose crystallization at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Sorek, Nadav; Sorek, Hagit; Kijac, Aleksandra; Szemenyei, Heidi J; Bauer, Stefan; Hématy, Kian; Wemmer, David E; Somerville, Chris R

    2014-12-12

    Mutations in the Arabidopsis COBRA gene lead to defects in cellulose synthesis but the function of COBRA is unknown. Here we present evidence that COBRA localizes to discrete particles in the plasma membrane and is sensitive to inhibitors of cellulose synthesis, suggesting that COBRA and the cellulose synthase complex reside in close proximity on the plasma membrane. Live-cell imaging of cellulose synthesis indicated that, once initiated, cellulose synthesis appeared to proceed normally in the cobra mutant. Using isothermal calorimetry, COBRA was found to bind individual β1-4-linked glucan chains with a KD of 3.2 μm. Competition assays suggests that COBRA binds individual β1-4-linked glucan chains with higher affinity than crystalline cellulose. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the cell wall of the cobra mutant also indicated that, in addition to decreases in cellulose amount, the properties of the cellulose fibrils and other cell wall polymers differed from wild type by being less crystalline and having an increased number of reducing ends. We interpret the available evidence as suggesting that COBRA facilitates cellulose crystallization from the emerging β1-4-glucan chains by acting as a "polysaccharide chaperone." PMID:25331944

  10. [Envenoming by Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix)--case report].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Hartwich, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix) is the venomous snake of the Elapidae family which involves at least three species of Asian spitting cobras, according to the new taxonomy. This snake occurs naturally in southeastern Asia and in Poland it is kept only in the private breedings. Its venom mainly contains neurotoxins which have paralyzing activities to the nervous system and cardiotoxins which act cytolytically. The present study shows a case of the forty-one-year-old man professionally engaging in venomous reptiles who was bitten in his left ring finger by the Malayan cobra. No general symptoms, especially neurotoxic, were observed in the patient after the snake bite, but there was a significant local tissue injury including necrosis. In the bite site the infection with Morganella morganii developed with consequent phlegmon within the hand and the forearm. Additionally, features of haemolysis and injury of muscles with elevated level of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were present. The local injuries of tissues were treated surgically including the amputation of the bitten finger which has undergone the necrosis. No specific antivenom was used in the treatment. PMID:15521620

  11. Protection by Face Masks against Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E.; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0–0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect. PMID:23968983

  12. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain during 2010-2014 in Dalian, North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Sun, Nan; Lv, Qiu-Yue; Liu, Dan-Hong; Liu, Da-Peng

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and its hemagglutinin (HA) molecular and phylogenetic analysis during 2010-2014 in Dalian, North China. A total of 3717 influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were tested by real-time PCR and 493 were found to be positive. Out of these 493 cases, 121 were subtype influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 14 cases were reported in 2010-2011, 29 in 2012-2013, and 78 in 2013-2014. HA coding regions of 45 isolates were compared to that of the vaccine strain A/California/7/09(H1N1), and a number of variations were detected. P83S, S185T, S203T, R223Q, and I321V mutations were observed in all of the Dalian isolates. Furthermore, a high proportion >71 % of the strains possessed the variation D97N and K283E. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the close match of the majority of circulating strains with the vaccine strains. However, it also reveals a trend of strains to accumulate amino acid variations and form new phylogenetic groups. PMID:27251702

  13. Measuring the effect of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: the epidemiological experience in the West Midlands, England during the 'containment' phase.

    PubMed

    Inglis, N J; Bagnall, H; Janmohamed, K; Suleman, S; Awofisayo, A; De Souza, V; Smit, E; Pebody, R; Mohamed, H; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; House, T; Olowokure, B

    2014-02-01

    The West Midlands was the first English region to report sustained community transmission during the 'containment' phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in England. To describe the epidemiological experience in the region, West Midlands and national datasets containing laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 virus cases in the region during the 'containment' phase were analysed. The region accounts for about 10·5% of England's population, but reported about 42% of all laboratory-confirmed cases. Altogether 3063 cases were reported, with an incidence rate of 56/100 000 population. School-associated cases accounted for 25% of cases. Those aged <20 years, South Asian ethnic groups, and residents of urban and socioeconomically deprived areas were disproportionately affected. Imported cases accounted for 1% of known exposures. Regional R 0 central estimates between 1·41 and 1·43 were obtained. The West Midlands experience suggests that interpretation of transmission rates may be affected by complex interactions within and between sub-populations in the region. PMID:23731730

  14. Transmission of the First Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Wave in Australia Was Driven by Undetected Infections: Pandemic Response Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, James E.; Kelly, Heath A.; Glass, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background During the first wave of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Victoria, Australia the rapid increase in notified cases and the high proportion with relatively mild symptoms suggested that community transmission was established before cases were identified. This lead to the hypothesis that those with low-level infections were the main drivers of the pandemic. Methods A deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered model was constructed to describe the first pandemic wave in a population structured by disease severity levels of asymptomatic, low-level symptoms, moderate symptoms and severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. The model incorporated mixing, infectivity and duration of infectiousness parameters to calculate subgroup-specific reproduction numbers for each severity level. Results With stratum-specific effective reproduction numbers of 1.82 and 1.32 respectively, those with low-level symptoms, and those with asymptomatic infections were responsible for most of the transmission. The effective reproduction numbers for infections resulting in moderate symptoms and hospitalisation were less than one. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the importance of parameters relating to asymptomatic individuals and those with low-level symptoms. Conclusions Transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was largely driven by those invisible to the health system. This has implications for control measures–such as distribution of antivirals to cases and contacts and quarantine/isolation–that rely on detection of infected cases. Pandemic plans need to incorporate milder scenarios, with a graded approach to implementation of control measures. PMID:26692335

  15. Experiences of General Practitioners and Practice Assistants during the Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Christel E.; Hooiveld, Mariette; Jentink, Anne; Isken, Leslie D.; Timen, Aura; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Since few pandemics have occurred since the Spanish influenza pandemic, we should learn from every (mild) pandemic that occurs. The objective of this study was to report on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ acceptance of the chosen national policy, and experiences in the Netherlands during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Methods Data on experience and acceptance of the chosen national policy were obtained by structured questionnaires for general practitioners (n = 372) and practice assistants (n = 503) in April 2010. Results The primary policy chosen for general practice was not always accepted and complied with by general practitioners, although the communication (of changes) and collaboration with involved organisations were rated as positive. In particular, the advised personal protective measures were difficult to implement in daily work and thus not executed by 44% of general practitioners. Half of the general practitioners were not satisfied with the patient information provided by the government. The influenza A(H1N1) pandemic highly impacted on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ workloads, which was not always deemed to be adequately compensated. Discussion Involvement of general practitioners in future infectious disease outbreaks is essential. This study addresses issues in the pandemic policy which might be critical in a more severe pandemic. PMID:26313147

  16. Unequal access to vaccines in the WHO European Region during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Wasley, Annemarie; Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Weber, J Todd; Brown, Caroline Sarah

    2013-08-28

    In a severe pandemic, rapid production and deployment of vaccines will potentially be critical in mitigating the impact on populations and essential services. We compared access to vaccines and timing of delivery relative to identification of A(H1N1)pdm09 and the geographic progression of the pandemic in the WHO European Region in order to identify gaps in provision. Information on vaccine procurement and donations was collected through a web-based survey conducted in all 53 member states of the Region. Among the 51 countries responding to the survey, the majority (84%) implemented vaccination campaigns against A(H1N1)pdm09. However, time of vaccine receipt and number of doses varied substantially across the region, with delayed access in many countries especially in those in the lowest income range. Improving access to influenza vaccines in low resource countries and solving issues of product liability should help reduce inequalities and operational challenges arising during a future public health crisis. PMID:23845820

  17. Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria José Couto; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Siqueira, Marilda M; Resende, Paola Cristina; Born, Priscilla da Silva; Souza, Thiago Moreno L; Mesquita, Milene; Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar; Carney, Sharon; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Magalhães, Vera

    2014-01-01

    After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST) resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE), a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region. PMID:25410995

  18. Diverse antigenic site targeting of influenza hemagglutinin in the murine antibody recall response to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason R; Guo, Zhu; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Garten, Rebecca J; Xiyan, Xu; Blanchard, Elisabeth G; Blanchfield, Kristy; Stevens, James; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2015-11-01

    Here we define the epitopes on HA that are targeted by a group of 9 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) isolated from memory B cells of mice, immunized by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus followed by a seasonal TIV boost. These rmAbs were all reactive against the HA1 region of HA, but display 7 distinct binding footprints, targeting each of the 4 known antigenic sites. Although the rmAbs were not broadly cross-reactive, a group showed subtype-specific cross-reactivity with the HA of A/South Carolina/1/18. Screening these rmAbs with a panel of human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates indicated that naturally-occurring changes in HA could reduce rmAb binding, HI activity, and/or virus neutralization activity by rmAb, without showing changes in recognition by polyclonal antiserum. In some instances, virus neutralization was lost while both ELISA binding and HI activity were retained, demonstrating a discordance between the two serological assays traditionally used to detect antigenic drift. PMID:26318247

  19. COBRA-IV PC: A personal computer version of COBRA-IV-I for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    COBRA-IV PC is a modified version of COBRA-IV-I, adapted for use with most IBM PC and PC-compatible desktop computers. Like COBRA-IV-I, COBRA-IV PC uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV PC as the implicit solution scheme option. An explicit solution scheme is also available, allowing the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsions, and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. In addition, several modifications have been incorporated into COBRA-IV PC to allow the code to run on the PC. These include a reduction in the array dimensions, the removal of the dump and restart options, and the inclusion of several code modifications by Oregon State University, most notably, a critical heat flux correlation for boiling water reactor fuel and a new solution scheme for cross-flow distribution calculations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Variable-Tilt Helicopter Rotor Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L.

    1995-01-01

    Variable-tilt helicopter rotor mast proposed to improve helicopter performance and reduce vibration, especially at upper end of forward-speed range of helicopters. Achieved by use of universal coupling in main rotor mast or by tilting entire engine-and-transmission platform. Performance, energy efficiency, and safety enhanced.

  1. 46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks....

  2. 46 CFR 108.653 - Helicopter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter...

  3. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  4. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations....

  5. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  6. [Importance of helicopter rescue].

    PubMed

    Hofer, G; Voelckel, W G

    2014-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) have become a main part of prehospital emergency medical services over the last 40 years. Recently, an ongoing discussion about financial shortage and personal shortcomings question the role of cost-intensive air rescue. Thus, the value of HEMS must be examined and discussed appropriately. Since the number of physician-staffed ground ambulances may decrease due to the limited availability of qualified physicians, HEMS may fill the gap. In addition patient transfer to specialized hospitals will require an increasing number of air transports in order to minimize prehospital time. The higher risk ratio for HEMS missions when compared with ground rescue requires a rigorous quality management system. When it comes to missions in remote and exposed areas, the scope of medical treatment must be adjusted to the individual situation. Medical competence is key in order to balance guideline compliant or maximal care versus optimal care characterized as a mission-specific, individualized emergency care concept. Although, medical decision making and treatment is typically based on the best scientific evidence, personal skills, competence, and the mission scenario will determine the scope of interventions suitable to improve outcome. Thus, the profile of requirements for the HEMS medical crew is high. PMID:24618925

  7. Focusing of Helicopter BVI Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowson, M. V.

    1996-02-01

    Results are reported from an exact analytic model for the kinematics of noise radiation due to blade-vortex interaction which gives new predictions of the directionality of BVI noise from helicopters. It is shown that the blade-vortex interaction process will give rise to focused regions of intense noise which can decay locally at a rate less than inverse square law. This finding has obvious consequences for helicopter detection and community annoyance. However, the model also gives explicit prediction of the location of the regions of intense noise, and of the location in the disc of the interaction source responsible. Thus the model can also be used to suggest methods for exploiting directionality effects to reduce noise from helicopter operations.

  8. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  9. In-Depth Analysis of HA and NS1 Genes in A(H1N1)pdm09 Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caglioti, Claudia; Selleri, Marina; Rozera, Gabriella; Giombini, Emanuela; Zaccaro, Paola; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In March/April 2009, a new pandemic influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) emerged and spread rapidly via human-to-human transmission, giving rise to the first pandemic of the 21th century. Influenza virus may be present in the infected host as a mixture of variants, referred to as quasi-species, on which natural and immune-driven selection operates. Since hemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins are relevant in respect of adaptive and innate immune responses, the present study was aimed at establishing the intra-host genetic heterogeneity of HA and NS1 genes, applying ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from patients with confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The intra-patient nucleotide diversity of HA was significantly higher than that of NS1 (median (IQR): 37.9 (32.8–42.3) X 10−4 vs 30.6 (27.4–33.6) X 10−4 substitutions/site, p = 0.024); no significant correlation for nucleotide diversity of NS1 and HA was observed (r = 0.319, p = 0.29). Furthermore, a strong inverse correlation between nucleotide diversity of NS1 and viral load was observed (r = - 0.74, p = 0.004). For both HA and NS1, the variants appeared scattered along the genes, thus indicating no privileged mutation site. Known polymorphisms, S203T (HA) and I123V (NS1), were observed as dominant variants (>98%) in almost all patients; three HA and two NS1 further variants were observed at frequency >40%; a number of additional variants were detected at frequency <6% (minority variants), of which three HA and four NS1 variants were novel. In few patients multiple variants were observed at HA residues 203 and 222. According to the FLUSURVER tool, some of these variants may affect immune recognition and host range; however, these inferences are based on H5N1, and their extension to A(H1N1)pdm09 requires caution. More studies are necessary to address the significance of the composite nature of influenza virus quasi-species within infected patients. PMID:27186639

  10. Reconstruction of the Evolutionary Dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus in Italy during the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Ebranati, Erika; Amendola, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reconstruct the evolutionary dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Italy during two epidemic seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) in the light of the forces driving the evolution of the virus. Nearly six thousands respiratory specimens were collected from patients with influenza-like illness within the framework of the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network, and the A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin (HA) gene was amplified and directly sequenced from 227 of these. Phylodynamic and phylogeographical analyses were made using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, and codon-specific positive selection acting on the HA coding sequence was evaluated. The global and local phylogenetic analyses showed that all of the Italian sequences sampled in the post-pandemic (2010/2011) season grouped into at least four highly significant Italian clades, whereas those of the pandemic season (2009/2010) were interspersed with isolates from other countries at the tree root. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the strains circulating in the pandemic season in Italy was estimated to be between the spring and summer of 2009, whereas the Italian clades of the post-pandemic season originated in the spring of 2010 and showed radiation in the summer/autumn of the same year; this was confirmed by a Bayesian skyline plot showing the biphasic growth of the effective number of infections. The local phylogeography analysis showed that the first season of infection originated in Northern Italian localities with high density populations, whereas the second involved less densely populated localities, in line with a gravity-like model of geographical dispersion. Two HA sites, codons 97 and 222, were under positive selection. In conclusion, the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was introduced into Italy in the spring of 2009 by means of multiple importations. This was followed by repeated founder effects in the post-pandemic period that originated specific Italian clades. PMID:23152755

