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Sample records for ahlers ucsb kitp

  1. Developing Online Oceanography at UCSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Dodson, H.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanography at UCSB is an introductory general education science course taken by up to 200 students per quarter. The emphasis is on learning science process by engaging in authentic science activities that use real earth data. Recently, to increase student motivation, the course has been modified to include an Earth Summit framework. The online support being developed for this course is the first step in the creation of a completely online oceanography class. Foundation software was first tested in the class during Spring 2001. Online activities that are supported are writing and instructor feedback, online threaded discussion with live chat and graphics, automatically graded homeworks and games, auto graded quizzes with questions randomly selected from a database, and thought problems graded by the instructor(s). Future plans include integration with commercial course management software. To allow choice of assignments, all course activities totaled110%. Since grades were based on A=90-100, B=80-90, C= 70-80, etc, it was possible to get a better than A grade. Students see the effect (on their grade) of each assignment by calculating their current course grade. Course activities included (most of which are automatically graded): weekly lab homeworks, weekly mini-quizzes (10 multiple choice questions selected at random from a topic database), weekly thought questions (graded by the TA), 3 written assignments, and "Question of the Day" from lecture (credit given for handing it in), The online writing software allowed students to enter their writing, edit and link to graphic images, print the paper, and electronically hand it in. This has the enormous advantage of allowing the instructor and TA's convenient access to all student papers. At the end of the course, students were asked how effective each of the course activities were in learning the course material. On a five point scale, ranging from highest contribution to lowest, the percentage of students giving

  2. UCSB FEL user mode adaption project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccarino, Vincent

    1992-04-01

    This research sponsored by the SDIO Biomedical and Materials Sciences FEL Program held the following objectives: Provide a facility in which in-house and outside user research in the materials and biological sciences can be carried out in the Far Infrared using-the unique properties of the UCSB electrostatic accelerator-driven FEL; Develop and implement new FEL concepts and FIR technology and encourage the transfer and application of this research; Train graduate students, post doctoral researchers and technical personnel in varied aspects of scientific user disciplines, FEL science and FIR technology in a cooperative, interdisciplinary environment. In summary, a free electron laser facility has been developed which is operational from 200 GHz, (6.6 cm exp -1), to 4.8 THz, (160 cm exp -1) tunable under computer control and able to deliver kilowatts of millimeter wave and far-infrared power. This facility has a well equipped user lab that has been used to perform ground breaking experiments in scientific areas as diverse as bio-physics. Nine graduate students and post doctoral researchers have been trained in the operation, use and application of these free-electron lasers.

  3. Terahertz quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures with the UCSB free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures takes on new dimensions in the presence of intense terahertz electric fields. Terahertz frequencies lift us into the regime where the scattering and relaxation is not so important and strong terahertz electric fields provided by the UCSB FEL`s explore non-linear dynamics far from the perturbative limit. New quantum transport channels that are assisted by the absorption or emission of a photon appear in current voltage characteristics. We will describe some of these experiments, the new phenomena they expose and the potential impact on future terahertz semiconductor electronics.

  4. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.

    2000-06-06

    This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design

  5. Ion mobility spectrometry: A personal view of its development at UCSB

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility is not a newly discovered phenomenon. It has roots going back to Langevin at the beginning of the 20th century. Our group initially got involved by accident around 1990 and this paper is a brief account of what has transpired here at UCSB the past 25 years in response to this happy accident. We started small, literally, with transition metal atomic ions and transitioned to carbon clusters, synthetic polymers, most types of biological molecules and eventually peptide and protein oligomeric assembly. Along the way we designed and built several generations of instruments, a process that is still ongoing. And perhaps most importantly we have incorporated theory with experiment from the beginning; a necessary wedding that allows an atomistic face to be put on the otherwise interesting but not fully informative cross section measurements. PMID:25147478

  6. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  7. Research Highlights and Recent Enhancements at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Hegarty, P.; Seale, S. H.; Lamere, T.; Stinson, E.; Wojcik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NEES@UCSB facility consists of experimental facilities and cyber infrastructure for active testing and passive earthquake monitoring at instrumented geotechnical field sites. There have been a number of facility enhancements to both the experimental facilities and the cyber infrastructure for facilitating research at the sites and access to the data they produce. Through both the maintenance and operations and the NEES Research program funding sources, the scope of monitoring at the field sites continues to expand. A permanent cross-hole source and sensor array has been installed at both the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and at the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) field sites. This enhancement provides daily measurements of shear-wave velocity and automated post-earthquake observations of velocity to examine soil modulus reduction and recovery. After a very large event, where nonlinear soil behavior is expected, cross-hole hammer source time intervals are as short as 5 minutes. While waiting for larger earthquakes to occur, the daily cross-hole hammer tests are providing interesting data on shear-wave velocity changes with seasonal water table height. Testing of a small reconfigurable structure at both the WLA and GVDA sites was conducted using the NEES@UCLA mobile shakers. The structure, which is a smaller version of a permanent structure at GVDA, has been left at the GVDA site and can be used for future experiments or site instrumentation enhancements. The large soil-foundation-interaction structure at GVDA has a 1D shaker mounted under its roof slab. This shaker runs nightly and the data provide insight into the influence of environmental conditions on the response of the structure. At WLA, additional sensors have been installed in a dense Shape Accelerometer Array (SAA). Each of the seven arrays contain 24 3-component MEMS accelerometers at approximately 0.3 meter spacing that span the upper 8 meters of the site, from above to below the liquefiable

  8. UCSB FEL user-mode adaption project. Final report, 1 Jan 86-31 Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jaccarino, V.

    1992-04-14

    This research sponsored by the SDIO Biomedical and Materials Sciences FEL Program held the following objectives. Provide a facility in which in-house and outside user research in the materials and biological sciences can be carried out in the Far Infrared using-the unique properties of the UCSB electrostatic accelerator-driven FEL. Develop and implement new FEL concepts and FIR technology and encourage the transfer and application of this research. Train graduate students, post doctoral researchers and technical personnel in varied aspects of scientific user disciplines, FEL science and FIR technology in a cooperative, interdisciplinary environment. In summary, a free electron laser facility has been developed which is operational from 200 GH z, (6.6 cm -1), to 4.8 THz, (160 cm-1) tunable under computer control and able to deliver kilowatts of millimeter wave and far-infrared power. This facility has a well equipped user lab that has been used to perform ground breaking experiments in scientific areas as diverse as bio-physics. Nine graduate students and post doctoral researchers have been trained in the operation, use and application of these free-electron lasers.

  9. Preliminary test Results for a 25K Sorption Cryocooler Designed for the UCSB Long Duration Balloon Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, L. A.; Levy, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous operation, vibration-free, long-life 25K sorption cryocooler has been built and is now in final integration and performance testing. This cooler wil be flown on the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment.

  10. An Investigation of Student Engagement in a Global Warming Debate: Proof of Concept for K-12 Outreach at UCSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, D. M.; Kelly, G. J.; Gautier, C.

    2001-05-01

    As part of a community outreach program, the first author worked with a physical science teacher to co-create and co-teach a nine week global warming for his three seventh grade classes. The nine week program culminated in a debate on the causes of global warming. Students were divided into three groups: scientists supporting human contributions to global warming; scientists opposed to human contributions to global warming; and leaders of nations. In this study we investigate how using debate as a pedagogical tool for addressing earth system science concepts can both promote active student learning and present a realistic and dynamic view of science. Grounded in the perspective of science as sociocultural practices, our investigation draws from studies of school science focusing on the socially constructed nature of knowing and the use of argument as a pedagogical tool. We present evidence illustrating how the use of argument provided opportunities for students to interpret data sets, formulate and defend arguments, challenge competing interpretations and unearth relevant scientific questions about the environment. We also provide evidence of how students were able to use scientific evidence to support their thought processes. The results of this outreach experience serve as a foundation for the development of a new K-12 outreach program, Earth Connection, scheduled to begin at the University of California Santa Barbara, in Summer, 2001. Through the Earth Connection Visiting Teacher Program, UCSB science educators will visit local schools to work directly with teachers in their classroom settings. The Visiting Teacher Program provides a mutual benefit to teachers and students. Students gain the experience of having an expert come into their classroom to involve them in the process of science. Teachers are provided with professional development opportunities to help them continue addressing relevant earth system science issues in their classrooms.

  11. Coupling of Pore Pressure and Ground Motion: Further Studies using Data Recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, S. H.; Lavallee, D.; Archuleta, R. J.; Steidl, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure built up during an earthquake and the hazard associated with soil liquefaction present a major challenge for our society, as has been dramatically illustrated by recent large events (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake). There is consensus among scientists that a better assessment of the liquefaction risk requires a better understanding of the coupling between pore pressure and ground motion time histories. There is a basic need to investigate coupling as a function of the frequency content of the ground motion. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah event has provided a remarkable opportunity to investigate and model the coupling. The event was well recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife station located 110 km from the hypocenter. The station is equipped with three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and with pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. The recorded pore pressure and ground motion time histories both have frequency content that is a function of time. We have applied a wavelet decomposition technique to the El Mayor ground motion and pore pressure data, looking for a linear relationship between the signals. The analysis shows that the early P-wave accelerations (vertical component) initiate pore pressure response. However, the pore pressure records contain a low-frequency component that dominates the signal with no corresponding low-frequency component in the ground motion signals recorded near-by. Although uncommon, a similar behavior has been also reported in the literature for pore pressure signals recoded during the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake. We have extended this work to the analysis of 4 other seismic events that have induced an increase in pore pressure at WLA. As the response of pore pressure is potentially a local phenomenon, we have restricted our analysis to recordings from the same site. These events include the M5.8 Ocotillo

  12. LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    David Gross

    2006-10-01

    This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.

  13. Does Casing Material Influence Downhole Accelerometer Recordings? a Controlled Study of Earthquake and Experimental Data Recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Liquefaction Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthsing, D. A.; Seale, S. H.; Steidl, J. H.; Ratzesberger, H.; Hegarty, P.; Nees@Ucsb

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, NEES@UCSB outfitted the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) with new instrumentation and initiated an experiment to test whether casing material influences downhole recordings of strong ground motion. Two 5.5m boreholes were drilled meters apart. One of the boreholes was cased with traditional rigid PVC and the other with flexible Corex® drain pipe. Three-component strong-motion accelerometers were installed in both boreholes. Recently we have obtained a unique set of data at WLA that has allowed us to conduct a controlled study. On 15 June 2010, a Mw 5.7 event occurred near Ocotillo, CA, 57 km SW from WLA. A set of 60 aftershocks with M > 3.0 were recorded at WLA with good signal-to-noise ratio. These data are ideal for our study, as the events are approximately co-located relative to the site and they have similar focal mechanisms. We computed frequency spectra for the three components of motion for these events and we computed average spectral ratios between the data in the two boreholes. The spectral ratios are not flat ( = 1): certain frequencies within the range of engineering interest ( f < 20 Hz) recorded in the flexible borehole show amplification and damping relative to the recordings from the rigid borehole. An amplification factor of 1.4 is the maximum in this frequency range. In May 2010, NEES@UTexas visited WLA with the vibroseis truck T-Rex. We have performed spectral analysis of borehole recordings from 30 T-Rex pulses with frequencies ranging from 3 to 16 Hz. We present these spectral ratios for comparison with the ones computed from earthquake data.

  14. Coupling of Pore Pressure and Ground Motion Data Recorded During the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Baja California) Earthquake at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, D.; Seale, S. H.; Steidl, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Pore pressure built up during an earthquake and the hazard associated with soil liquefaction present a major challenge for our society, as was dramatically displayed during the 2011 Higashi Nihon Daishinsai (Tohoku-oki, Japan) earthquake. Currently, there is a consensus among scientists that a better assessment of the risk associated with liquefaction requires a better understanding of the coupling between pore pressure time histories and ground motion time histories. Specifically, there is a basic need to investigate the coupling as a function of the frequency content of the ground motion. The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Baja California) earthquake (M 7.2) provides a remarkable opportunity to undertake such an investigation and lay the basis to model the coupling. The event was well recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife station located 110 km from the hypocenter. The station is equipped with three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and with pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. The recorded pore pressure and ground motion time histories are both characterized by a frequency content that is a function of time. A wavelet representation is a natural approach to investigate non-stationary time histories. To study the coupling between two signals we use the following procedure: We first compute the wavelet coefficients associated with the two signals. Then we compute the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of the two signals as a function of the frequency. Correlation coefficients provide information about the degree of linear dependence between the two signals. To account for the presence of multiplicative constants relating the wavelet coefficients of the first signal to the wavelet coefficients of the second signal, we compare the square norm of the wavelet coefficients of the two signals for the available frequency range. Additionally, investigating the distribution of the square

  15. EZ to Evolve ZAMS Stars: A Program Derived from Eggleton's Stellar Evolution Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Bill

    2004-07-01

    ``Evolve ZAMS'' (EZ) is a code derived from Peter Eggleton's stellar evolution program. The core of EZ is a stripped down, rewritten version of a subset of Eggleton's code, specialized to handle single star evolution from the zero-age main sequence until forced to stop by an event such as a helium flash or a crystallizing core. The procedure and data interfaces to the program are designed to be easy to use while still providing a wide range of function. EZ is written in Fortran 95 following current programming practices and can be downloaded from the Web at http://theory.kitp.ucsb.edu/~paxton.

  16. AVIRIS Reflectance Retrievals: UCSB Users Manual. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Prentiss, Dylan

    2001-01-01

    The following write-up is designed to help students and researchers take Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) radiance data and retrieve surface reflectance. In the event that the software is not available, but a user has access to a reflectance product, this document is designed to provide a better understanding of how AVIRIS reflectance was retrieved. This guide assumes that the reader has both a basic understanding of the UNIX computing environment, and that of spectroscopy. Knowledge of the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) is helpful. This is a working document, and many of the fine details described in the following pages have been previously undocumented. After having read this document the reader should be able to process AVIRIS to reflectance, provided access to all of the code is possible. The AVIRIS radiance data itself is pre-processed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. The first section of this paper describes how to read data from tape and byte-swap the data. Section 2 describes the procedure in preparing support files before running the 'h2o' suite of programs. Section 3 describes the four programs used in the process, h2olut9.f, h2ospl9.f, vlsfit9.f and rfl9.f.