  11. The Comparative Clinical Course of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Hospitalised with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; Read, Robert C.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Semple, Malcolm G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Nicholson, Karl G.; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN) was established to gather detailed clinical and epidemiological information about patients with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in UK hospitals. This report focuses on the clinical course and outcomes of infection in pregnancy. Methods A standardised data extraction form was used to obtain detailed clinical information from hospital case notes and electronic records, for patients with PCR-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection admitted to 13 sentinel hospitals in five clinical 'hubs' and a further 62 non-sentinel hospitals, between 11th May 2009 and 31st January 2010.Outcomes were compared for pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 15–44 years, using univariate and multivariable techniques. Results Of the 395 women aged 15–44 years, 82 (21%) were pregnant; 73 (89%) in the second or third trimester. Pregnant women were significantly less likely to exhibit severe respiratory distress at initial assessment (OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.30–0.82)), require supplemental oxygen on admission (OR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.20–0.80)), or have underlying co-morbidities (p-trend <0.001). However, they were equally likely to be admitted to high dependency (Level 2) or intensive care (Level 3) and/or to die, after adjustment for potential confounders (adj. OR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.46–1.92). Of 11 pregnant women needing Level 2/3 care, 10 required mechanical ventilation and three died. Conclusions Since the expected prevalence of pregnancy in the source population was 6%, our data suggest that pregnancy greatly increased the likelihood of hospital admission with A(H1N1)pdm09. Pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to have respiratory distress on admission, but severe outcomes were equally likely in both groups. PMID:22870239

  12. No Evidence for Disease History as a Risk Factor for Narcolepsy after A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Favelle; Ploner, Alexander; Fink, Katharina; Maeurer, Markus; Bergman, Peter; Piehl, Fredrik; Weibel, Daniel; Sparén, Pär; Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy. Methods Case-control study in Sweden. Cases included persons referred for a Multiple Sleep Latency Test between 2009 and 2010, identified through diagnostic sleep centres and confirmed through independent review of medical charts. Controls, selected from the total population register, were matched to cases on age, gender, MSLT-referral date and county of residence. Disease history (prescriptions and diagnoses) and vaccination history was collected through telephone interviews and population-based healthcare registers. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk-factor for narcolepsy. Results In total, 72 narcolepsy cases and 251 controls were included (range 3–69 years mean19-years). Risk of narcolepsy was increased in individuals with a disease history of nervous system disorders (OR range = 3.6–8.8) and mental and behavioural disorders (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6–8.8) before referral. In a second analysis of vaccinated individuals only, nearly all initial associations were no longer statistically significant and effect sizes were smaller (OR range = 1.3–2.6). A significant effect for antibiotics (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) and a marginally significant effect for nervous system disorders was observed. In a third case-only analysis, comparing cases referred before vaccination to those referred after; prescriptions for nervous system disorders (OR = 26.0 95% CI 4.0–170.2) and ADHD (OR = 35.3 95% CI 3.4–369.9) were statistically significant during the vaccination period, suggesting initial associations were due to confounding by indication. Conclusion The findings of this study do not support disease history before A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination as a risk factor for narcolepsy. PMID:27120092

  13. In-Depth Analysis of HA and NS1 Genes in A(H1N1)pdm09 Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Caglioti, Claudia; Selleri, Marina; Rozera, Gabriella; Giombini, Emanuela; Zaccaro, Paola; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In March/April 2009, a new pandemic influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) emerged and spread rapidly via human-to-human transmission, giving rise to the first pandemic of the 21th century. Influenza virus may be present in the infected host as a mixture of variants, referred to as quasi-species, on which natural and immune-driven selection operates. Since hemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins are relevant in respect of adaptive and innate immune responses, the present study was aimed at establishing the intra-host genetic heterogeneity of HA and NS1 genes, applying ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from patients with confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The intra-patient nucleotide diversity of HA was significantly higher than that of NS1 (median (IQR): 37.9 (32.8-42.3) X 10-4 vs 30.6 (27.4-33.6) X 10-4 substitutions/site, p = 0.024); no significant correlation for nucleotide diversity of NS1 and HA was observed (r = 0.319, p = 0.29). Furthermore, a strong inverse correlation between nucleotide diversity of NS1 and viral load was observed (r = - 0.74, p = 0.004). For both HA and NS1, the variants appeared scattered along the genes, thus indicating no privileged mutation site. Known polymorphisms, S203T (HA) and I123V (NS1), were observed as dominant variants (>98%) in almost all patients; three HA and two NS1 further variants were observed at frequency >40%; a number of additional variants were detected at frequency <6% (minority variants), of which three HA and four NS1 variants were novel. In few patients multiple variants were observed at HA residues 203 and 222. According to the FLUSURVER tool, some of these variants may affect immune recognition and host range; however, these inferences are based on H5N1, and their extension to A(H1N1)pdm09 requires caution. More studies are necessary to address the significance of the composite nature of influenza virus quasi-species within infected patients. PMID:27186639

  14. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed during the study period. The virological surveillance showed that the majority of the circulating strains during the study period were antigenically related to the corresponding Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains except for the 2012 A(H3N2) viruses. PMID:25351708

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electing COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-6 Section 54.4980B-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-6 Electing COBRA continuation coverage. The following...

  16. Developing engineering model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's prime focus spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles; Morantz, Chaz; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry E.; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Daniel; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Robert; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5μm of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber positioner. The requirements, design, assembly techniques, development testing, design qualification and performance evaluation of EM Cobra fiber positioners are described here. Also discussed is the use of the EM build and test campaign to validate the plans for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra fiber positioners scheduled to begin in late-2014.

  17. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-7 Section 54.4980B-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-7 Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. The...

  18. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-7 Section 54.4980B-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-7 Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. The...

  19. Lightweight Boom For Rescue Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.

    1993-01-01

    Telescoping boom and associated mechanisms attached to helicopter aid rescue operations by extending lifeline beyond sweep of main rotor. Pilot observes rescuee and control position of helicopter more effectively than if rescuee directly below and hidden from pilot's view. Rescuee outside downdraft of rotor, which is often powerful enough to blow away or submerge someone in water. Used for marine or land operations. Boom thin and lightweight because it need not support weight of rescuee. Lifeline pulls away from boom after secured around rescuee, who is lifted directly into cabin by winch. Potential application for in situ erection of telescopic space structures.

  20. Annoyance of helicopter impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambra, F.; Damongeot, A.

    1978-01-01

    Psychoacoustic studies of helicopter impulsive noise were conducted in order to qualify additional annoyance due to this feature and to develop physical impulsiveness descriptors to develop impulsivity correction methods. The currently proposed descriptors and methods of impulsiveness correction are compared using a multilinear regression analysis technique. It is shown that the presently recommended descriptor and correction method provides the best correlation with the subjective evaluations of real helicopter impulsive noises. The equipment necessary for data processing in order to apply the correction method is discussed.

  1. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.

  2. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.

  3. Antihemorrhagin in the blood serum of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, Lawan; Khow, Orawan; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Sitprija, Visith

    2003-06-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) serum was found to possess antihemorrhagic activity against king cobra hemorrhagin. The activity was stronger than that in commercial king cobra antivenom. An antihemorrhagin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and gel filtration with a 22-fold purification and an overall yield of 12% of the total antihemorrhagic activity contained in crude serum. The purified antihemorrhagin was homogeneous in disc-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Its apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 120 kDa. The antihemorrhagin was also active against other hemorrhagic snake venoms obtained in Thailand and Japan such as Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus macrops and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Japanese Habu). It inhibited the proteolytic activity of king cobra venom. It is an acid- and thermolabile protein and does not form precipitin lines against king cobra venom. PMID:12875876

  4. Data package addendum for COBRA-1A2 life extension to 400 EFPD

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, S.L.; Ermi, A.M.

    1994-08-29

    The COBRA-1A experiment was originally designed for irradiations up to 350 effective full power days (EFPD) in EBR-II. Three of the seven B7A test capsules were discharged after 88.6 EFPD (COBRA-1A1; EBR-II designation X516), while the remaining four capsules continued to be irradiated to a goal exposure of 300 EFPD (COBRA-1A2; EBR-II designation X516A). However, it was recently decided that COBRA-1A2 was to remain in the reactor during Run 170, giving and nominal end-of-life (EOL) exposure of 375 EFPD. Since the revised test exposure exceeds the design basis given in supporting analyses, amended analyses are provided herein, giving the technical bases for the extended irradiation. This report describes the safety analysis for the extension of the COBRA-1A2 test (X516A) to 400 effective full power days in FBR-II.

  5. 78 FR 9309 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...; email john.cecil@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion On July 19, 2012, at 77 FR 42459, the... helicopters, AD 2006-18-01 (71 FR 51095, August 29, 2006) contains additional TIS life limits for T-T straps... comments on the NPRM (77 FR 42459, July 19, 2012). FAA's Determination We have reviewed the...

  6. 78 FR 9793 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... issued AD 2011-08-01, Amendment 39-16651 (76 FR 18865, April 6, 2011), which superseded previously... helicopters. AD Requirements This AD supersedes AD 2011-08-01 (76 FR 18865, April 6, 2011) and requires for... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will...

  7. 77 FR 729 - Airworthiness Directives; Enstrom Helicopter Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February... assemblies. This AD was prompted by four failures in the cyclic trim system on certain Enstrom model... failure of the cyclic trim system and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD...

  8. 77 FR 5427 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... creating a component history card or equivalent record and begin counting and recording the number of... for the specified Bell model helicopters. This proposal would require creating a component...

  9. 78 FR 38546 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... to the tailboom.'' On February 1, 2013, at 78 FR 7308, the Federal Register published our notice of... no comments on the NPRM (78 FR 7308, February 1, 2013). FAA's Determination These helicopters have... Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  10. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Lackenby, Angie; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Barnes, Rosemary; Evans, Meirion R; Fegan, Christopher; Froude, Susannah; Hastings, Mark; Knapper, Steven; Litt, Emma; Price, Nicola; Salmon, Roland; Temple, Mark; Davies, Eleri

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first confirmed person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus that occurred in a hematology unit in the United Kingdom. Eleven cases of (H1N1) 2009 virus infection were identified, of which, ten were related as shown by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. H275Y analysis demonstrated that 8 of 10 case patients had oseltamivir-resistant virus, with 4 of 8 case patients infected by direct transmission of resistant virus. Zanamivir should be considered as first-line therapy for influenza in patients with lymphopenic hematological conditions and uptake of influenza vaccination encouraged to further reduce the number of susceptible individuals. PMID:21148492

  11. Performance of public health surveillance systems during the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the Americas: testing a new method based on Benford's Law.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, A J; Fernández-Niño, J A; Bojórquez-Chapela, I; Moreno-Montoya, J

    2011-12-01

    The A(H1N1) influenza pandemic has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. An objective evaluation has not been conducted, as yet, of the performance of those systems during the pandemic. This paper presents an algorithm based on Benford's Law and the mortality ratio in order to evaluate the quality of the data and the sensitivity of surveillance systems. It analyses records of confirmed cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization by its 35 member countries between epidemiological weeks 13 and 47 in 2009. Seventeen countries did not fulfil Benford's Law, and mortality exceeded the regional average in 40% of the countries. The results suggest uneven performance by surveillance systems in the different countries, with the most frequent problem being low diagnostic coverage. Benford's Law proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of a public health surveillance system's performance. PMID:21342609

  12. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Teitler-Regev, Sharon; Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2011-01-01

    The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu) in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel. PMID:22229099

  13. [Deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology to deal with the A(H1N1) challenge in Kaboul].

    PubMed

    Maslin, J; Ducher, P; Fourel, D; Causse Le Dorze, P

    2010-11-01

    Since October 2009, the fear of swine flu spread in Afghanistan and severe cases were observed among NATO soldiers. Two patients were hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit. To face this new challenge, the French Health Service decided the deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology in the Kabul International Military Hospital. We describe the implementation of the mobile RT-PCR laboratory for the diagnosis of A(H1N1). The analysis of the first nasopharyngeal samples confirmed the presence of this virus in Afghanistan. The peak of positive cases was observed in mid-November 2009, and some cluster cases were observed among units deployed on the field. PMID:20650585

  14. Perception of the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and acceptance of influenza vaccination by Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 staff: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Sélilah; Djhehiche, Khaled; Zamora, Adeline; Bergeret, Alain; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perception and attitudes of university staff, including medical school and other science specialties, toward the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and influenza vaccination program. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 4,529 university personnel on October 19–20, 2009. Seven hundred (15%) employees participated in the study. Only 18% were willing to be vaccinated, men more than women (29% versus 9%, P < 0.001), and professors/researchers more than administrative/technical staff (30% vs. 6%, P < 0.001). Intention to be vaccinated was insufficient. Additional efforts are needed to improve information dissemination among university staff. Medical university personnel should receive more information to increase vaccine coverage and protect them as well as patients. PMID:25715115

  15. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.; Boyes, J.D.; Anderson, D.E.; Greenly, J.B.; Sudan, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse forming lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-III intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell`s LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180{degrees} about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.

  16. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.; Ingwersen, Pete; Bennett, Lawrence F.; Boyes, John D.; Anderson, David E.; Greenly, John B.; Sudan, Ravi N.

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse forming lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-3 intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell's LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180(degrees) about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.

  17. Likely Correlation between Sources of Information and Acceptability of A/H1N1 Swine-Origin Influenza Virus Vaccine in Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Ninove, Laetitia; Sartor, Catherine; Badiaga, Sékéné; Botelho, Elizabeth; Brouqui, Philippe; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background In France, there was a reluctance to accept vaccination against the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus despite government recommendation and investment in the vaccine programme. Methods and Findings We examined the willingness of different populations to accept A/H1N1vaccination (i) in a French hospital among 3315 employees immunized either by in-house medical personnel or mobile teams of MDs and (ii) in a shelter housing 250 homeless persons. Google was used to assess the volume of enquiries concerning incidence of influenza. We analyzed the information on vaccination provided by Google, the website of the major French newspapers, and PubMed. Two trust Surveys were used to assess public opinion on the trustworthiness of people in different professions. Paramedics were significantly more reluctant to accept immunisation than qualified medical staff. Acceptance was significantly increased when recommended directly by MDs. Anecdotal cases of directly observed severe infections were followed by enhanced acceptance of paramedical staff. Scientific literature was significantly more in favour of vaccination than Google and French newspaper websites. In the case of the newspaper websites, information correlated with their recognised political reputations, although they would presumably claim independence from political bias. The Trust Surveys showed that politicians were highly distrusted in contrast with doctors and pharmacists who were considered much more trustworthy. Conclusions The low uptake of the vaccine could reflect failure to convey high quality medical information and advice relating to the benefits of being vaccinated. We believe that the media and internet contributed to this problem by raising concerns within the general population and that failure to involve GPs in the control programme may have been a mistake. GPs are highly regarded by the public and can provide face-to-face professional advice and information. The top-down strategy of vaccine programme management and information delivered by the Ministry of Health could have aggravated the problem, because the general population does not always trust politicians. PMID:20593024

  18. Mutation Analysis of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Collected in Japan during the Peak Phase of the Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Morlighem, Jean-Étienne; Aoki, Shintaro; Kishima, Mami; Hanami, Mitsue; Ogawa, Chihiro; Jalloh, Amadu; Takahashi, Yukari; Kawai, Yuki; Saga, Satomi; Hayashi, Eiji; Ban, Toshiaki; Izumi, Shinyu; Wada, Akira; Mano, Masayuki; Fukunaga, Megumu; Kijima, Yoshiyuki; Shiomi, Masashi; Inoue, Kaoru; Hata, Takeshi; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kudo, Koichiro; Himeno, Yuji; Hirai, Aizan; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection quickly circulated worldwide in 2009. In Japan, the first case was reported in May 2009, one month after its outbreak in Mexico. Thereafter, A(H1N1) infection spread widely throughout the country. It is of great importance to profile and understand the situation regarding viral mutations and their circulation in Japan to accumulate a knowledge base and to prepare clinical response platforms before a second pandemic (pdm) wave emerges. Methodology A total of 253 swab samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness in the Osaka, Tokyo, and Chiba areas both in May 2009 and between October 2009 and January 2010. We analyzed partial sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 2009 pdm influenza virus in the collected clinical samples. By phylogenetic analysis, we identified major variants of the 2009 pdm influenza virus and critical mutations associated with severe cases, including drug-resistance mutations. Results and Conclusions Our sequence analysis has revealed that both HA-S220T and NA-N248D are major non-synonymous mutations that clearly discriminate the 2009 pdm influenza viruses identified in the very early phase (May 2009) from those found in the peak phase (October 2009 to January 2010) in Japan. By phylogenetic analysis, we found 14 micro-clades within the viruses collected during the peak phase. Among them, 12 were new micro-clades, while two were previously reported. Oseltamivir resistance-related mutations, i.e., NA-H275Y and NA-N295S, were also detected in sporadic cases in Osaka and Tokyo. PMID:21572517

  19. The immunogenicity of the intradermal injection of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine containing influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in COPD patients soon after a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Kositanont, Uraiwan; Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Niyomthong, Parichat; Songserm, Thaweesak; Maranetra, Khun Nanta; Rattanasaengloet, Kanokwan; Nana, Arth

    2016-07-01

    The antibody responses of a reduced-dose intradermal seasonal influenza vaccination have never been studied in COPD patients soon after a pandemic. A total of 149 COPD patients (60 y of age or older) were randomized to receive trivalent influenza vaccine (Sanofi-Pasteur, France) either 9 µg of hemagglutinin (HA) per strain split into 2-site intradermal (ID) injections via the Mantoux technique or one intramuscular (IM) injection of 15 µg of HA per strain. The geometric mean titers, seroconversion factors, seroconversion rates and seroprotection rates for influenza A(H3N2) and B administered through the ID injection (n = 75) were similar to those obtained with the IM injection (n = 74) 4 weeks post-vaccination. The antibody responses for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 administered through the ID injection were lower than those obtained with the IM injection, but all of these responses met the 3 criteria proposed by the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) for annual re-licensure. The seroprotection rates 4 weeks post-vaccination for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were 64.0% (95%CI 52.7-74.0%) in the ID group vs. 78.4% (95% CI 67.6-86.3%) in the IM group (p = 0.053). Influenza-related acute respiratory illness (ARI), diagnosed as a 4-fold rise in HI titers with a convalescent titer > 1:40, and/or the RT-PCR between the ID group (5.3%) and the IM group (8.1%) were not significantly different. The reduced-dose intradermal influenza vaccine may expand vaccine coverage in cases of vaccine shortage. PMID:27153158

  20. Status and perspectives of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Henning; COBRA Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large amount of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the 4-fold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  1. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  2. Dermatophilus chelonae in a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Turenne, Christine; Heard, Darryl J; Detrisac, Carol J; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J

    2004-12-01

    A mass was removed from the left flank of a 10-yr-old male king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and histologic examination revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional gram-positive cocci and filamentous bacteria. Fourteen months later, a histologically similar subcutaneous mass was removed from a different site. One year later, a large subcutaneous mass at the first surgical site was removed, and histopathologic examination revealed multiloculated granulomas with intralesional gram-positive cocci. An organism was cultured and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Dermatophilus chelonae. After a course of antibiotic therapy, no further lesions were seen for 5 mo. PMID:15732601

  3. COBRA System Engineering Processes to Achieve SLI Strategic Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The COBRA Prototype Main Engine Development Project was an endeavor conducted as a joint venture between Pratt & Whitney and Aerojet to conduct risk reduction in LOX/LH2 main engine technology for the NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI). During the seventeen months of the project (April 2001 to September 2002), approximately seventy reviews were conducted, beginning with the Engine Systems Requirements Review (SRR) and ending with the Engine Systems Interim Design Review (IDR). This paper discusses some of the system engineering practices used to support the reviews and the overall engine development effort.

  4. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  5. Lifting Loads With Two Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical equilibrium characteristics of dual-helicopter lifting system. Analysis presented provides mathematical basis for selection of lifting configurations and flight parameters. Force-balance equations serve as basis for coordination in flight. Employed in both military and civilian sectors to deliver weapons, vehicles, and construction materials.

  6. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.

    1981-11-01

    A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.

  8. Military display market segment: helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  9. Study of gas-puff Z-pinches on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, N.; Rosenberg, E. W.; Gourdain, P. A.; de Grouchy, P. W. L.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Potter, W. M.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A. D.; Evans, M.; Greenly, J. B.; Hoyt, C. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C.; Kroupp, E.; Fisher, A.; Maron, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were conducted on the 1 MA, 200 ns pulse duration Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator in order to achieve an understanding of the dynamics and instability development in the imploding and stagnating plasma. The triple-nozzle gas-puff valve, pre-ionizer, and load hardware are described. Specific diagnostics for the gas-puff experiments, including a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence system for measuring the radial neutral density profiles along with a Laser Shearing Interferometer and Laser Wavefront Analyzer for electron density measurements, are also described. The results of a series of experiments using two annular argon (Ar) and/or neon (Ne) gas shells (puff-on-puff) with or without an on- (or near-) axis wire are presented. For all of these experiments, plenum pressures were adjusted to hold the radial mass density profile as similar as possible. Initial implosion stability studies were performed using various combinations of the heavier (Ar) and lighter (Ne) gasses. Implosions with Ne in the outer shell and Ar in the inner were more stable than the opposite arrangement. Current waveforms can be adjusted on COBRA and it was found that the particular shape of the 200 ns current pulse affected on the duration and diameter of the stagnated pinched column and the x-ray yield.

  10. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  11. Study of gas-puff Z-pinches on COBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Rosenberg, E. W.; Gourdain, P. A.; Grouchy, P. W. L. de; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Potter, W. M.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A. D.; Evans, M.; Greenly, J. B.; Hoyt, C. L.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C.; Kroupp, E.; Fisher, A.; Maron, Y.

    2014-11-15

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were conducted on the 1 MA, 200 ns pulse duration Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) pulsed power generator in order to achieve an understanding of the dynamics and instability development in the imploding and stagnating plasma. The triple-nozzle gas-puff valve, pre-ionizer, and load hardware are described. Specific diagnostics for the gas-puff experiments, including a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence system for measuring the radial neutral density profiles along with a Laser Shearing Interferometer and Laser Wavefront Analyzer for electron density measurements, are also described. The results of a series of experiments using two annular argon (Ar) and/or neon (Ne) gas shells (puff-on-puff) with or without an on- (or near-) axis wire are presented. For all of these experiments, plenum pressures were adjusted to hold the radial mass density profile as similar as possible. Initial implosion stability studies were performed using various combinations of the heavier (Ar) and lighter (Ne) gasses. Implosions with Ne in the outer shell and Ar in the inner were more stable than the opposite arrangement. Current waveforms can be adjusted on COBRA and it was found that the particular shape of the 200 ns current pulse affected on the duration and diameter of the stagnated pinched column and the x-ray yield.

  12. Radiative Properties of Argon Gas-Puff Implosions on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouart, Nicholas; Qi, Niansheng; de Grouchy, Phil; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergei; Giuliani, John; Dasgupta, Arati; Apruzese, John; Clark, Robert; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments were performed on the 1 MA COBRA pulsed power generator at Cornell University. The gas puffs were injected into the load region from a triple nozzle. The load region had an anode-cathode gap of 2.5 cm. The standard diagnostics on COBRA include time-integrated pinhole cameras, a time-integrated axially resolved x-ray spectrometer, filtered photo-conducting detectors, and time-gated XUV cameras. We will focus mainly on results from pinhole images and x-ray spectra from argon gas puffs including some with a SO2 dopant. The x-ray time-integrated pinhole images feature a tight axially uniform plasma column with a diameter of approximately 1 mm for argon gas implosion. The x-ray spectrometer used mica crystals (2d =19.84 Å) and captured the argon K-shell radiation from different crystal reflections. A 1-D multi-zone argon and sulfur non-LTE kinetics code with radiation transport is used to model the K-shell emission for the purpose of inferring the plasma conditions and the interaction of gas from the inner annulus with the central jet. This work is supported by DOE/NNSA.

  13. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing cobra venom factor.

    PubMed

    Andrä, Jörg; Halter, Roman; Kock, Michael A; Niemann, Heiner; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Paul, Dieter

    2002-10-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF), the anticomplementary protein in cobra venom, activates the alternative complement pathway, eventually leading to complement consumption. Here, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse model for CVF. We generated a DNA construct containing the full-length cDNA for single-chain pre-pro-CVF. Expression of CVF was controlled by the alpha(1)-antitrypsin promoter to achieve liver-specific expression. Linearized DNA was microinjected into murine ovary cells (strain CD(2)F(1) (BALB/cxDBA/2J)) and the newborn mice were analyzed for stable integration of CVF DNA. After establishing the transgene, mice were propagated in a BALB/c background. The CVF mRNA was detected in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidney. CVF protein was detected in small amounts in the serum. Serum complement hemolytic activity in CVF-transgenic mice was virtually absent. The concentration of plasma C3 was significantly reduced. The CVF-transgenic animals show no unusual phenotype. They provide an animal model to study the effect of long-term complement depletion by continued activation, as well as the role of complement in host immune response and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:12220893

  14. Humanized cobra venom factor decreases myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorsuch, W. Brian; Guikema, Benjamin J.; Fritzinger, David C.; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a complement activating protein in cobra venom, which functionally resembles C3b, and has been used for decades for decomplementation of serum to investigate the role of complement in many model systems of disease. The use of CVF for clinical practice is considered impractical because of immunogenicity issues. Humanization of CVF was recently demonstrated to yield a potent CVF-like molecule. In the present study, we demonstrate that mice treated with recombinant humanized CVF (HC3-1496) are protected from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injuries with resultant preservation of cardiac function. Also, C3 deposition in the myocardium following MI/R was not observed following treatment with HC3-1496. HC3-1496 led to complement activation and depletion of C3, but preserved C5 titers. These data suggest, unlike CVF, HC3-1496 does not form a C5 convertase in the mouse, similar to recent studies in human sera/plasma. These results suggest that humanized CVF (HC3-1496) protects the ischemic myocardium from reperfusion injuries induced by complement activation and represents a novel anti-complement therapy for potential clinical use. PMID:19747734

  15. A fatal cobra-bite in a snake expert.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Atiqullah, S; Saha, A C; Chowdhury, A J; Jahangir, K M; Faiz, M A

    2010-04-01

    A 35-year-old so called snake-expert from Thakurgaon district was admitted in Medicine department of Rangpur Medical College Hospital (RpMCH), Rangpur, Bangladesh on 2nd November 2007 with history of bites by a cobra snake. He was famous for his outstanding works to establish a snake farm first ever in Bangladesh. He had a collection of more than one hundred snakes of different species. He used to hatch eggs of the snakes, feed the young-snakes, collect venoms and sell those. Everyday many visitors used to visit his farm to watch exciting games with poisonous snakes. Several satellite television (TV) channels and some daily newspapers had covered him on different occasions. He was accidentally bitten by a newly caught hungry cobra snake while recording for a satellite TV channel. Following bites he was brought to the hospital three and a half hours later. By that time, neurotoxicity developed. Repeated doses of Anti Snake Venom (ASV) along with respiratory support and other supportive cares were provided. Despite utmost care feasible at RpMCH, patient expired around 49 hours later. PMID:20395931

  16. COBRA-SFS CYCLE 3. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codes for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.

  17. A prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise for three scale models using a new acoustics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    A new computer program which uses Farassat's most advanced subsonic time domain formulation has been written to predict helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise. A brief description of the program, WOPWOP, is followed by a comparison of predicted and experimentally measured acoustic pressure and spectra for a 1/4 scale UH-1 model rotor blade and a 1/7 scale OLS (AH-1G) model rotor blade. The C81 computer program was used to predict the spanwise loading on the rotor for aerodynamic input into the acoustic prediction. Comparisons are made for different flight conditions and microphone locations with good results. In general the acoustic pressure is underpredicted. The acoustic predictions for a tapered rotor blade and predictions for microphones well below the tip path plane show less underprediction. Finally, in-plane motion of the rotor blade is shown to significantly affect the peak-to-peak amplitude of the acoustic pressure for high advancing tip Mach numbers.

  18. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with NLR-1T main-rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering-rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade-section contour are presented. The test envelope included hover, forward-flight speed sweeps from 35 to 85 m/sec, and collective-fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip-speed ratio. The data set for each test point described vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak-to-peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor.

  19. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  20. Effectiveness of seasonal 2010/11 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccines in preventing influenza infection in the United Kingdom: mid-season analysis 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R; Hardelid, P; Fleming, Dm; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; Thomas, Dr; Sebastianpillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm

    2011-01-01

    This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with monovalent vaccine in the 2009/10 season; 46% (95% CI: 7 - 69%) if vaccinated only with trivalent influenza vaccine in the 2010/11 season and 63% (95% CI: 37 - 78%) if vaccinated in both seasons. PMID:21329644

  1. Optimal landing of a helicopter in autorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y. N.

    1985-01-01

    Gliding descent in autorotation is a maneuver used by helicopter pilots in case of engine failure. The landing of a helicopter in autorotation is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The OH-58A helicopter was used. Helicopter vertical and horizontal velocities, vertical and horizontal displacement, and the rotor angle speed were modeled. An empirical approximation for the induced veloctiy in the vortex-ring state were provided. The cost function of the optimal control problem is a weighted sum of the squared horizontal and vertical components of the helicopter velocity at touchdown. Optimal trajectories are calculated for entry conditions well within the horizontal-vertical restriction curve, with the helicopter initially in hover or forwared flight. The resultant two-point boundary value problem with path equality constraints was successfully solved using the Sequential Gradient Restoration Technique.

  2. 78 FR 12646 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. and Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Agusta S.p.A. (Agusta) Model AB412 and AB412 EP, and Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 412, 412CF,...

  3. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, P; Balasubramaniam, P; Ratnavelu, K

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. PMID:25273185

  4. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  5. Documenting helicopter operations from an energy standpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the relative and absolute energy consumption of helicopters, including limited comparisons with fixed-wing aircraft, and selected surface transportation vehicles. Additional comparisons were made to determine the level of reduction in energy consumption expected from the application of advanced technologies to the helicopter design and sizing process. It was found that improvements in helicopter consumption characteristics can be accomplished through the utilization of advanced technology to reduce drag, structures weight, and powerplant fuel consumption.