  17. Chicanos: A Selective Guide to Materials in the UCSB Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najera, Carlos, Comp.

    Intended to assist students and faculty members in locating materials on the life and culture of Mexican Americans or Chicanos found in the Library at the University of California at Santa Barbara, this guide cites 772 books, curriculum development guides, and government publications, published between 1917 and 1970. The guide does not cite the…

  18. Computational simulation of materials notes for lectures given at UCSB, May 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    LeSar, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information from a lecture given on the computational simulation of materials. The purpose is to introduce modern computerized simulation methods for materials properties and response.

  19. Microstructural characterization of selected AEA/UCSB model FeCuMn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.M.; Stoller, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    A set of 22 model ferritic alloys was purchased as part of a collaborative research program by the AEA Harwell Laboratory and the University of California at Santa Barbara. Nine of these alloys were selected by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a series of ion irradiation experiments investigating dispersed barrier hardening. These nine alloys contain varying amounts of copper, manganese, titanium, carbon, and nitrogen. The alloys have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy in the as-received condition to provide a baseline for comparison with the irradiated specimens. A description of the microstructural observations is provided for future reference. This summary focuses on the type and size distributions of the precipitates present; grain size and dislocation measurements are also included.

  20. Frequency multiplexed dispersive readout of transmon qubits with the UCSB paramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Ohya, S.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Our new Xmon qubit shows good coherence, controllability and simplified coupling to other circuit elements, making it a good candidate for a large scale quantum computer. Like all qubits, it requires high fidelity readout. To this end we have developed a new parametric amplifier circuit. Simplified input coupling of the amplifier allows straightforward interfacing with our frequency multiplexed dispersive readout circuitry. The amplifier features five different modes of pump power delivery, some of which allow us to reduce the microwave component count in our readout chain. We characterize our readout system using each of these modes of operation, as well as multi qubit readout.

  1. Progress Report on Disassembly and Post-Irradiation Experiments for UCSB ATR-2 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Odette, G. R.; Robertson, Janet Pawel; Yamamoto, T

    2015-09-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables and issues, particularly considering extension of operation to 80y.

  2. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  3. Remote Semi-State Preparation as SuperDense Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in experimental technique make SuperDense Teleportation (SDT) possible. The effect uses remote state preparation to send more state-specifying parameters per bit than ordinary quantum teleportation (QT) can transmit. SDT uses a maximal entanglement to teleport the relative phases of an {n}-dimensional equimodular state. This means that one can send only {n}-1 of the total (2 n - 2) parameters -- comprising the relative phases and amplitudes -- of a general state. Nevertheless, for {n} >= 3 , SDT sends more of these state-specifying parameters than QT for a given number of classical bits. In the limit of large {n} the ratio is 2 to 1, hence the nomenclature Bennett suggested, SDT, by analogy with Super Dense Coding. Alice's measurements and Bob's transformations are simpler than in QT. The roles of Charles the state chooser, and Diana who deploys it, are different than in QT. I briefly review possible experimental realizations, including two that are under consideration at the present time by an experimental group leading in higher-dimension entanglement work. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY97-22614 & 07-58149 & KITP, UCSB, including an ITP Scholar-ship.

  4. Bosonic short-range entangled states beyond group cohomology classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cenke; You, Yi-Zhuang

    2015-02-01

    We explore and construct a class of bosonic short-range entangled (BSRE) states in all 4 k +2 spatial dimensions, which are higher dimensional generalizations of the well-known Kitaev's E8 state in 2 d [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 321, 2 (2006), 10.1016/j.aop.2005.10.005; http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/topomat11/kitaev]. These BSRE states share the following properties: (1) their bulk is fully gapped and nondegenerate; (2) their (4 k +1 )d boundary is described by a "self-dual" rank-2 k antisymmetric tensor gauge field, and it is guaranteed to be gapless without assuming any symmetry; (3) their (4 k +1 )d boundary has intrinsic gravitational anomaly once coupled to the gravitational field; (4) their bulk is described by an effective Chern-Simons field theory with rank-(2 k +1 ) antisymmetric tensor fields, whose KI J matrix is identical to that of the E8 state in 2 d ; (5) the existence of these BSRE states leads to various bosonic symmetry protected topological (BSPT) states as their descendants in other dimensions; (6) these BSRE states can be constructed by confining fermionic degrees of freedom from eight copies of (4 k +2 )d SRE states with fermionic 2 k -branes ; (7) after compactifying the (4 k +2 )d BSRE state on a closed 4 k dimensional manifold, depending on the topology of the compact 4 k manifold, the system could reduce to nontrivial 2 d BSRE states.

  5. Topological semimetal: a probable new state of quantum optical lattice gases protected by D4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, W. Vincent; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that a novel topological semimetal emerges as a parity-protected critical theory for fermionic atoms loaded in the p and d orbital bands of a two-dimensional optical lattice. The new quantum state is characterized by a parabolic band-degeneracy point with Berry flux 2 π , in sharp contrast to the π flux of Dirac points as in graphene. We prove that this topological liquid is a universal property for all lattices of D4 point group symmetry and the band degeneracy is protected by odd parity. Turning on interparticle repulsive interaction, the system undergoes a phase transition to a topological insulator, whose experimental signature includes chiral gapless domain-wall modes, reminiscent of quantum Hall edge states. KS and SDS acknowledge the support of JQI-NSF-PFC, AFOSR-MURI, ARO-DARPA-OLE and ARO-MURI. W.V.L. is supported by ARO and ARO-DARPA-OLE. We thank the KITP at UCSB for its hospitality where this research is supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY05-51164.

  6. Post-irradiation Examination Plan for ORNL and University of California Santa Barbara Assessment of UCSB ATR-2 Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sokolov, M. A.

    2014-01-25

    New and existing databases will be combined to support development of physically based models of transition temperature shifts (TTS) for high fluence-low flux (φ < 10{sup 11}n/cm{sup 2}-s) conditions, beyond the existing surveillance database, to neutron fluences of at least 1×10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). All references to neutron flux and fluence in this report are for fast neutrons (>1 MeV). The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) task of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is working with various organizations to obtain archival surveillance materials from commercial nuclear power plants to allow for comparisons of the irradiation-induced microstructural features from reactor surveillance materials with those from similar materials irradiated under high flux conditions in test reactors

  7. What have we Learned after a Decade of Experiments and Monitoring at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Civilini, F.; Seale, S. H.; Hegarty, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) located in southern California are facilities that for the last decade have been supported under the National Science Foundations George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers. Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail. In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES@UTexas and NEES@UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing. The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the 'NEES' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4.6 to 5.4 and all at distances less than 10km from the site. The largest peak horizontal acceleration of ~325 gals was generated by a M4.9 event. This event generated ~20 kPa of excess pore pressure on multiple transducers, with a pore pressure ratio Ru of ~60% near the top of the liquefiable layer. Using displacements calculated from the accelerometers above and below the liquefiable layer, peak strain levels reached as high as 1.5 x 10-3. During these events, which did not completely liquefy the site, the excess pore pressure can be seen migrating from the top of the layer towards the bottom in the continuous time history data, as well as dissipation that can take hours, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring instead of triggered. Nonlinear soil behavior associated with the larger events in this swarm is analyzed in terms of changes in travel times (decrease in shear wave velocity) between accelerometers in the array for the largest ground motions, as well as a reduction in high frequency amplification for these events. The location of accelerometers at the surface and at five additional depths provides the opportunity to examine the contribution of the various layers to the overall site response. Analysis of data during the largest excitation at the WLA site show that the nonlinear soil behavior occurs both near the surface and even at depths below 30 meters.