  6. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  7. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  8. Perinatal survival and health after maternal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination: A cohort study of pregnancies stratified by trimester of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Baum, Ulrike; Leino, Tuija; Gissler, Mika; Kilpi, Terhi; Jokinen, Jukka

    2015-09-11

    Large cohort studies demonstrated the safety of vaccination with the AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine, but data on first trimester vaccination safety are limited. We conducted a nationwide register-based retrospective cohort study in Finland, included singleton pregnancies present on 01 November 2009 and followed them from 01 November 2009 until delivery. Pregnancies with abortive outcome, pregnancies that started before 01 February 2009 and pregnancies of women, who received the AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine prior to the onset of pregnancy, were excluded. Our main outcome measures were hazard ratios comparing the risk of stillbirth, early neonatal death, moderately preterm birth, very preterm birth, moderately low birth weight, very low birth weight, and being small for gestational age between pregnancies exposed and unexposed to maternal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. The study population comprised 43,604 pregnancies; 34,241 (78.5%) women were vaccinated at some stage during pregnancy. The rates of stillbirth, early neonatal death, moderately preterm birth, and moderately low birth weight were similar between pregnant women exposed and unexposed to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. After adjusting for known risk factors, the relative rates were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.55-1.45) for very preterm birth, 0.84 (0.61-1.16) for very low birth weight, and 1.17 (0.98-1.40) for being small for gestational age. Also, in the subanalysis of 7839 women vaccinated during the first trimester, the rates did not indicate that maternal vaccination during the first trimester had any adverse impact on perinatal survival and health. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was not associated with the exposure to the AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. This study adds reassuring evidence on the safety of AS03 adjuvanted influenza vaccines when given in the first trimester and supports the recommendation of influenza vaccination to all pregnant women through all stages of pregnancy. PMID:26238723

  9. Accumulation of Human-Adapting Mutations during Circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus in Humans in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Elderfield, Ruth A.; Watson, Simon J.; Godlee, Alexandra; Adamson, Walt E.; Thompson, Catherine I.; Dunning, Jake; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Blumenkrantz, Deena; Hussell, Tracy; Zambon, Maria; Openshaw, Peter; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza pandemic that emerged in 2009 provided an unprecedented opportunity to study adaptation of a virus recently acquired from an animal source during human transmission. In the United Kingdom, the novel virus spread in three temporally distinct waves between 2009 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of complete viral genomes showed that mutations accumulated over time. Second- and third-wave viruses replicated more rapidly in human airway epithelial (HAE) cells than did the first-wave virus. In infected mice, weight loss varied between viral isolates from the same wave but showed no distinct pattern with wave and did not correlate with viral load in the mouse lungs or severity of disease in the human donor. However, second- and third-wave viruses induced less alpha interferon in the infected mouse lungs. NS1 protein, an interferon antagonist, had accumulated several mutations in second- and third-wave viruses. Recombinant viruses with the third-wave NS gene induced less interferon in human cells, but this alone did not account for increased virus fitness in HAE cells. Mutations in HA and NA genes in third-wave viruses caused increased binding to α-2,6-sialic acid and enhanced infectivity in human mucus. A recombinant virus with these two segments replicated more efficiently in HAE cells. A mutation in PA (N321K) enhanced polymerase activity of third-wave viruses and also provided a replicative advantage in HAE cells. Therefore, multiple mutations allowed incremental changes in viral fitness, which together may have contributed to the apparent increase in severity of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus during successive waves. IMPORTANCE Although most people infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza virus had mild or unapparent symptoms, some suffered severe and devastating disease. The reasons for this variability were unknown, but the numbers of severe cases increased during successive waves of human infection in the United Kingdom. To determine the causes of this variation, we studied genetic changes in virus isolates from individual hospitalized patients. There were no consistent differences between these viruses and those circulating in the community, but we found multiple evolutionary changes that in combination over time increased the virus's ability to infect human cells. These adaptations may explain the remarkable ability of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to continue to circulate despite widespread immunity and the apparent increase in severity of influenza over successive waves of infection. PMID:25210166

  10. Pandemic influenza A(H1)pdm09 in hospitals and intensive care units – results from a new hospital surveillance, Germany 2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Adlhoch, Cornelia; Wadl, Maria; Behnke, Michael; Peña Diaz, Luis Alberto; Clausmeyer, Jörg; Eckmanns, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Adlhoch et al. (2012) Pandemic influenza A(H1)pdm09 in hospitals and intensive care units – results from a new hospital surveillance, Germany 2009/2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(601), e162–e168. Objectives  The pandemic influenza A(H1)pdm09 (PI) was introduced to Germany in April 2009. The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) implemented a nationwide voluntary hospital sentinel surveillance for to assess the burden and severity of PI. Setting  Three modules were offered: a hospital module collected aggregated data from all hospital units on admissions and fatalities with and without PI; an intensive care module data on admissions, patient‐days, and ventilated patient‐days with and without PI; and a case‐based module retrieved clinical patient data of PI cases. A in‐patient with a PCR confirmation was defined as a PI case. Descriptive, trend, uni‐, and multivariable analysis were performed. Results  Between week 49/2009 and 13/2010, the hospitals reported 103 (0·07%) PI cases among 159 181 admissions and 59/16 728 (0·35%) PI‐related admissions in intensive care units (ICUs). The weekly average incidence decreased in hospitals by 21·5% and in ICUs by 19·2%. In ICUs, 1848/85 559 (2·2%) patient‐days were PI‐related, 94·8% of those with mechanical ventilation. Case‐based data on 43 recovered and 16 fatal PI cases were reported. Among recovered, 61% were admitted to ICUs, 51% were mechanically ventilated, and 16% received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All fatal cases were admitted to ICUs and received mechanical ventilation, 75% ECMO. Fatal outcome was rather associated with complications than with underlying medical conditions. Conclusion  The surveillance started shortly after the PI peak, which explains the small number of PI cases. The burden of PI disease was low, but higher in ICUs with a high proportion of severe cases needing ventilation and ECMO treatment. A continuous hospital surveillance system could be helpful to measure the burden of severe community‐acquired infections. PMID:22788851

  11. Using High-Throughput Sequencing to Leverage Surveillance of Genetic Diversity and Oseltamivir Resistance: A Pilot Study during the 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa E.; Valdovinos-Torres, Humberto; Hidalgo, Ana Cecilia; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Luna, René Santos; Carrillo-Valenzo, Erik; Ramos, Celso; García-García, Lourdes; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses display a high mutation rate and complex evolutionary patterns. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used for qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of genetic diversity in complex biological samples. The “deep sequencing” approach, enabled by the enormous throughput of current NGS platforms, allows the identification of rare genetic viral variants in targeted genetic regions, but is usually limited to a small number of samples. Methodology and Principal Findings We designed a proof-of-principle study to test whether redistributing sequencing throughput from a high depth-small sample number towards a low depth-large sample number approach is feasible and contributes to influenza epidemiological surveillance. Using 454-Roche sequencing, we sequenced at a rather low depth, a 307 bp amplicon of the neuraminidase gene of the Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm) virus from cDNA amplicons pooled in 48 barcoded libraries obtained from nasal swab samples of infected patients (n  =  299) taken from May to November, 2009 pandemic period in Mexico. This approach revealed that during the transition from the first (May-July) to second wave (September-November) of the pandemic, the initial genetic variants were replaced by the N248D mutation in the NA gene, and enabled the establishment of temporal and geographic associations with genetic diversity and the identification of mutations associated with oseltamivir resistance. Conclusions NGS sequencing of a short amplicon from the NA gene at low sequencing depth allowed genetic screening of a large number of samples, providing insights to viral genetic diversity dynamics and the identification of genetic variants associated with oseltamivir resistance. Further research is needed to explain the observed replacement of the genetic variants seen during the second wave. As sequencing throughput rises and library multiplexing and automation improves, we foresee that the approach presented here can be scaled up for global genetic surveillance of influenza and other infectious diseases. PMID:23843978

  12. Advanced Control System Increases Helicopter Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    With support and funding from a Phase II NASA SBIR project from Ames Research Center, Hoh Aeronautics Inc. (HAI), of Lomita, California, produced HeliSAS, a low-cost, lightweight, attitude-command-attitude-hold stability augmentation system (SAS) for civil helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. HeliSAS proved itself in over 160 hours of flight testing and demonstrations in a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter, a commercial helicopter popular with news broadcasting and police operations. Chelton Flight Systems, of Boise, Idaho, negotiated with HAI to develop, market, and manufacture HeliSAS, now available as the Chelton HeliSAS Digital Helicopter Autopilot.

  13. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  14. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  15. Prediction of full system helicopter noise for a MDHC 500E helicopter using the Rotonet program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, D. S.; Becker, L. E.; Rutledge, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The long-term goal of the NASA/U.S. helicopter industry program designated 'Rotonet' is the achievement of a helicopter noise signature-prediction capability on the basis of helicopter geometry and operating condition data. A prediction-validation data base is being compiled through flight testing of an MDHC 500E helicopter; the data base will encompass acoustic spectra, noise-level time histories, and effective perceived noise levels incorporating actual meteorological conditions and helicopter dynamics. An evaluation is made of the Rotonet system as currently defined, with a view to prospective developments.

  16. Efficiency of Points of Dispensing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccination, Los Angeles County, California, USA, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Brandon; Teutsch, Steven; Borse, Rebekah H.; Meltzer, Martin I.; Bagwell, DeeAnn; Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During October 23–December 8, 2009, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used points of dispensing (PODs) to improve access to and increase the number of vaccinations against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We assessed the efficiency of these units and access to vaccines among ethnic groups. An average of 251 persons per hour (SE 65) were vaccinated at the PODs; a 10% increase in use of live-attenuated monovalent vaccines reduced that rate by 23 persons per hour (SE 7). Vaccination rates were highest for Asians (257/10,000 persons), followed by Hispanics (114/10,000), whites (75/100,000), and African Americans (37/10,000). Average distance traveled to a POD was highest for whites (6.6 miles; SD 6.5) and lowest for Hispanics (4.7 miles; SD ±5.3). Placing PODs in areas of high population density could be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of persons for mass vaccination, but additional PODs may be needed to improve coverage for specific populations. PMID:24656212

  17. Computational Identification of Antigenicity-Associated Sites in the Hemagglutinin Protein of A/H1N1 Seasonal Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaowei; Li, Yuefeng; Liu, Xiaoning; Shen, Xiping; Gao, Wenlong; Li, Juansheng

    2015-01-01

    The antigenic variability of influenza viruses has always made influenza vaccine development challenging. The punctuated nature of antigenic drift of influenza virus suggests that a relatively small number of genetic changes or combinations of genetic changes may drive changes in antigenic phenotype. The present study aimed to identify antigenicity-associated sites in the hemagglutinin protein of A/H1N1 seasonal influenza virus using computational approaches. Random Forest Regression (RFR) and Support Vector Regression based on Recursive Feature Elimination (SVR-RFE) were applied to H1N1 seasonal influenza viruses and used to analyze the associations between amino acid changes in the HA1 polypeptide and antigenic variation based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay data. Twenty-three and twenty antigenicity-associated sites were identified by RFR and SVR-RFE, respectively, by considering the joint effects of amino acid residues on antigenic drift. Our proposed approaches were further validated with the H3N2 dataset. The prediction models developed in this study can quantitatively predict antigenic differences with high prediction accuracy based only on HA1 sequences. Application of the study results can increase understanding of H1N1 seasonal influenza virus antigenic evolution and accelerate the selection of vaccine strains. PMID:25978416

  18. Computational Identification of Antigenicity-Associated Sites in the Hemagglutinin Protein of A/H1N1 Seasonal Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoning; Shen, Xiping; Gao, Wenlong; Li, Juansheng

    2015-01-01

    The antigenic variability of influenza viruses has always made influenza vaccine development challenging. The punctuated nature of antigenic drift of influenza virus suggests that a relatively small number of genetic changes or combinations of genetic changes may drive changes in antigenic phenotype. The present study aimed to identify antigenicity-associated sites in the hemagglutinin protein of A/H1N1 seasonal influenza virus using computational approaches. Random Forest Regression (RFR) and Support Vector Regression based on Recursive Feature Elimination (SVR-RFE) were applied to H1N1 seasonal influenza viruses and used to analyze the associations between amino acid changes in the HA1 polypeptide and antigenic variation based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay data. Twenty-three and twenty antigenicity-associated sites were identified by RFR and SVR-RFE, respectively, by considering the joint effects of amino acid residues on antigenic drift. Our proposed approaches were further validated with the H3N2 dataset. The prediction models developed in this study can quantitatively predict antigenic differences with high prediction accuracy based only on HA1 sequences. Application of the study results can increase understanding of H1N1 seasonal influenza virus antigenic evolution and accelerate the selection of vaccine strains. PMID:25978416

  19. Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elke; Kalthoff, Donata; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Breithaupt, Angele; Maresch, Christina; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2009-09-01

    Influenza virus A/H1N1, which is currently causing a pandemic, contains gene segments with ancestors in the North American and Eurasian swine lineages. To get insights into virus replication dynamics, clinical symptoms and virus transmission in pigs, we infected animals intranasally with influenza virus A/Regensburg/D6/09/H1N1. Virus excretion in the inoculated pigs was detected in nasal swabs from 1 day post-infection (p.i.) onwards and the pigs developed generally mild symptoms, including fever, sneezing, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. Contact pigs became infected, shed virus and developed clinical symptoms similar to those in the inoculated animals. Plasma samples of all animals remained negative for virus RNA. Nucleoprotein- and haemagglutinin H1-specific antibodies could be detected by ELISA 7 days p.i. CD4(+) T cells became activated immediately after infection and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell populations expanded from 3 to 7 days p.i., coinciding with clinical signs. Contact chickens remained uninfected, as judged by the absence of virus excretion, clinical signs and seroconversion. PMID:19592456

  20. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, William T; Benton, Donald J; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P J; Daniels, Rodney S; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W; Reeve, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997-2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  1. Use of a large general practice syndromic surveillance system to monitor the progress of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 in the UK.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Pebody, R; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Regan, M; Hippisley-Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency/QSurveillance national surveillance system utilizes QSurveillance®, a recently developed general practitioner database covering over 23 million people in the UK. We describe the spread of the first wave of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 using data on consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), respiratory illness and prescribing for influenza from 3400 contributing general practices. Daily data, provided from 27 April 2009 to 28 January 2010, were used to give a timely overview for those managing the pandemic nationally and locally. The first wave particularly affected London and the West Midlands with a peak in ILI in week 30. Children aged between 1 and 15 years had consistently high consultation rates for ILI. Daily ILI rates were used for modelling national weekly case estimates. The system enabled the 'real-time' monitoring of the pandemic to a small geographical area, linking morbidity and prescribing for influenza and other respiratory illnesses. PMID:21473803

  2. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  3. Clinical aspects of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases reported during the pandemic in Brazil, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, Érika Valeska; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical aspects of cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Brazil. Methods: A descriptive study of cases reported in Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), 2009-2010. Results: As the final classification, we obtained 53,797 (56.79%) reported cases confirmed as a new influenza virus subtype, and 40,926 (43.21%) cases discarded. Fever was the most common sign, recorded in 99.74% of the confirmed and 98.92% of the discarded cases. Among the confirmed cases, the presence of comorbidities was reported in 32.53%, and in 38.29% of the discarded cases. The case fatality rate was 4.04%; 3,267 pregnant women were confirmed positive for influenza A new viral subtype and 2,730 of them were cured. The case fatality rate of pregnant women was 6.88%. Conclusion: The findings suggested concern of the health system with pregnant women, and patients with comorbidities and quality of care may have favored a lower mortality. We recommend that, when caring for patients with severe respiratory symptoms, with comorbidities, or pregnant women, health professionals should consider the need for hospital care, as these factors make up a worse prognosis of infection by the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:26154537

  4. Improving the Evidence Base for Decision Making During a Pandemic: The Example of 2009 Influenza A/H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Lyn; Heffernan, Richard T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Redd, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes and extends discussions held during an international meeting on “Surveillance for Decision Making: The Example of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1,” held at the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics (CCDD), Harvard School of Public Health, on June 14 and 15, 2010. The meeting involved local, national, and global health authorities and academics representing 7 countries on 4 continents. We define the needs for surveillance in terms of the key decisions that must be made in response to a pandemic: how large a response to mount and which control measures to implement, for whom, and when. In doing so, we specify the quantitative evidence required to make informed decisions. We then describe the sources of surveillance and other population-based data that can presently—or in the future—form the basis for such evidence, and the interpretive tools needed to process raw surveillance data. We describe other inputs to decision making besides epidemiologic and surveillance data, and we conclude with key lessons of the 2009 pandemic for designing and planning surveillance in the future. PMID:21612363

  5. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, William T.; Benton, Donald J.; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P. J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hay, Alan J.; McCauley, John W.; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997–2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  6. A(H1N1) vaccination recruits T lymphocytes to the choroid plexus for the promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fangfang; Yang, Junhua; Xia, Yucen; Yuan, Qunfang; Guo, Kaihua; Zou, Juntao; Yao, Zhibin

    2016-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that A(H1N1) influenza vaccine (AIV) promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory in pregnant mice. However, the underlying mechanism of flu vaccination in neurogenesis and memory has remained unclear. In this study, we found that T lymphocytes were recruited from the periphery to the choroid plexus (CP) of the lateral and third (3rd) ventricles in pregnant mice vaccinated with AIV (Pre+AIV). Intracerebroventricular delivery of anti-TCR antibodies markedly decreased neurogenesis and the working memory of the Pre+AIV mice. Similarly, intravenous delivery of anti-CD4 antibodies to the periphery also down-regulated neurogenesis. Furthermore, AIV vaccination caused microglia to skew toward an M2-like phenotype (increased Arginase-1 and Ym1 mRNA levels), and elevated levels of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were found in the hippocampus, whereas these effects were offset by anti-TCR antibody treatment. Additionally, in the CP, the expression level of adhesion molecules and chemokines, which assist leukocytes in permeating into the brain, were also elevated after AIV vaccination of pregnant mice. Collectively, the results suggested that the infiltrative T lymphocytes in the CP contribute to the increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and working memory caused by flu vaccination, involving activation of the brain's CP, M2 microglial polarization and neurotrophic factor expression. PMID:26576725

  7. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

    PubMed

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  8. The risk of acquiring the new influenza A(H1N1) for Brazilian travelers to Chile, Argentina and the USA.