  8. Origin and mixing timescale of Earth's late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescher, C.; Allu Peddinti, D.; Bell, E. A.; Bello, L.; Cernok, A.; Ghosh, N.; Tucker, J.; Wielicki, M. M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    amount of mass delivered in the late veneer and the Archean internal heating which is at least 4 times higher than the present values, due to the higher abundance of radioactive elements. Another important parameter is the mechanism of mass addition to the Earth. We test three end-member scenarios: (1) a single very large impactor accounting for the entire mass addition, (2) sprinkling of a large number of small impactors over the whole Earth which then mix into the mantle, or (3) by using a size/frequency distribution estimated from the lunar cratering record and corrected for the difference in gravitational cross section of the Earth and the Moon. This project results from collaborations begun at the CIDER II workshop held at KITP, UCSB, 2012.

  9. Public Services Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowhill, Lucia; And Others

    This report describes a self-assessment study undertaken by the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Library which was designed to describe current UCSB Library public services, investigate options and opportunities to enhance these services in anticipation of change, and make recommendations to ensure that the library continues to…

  10. Synthesis of Cobalt-Acyl-Complexes of the Type MeC(O)Co(CO)3PR3; Characterization of Reactive Intermediates Using TR IR Techniques, Torsten Buetner, Diplom thesis submitted to the Univ. Jena, Germany based on DOE supported studies at UCSB, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Peter C.

    2000-12-31

    OAK-B135 Mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Time-resolved spectroscopic investigations of rhodium and iridium halo carbonyl complex intermediates proposed in methanol carbonylation catalysts.

  11. Kählerian Information Geometry for Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyung; Mullhaupt, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    We prove the correspondence between the information geometry of a signal filter and a K\\"ahler manifold. The information geometry of a minimum-phase linear system with a finite complex cepstrum norm is a K\\"ahler manifold. The square of the complex cepstrum norm of the signal filter corresponds to the K\\"ahler potential. The Hermitian structure of the K\\"ahler manifold is explicitly emergent if and only if the impulse response function of the highest degree in $z$ is constant in model parameters. The K\\"ahlerian information geometry takes advantage of more efficient calculation steps for the metric tensor and the Ricci tensor. Moreover, $\\alpha$-generalization on the geometric tensors is linear in $\\alpha$. It is also robust to find Bayesian predictive priors, such as superharmonic priors, because Laplace-Beltrami operators on K\\"ahler manifolds are in much simpler forms than those of the non-K\\"ahler manifolds. Several time series models are studied in the K\\"ahlerian information geometry.

  12. Former Fermilab boss to lead Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Particle physicist Michael Witherell - current vice-chancellor for research at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) - has been appointed the next director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL).

  13. Potential for AP600 in-vessel retention through ex-vessel flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Allison, C.M.; Thinnes, G.L.; Atwood, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is a new severe accident management strategy that involves flooding the reactor cavity to submerge the reactor vessel in an attempt to cool core debris that has relocated to the vessel lower head. Advanced and existing light water reactors (LWRs) are considering ERVC as an accident management strategy for in-vessel retention (IVR) of relocated debris. In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the AP600 design, Westinghouse credits ERVC for preventing vessel failure during postulated severe accidents with successful reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization and reactor cavity flooding. To support the Westinghouse position on IVR, DOE contracted the University of California--Santa Barbara (UCSB) to produce the peer-reviewed report. To assist in the NRC`s evaluation of IVR of core melt by ex-vessel flooding of the AP6OO, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform: An in-depth critical review of the UCSB study and the model that UCSB used to assess ERVC effectiveness; An in-depth review of the UCSB study peer review comments and of UCSB`s resolution method to identify areas where technical concerns weren`t addressed; and An independent analysis effort to investigate the impact of residual concerns on the margins to failure and conclusions presented in the UCSB study. This report summarizes results from these tasks. As discussed in Sections 1.1 and 1.2, INEEL`s review of the UCSB study and peer reviewer comments suggested that additional analysis was needed to assess: (1) the integral impact of peer reviewer-suggested changes to input assumptions and uncertainties and (2) the challenge present by other credible debris configurations. Section 1.3 summarized the corresponding analysis approach developed by INEEL. The remainder of this report provides more detailed descriptions of analysis methodology, input assumptions, and results.

  14. Report on the Program “Fluid-mediated particle transport in geophysical flows” at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UC Santa Barbara, September 23 to December 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James T.; Meiburg, Eckart; Valance, Alexandre

    2015-09-15

    The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.

  15. 75 FR 54346 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... eight (8) publications cited below. Applications Immunization to treat infectious diseases. Possible..., Ahlers JD, Kelsall BL, Earl P, Moss B, Strober W, Berzofsky JA. Mucosal immunization with HIV-1 peptide... JA. A novel functional CTL avidity/activity compartmentalization to the site of mucosal...

  16. Gaugino condensation, loop corrections and S-duality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Saririan, K.

    1996-11-01

    This talk is a brief review of gaugino condensation in superstring effective field theories and some related issues (such as renormalization of the gauge coupling in the effective supergravity theories and modular anomaly cancellation). As a specific example, we discuss a model containing perturbative (1-loop) corrections to the K{umlt a}hler potential and approximate S-duality symmetry.

  17. Performance of a low data rate speech codec for land-mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersho, Allen; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to foster the development of new technologies for the emerging land mobile satellite communications services, JPL funded two development contracts in 1984: one to the Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara and the other to the Georgia Inst. of Technology, to develop algorithms and real time hardware for near toll quality speech compression at 4800 bits per second. Both universities have developed and delivered speech codecs to JPL, and the UCSB codec was extensively tested by JPL in a variety of experimental setups. The basic UCSB speech codec algorithms and the test results of the various experiments performed with this codec are presented.

  18. Free-electron laser - far-infrared study of Fef2:Mn. Report No. 1, January 1986-January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, J.; Kaminski, J.; Jaccarino, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first use of a free-electron laser (FEL) for condensed-matter research was made on iron fluoride:manganese with the far-infrared radiation from the UCSB FEL. The versatility of the FEL for linear and nonequilibrium spectroscopy is demonstrated in studies of the host and impurity modes.

  19. Culture in a Writing Program: An Organizational Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Haley Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of the staff and faculty of one writing program in a large western university, the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). The Writing Program had experienced significant changes including budgetary reductions since 2008 as well as turnover in leadership. These changes have impacted the culture of the…

  20. Chicanos: A Checklist of Current Materials. No. 1, January-June, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Comp.; Gonzalez, Raquel Quiroz, Comp.

    This is a bibliography of materials held in the Coleccion Tloque Nahuaque of the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB). It includes citations of monographs and reference tools about Chicanos written in both English and Spanish. The following categories are listed: agriculture; architecture; art; arts and crafts; bibliographies; border…

  1. From 6 to 163: The Chinese International Student Experience in a Time of Increased Enrollment at a University of California Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    At UCSB the number of degree seeking undergraduate Chinese international students increased from 6 to 163 between 2010 and 2012. With such a controversial and much discussed topic of international student enrollment at U.S universities, this was the perfect time for me to interview Chinese international students. With the help of Kathy Charmaz'…

  2. Task Force on Organization, Coordination and Staffing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Santa Barbara. University Library.

    This document describes an investigation of the adequacy of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Library's organizational structure, organizational climate, staffing patterns, training, career development, and communication to meet the needs of a postulated public services environment of 5 to 10 years in the future. Discussion of the…

  3. Out of the Classroom and into the Heart of the Matter: A Case Study of University Student Residents' Reaction to Access to Multicultural Awareness Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodlief, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to explore how, and to what extent, the UCSB faculty-in-residence program provided multicultural awareness education opportunities to student residents outside of the classroom. This research explored Housing and Residential Services, which housed the faculty-in-residence program whose mission is, in part, to provide…

  4. Final technical report, Symposium on New Theoretical Concepts and Directions in Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Metiu, Horia

    2014-08-22

    We organized in August 2013 a “Symposium on New Theoretical Concepts and Directions in Catalysis” with the participation of 20 invited distinguished quantum chemists and other researchers who use computations to study catalysis. Symposium website; http://catalysis.cnsi.ucsb.edu/

  5. 75 FR 4062 - Peer Review Best Practices Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Bonnvillian, MIT 9:45 a.m. Panel 1: Basic Science--NSF, NIH, DOE/SC, UCSB 11 a.m. Break 11:15 a.m. Panel 2: Applied Research, Technology Development--NIST, ARPA-E, ONR, MIT 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1 p.m. Panel...

  6. Temperature Dependence of Rabi Oscillations in Phase Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, Alexey; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Wirth, Tobias; Feofanov, Alexey; Lukashenko, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Using the experimental setup in Erlangen, we compared aluminum-based phase qubits with SiNx shunting capacitors made at UCSB with similarly designed circuits fabricated at HYPRES foundry using a standard niobium-based fabrication process with SiO2 insulation. Measured decoherence times are about 100 ns and 5 ns, respectively. In both types of circuits, energy relaxation time T1 scales inversely proportional to the area of the qubit junction, which agrees with earlier data. Rabi oscillations remain visible up to the temperature T of about 400 mK (UCSB) and 800 mK (HYPRES), where the energy level separation becomes comparable with kBT. The current pulse readout in the upper temperature range is dominated by thermal escape rather then tunneling. Temperature dependence data for the decoherence time and oscillations contrast will be presented and discussed.

  7. [Physical modeling of sedimentary basins, magma mechanics, and molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, F.J.

    1993-07-01

    Work at UCSB has been in four areas: (1) Convection in porous media, (2) Geochemical fluid dynamics, (3) Experimental rheometry of silicate melts and (4) Molecular dynamics of silicate solutions. In the past 18 months we have published, have in press or submitted 8 papers (see Appendix) and are currently at work on several others. Additionally, a number of abstracts have been published. A list of these works is presented in the Appendix.

  8. [Physical modeling of sedimentary basins, magma mechanics, and molecular dynamics of aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Work at UCSB has been in four areas: (1) Convection in porous media, (2) Geochemical fluid dynamics, (3) Experimental rheometry of silicate melts and (4) Molecular dynamics of silicate solutions. In the past 18 months we have published, have in press or submitted 8 papers (see Appendix) and are currently at work on several others. Additionally, a number of abstracts have been published. A list of these works is presented in the Appendix.

  9. Joint UK/US Radar Program progress reports for period December 1--31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Rino, C.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.; Belyea, J.

    1995-01-23

    Topics discussed in this report are current accomplishments in many functions to include: airborne RAR/SAR, radar data processor, ground based SAR signal processing workstation, static airborne radar, multi-aperture space-time array radar, radar field experiments, data analysis and detection theory, management, radar data analysis, modeling and analysis, current meter array, UCSB wave tank, stratified flow facility, Russian Institute of Applied Physics, and budget status.

  10. Investigating the impact of representation upon coarse-grained models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Thomas; Shell, M. Scott; Noid, William

    The first step in building a coarse-grained (CG) model is choosing a representation or `mapping' of the original system at a reduced resolution. In practice, the mapping is often chosen on the basis of `physical intuition.' Consequently this crucial step would greatly benefit from the development of systematic and principled methodologies. Accordingly, we have studied the relationship between the mapping and the resulting CG model. As a starting point, we have analytically derived, as a function of the CG mapping, the exact many-body potential of mean force (PMF) for the simple Gaussian Network Model (GNM) of protein fluctuations. We use this as a simple model for investigating the effect of the CG mapping upon the information loss and quality of the CG model. Moreover, by considering the GNM's for different proteins, we investigate the significance of high resolution structural features for the quality of the CG model. We acknowledge support from the NSF, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and KITP.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  12. Rayleigh-Bénard convection with rotation at small Prandtl numbers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Guenter

    2000-03-01

    The Prandtl-number range from 0.16 to 0.7 is not accessible in ordinary fluids, but can be reached in mixtures of two gases with different masses.(J. Liu and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. E) 55, 6950 (1997). From theory one expects a great diversity of interesting bifurcation phenomena in this range when the sample is rotated about a vertical axis. (See, e.g. T. Clune and E. Knobloch, Phys. Rev. E 47), 2536 (1993). These phenomena include super- and sub-critical bifurcations to spatio-temporal chaos, a line of tricritical bifurcations, a codimension-two line, and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation to standing waves. This talk will briefly review these predictions, and then present relevant new experimental and theoretical results. The results include the unexpected observation of square patterns near onset,(K.M.S. Bajaj, J. Liu, B. Naberhuis, and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 81, 806 (1998). the determination of a point on the predicted tricritical line, a hysteresis-free subcritical bifurcation, and a novel state of bursting convection in the subcritical region. In spite of a thorough search, the experiment could not detect the predicted Hopf bifurcation.