    PubMed

    Massad, Eduardo; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio; Struchiner, Cláudio José

    2010-03-01

    We estimate the risk of acquiring the new influenza A(H1N1) for Brazilian travelers to Chile, Argentina and the USA. This is done by a mathematical model that quantifies the intensity of transmission of the new virus in those countries and the probability that one individual has of acquiring the influenza depending on the date of arrival and time spent in the area. The maximum estimated risk reached 7.5 cases per 10,000 visitors to Chile, 17 cases per 10,000 travelers to Argentina and 23 cases per 10,000 travelers to the USA. The estimated number of imported cases until 27 July is 57 +/- 9 from Chile, 136 +/- 27 from the USA and 301 +/- 21 from Argentina, which are in accord with the official figures. Estimating the number of imported cases was particularly important for the moment of the disease introduction into this country, but it will certainly be important again as a tool to calculate the number of future imported cases from northern countries in our next inter-epidemic season, were imported cases can constitute again the majority of the new influenza burden to the Brazilian health services. PMID:20428678

  9. Live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine protects against A(H1N1)pdm09 heterologous challenge without vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Phillip C; Loving, Crystal L; Khurana, Surender; Lorusso, Alessio; Perez, Daniel R; Kehrli, Marcus E; Roth, James A; Golding, Hana; Vincent, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines may provide cross-protection against contemporary influenza A virus (IAV) in swine. Conversely, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines have the potential risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with IAV of substantial antigenic drift. A temperature sensitive, intranasal H1N2 LAIV was compared to wild type exposure (WT) and an intramuscular WIV vaccine in a model shown to induce VAERD. WIV vaccinated swine challenged with pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were not protected from infection and demonstrated severe respiratory disease consistent with VAERD. Lung lesions were mild and challenge virus was not detected in the respiratory tract of LAIV vaccinates. High levels of post-vaccination IgG serum antibodies targeting the H1N1pdm09 HA2 stalk domain were exclusively detected in the WIV group and associated with increased H1N1pdm09 virus infectivity in MDCK cells. In contrast, infection-enhancing antibodies were not detected in the serum of LAIV vaccinates and VAERD was not observed. PMID:25461535

  10. Kinetics of lung lesion development and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in pigs with vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease induced by challenge with pandemic (2009) A/H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this report was to characterize the enhanced clinical disease and lung lesions observed in pigs vaccinated with inactivated H1N2 swine delta-cluster influenza A virus and challenged with pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 human influenza virus. Eighty-four, six-week-old, crossbred pigs were rand...

  11. Parallel X pinches on the 1 MA COBRA pulser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Hoyt, C. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Wilhelm, H.; Hammer, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    Two standard and nested X pinches have been tested in parallel as the load on the 1MA, 100 ns risetime COBRA pulsed power generator at Cornell University. The spatial, temporal, and spectral parameters of the X pinches were studied using laser-based imaging, time gated XUV-sensitive cameras, a slit-step-wedge and pinhole cameras, X-ray spectroscopy and x-ray radiography. The latter includes testing a new method of point-projection quasi-monochromatic radiography. Electrical cross-talk of the X pinches was studied using very small B-dot probes placed in the space between X-pinches. The experiments show that the parallel nested x-pinches produce smaller, brighter and more stable x-ray source points than the standard configuration.

  12. The COBRA demonstrator at the LNGS underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, J.; Fritts, M.; Gehre, D.; Gößling, C.; Göpfert, T.; Hagner, C.; Heidrich, N.; Klingenberg, R.; Köttig, T.; Kröninger, K.; Michel, T.; Neddermann, T.; Nitsch, C.; Oldorf, C.; Quante, T.; Rajek, S.; Rebber, H.; Reinecke, O.; Rohatsch, K.; Schulz, O.; Sörensen, A.; Stekl, I.; Tebrügge, J.; Temminghoff, R.; Theinert, R.; Timm, J.; Wester, T.; Wonsak, B.; Zatschler, S.; Zuber, K.

    2016-01-01

    The COBRA demonstrator, a prototype for a large-scale experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay, was built at the underground laboratory Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It consists of an array of 64 monolithic, calorimetric CdZnTe semiconductor detectors with a coplanar-grid design and a total mass of 380 g. It is used to investigate the experimental challenges faced when operating CdZnTe detectors in low-background mode, to identify potential background sources and to show the long-term stability of the detectors. The first data-taking period started in 2011 with a subset of the detectors, while the demonstrator was completed in November 2013. To date, more than 250 kg d of data have been collected. This paper describes the technical details of the experimental setup and the hardware components.

  13. COBRA-SFS modifications and cask model optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Michener, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    Spent-fuel storage systems are complex systems and developing a computational model for one can be a difficult task. The COBRA-SFS computer code provides many capabilities for modeling the details of these systems, but these capabilities can also allow users to specify a more complex model than necessary. This report provides important guidance to users that dramatically reduces the size of the model while maintaining the accuracy of the calculation. A series of model optimization studies was performed, based on the TN-24P spent-fuel storage cask, to determine the optimal model geometry. Expanded modeling capabilities of the code are also described. These include adding fluid shear stress terms and a detailed plenum model. The mathematical models for each code modification are described, along with the associated verification results. 22 refs., 107 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Fibrinogenolytic toxin from Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, C Chandra; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2011-06-01

    A fibrinogenolytic toxin of molecular weight 6.5 kDa has been purified from the venom of Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) by repeated cation exchange chromatography on CM-sephadex C-50. The purified toxin did not show any phospholipase activity but was mildly hemolytic on human erythrocytes. This toxin, called Lahirin, cleaved fibrinogen in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The digestion process apparently started with the A alpha chain, and gradually other lower-molecular-weight chains were also cleaved to low-molecular-weight peptides. The fibrinolytic activity was completely lost after treatment with ethylene di-amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). However, exposure to 100 degree C for 1 min or pre-treatment with phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) did not affect the fibrinolytic activity. Cleavage of di-sulphide bonds by beta-mercaptoethanol or unfolding the protein with 4 M urea caused complete loss of activity of pure Lahirin. PMID:21654088

  15. Multiwire X Pinches on the COBRA Pulsed Power Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Douglass, Jonathan D.; McBride, Ryan D.; Hammer, David A.

    2006-01-05

    The rebuilt COBRA pulsed power generator, which has a variable current pulse waveform and amplitude (90-150 ns rise time, 0.6 - 1 MA) has extended the range of current pulse parameters that can be used to study X pinches. X pinches with 2 to 12 wires with diameters from 25 to 75 {mu}m of several different wire materials (from Al to W) have been studied. The influence of different current shapes on X pinch plasma formation and pinch implosion dynamics has been studied using a set of diagnostics with spatial and/or temporal resolution. Multiwire X pinches were placed in the diode center and/or two four wire X pinches were places in one of four parallel return current circuits of the diode. Radiographic images of different test objects, wires in the array and the X pinches, themselves, were obtained with {mu}m scale spatial resolution.

  16. Use of Cobra Lily (Darlingtonia californica) & Drosophila for Investigating Predator-Prey Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Carl R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica) and fruit flies (Drosophila virilis) to investigate predator-prey relationships in a classroom laboratory. Suggestions for classroom extension of this experimental system are provided. (ZWH)

  17. COBRA/TRAC analysis of the PKL reflood test K9. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.A.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments at the Primaerkreislaeufe (PKL) test facility in Erlangen, Germany, simulated the refill and reflood procedure after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the primary coolant system of a 1300-MW pressurized water reactor (PWR). COBRA/TRAC, a thermal-hydraulics analysis code developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was used to model experiment K9 of the PKL test series (completed December 1979). The COBRA/TRAC code, which utilizes COBRA-TF as the vessel module and TRAC-P1A for the remaining components, was designed to analyze LOCAs in PWRs. PKL-K9 was characterized by a double-ended guillotine break in the cold leg with emergency core cooling water injected into the cold legs. COBRA/TRAC was able to successfully predict lower-core temperature profiles and quench times, upper-core temperature profiles until the quench, upper plenum and break pressures, and correct trends in collapsed water levels.

  18. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer... election period. Revocation of the waiver is an election of COBRA continuation coverage. However, if...

  19. Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with the European inactivation/purification protocol are needed. PMID:24559657

  20. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season: the Nordic experience.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Julita Gil; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène; Gudlaugsson, Ólafur; Hauge, Siri Helene; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Tegnell, Anders; Virtanen, Mikko; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-04-21

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance systems. We calculated the cumulative pandemic vaccination coverage in 2009/10 and cumulative incidence rates of laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths in 2009/10 and 2010/11. We estimated incidence risk ratios (IRR) in a Poisson regression model to compare those indicators between Denmark and the other countries. The vaccination coverage was lower in Denmark (6.1%) compared with Finland (48.2%), Iceland (44.1%), Norway (41.3%) and Sweden (60.0%). In 2009/10 Denmark had a similar cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions and deaths compared with the other countries. In 2010/11 Denmark had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 ICU admissions (IRR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-3.0) and deaths (IRR: 8.3; 95% CI: 5.1-13.5). Compared with Denmark, the other countries had higher pandemic vaccination coverage and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies. PMID:27123691

  1. Air-Velocity Sensor For Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas; Hellbaum, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    New airspeed sensor conceived for accurate measurement of both airspeed and direction of flight of helicopter. Direction of motion of helicopter displayed by lighting of one of series of lamps encircling digital display of airspeed. Pressure transducer measures difference between impact and static pressures at tip of rotor blade by use of conventional pitot-static-tube assembly.

  2. Surveys of Students Challenge "Helicopter Parent" Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Stories of "helicopter parents" abound. But several longtime student-affairs officials agree that while helicopter parents are real, their numbers--and behaviors--have been exaggerated. Parental involvement on campus, they say, is usually more of a help than a headache, for students and colleges alike. Some officials believe colleges must do even…

  3. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  4. NASA helicopter transmission system technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

  5. The Helicopter Antenna Radiation Prediction Code (HARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klevenow, F. T.; Lynch, B. G.; Newman, E. H.; Rojas, R. G.; Scheick, J. T.; Shamansky, H. T.; Sze, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first nine months effort in the development of a user oriented computer code, referred to as the HARP code, for analyzing the radiation from helicopter antennas is described. The HARP code uses modern computer graphics to aid in the description and display of the helicopter geometry. At low frequencies the helicopter is modeled by polygonal plates, and the method of moments is used to compute the desired patterns. At high frequencies the helicopter is modeled by a composite ellipsoid and flat plates, and computations are made using the geometrical theory of diffraction. The HARP code will provide a user friendly interface, employing modern computer graphics, to aid the user to describe the helicopter geometry, select the method of computation, construct the desired high or low frequency model, and display the results.

  6. 14 CFR 36.11 - Acoustical change: Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... design, exceed the Stage 2 noise levels specified in section J36.305(a) of appendix J of this part. (c) Stage 2 helicopters. For each helicopter that is Stage 2 prior to a change in type design, the helicopter must be a Stage 2 helicopter after a change in type design....

  7. 14 CFR 36.11 - Acoustical change: Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... design, exceed the Stage 2 noise levels specified in section J36.305(a) of appendix J of this part. (c) Stage 2 helicopters. For each helicopter that is Stage 2 prior to a change in type design, the helicopter must be a Stage 2 helicopter after a change in type design....

  8. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  9. Predictors of clinical outcome in a national hospitalised cohort across both waves of the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic 2009–2010 in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Puja R; Semple, Malcolm G; Lim, Wei Shen; Openshaw, Peter J M; Gadd, Elaine M; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; Brett, Stephen J; McMenamin, James; Enstone, Joanne E; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G

    2012-01-01

    Background Although generally mild, the 2009–2010 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic caused two major surges in hospital admissions in the UK. The characteristics of patients admitted during successive waves are described. Methods Data were systematically obtained on 1520 patients admitted to 75 UK hospitals between May 2009 and January 2010. Multivariable analyses identified factors predictive of severe outcome. Results Patients aged 5–54 years were over-represented compared with winter seasonal admissions for acute respiratory infection, as were non-white ethnic groups (first wave only). In the second wave patients were less likely to be school age than in the first wave, but their condition was more likely to be severe on presentation to hospital and they were more likely to have delayed admission. Overall, 45% had comorbid conditions, 16.5% required high dependency (level 2) or critical (level 3) care and 5.3% died. As in 1918–1919, the likelihood of severe outcome by age followed a W-shaped distribution. Pre-admission antiviral drug use decreased from 13.3% to 10% between the first and second waves (p=0.048), while antibiotic prescribing increased from 13.6% to 21.6% (p<0.001). Independent predictors of severe outcome were age 55–64 years, chronic lung disease (non-asthma, non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), neurological disease, recorded obesity, delayed admission (≥5 days after illness onset), pneumonia, C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/litre, and the need for supplemental oxygen or intravenous fluid replacement on admission. Conclusions There were demographic, ethnic and clinical differences between patients admitted with pandemic H1N1 infection and those hospitalised during seasonal influenza activity. Despite national policies favouring use of antiviral drugs, few patients received these before admission and many were given antibiotics. PMID:22407890

  10. An Evaluation of Community Assessment Tools (CATs) in Predicting Use of Clinical Interventions and Severe Outcomes during the A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Karl G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Brett, Stephen J.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    During severe influenza pandemics healthcare demand can exceed clinical capacity to provide normal standards of care. Community Assessment Tools (CATs) could provide a framework for triage decisions for hospital referral and admission. CATs have been developed based on evidence that supports the recognition of severe influenza and pneumonia in the community (including resource limited settings) for adults, children and infants, and serious feverish illness in children. CATs use six objective criteria and one subjective criterion, any one or more of which should prompt urgent referral and admission to hospital. A retrospective evaluation of the ability of CATs to predict use of hospital-based interventions and patient outcomes in a pandemic was made using the first recorded routine clinical assessment on or shortly after admission from 1520 unselected patients (800 female, 480 children <16 years) admitted with PCR confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (the FLU-CIN cohort). Outcome measures included: any use of supplemental oxygen; mechanical ventilation; intravenous antibiotics; length of stay; intensive or high dependency care; death; and “severe outcome” (combined: use of intensive or high dependency care or death during admission). Unadjusted and multivariable analyses were conducted for children (age <16 years) and adults. Each CATs criterion independently identified both use of clinical interventions that would in normal circumstances only be provided in hospital and patient outcome measures. “Peripheral oxygen saturation ≤92% breathing air, or being on oxygen” performed well in predicting use of resources and outcomes for both adults and children; supporting routine measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation when assessing severity of disease. In multivariable analyses the single subjective criterion in CATs “other cause for clinical concern” independently predicted death in children and in adults predicted length of stay, mechanical ventilation and “severe outcome”; supporting the role of clinical acumen as an important independent predictor of serious illness. PMID:24069409