  13. Fluctuations below a stationary supercritical bifurcation to electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xin-Liang; Ahlers, Guenter

    2003-03-01

    We report measurements of thermally driven fluctuations near the onset of electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC). The cell (from E.H.C Co, Ltd Japan) had a nominal spacing of 25 μm and planar alignment. It was filled with the NLC Merck phase IV (N4). The NLC was doped with 0.1% by weight of tetra butylammonium bromide(TBAB) and the conductivity was near 9 × 10-7 (Ω m)-1 at 30^oC. The system was driven by an alternating voltage of frequency 25 Hz and amplitude V. The initial bifurcation to electroconvection was supercritical and yielded oblique stationary rolls. For small but negative ɛ ≡ V^2/V_c^2 - 1 the mean-square amplitude of the fluctuations was proportional to |ɛ|^-γ with γ larger than the value γ_LT = 1/2 given by linear theory (LT). This result differs from the one obtained earlier (M.A. Scherer ,G. Ahlers, F. Hörner, and I. Rehberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85), 3754 (2000); M.A. Scherer and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051101 (2002) for the NLC 5CB, which undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation to oblique rolls and which yields γ ˜= 0.25 < γ_LT . We conclude that the two systems belong to different universality classes.

  14. Technical Report from the High Energy Physics Group of the University of California, Santa Barbara, DOE grant DE-FG02-91ER40618

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Jeffrey; Berenstein, David; Campagnari, Claudio; Giddings, Steven; Incandela, Joseph; Nelson, Harry; Stuart, David; Witherell, Michael

    2014-09-11

    The research program of the UCSB high energy physics group encompasses advanced projects in both experimental and theoretical particle physics. This program has been strongly supported by the DOE Office of High Energy Physics for many years. The program addresses questions related to the properties of matter, the fundamental forces of nature, the origin and evolution of the universe, and the nature of spacetime. The mission of the group also has a strong educational component, and the training of physicists in advanced research is a key part of our program.

  15. MOLVIE: an interactive visualization environment for molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huandong; Li, Ming; Xu, Ying

    2003-05-01

    A Molecular visualization interactive environment (MOLVIE), is designed to display three-dimensional (3D) structures of molecules and support the structural analysis and research on proteins. The paper presents the features, design considerations and applications of MOLVIE, especially the new functions used to compare the structures of two molecules and view the partial fragment of a molecule. Being developed in JAVA, MOLVIE is platform-independent. Moreover, it may run on a webpage as an applet for remote users. MOLVIE is available at http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~mli/Bioinf/software/index.html. PMID:12725967

  16. Progress reports for October 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.

    1994-11-18

    This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for each of the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis; modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Finally the budget status is given.

  17. Progress reports for period November 1--30, 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.

    1994-12-19

    This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis;modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Budget status is also given.

  18. Balloon-borne molecular oxygen search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Timothy C.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment is described that is designed to detect molecular oxygen in interstellar molecular clouds. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in our galaxy. The oxygen-bearing molecules that have been detected do not account for the expected oxygen abundance in molecular clouds. Molecular oxygen (O2) could be a major reservoir for the missing oxygen. At the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Bell Laboratories, a balloon-borne, millimeter-wavelength receiver with the capability of observing the primary isotopes of O2 (118, 750 MHz; N = 1, J = 1-0) and CO (115, 271 MHz; J = 1-0) has been designed, built, and flown. This system uses a superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) mixer and a digital auto-correlator spectrometer. The SIS spectrometer (SISS) has achieved a double sideband receiver temperature of 5 K and a spectral resolution of 1 km/s. Using the 1-meter primary mirror on the UCSB balloon-borne gondola, the SISS has an 11 arcsecond beam (FWHM). The first flight was executed in August 1993. Although pointing and cryogenic problems prevented taking astronomical data, it proved to be an excellent engineering flight.

  19. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  20. Terahertz signature characterization of bio-simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Alexander J.; Miller, Peter; Abreu, Rene; Grotts, Jeffrey; Globus, Tatiana; Brown, Elliott

    2005-05-01

    Collaboration with the University of Virginia (UVa) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) has resulted in the collection of signature data in the THz region of the spectrum for ovalbumin, Bacillus Subtilis (BG) and RNA from MS2 phage. Two independent experimental measurement systems were used to characterize the bio-simulants. Prior to our efforts, only a limited signature database existed. The goal was to evaluate a larger ensemble of biological agent simulants (BG, MS2 and ovalbumin) by measuring their THz absorption spectra. UCSB used a photomixer spectrometer and UVa a Fourier Transform spectrometer to measure absorption spectra. Each group used different sample preparation techniques and made multiple measurements to provide reliable statistics. Data processing culminated in applying proprietary algorithms to develop detection filters for each simulant. Through a covariance matrix approach, the detection filters extract signatures over regions with strong absorption and ignore regions with large signature variation (noise). The discrimination capability of these filters was also tested. The probability of detection and false alarm for each simulant was analyzed by each simulant specific filter. We analyzed a limited set of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) data (a near neighbor to BG) and were capable of discriminating between BT and BG. The signal processing and filter construction demonstrates signature specificity and filter discrimination capabilities.

  1. Using the Web to Track Student Progress in Large Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher L.

    1998-04-01

    This past year we have begun using a new web based program for one of our large introductory physics courses that allows students to track their own progress in the course, while enhancing data collection and simplifying course administration for the faculty. Students take a weekly pre-quiz on material to be presented in lecture the following week, which they can take as many times as they like to improve their score. Faculty then use the statistics from the pre-quiz to focus on common student errors. Faculty, TAs, and graders all use the web as a centrally accessible grade-book, so students can use the web to check the accuracy their homework and exam grades in the course, and track their own progress in the course. I will discuss the effort required to integrate a system of this type into a course, and the comments from students, faculty, and TAs after using the system. (please visit ucsb.edu/ phys1/visitor.html>http://www.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~phys1/visitor.html for more information and a demonstration)

  2. School for Scientific Thought: Saturday sessions that bring high school and STEM graduate students together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, Elisabeth; Ibsen, Wendy

    2011-03-01

    The School for Scientific Thought (http://csep.cnsi.ucsb.edu/k12/sst) is a Saturday morning program that exposes high school students to current research in STEM fields, through 5-week miniclasses that are conceived, developed and taught by graduate students. Now in its second year of sponsorship by UCSB's California Nanosystems Institute, this NSF-supported program provides graduate students with a creative opportunity to communicate their own favorite science to a young audience. The experience solidifies the graduate student's own knowledge while developing expository skills during a limited time commitment that allows them to also progress in their research objectives. High school students make contact with positive scientist role models while learning about exciting topics that are beyond the high school curriculum. SST courses have ranged from ``Surfing the Waves of Light and Matter'' to ``Nanotechnology: Using the Very Small to Solve the World's Problems''. The selection of graduate student instructors and recruitment of high school students will be discussed. SST is an outgrowth of the NSF GK-12 program ``Let's Explore Applied Physical Science'' (LEAPS).

  3. School for Scientific Thought: Saturday sessions that bring high school and STEM graduate students together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    The School for Scientific Thought (http://csep.cnsi.ucsb.edu/k12/sst) is a Saturday morning program that exposes high school students to current research in STEM fields, through 5-week miniclasses that are conceived, developed and taught by graduate students. Now in its second year of sponsorship by UCSB's California Nanosystems Institute, this NSF-supported program provides graduate students with a creative opportunity to communicate their own favorite science to a young audience. The experience solidifies the graduate student's own knowledge while developing expository skills during a limited time commitment that allows them to also progress in their research objectives. High school students make contact with positive scientist role models while learning about exciting topics that are beyond the high school curriculum. SST courses have ranged from ``Surfing the Waves of Light and Matter'' to ``Nanotechnology: Using the Very Small to Solve the World's Problems''. The selection of graduate student instructors and recruitment of high school students will be discussed. SST is an outgrowth of the NSF GK-12 program ``Let's Explore Applied Physical Science'' (LEAPS). Supported by the NSF GK-12 program

  4. Many-body Localization Transition in Rokhsar-Kivelson-type wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Yu, Xiongjie; Cho, Gil Young; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We construct a family of many-body wave functions to study the many-body localization phase transition. The wave functions have a Rokhsar-Kivelson form, in which the weight for the configurations are chosen from the Gibbs weights of a classical spin glass model, known as the Random Energy Model, multiplied by a random sign structure to represent a highly excited state. These wave functions show a phase transition into an MBL phase. In addition, we see three regimes of entanglement scaling with subsystem size: scaling with entanglement corresponding to an infinite temperature thermal phase, constant scaling, and a sub-extensive scaling between these limits. Near the phase transition point, the fluctuations of the Renyi entropies are non-Gaussian. We find that Renyi entropies with different Renyi index transition into the MBL phase at different points and have different scaling behavior, suggesting a multifractal behavior. This work was supported in part by DMR-1064319 and DMR-1408713 (XC,GYC,EF) at the University of Illinois, PHY11-25915 at KITP (EF), DOE, SciDAC FG02-12ER46875 (BKC and XY), and the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government (GYC).

  5. Migration Type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel

    2004-03-01

    Migration type IIIMigration of objects embedded in disks (and the accompanying eccentricity evolution) is becoming a major theme in planetary system formation.The underlying physics can be distilled into the notion of disk-planet coupling via Lindblad resonances, which launch waves, sometimes spectacular spiral shock waves in gas disks. The wave pattern exchanges angular momentum with the planet. That causes (i) migration, (ii) eccentricity evolution, and (iii) gap opening by sufficiently massive planets.A competing source of disk-planet interaction, the corotationaltorques, are much less conspicuous (corotation does not produce easilydetectable waves, as galaxy observers can attest) and have often been missed in the analysis of planet migration. If spiral waves are like waves at Goleta beach, then the corotation acts more like a stealthy riptide. Corotationalflows lie at the basis of a new, surprisingly rapid, mode of migration (type III),superseding the standard type II migration (with a gap), and revising the speed of type I migration (without a gap). The talk will contain results obtained at KITP, e.g., an analytical derivation of da/dt in type III motion. It will be illustrated by videos of high-resolution numerical simulations obtained with different implementations of the Piecewise Parabolic Method hydrodynamics.

  6. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2015-09-18

    The String theory workshop was held from March 4-7, 2015 on the University of Michigan campus. Local organizers were Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce. Piyush Kumar (Yale), Jim Halverson (KITP), Bobby Acharya (ICTP) and Sven Krippendorf (Oxford) served as external organizers.The meeting focused on the status of work to project 10 or 11 dimensional string/M theories onto our 4 spacetime dimensions (compactification). The workshop had 31 participants, half from outside the U.S. Participants were encouraged to focus on predictions for recent and forthcoming data, particularly for Higgs physics and LHC and dark matter, rather than on the traditional approach of embedding the Standard Model particles and forces. The Higgs boson sympoosium was locally organized by James Wells (chair), Aaron Pierce and Jianming Qian. Additional input in the early stages by Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) who was unable to attend in the end. The workshop consistent of 22 talks from experts around the world, both theoretical and experimental. Experimentalists summarized the current state of knowledge of the Higgs boson and its varients. The theory talks ranged from technical calculations of Standard Model processes to speculative novel ideas. The YHET visitor program invited weekly young visitors to the University of Michigan campus to present their work. This year 24 participants came under the program, with 17 of them receiving at least partial support for their visits.

  7. The effect of adiabaticity on strongly quenched Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate following a deep quench to a large scattering length during which the condensate fraction nc changes with time. We construct a closed set of equations that highlight the role of the adiabaticity or equivalently, dnc/dt, the rate change of nc, which is to induce an (imaginary) effective interaction between quasiparticles. We show analytically that such a system supports a steady state characterized by a constant condensate density and a steady but periodically changing momentum distribution, whose time average is described exactly by the generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss how the nc -induced effective interaction, which cannot be ignored on the grounds of the adiabatic approximation for modes near the gapless Goldstone mode, can significantly affect condensate populations and Tan's contact for a Bose gas that has undergone a deep quench. In particular, we find that even when the Bose gas is quenched to unitarity, nc(t) does not completely deplete, approaching, instead, to a steady state with a finite condensate fraction. ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; KITP, University of Santa Barbara.

  8. Competing Orders in a Dipolar Bose - Fermi Mixture on a Square Optical Lattice: Mean-Field Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Scaramaazza, Jasen; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study superfluid pairings of two-component fermions interacting by exchanging virtual phonons of a dipolar condensate in an optical lattice that preserves the symmetry of D4. We construct, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We find that each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific ``effective'' interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize Fermi-Fermi interactions. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders (superfluids with s-, dx2-y2-, dxy-, and g-wave symmetries and density waves) as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance various unconventional pairings. KITP, University of Santa Barbara; ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  9. Leo Kadanoff's legacy for turbulent thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef

    Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection -- the buoyancy-driven flow of a fluid heated from below and cooled from above -- is a classical problem in fluid dynamics. It played a crucial role in the development of stability theory in hydrodynamics (Rayleigh, Chandrasekhar) and had been paradigmatic in pattern formation and in the study of spatial-temporal chaos (Ahlers, Libchaber, and many other). It was Leo Kadanoff and his associates in Chicago who, in the 1980s and 1990s, propagated the RB system as paradigmatic for the physics of fully developed turbulence and contributed tremendously to today's understanding of thermally driven turbulence. He and his experimental coworkers (Libchaber et al.) revealed the importance of the thermal plumes and the large-scale wind, and elucidated the interplay between thermal boundary layers and bulk. His scaling analysis laid the basis for our present understanding of turbulent convection, which I will review in this talk, highlighting Leo's trailblazing contributions. Kadanoff session.

  10. Anomalous dissipation near T{sub {lambda}} under a large heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.; Meyer, H.