  11. Usefulness of health registries when estimating vaccine effectiveness during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the 2009-2010 pandemic in Norway, 12 513 laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). 2.2 million persons (45% of the population) were vaccinated with an AS03-adjuvanted monovalent vaccine during the pandemic. Most of them were registered in the Norwegian Immunisation Registry (SYSVAK). Based on these registries, we aimed at estimating the vaccine effectiveness (VE) and describing vaccine failures during the pandemic in Norway, in order to evaluate the role of the vaccine as a preventive measure during the pandemic. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study, linking MSIS and SYSVAK with pandemic influenza vaccination as exposure and laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza as outcome. We measured VE by week and defined two thresholds for immunity; eight and 15 days after vaccination. Results The weekly VE ranged from 77% to 96% when considering 15 days or more after vaccination as the threshold of immunity and from 73% to 94% when considering eight days or more. Overall, 157 individuals contracted pandemic influenza eight or more days after vaccination (8.4/100,000 vaccinated), of these 58 had onset 15 days or more after vaccination (3.0/100,000 vaccinated). Most of the vaccine failures occurred during the first weeks of the vaccination campaign. More than 30% of the vaccine failures were found in people below 10 years of age. Conclusions Having available health registries with data regarding cases of specific disease and vaccination makes it feasible to estimate VE in a simple and rapid way. VE was high regardless the immunity threshold chosen. We encourage public health authorities in other countries to set up such registries. It is also important to consider including information on underlying diseases in registries already existing, in order to make it feasible to conduct more complete VE estimations. PMID:22429643

  12. Protein profiling of nasopharyngeal aspirates of hospitalized and outpatients revealed cytokines associated with severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Gaelings, Lana; Jalovaara, Petri; Kakkola, Laura; Kinnunen, Mervi T; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Valkonen, Miia; Kantele, Anu; Kainov, Denis E

    2016-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) mutate rapidly and cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics, which result in substantial number of patient visits to the doctors and even hospitalizations. We aimed here to identify inflammatory proteins, which levels correlated to clinical severity of the disease. For this we analysed 102 cytokines and growth factors in human nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples of 27 hospitalized and 27 outpatients diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. We found that the relative levels of monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), C-C-motif chemokine 20 (CCL20), CD147, urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (uPAR), pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were significantly lower (p<0.008), whereas levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5), interleukin-8 (IL-8), complement factor D (CFD), adiponectin, and chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) were significantly higher (p<0.008) in NPA samples of hospitalized than non-hospitalized patients. While changes in CD14, LCN2, CCL20, uPAR, EGF, MIF, CXCL5, IL-8, adiponectin and CHI3L1 levels have already been correlated with severity of IAV infection in mice and humans, our study is the first to describe association of CD147, RBP4, TFF3, and CFD with hospitalization of IAV-infected patients. Thus, we identified local innate immune profiles, which were associated with the clinical severity of influenza infections. PMID:27442005

  13. Effect of the 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 Pandemic on Viral Respiratory Infections in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ede, Linda C.; Loeffelholz, Michael J.; Alvarez-Fernandez, Pedro; Pong, Dan L.; Patel, Janak A.; McCormick, David P.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2012-01-01

    Background Effect of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic on viral epidemiology of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URI and LRI) in healthy infants in the first year of life has not been well studied. Methods A total of 180 healthy infants were enrolled from birth and monitored for occurrences of URI and its LRI and acute otitis media (AOM) complications until the first AOM episode or between 6 and 12 months of age. Nasopharyngeal specimens collected during acute respiratory illnesses were tested for 18 viruses. Results Between October 2008 and April 2011, 373 URI episodes, including 20 with LRI, in 139 infants were documented. Viral studies were performed on 189 URI episodes; 87% were positive. Throughout the 31-month period (1386 patient-months), rhinovirus was the predominant virus causing URI (55%); RSV was the major cause of LRI (64%). While there was a significant increase in parent-initiated visit rate during the 15-month influenza pandemic as compared with pre- and post- pandemic periods, only 4 cases of influenza were detected (2 cases during and 2 cases pre- and post- pandemic). Conclusion The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic had no impact on the overall viral epidemiology of respiratory infections in healthy infants in the first year of life but resulted in increased parent-initiated visits due to respiratory symptoms. Maternal antibody and absence of co-morbidity may explain the low influenza burden while parental anxiety may explain the increased healthcare visit rate during the pandemic. PMID:22596088

  14. Risk Factors for Death from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Kitagawa, Beatriz Yuko; Marques, Daniel; Madalosso, Geraldine; de Cassia Nogueira Figueira, Gerrita; Fred, João; Albernaz, Ricardo Kerti Mangabeira; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2015-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess the risk factors for death from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in patients with laboratory confirmation, who had severe acute respiratory illness-SARI and were hospitalized between June 28th and August 29th 2009, in the metropolitan regions of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil. Medical charts of all the 193 patients who died (cases) and the 386 randomly selected patients who recovered (controls) were investigated in 177 hospitals. Household interviews were conducted with those who had survived and the closest relative of those who had died. 73.6% of cases and 38.1% of controls were at risk of developing influenza-related complications. The 18-to-59-year age group (OR = 2.31, 95%CI: 1.31–4.10 (reference up to 18 years of age)), presence of risk conditions for severity of influenza (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.11–3.57, if one or OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.76–13.28, if more than one), obesity (OR = 2.73, 95%CI: 1.28–5.83), immunosuppression (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 1.28–9.19), and search for previous care associated with the hospitalization (OR = 3.35, 95%CI: 1.75–6.40) were risk factors for death. Antiviral treatment performed within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.08–0.37, if within 48hours, and OR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.11–0.81, if between 48 and 72 hours) was protective against death. The identification of high-risk patients and early treatment are important factors for reducing morbi-mortality from influenza. PMID:25774804

  15. Characteristic amino acid changes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus PA protein enhance A(H7N9) viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Tan, Likai; Lu, Gen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Human coinfection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, H1N1pdm09, has recently been reported in China. Because reassortment can occur during coinfection, it is necessary to clarify the effects of gene reassortment between these two viruses. Among the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) genes, only the PA gene of H1N1pdm09 enhances the avian influenza viral polymerase activity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show a special evolutionary feature of the H1N1pdm09 PA gene, which clustered with those of the novel H7N9 virus and related H9N2 viruses, rather than in the outgroup as the H1N1pdm09 genes do on the phylogenetic trees of other vRNP genes. Using a minigenome system of the novel H7N9 virus, we further demonstrate that replacement of its PA gene significantly enhanced its polymerase activity, whereas replacement of the other vRNP genes reduced its polymerase activity. We also show that the residues of PA evolutionarily conserved between H1N1pdm09 and the novel H7N9 virus are associated with attenuated or neutral polymerase activity. The mutations associated with the increased activity of the novel H7N9 polymerase are characteristic of the H1N1pdm09 gene, and are located almost adjacent to the surface of the PA protein. Our results suggest that the novel H7N9 virus has more effective PB1, PB2, and NP genes than H1N1pdm09, and that H1N1pdm09-like PA mutations enhance the novel H7N9 polymerase function. PMID:26980671

  16. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  17. An evaluation of helicopter noise and vibration ride qualities criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. E.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two methods of quantifying helicopter ride quality; absorbed power for vibration only and the NASA ride comfort model for both noise and vibration are discussed. Noise and vibration measurements were obtained on five operational US Army helicopters. The data were converted to both absorbed power and DISC's (discomfort units used in the NASA model) for specific helicopter flight conditions. Both models indicate considerable variation in ride quality between the five helicopters and between flight conditions within each helicopter.

  18. The impact of urban operations on helicopter noise requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship of urban helicopter operations, helicopter noise, and the establishment of urban public-use heliports is discussed. Public resistance to urban helicopter operations due to concern for safety and noise is shown to negatively impact the establishment of public-use heliports in urban centers. It is indicated that increased government and industry effort to reduce helicopter noise is needed to ensure continued growth in the helicopter industry.

  19. Prior Infections With Seasonal Influenza A/H1N1 Virus Reduced the Illness Severity and Epidemic Intensity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atmar, Robert L.; Franco, Luis M.; Quarles, John M.; Niño, Diane; Wells, Janet M.; Arden, Nancy; Cheung, Sheree; Belmont, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. A new influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus emerged in April 2009, proceeded to spread worldwide, and was designated as an influenza pandemic. A/H1N1 viruses had circulated in 1918–1957 and 1977–2009 and were in the annual vaccine during 1977–2009. Methods. Serum antibody to the pH1N1 and seasonal A/H1N1 viruses was measured in 579 healthy adults at enrollment (fall 2009) and after surveillance for illness (spring 2010). Subjects reporting with moderate to severe acute respiratory illness had illness and virus quantitation for 1 week; evaluations for missed illnesses were conducted over holiday periods and at the spring 2010 visit. Results. After excluding 66 subjects who received pH1N1 vaccine, 513 remained. Seventy-seven had reported with moderate to severe illnesses; 31 were infected with pH1N1 virus, and 30 with a rhinovirus. Determining etiology from clinical findings was not possible, but fever and prominent myalgias favored influenza and prominent rhinorrhea favored rhinovirus. Tests of fall and spring antibody indicated pH1N1 infection of 23% had occurred, with the rate decreasing with increasing anti-pH1N1 antibody; a similar pattern was seen for influenza-associated illness. A reducing frequency of pH1N1 infections was also seen with increasing antibody to the recent seasonal A/H1N1 virus (A/Brisbane/59/07). Preexisting antibody to pH1N1 virus, responses to a single vaccine dose, a low infection-to-illness ratio, and a short duration of illness and virus shedding among those with influenza indicated presence of considerable preexisting immunity to pH1N1 in the population. Conclusions. The 2009 A/H1N1 epidemic among healthy adults was relatively mild, most likely because of immunity from prior infections with A/H1N1 viruses. PMID:22075792

  20. COBRA-SFS CYCLE 3: Code System for Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    2003-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  1. 78 FR 37152 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Bell Model 206L, L-1, L-3, and L-4 helicopters. This proposed AD would require measuring each main... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862... 10, 2011, to correct an unsafe condition for Bell Model 206L, L-1, L-3, and L-4 helicopters....

  2. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter-rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of rotor wake on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained on three fuselage models at various combinations of windspeed, sideslip angle, and pitch angle. The data show that the influence of rotor wake on the helicopter fuselage yawing moment imposes a significant additional thrust requirement on the tail rotor of a single-rotor helicopter at high sideslip angles.

  3. A study of helicopter interior noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    The interior noise levels of existing helicopters are discussed along with an ongoing experimental program directed towards reducing these levels. Results of several noise and vibration measurements on Langley Research Center's Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft are presented, including measurements taken before and after installation of an acoustically-treated cabin. The predominant noise source in this helicopter is the first stage planetary gear-clash in the main gear box, both before and after installation of the acoustically treated cabin. Noise reductions of up to 20 db in some octave bands may be required in order to obtain interior noise levels comparable to commercial jet transports.

  4. Pacing hazards in helicopter aeromedical transport.

    PubMed

    Sumchai, A; Sternbach, G; Eliastam, M; Liem, L B

    1988-05-01

    A 62-year-old man with third-degree atrioventricular block and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia had a cardiac arrest during helicopter transport to a specialized cardiac care unit. Before transport, his ventricular tachycardia had been successfully terminated by a rapid overdrive pacing technique. The failure of "burst suppression" and the absence of pacer spike artifact on the electrocardiographic monitor raise questions about the potential hazards of using various pacing techniques during helicopter transports. Most significantly, this case points to the possibility of interference by exogenous electromagnetic signals in the medical compartment of the helicopter. PMID:3370099

  5. Wire Array Dynamics with Varied Current Risetime on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, John; Chandler, Katherine; Chalenski, David; Douglass, Jon; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Pikuz, Sergei; McBride, Ryan; Shelkovenko, Tatiana

    2006-10-01

    The 1 MA COBRA accelerator is used to drive wire array loads with current risetimes from 95 to 220 ns. The dynamics of 8 x 12 micron Al arrays show a clearly different character when driven by the fast and slow current pulses. The fast (˜100 ns, 1 MA) drive produces a hot pinch, high total x-ray energy in a long-duration, slowly rising x-ray pulse, multiple hot spots in the pinch, a relatively small load voltage that stays up after x-ray peak, and a large inferred current radius at x-ray peak. In contrast, the slow (˜200 ns, 900 kA drive) produces a cooler pinch with lower total x-ray energy in a short, fast-rising x-ray pulse, absence of hot spots but clear evidence of high-energy ``electron beam,'' large load voltage that drops fast after x-ray peak, and small inferred current radius at x-ray peak. The diagnostic evidence of these characteristics especially x-ray imaging and spectral information, will be presented and the dynamics underlying these phenomena will be discussed.

  6. Instability studies in radial foil configurations on the COBRA generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. C.

    2010-11-01

    Radial foil configurations prove to be a very simple experimental set up to study high energy density plasmas. A 5-micron thin metallic foil lies flat over a stretcher which is connected to the anode of a pulsed power generator such as COBRA (1MA, 100 ns current rise time). The cathode contacts the foil at its geometrical center using a hollow stainless steel pin. As the foil ablates, JxB forces lift the foil leading to the formation a plasma bubble surrounding a central plasma column, which is a z-pinch. Force densities on this column should increase considerably as the initial pin diameter is diminished and we expect plasma properties to change accordingly. Based only on pin diameter considerations, radial foil explosions could produce magnetic pressures ranging from 160 kbar (for 2-mm pins) to 2.5 Mbar (for 0.5-mm pins). However, as the cathode diameter diminishes, instabilities appear earlier in the discharge, preventing the z-pinch implosion to occur at maximum current, de facto limiting plasma parameters. We investigate the cause of these instabilities, the possible means to reduce plasma instabilities and to improve plasma performances.

  7. Thrombolytic protein from cobra venom with anti-adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Chandrasekhar; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2016-01-15

    A metalloproteinase anticoagulant toxin of molecular weight 66 kDa has been purified from the venom of Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). This toxin named as NKV 66 cleaved fibrinogen in a dose and time dependent manner. The digestion process was specific to Aα chain and cleaved fibrinogen to peptide fragments. NKV 66 completely liquefied the fibrin clots developed in vitro in 18 h. Plasma recalcification time and thrombin time were significantly prolonged following treatment of plasma with NKV 66. NKV 66 significantly inhibited ADP and collagen induced platelet aggregation in a dose dependent manner. It showed disintegrin like activity on A549 cells cultured in vitro. About 40% inhibition of adherence of A549 cells to matrix was observed following NKV 66 treatment also NKV 66 treated A549 cells were drastically inhibited from passing through the matrix in cell invasion assays in vitro, suggesting anti-adhesive properties of NKV 66. PMID:26558696

  8. Decreased Serologic Response in Vaccinated Military Recruits during 2011 Correspond to Genetic Drift in Concurrent Circulating Pandemic A/H1N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Faix, Dennis J.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Myers, Christopher A.; Hansen, Christian J.; Ortiguerra, Ryan G.; Halpin, Rebecca; Wentworth, David; Pacha, Laura A.; Schwartz, Erica G.; Garcia, Shawn M. S.; Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Clagett, Christopher D.; Khurana, Surender; Golding, Hana; Blair, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Population-based febrile respiratory illness surveillance conducted by the Department of Defense contributes to an estimate of vaccine effectiveness. Between January and March 2011, 64 cases of 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1), including one fatality, were confirmed in immunized recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, suggesting insufficient efficacy for the pH1N1 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Methodology/Principal Findings To test serologic protection, serum samples were collected at least 30 days post-vaccination from recruits at Fort Jackson (LAIV), Parris Island (LAIV and trivalent inactivated vaccine [TIV]) at Cape May, New Jersey (TIV) and responses measured against pre-vaccination sera. A subset of 78 LAIV and 64 TIV sera pairs from recruits who reported neither influenza vaccination in the prior year nor fever during training were tested by microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. MN results demonstrated that seroconversion in paired sera was greater in those who received TIV versus LAIV (74% and 37%). Additionally, the fold change associated with TIV vaccination was significantly different between circulating (2011) versus the vaccine strain (2009) of pH1N1 viruses (ANOVA p value = 0.0006). HI analyses revealed similar trends. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that the quantity, IgG/IgM ratios, and affinity of anti-HA antibodies were significantly greater in TIV vaccinees. Finally, sequence analysis of the HA1 gene in concurrent circulating 2011 pH1N1 isolates from Fort Jackson exhibited modest amino acid divergence from the vaccine strain. Conclusions/Significance Among military recruits in 2011, serum antibody response differed by vaccine type (LAIV vs. TIV) and pH1N1 virus year (2009 vs. 2011). We hypothesize that antigen drift in circulating pH1N1 viruses contributed to reduce vaccine effectiveness at Fort Jackson. Our findings have wider implications regarding vaccine protection from circulating pH1N1 viruses in 2011–2012. PMID:22514639

  9. Performance Evaluation of the COBRA GEM for the Application of the TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, Kohei; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito

    2014-09-01

    Suppression of the back-drifting ions from avalanche region to drift space (IBF: Ion Backflow) is the key for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) since IBF easily distorts the drift field. To suppress IBF, Gating Grid system is widely used for the TPC but this limits the data taking rate. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) has advantages in the reduction of IBF and high rate capability. By adopting GEM, it is possible to run a TPC continuously under high rate and high multiplicity conditions. Motivated by the study of IBF reduction for RICH with Thick COBRA, which has been developed by F. A. Amero et al., we developed COBRA GEMs for the application of a TPC. With a stack configuration, IBF reaches about 0.1 ~ 0.5%, which is ×5--10 better IBF than the standard GEMs. However, the measured energy resolution with COBRA is 20% (σ) and this is much worse than the resolution with standard GEMs. Measurement of long-time stability of gain indicates that gain of COBRA varies significantly due to charging up effect. Simulation studies based on Garfield++ are performed for understanding quantitatively the reasons of worse energy resolution and instability of gain. In this presentation, we will report the simulation studies together with the measured performance of the COBRA GEM.

  10. The dependence receptor TrkC triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis upon Cobra-1 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ichim, Gabriel; Genevois, Anne-Laure; Ménard, Marie; Yu, Li-Ying; Coelho-Aguiar, Juliana M; Llambi, Fabien; Jarrosson-Wuilleme, Loraine; Lefebvre, Jonathan; Tulasne, David; Dupin, Elisabeth; Le Douarin, Nicole; Arumäe, Urmas; Tauszig-Delamasure, Servane; Mehlen, Patrick

    2013-09-12

    The neurotrophin receptor TrkC was recently identified as a dependence receptor, and, as such, it triggers apoptosis in the absence of its ligand, NT-3. The molecular mechanism for apoptotic engagement involves the double cleavage of the receptor's intracellular domain, leading to the formation of a proapoptotic "killer" fragment (TrkC KF). Here, we show that TrkC KF interacts with Cobra1, a putative cofactor of BRCA1, and that Cobra1 is required for TrkC-induced apoptosis. We also show that, in the developing chick neural tube, NT-3 silencing is associated with neuroepithelial cell death that is rescued by Cobra1 silencing. Cobra1 shuttles TrkC KF to the mitochondria, where it promotes Bax activation, cytochrome c release, and apoptosome-dependent apoptosis. Thus, we propose that, in the absence of NT-3, the proteolytic cleavage of TrkC leads to the release of a killer fragment that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis via the recruitment of Cobra1. PMID:24034695

  11. Identification of MEDIATOR16 as the Arabidopsis COBRA suppressor MONGOOSE1

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Nadav; Szemenyei, Heidi; Sorek, Hagit; Landers, Abigail; Knight, Heather; Bauer, Stefan; Wemmer, David E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a screen for genetic suppressors of cobra, an Arabidopsis mutant with defects in cellulose formation and an increased ratio of unesterified/esterified pectin. We identified a suppressor named mongoose1 (mon1) that suppressed the growth defects of cobra, partially restored cellulose levels, and restored the esterification ratio of pectin to wild-type levels. mon1 was mapped to the MEDIATOR16 (MED16) locus, a tail mediator subunit, also known as SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 (SFR6). When separated from the cobra mutation, mutations in MED16 caused resistance to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, consistent with their ability to suppress the cobra cellulose deficiency. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a number of cell wall genes are misregulated in med16 mutants. Two of these genes encode pectin methylesterase inhibitors, which, when ectopically expressed, partially suppressed the cobra phenotype. This suggests that cellulose biosynthesis can be affected by the esterification levels of pectin, possibly through modifying cell wall integrity or the interaction of pectin and cellulose. PMID:26655738

  12. Effect of cyclosporine, total lymphoid irradiation, and cobra venom factor on hyperacute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Murphy, C.E.; Saad, T.; Abernethy, K.; Miller, D.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1985-09-01

    Transplantation into sensitized recipients is contraindicated due to the potential for hyperacute rejection. In order to study the mechanism of hyperacute rejection and the role of immunosuppression in the face of presensitization, we evaluated the effect of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and cobra venom factor, alone and in combination, on hyperacute rejection of heterotopic rat heart allografts. Lewis rats were sensitized to strongly RT-1-incompatible ACI rats by three successive skin grafts. Heart allografts were then performed, and survived for a mean period of 15.7 +/- 7.4 hours. Neither preoperative treatment of hypersensitized rats with total lymphoid irradiation alone nor with cyclosporine (5 mg/kg/day) resulted in a prolongation of survival (20.4 +/- 16.6 hours and 35.6 +/- 6.2 hours, respectively). However, complement depletion using cobra venom factor significantly prolonged mean graft survival time to 114.4 +/- 31.0 hours (p less than 0.05). Cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) also significantly prolonged survival to 149 +/- 29 hours (p less than 0.01), but did not lower the antibody or complement levels. The addition of total lymphoid irradiation or cyclosporine to treatment with cobra venom factor did not result in longer survival than cobra venom factor alone. In conclusion, cobra venom factor and cyclosporine delay but do not prevent hyperacute rejection, while total lymphoid irradiation has no observable effect on hyperacute rejection.

  13. Identification of MEDIATOR16 as the Arabidopsis COBRA suppressor MONGOOSE1.

    PubMed

    Sorek, Nadav; Szemenyei, Heidi; Sorek, Hagit; Landers, Abigail; Knight, Heather; Bauer, Stefan; Wemmer, David E; Somerville, Chris R

    2015-12-29

    We performed a screen for genetic suppressors of cobra, an Arabidopsis mutant with defects in cellulose formation and an increased ratio of unesterified/esterified pectin. We identified a suppressor named mongoose1 (mon1) that suppressed the growth defects of cobra, partially restored cellulose levels, and restored the esterification ratio of pectin to wild-type levels. mon1 was mapped to the MEDIATOR16 (MED16) locus, a tail mediator subunit, also known as SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 (SFR6). When separated from the cobra mutation, mutations in MED16 caused resistance to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, consistent with their ability to suppress the cobra cellulose deficiency. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a number of cell wall genes are misregulated in med16 mutants. Two of these genes encode pectin methylesterase inhibitors, which, when ectopically expressed, partially suppressed the cobra phenotype. This suggests that cellulose biosynthesis can be affected by the esterification levels of pectin, possibly through modifying cell wall integrity or the interaction of pectin and cellulose. PMID:26655738

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A/H1N1/2009 among transmission risk groups after the second wave in Mexico, by a virus-free ELISA method

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Alvarez, Mario M.; Hernández-Torre, Martín; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A.; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Castilleja-Leal, Fernando; Contreras-Castillo, Julio; Moreno-Sánchez, Héctor; Tamargo-Barrera, Daniela; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Freiden, Pamela J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective No serological studies have been performed in Mexico to assess the seroprevalence of influenza A/H1N1/2009 in groups of people according to the potential risk of transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against influenza A/H1N1/2009 in subjects in Mexico grouped by risk of transmission. Methods Two thousand two hundred and twenty-two subjects were categorized into one of five occupation groups according to the potential risk of transmission: (1) students, (2) teachers, (3) healthcare workers, (4) institutional home residents aged >60 years, and (5) general population. Seroprevalence by potential transmission group and by age grouped into decades was determined by a virus-free ELISA method based on the recombinant receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin of influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus as antigen (85% sensitivity; 95% specificity). The Wilson score, Chi-square test, and logistic regression models were used for the statistical analyses. Results Seroprevalence for students was 47.3%, for teachers was 33.9%, for older adults was 36.5%, and for the general population was 33.0%, however it was only 24.6% for healthcare workers (p = 0.011). Of the students, 56.6% of those at middle school, 56.4% of those at high school, 52.7% of those at elementary school, and 31.1% of college students showed positive antibodies (p < 0.001). Seroprevalence was 44.6% for college teachers, 31.6% for middle school teachers, and 29.8% for elementary school teachers, but was only 20.3% for high school teachers (p = 0.002). Conclusions The student group was the group most affected by influenza A/H1N1/2009, while the healthcare worker group showed the lowest prevalence. Students represent a key target for preventive measures. PMID:21855383

  15. Study on Safety Technology Scheme of the Unmanned Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Zhang, W.; Chen, S.; Liu, T.; Yao, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  16. Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons - An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Mikhail; Lebedev, Artem; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Auranen, Kari

    2016-03-01

    The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 - 6.7%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 in the first pandemic season (2009/2010) and an additional 3% (2.5 - 3.5%) in the second season (2010/2011). Vaccination had a substantial impact in mitigating the second season. The dynamic approach allowed us to discover how the proportion of detected cases changed over the course of the epidemic. The role of time-varying reproduction number, capturing the effects of weather and changes in behaviour, was important in shaping the epidemic. PMID:27010206

  17. Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons — An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model

    PubMed Central

    Shubin, Mikhail; Lebedev, Artem; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Auranen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 – 6.7%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 in the first pandemic season (2009/2010) and an additional 3% (2.5 – 3.5%) in the second season (2010/2011). Vaccination had a substantial impact in mitigating the second season. The dynamic approach allowed us to discover how the proportion of detected cases changed over the course of the epidemic. The role of time-varying reproduction number, capturing the effects of weather and changes in behaviour, was important in shaping the epidemic. PMID:27010206

  18. Helicopter attempts tow of Liberty Bell 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Marine helicopter appears to have Liberty Bell 7 in tow after Virgil I. Grissom's successful flight of 305 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. Minutes after 'Gus' Grissom got out of the spacecraft, it sank.

  19. Small crack test program for helicopter materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annigeri, Bal; Schneider, George

    1994-01-01

    Crack propagation tests were conducted to determine crack growth behavior in five helicopter materials for surface cracks between 0.005 to 0.020 inches in depth. Constant amplitude tests were conducted at stress ratios R equals 0.1 and 0.5, and emphasis was placed on near threshold data (i.e., 10-8 to 10-6 inches/cycle). Spectrum tests were conducted using a helicopter spectrum. The test specimen was an unnotched tension specimen, and cracks were initiated from a small EDM notch. An optical/video system was used to monitor crack growth. The material for the test specimens was obtained from helicopter part forgings. Testing was conducted at stresses below yield to reflect actual stresses in helicopter parts.

  20. NASA-Langley helicopter tower instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Background information is presented for the helicopter rotor test facility, in preface to a more detailed discussion of major subsystems equipment, including error considerations, frequency response, and display instrumentation.

  1. Treatment of the first known case of king cobra envenomation in the United Kingdom, complicated by severe anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Veto, T; Price, R; Silsby, J F; Carter, J A

    2007-01-01

    We report the first known case of envenomation following snake bite by a king cobra in the UK. The patient required tracheal intubation and ventilation. Treatment with king cobra antivenom resulted in anaphylaxis (bronchospasm and hypotension), requiring adrenaline infusion. The patient's trachea was extubated 11 h after administration of antivenom. PMID:17156231

  2. Civil helicopter design and operational requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    Design and operational requirements and other factors that have a restraining influence on expansion of the helicopter market are discussed. The needs of operators, users, pilots and the community at large are examined. The impact of future technology developments and other trends such as use, energy shortages, and civil and military helicopter requirements and development is assessed. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering life cycle costs and removing barriers to further expansion of the industry are analyzed.

  3. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  4. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  5. The effective acoustic environment of helicopter crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, R. T., Jr.; Mozo, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring the composite acoustic environment of helicopters in order to quantify the effective acoustic environment of the crewmen and to assess the real acoustic hazards of the personnel are examined. It is indicated that the attenuation characteristics of the helmets and hearing protectors and the variables of the physiology of the human ear be accounted for in determining the effective acoustic environment of Army helicopter crewmen as well as the acoustic hazards of voice communications systems noise.

  6. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  7. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise - Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scalig deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  8. Environmental factors in helicopter operations.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R; Vyrnwy-Jones, P

    1984-10-01

    The environmental problems affecting aircrew are partly those which all soldiers face, such as noise, heat and cold, and partly peculiar to the medium and the vehicle in which aircrew train and fight, such as disorientation and decompression. The cockpit environment of the modern helicopter is luxurious in comparison with many of its predecessors, yet most of the adverse effects of flight on the man still pertain. The result can, predictably, be acute and disastrous, resulting in an accident produced by severe disorientation, or chronic, producing insidious fatigue and performance decrement, which may also result in an accident. One particular stressor may be dominant in a given situation, but generally, many separate factors act simultaneously to produce their results. PMID:6527345

  9. Development of helicopter engine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynwander, P.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of main shaft seals for helicopter gas turbine engines was conducted with shaft speeds to 213 m/s(700 ft/sec), air pressures to 148 N/sq cm (215 psia), and air temperatures to 645 K (675 F). Gas leakage test results indicate that conventional seals will not be satisfactory for high-pressure sealing because of excessive leakage. The self-acting face seal, however, had significantly lower leakage and operated with insignificant wear during a 150-hour endurance test at sliding speeds to 145 m/s (475 ft/sec), air pressures to 124 N/sq cm (180 psia), and air temperatures to 408 K (275 F). Wear measurements indicate that noncontact operation was achieved at shaft speeds of 43,000 rpm. Evaluation of the self-acting circumferential seal was inconclusive because of seal dimensional variations.

  10. Predominance of HA-222D/G Polymorphism in Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses Associated with Fatal and Severe Outcomes Recently Circulating in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wedde, Marianne; Wählisch, Stephanie; Wolff, Thorsten; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses cause sporadically very severe disease including fatal clinical outcomes associated with pneumonia, viremia and myocarditis. A mutation characterized by the substitution of aspartic acid (wild-type) to glycine at position 222 within the haemagglutinin gene (HA-D222G) was recorded during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Germany and other countries with significant frequency in fatal and severe cases. Additionally, A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses exhibiting the polymorphism HA-222D/G/N were detected both in the respiratory tract and in blood. Specimens from mild, fatal and severe cases were collected to study the heterogeneity of HA-222 in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in Germany between 2009 and 2011. In order to enable rapid and large scale analysis we designed a pyrosequencing (PSQ) assay. In 2009/2010, the 222D wild-type of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in fatal and severe outcomes. Moreover, co-circulating virus mutants exhibiting a D222G or D222E substitution (8/6%) as well as HA-222 quasispecies were identified (10%). Both the 222D/G and the 222D/G/N/V/Y polymorphisms were confirmed by TA cloning. PSQ analyses of viruses associated with mild outcomes revealed mainly the wild-type 222D and no D222G change in both seasons. However, an increase of variants with 222D/G polymorphism (60%) was characteristic for A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses causing fatal and severe cases in the season 2010/2011. Pure 222G viruses were not observed. Our results support the hypothesis that the D222G change may result from adaptation of viral receptor specificity to the lower respiratory tract. This could explain why transmission of the 222G variant is less frequent among humans. Thus, amino acid changes at HA position 222 may be the result of viral intra-host evolution leading to the generation of variants with an altered viral tropism. PMID:23451145

  11. 78 FR 34958 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ..., we issued AD 2009-05-09, Amendment 39-15833 (74 FR 11001, March 16, 2009), for Bell Model 412, 412CF... Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... directive (AD) for the Bell Model 412, 412CF, and 412EP helicopters. The AD currently requires...

  12. 78 FR 41886 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Textron Canada Limited Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... serial-numbered Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 206L, 206L-1, 206L-3, and...

  13. Particle fluxes and condensational uptake over sea ice during COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. D.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Flynn, M. J.; McFiggans, G.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2012-08-01

    Particle fluxes were measured over sea ice at Hudson Bay, Canada, during the COBRA experiment in February and March, 2008. Eddy covariance particle fluxes were measured using a condensation particle counter and an ultrasonic anemometer on a 2.5 m mast on the sea ice. After applying appropriate corrections and filtering, the mean net deposition velocity was 0.12 ± 0.11 mm s-1 for particles measured with a CPC 3776 (lower size threshold, Dp50 = 2.5 nm) and was at the detection limit of the measurement system. No evidence of nucleation events was seen. Two optical particle counters (at heights 0.2 and 1.35 m on the mast) allowed size segregated fluxes of particles in the accumulation and coarse mode diameter range 0.3-20 μm to be derived using the aerodynamic flux gradient method. Strong net emission fluxes were observed around midday, 3rd March, when winds increased to around 10 m s-1, suggesting ice particle resuspension. The fluxes during this period had a significant influence on the derived condensational loss rate to the available particle surfaces, kt. Number fluxes were greatest in the smallest size channels, while the largest sizes dominated the mass flux. Number fluxes also increased with wind speed, and this relationship was strongest for the smaller sizes. Particle mass size distributions showed an enhanced mode around 400 nm (dry size). Values of kt were well approximated by the molecular regime and were found to be much smaller and less variable than values derived for marine air.

  14. Structure-function relationship of king cobra cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Guo-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Ji-Hong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-08-01

    King cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is composed of 34 amino acid residues having strong antibacterial and very weak hemolytic activities as reported by us recently. OH-CATH can be served as a valuable template to develop novel therapeutic drugs. In this study, OH-CATH and six of its analogs were synthesized to explore their structure-function relationships based on their bactericidal and hemolytic activities. Experimental results of OH-CATH(3-34) and OH-CATH(5-34) indicated that the N-terminal 4 amino acid residues of OH-CATH played an important role on its hemolytic activity but had weak effects on its bactericidal activity. Among OH-CATH and its analogs, OH-CATH(5-34) had the lowest hemolytic activity while maintained strong antimicrobial activity. To evaluate its potential usage, the biological activities of OH-CATH(5-34) were compared with those of pexiganan. The bactericidal activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against 5 different species (11 laboratory strains) was 2-4 times stronger than that of pexiganan (4-16 microg/ml vs 8-32 microg/ml). Hemolytic activity of OH-CATH(5-34) against human erythrocytes was 0.69% while that of pexiganan was 16.5% at the dosage of 200 microg/ml. OH-CATH(5-34) showed very weak cytotoxic activities against primary rabbit ventricular endothelial cells and four human cancer cell lines whereas pexiganan showed strong cytotoxic activity against these five cell lines (IC(50)=20-90 microg/ml). The intravenous LD(50) value of OH-CATH(5-34) on mice was 7-fold higher than that of pexiganan (175 mg/kg vs 25mg/kg). Taken together, our results suggested that OH-CATH(5-34) should be considered as an excellent candidate for developing therapeutic drugs. PMID:20576537

  15. Improvements, enhancements, and optimizations of COBRA-TF

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, R. K.; Avramova, M. N.; Hooper, R.; Palmtag, S.; Popov, E.; Turner, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) at The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has become active in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program by delivering, supporting, and further developing CTF, the PSU version of the Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays - Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H), sub-channel program. New development work on CTF was primarily geared towards decreasing the execution time of the code so that it may eventually be used for performing pin-by-pin, full-core simulations. Great gains have been made through targeting sections of source code for optimization. For example, wall clock time has been reduced for a one-assembly, three-dimensional model, containing {approx}9,400 mesh cells, from 9.2 min to 1 min. A further improvement has been reduction in code memory usage, which was previously prohibitive for large models. In conjunction with the run time speedups, this has enabled the simulation of a refined quarter-core model ({approx}460,000 mesh cells), which saw a reduction in memory usage from over 130 GB to less than 3 GB. In addition to the optimization work, RDFMG has also created a preprocessor utility for the fast and less error-prone generation of CTF input decks. Furthermore, basic post-processing capabilities have been implemented by creating a CTF subroutine for producing Visualization Tool-Kit (VTK) files that output mesh data and associated simulation results. These VTK files can be opened with visualization software. (authors)

  16. COBRA/TRAC analysis of the PKL reflood test K9

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.A.

    1982-03-01

    Experiments simulating the refill and reflood procedure after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a 1300 MW PWR primary coolant system were performed at the KWU test facility in Erlangen, Germany. COBRA/TRAC was used to model experiment K9 of the PKL series (completed December 1979). PKL-K9 was characterized by a double-ended guillotine break in the cold leg with emergency core cooling water injected into the cold legs. COBRA/TRAC was able to successfully predict lower core temperature profiles and quench times, upper core temperature profiles until quench, upper plenum and break pressures and correct trends in collapsed water levels.

  17. Improvements and applications of COBRA-TF for stand-alone and coupled LWR safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, M.; Cuervo, D.

    2006-07-01

    The advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code COBRA-TF has been recently improved and applied for stand-alone and coupled LWR core calculations at the Pennsylvania State Univ. in cooperation with AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)) and the Technical Univ. of Madrid. To enable COBRA-TF for academic and industrial applications including safety margins evaluations and LWR core design analyses, the code programming, numerics, and basic models were revised and substantially improved. The code has undergone through an extensive validation, verification, and qualification program. (authors)

  18. COBRA-SFS predictions of single assembly spent fuel heat transfer data

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Rector, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The study reported here is one of several efforts to evaluate and qualify the COBRA-SFS computer code for use in spent fuel storage system thermal analysis. The ability of COBRA-SFS to predict the thermal response of two single assembly spent fuel heat transfer tests was investigated through comparisons of predictions with experimental test data. From these comparisons, conclusions regarding the computational treatment of the physical phenomena occurring within a storage system can be made. This objective was successfully accomplished as reasonable agreement between predictions and data were obtained for the 21 individual test cases of the two experiments.

  19. 77 FR 39911 - The New York North Shore Helicopter Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...This action requires helicopter pilots to use the New York North Shore Helicopter Route when operating along the north shore of Long Island, New York. The North Shore Helicopter Route was added to the New York Helicopter Route Chart in 2008 and prior to this action, its use has been voluntary. The purpose of this rule is to protect and enhance public welfare by maximizing utilization of the......

  20. Genetic suppression reveals DNA repair-independent antagonism between BRCA1 and COBRA1 in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreejith J; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chiang, Huai-Chin; Jahid, Md Jamiul; Wang, Yao; Garza, Paula; April, Craig; Salathia, Neeraj; Banerjee, Tapahsama; Alenazi, Fahad S; Ruan, Jianhua; Fan, Jian-Bing; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Jin, Victor X; Hu, Yanfen; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is well known for its function in double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair. While BRCA1 is also implicated in transcriptional regulation, the physiological significance remains unclear. COBRA1 (also known as NELF-B) is a BRCA1-binding protein that regulates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing and transcription elongation. Here we interrogate functional interaction between BRCA1 and COBRA1 during mouse mammary gland development. Tissue-specific deletion of Cobra1 reduces mammary epithelial compartments and blocks ductal morphogenesis, alveologenesis and lactogenesis, demonstrating a pivotal role of COBRA1 in adult tissue development. Remarkably, these developmental deficiencies due to Cobra1 knockout are largely rescued by additional loss of full-length Brca1. Furthermore, Brca1/Cobra1 double knockout restores developmental transcription at puberty, alters luminal epithelial homoeostasis, yet remains deficient in homologous recombination-based DSB repair. Thus our genetic suppression analysis uncovers a previously unappreciated, DNA repair-independent function of BRCA1 in antagonizing COBRA1-dependent transcription programme during mammary gland development. PMID:26941120

  1. Genetic suppression reveals DNA repair-independent antagonism between BRCA1 and COBRA1 in mammary gland development

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sreejith J.; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chiang, Huai-Chin; Jahid, Md Jamiul; Wang, Yao; Garza, Paula; April, Craig; Salathia, Neeraj; Banerjee, Tapahsama; Alenazi, Fahad S.; Ruan, Jianhua; Fan, Jian-Bing; Parvin, Jeffrey D.; Jin, Victor X.; Hu, Yanfen; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is well known for its function in double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair. While BRCA1 is also implicated in transcriptional regulation, the physiological significance remains unclear. COBRA1 (also known as NELF-B) is a BRCA1-binding protein that regulates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing and transcription elongation. Here we interrogate functional interaction between BRCA1 and COBRA1 during mouse mammary gland development. Tissue-specific deletion of Cobra1 reduces mammary epithelial compartments and blocks ductal morphogenesis, alveologenesis and lactogenesis, demonstrating a pivotal role of COBRA1 in adult tissue development. Remarkably, these developmental deficiencies due to Cobra1 knockout are largely rescued by additional loss of full-length Brca1. Furthermore, Brca1/Cobra1 double knockout restores developmental transcription at puberty, alters luminal epithelial homoeostasis, yet remains deficient in homologous recombination-based DSB repair. Thus our genetic suppression analysis uncovers a previously unappreciated, DNA repair-independent function of BRCA1 in antagonizing COBRA1-dependent transcription programme during mammary gland development. PMID:26941120

  2. 14 CFR 36.11 - Acoustical change: Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prior to a change in type design, the helicopter noise levels may not, after a change in type design... helicopter prior to a change in type design, the helicopter noise levels may not, after a change in type... NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.11 Acoustical...

  3. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a...

  4. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a...

  5. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a...

  6. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a...

  7. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a...

  8. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck...

  9. 78 FR 15277 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... helicopters. This AD requires modifying the main landing gear control panel (control panel) 33G, connector..., causing the landing gear to retract and the helicopter nose to drop. This results in damage to the forward... uncommanded landing gear retraction that would cause the helicopter nose to drop and hit the ground while...

  10. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation.

    PubMed

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R

    1989-07-01

    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems. PMID:2665130

  11. Optimization Studies for the COBRA Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment and Results from a Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad Wayne

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature semiconductor detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of cadmium-116. While the experiment has produced globally competitive half-life limits with data from coplanar-grid CZT detectors, a future ton-scale iteration could set limits constraining the effective Majorana neutrino mass to less than 100 meV. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal CZT detector type for such an experiment. First, an overview of the relevant neutrino physics as well as an introduction to the COBRA experiment is presented. The performance characteristics and design criteria for CZT detectors are then covered, both in general and as they relate to COBRA. Simulations and prototype experiments have been performed using two of the detector design candidates. The method and results are discussed in detail. Finally, the prototype is compared with other CZT detector designs in the context of performance and scalability for a 420 kg COBRA experiment.

  12. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address paying for COBRA continuation coverage: Q-1... not exceed 102 percent of the applicable premium for that period. (See paragraph (b) of this Q&A-1 for... payment is not made to the plan with respect to that qualified beneficiary (see Q&A-1 of §...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a child born to or placed for adoption with a covered employee during a period of COBRA continuation... continuation coverage during which the child was born or placed for adoption. Paragraph (b) of this Q&A-4... dependent child of the retired covered employee ends on the earlier of— (1) The date of the...

  15. 76 FR 18750 - Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on March 28, 2011, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing...

  16. Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2004-09-01

    Thirteen complete and three partial cDNA sequences were cloned from the constructed king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom gland cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of king cobra with those from other snake venoms revealed that obtained cDNAs are highly homologous to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins. Alignment of deduced mature peptide sequences of the obtained clones with those of other reported alpha-neurotoxins from the king cobra venom indicates that our obtained 16 clones belong to long-chain neurotoxins (seven), short-chain neurotoxins (seven), weak toxin (one) and variant (one), respectively. Up to now, two out of 16 newly cloned king cobra alpha-neurotoxins have identical amino acid sequences with CM-11 and Oh-6A/6B, which have been characterized from the same venom. Furthermore, five long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and two short-chain alpha-neurotoxins were purified from crude venom and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. The cDNAs encoding the putative precursors of the purified native peptide were also determined based on the N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The purified alpha-neurotoxins showed different lethal activities on mice. PMID:15302536

  17. From the Kiss of a Cobra: A Sidelong View of Snakebite, Antivenin, and Serum Sickness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    Article tells the story of how a New York City customs man was bit by a King Cobra from Thailand and the medical treatment he received. Describes three types of snake venoms: hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and neurotoxins. Explains how horses are used to produce antitoxins and side effects of the antitoxins on humans. (PR)

  18. Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Lilly, Roderick L.; Duran, Georgia; Lee, Richard M.; Browne, LaVonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes development of a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of data. States that CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to…

  19. The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) Model in the ELL and LD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for…

  20. Helicopter stability during aggressive maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranjith

    The dissertation investigates helicopter trim and stability during level bank-angle and diving bank-angle turns. The level turn is moderate in that sufficient power is available to maintain level maneuver, and the diving turn is severe where the power deficit is overcome by the kinetic energy of descent. The investigation basically represents design conditions where the peak loading goes well beyond the steady thrust limit and the rotor experiences appreciable stall. The major objectives are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the trim and stability predictions to the approximations in modeling stall, (2) to correlate the trim predictions with the UH-60A flight test data, and (3) to demonstrate the feasibility of routinely using the exact fast-Floquet periodic eigenvector method for mode identification in the stability analysis. The UH-60A modeling and analysis are performed using the comprehensive code RCAS (Army's Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System). The trim and damping predictions are based on quasisteady stall, ONERA-Edlin (Equations Differentielles Lineaires) and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall models. From the correlation with the test data, the strengths and weaknesses of the trim predictions are presented.