    1998-01-01

    We report on thermal transport experiments in liquid {sup 4}He near T{sub {lambda}} using heat fluxes 8{le}Q{le}55{mu}W/cm{sup 2}. We have confirmed the presence of a region near the superfluid transition, reported by Liu and Ahlers [Phys. Rev. Lett {bold 76}, 1300 (1996)], in which thermal dissipation is anomalously small. The temperature transients for reaching a steady state upon entering this region from the superfluid side or cooling back into the superfluid have been studied, and are found to be quite different from each other; one possible explanation for this behavior is proposed which implies that the region of anomalous dissipation has a low thermal diffusivity. We discuss the location of this region in the phase diagram of liquid {sup 4}He. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. High-Efficiency Non-Polar GaN-Based LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fini

    2010-11-30

    Inlustra Technologies with subcontractor U.C. Santa Barbara conducted a project with the principle goal of demonstrating high internal quantum efficiency blue (430 nm) and green (540nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect density non-polar GaN wafers. Inlustra pursued the fabrication of smooth thick a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as defect reduction techniques such as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) to uniformly lower dislocation density in these films. Limited free-standing wafers were produced as well. By the end of the reporting period, Inlustra had met its milestone of dislocation reduction to < 5 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}. Stacking faults were still present in appreciable density ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -1}), but were not the primary focus of defect reduction since there have been no published studies establishing their detrimental effects on LED performance. Inlustra's LEO progress built a solid foundation upon which further commercial development of GaN substrates will occur. UCSB encountered multiple delays in its LED growth and fabrication efforts due to unavoidable facilities outages imposed by ongoing construction in an area adjacent to the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) laboratory. This, combined with the large amount of ab initio optimization required for the MOCVD system used during the project, resulted in unsatisfactory LED progress. Although numerous blue-green photoluminescence results were obtained, only a few LED structures exhibited electroluminescence at appreciable levels. UCSB also conducting extensive modeling (led by Prof. Van de Walle) on the problem of non-radiative Auger recombination in GaN-based LED structures, which has been posited to contribute to LED efficiency 'droop' at elevated current density. Unlike previous modeling efforts, UCSB's approach was truly a first-principles ab initio methodology. Building on solid numerical foundations, the Auger recombination rates of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x

  12. CUES - A Study Site for Measuring Snowpack Energy Balance in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, Edward; Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert; Colee, Michael; Claffey, Keran

    2015-09-01

    Accurate measurement and modeling of the snowpack energy balance are critical to understanding the terrestrial water cycle. Most of the water resources in the western US come from snowmelt, yet statistical runoff models that rely on the historical record are becoming less reliable because of a changing climate. For physically based snow melt models that do not depend on past conditions, ground based measurements of the energy balance components are imperative for verification. For this purpose, the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) established the “CUES” snow study site (CRREL/UCSB Energy Site, http://www.snow.ucsb.edu/) at 2940 m elevation on Mammoth Mountain, California. We describe CUES, provide an overview of research, share our experience with scientific measurements, and encourage future collaborative research. Snow measurements began near the current CUES site for ski area operations in 1969. In the 1970s, researchers began taking scientific measurements. Today, CUES benefits from year round gondola access and a fiber optic internet connection. Data loggers and computers automatically record and store over 100 measurements from more than 50 instruments each minute. CUES is one of only five high altitude mountain sites in the Western US where a full suite of energy balance components are measured. In addition to measuring snow on the ground at multiple locations, extensive radiometric and meteorological measurements are recorded. Some of the more novel measurements include scans by an automated terrestrial LiDAR, passive and active microwave imaging of snow stratigraphy, microscopic imaging of snow grains, snowflake imaging with a multi-angle camera, fluxes from upward and downward looking radiometers, snow water equivalent from different types of snow pillows, snowmelt from lysimeters, and concentration of impurities in the snowpack. We give an

  13. [Nucleosynthesis, Rotation and Magnetism in Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This is my final report on the NASA ATP grant on nucleosynthesis, rotation and magnetism in accreting neutron stars (NAG5-8658). In my last two reports, I summarized the science that I have accomplished, which covered a large range of topics. For this report, I want to point out the graduate students that were partially supported on this grant and where they are now. Andrew Cumming is an Assistant Professor of Physics at McGill University, Greg Ushomirsky is a researcher at MIT s Lincoln Laboratories, Dean Townsley is a postdoctoral researcher at Univ. of Chicago, Chris Deloye is a postdoctoral researcher at Northwestern University. The other two students, Phil Chang and Tony Piro, are still at UCSB and will be completing their PhD s in Summer 05 and Summer 06.

  14. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Gardner, Beth; Maunder, Mark; Berg, Casper W.; Brooks, Mollie; Comita, Liza; Crone, Elizabeth; Cubaynes, Sarah; Davies, Trevor; de Valpine, Perry; Ford, Jessica; Gimenez, Olivier; Kéry, Marc; Kim, Eun Jung; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Magunsson, Arni; Martell, Steve; Nash, John; Nielson, Anders; Regentz, Jim; Skaug, Hans; Zipkin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. 2. R is convenient and (relatively) easy to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. 3. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield) to specific suggestions about how to change the mathematical description of models to make them more amenable to parameter estimation. 4. A companion web site (https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/nonlinear-modeling/projects) presents detailed examples of application of the three tools to a variety of typical ecological estimation problems; each example links both to a detailed project report and to full source code and data.

  15. ASAP progress and expenditure report for the month of February 1--29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Chambers, D.H.; Mantrom, D.M.; Miller, M.G.; Newman, M.J.; Robey, H.F.; Vigars, M.

    1996-03-20

    This is the ASAP progress and expenditure report for the month of February, 1996. The individual projects` report includes the sponsoring organization, the project identification, the principal investigator, long term objectives, short term objectives, accomplishments this reporting period, identification of issues or concerns, project budget estimate for the fiscal year, and monthly actual and year to date expenditures. The research project concerns a joint US/UK program to develop a high-priority radar system based on real aperture and synthetic aperature radar. Topics being researched include airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; program management; modeling and analysis; UCSB wave tank; stratified wave tank; and experiments in a thermo-stratified tank at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia.

  16. StochKit2: software for discrete stochastic simulation of biochemical systems with events

    PubMed Central

    Sanft, Kevin R.; Wu, Sheng; Roh, Min; Fu, Jin; Lim, Rone Kwei; Petzold, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: StochKit2 is the first major upgrade of the popular StochKit stochastic simulation software package. StochKit2 provides highly efficient implementations of several variants of Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), and tau-leaping with automatic step size selection. StochKit2 features include automatic selection of the optimal SSA method based on model properties, event handling, and automatic parallelism on multicore architectures. The underlying structure of the code has been completely updated to provide a flexible framework for extending its functionality. Availability: StochKit2 runs on Linux/Unix, Mac OS X and Windows. It is freely available under GPL version 3 and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/stochkit/. Contact: petzold@engineering.ucsb.edu PMID:21727139

  17. A unified interpretation of one-fifth to full scale thermal mixing experiments related to Pressurized Thermal Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Thermal mixing in relation to Pressurized Thermal Shock has been examined experimentally throughout the world in a variety of scales. These include the CREARE-1/5, the IVO/IVO(NRC)-2/5, the PURDUE(UCSB)-1/2, the CREARE-1/2, the HDR-1/1 and the UPTF-1/1 test facilities. The Regional Mixing Model and the associated computer programs REMIX and NEWMIX are used to interpret these data, in this report, in a comprehensive fashion. These interpretations indicate that cooldown transients and degree of stratification can be predicted with confidence. Universal stratification solutions are also provided, in graphical form, and a simple procedure for hand-calculation is also described. 40 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Irradiation Experiments in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Murray

    2012-09-01

    Reactor material testing in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) involves modeling and simulation of each experiment to accurately determine the irradiation temperature. This paper describes thermal analysis of capsule experiments using gas gap temperature control and provides data on recent material tests that validate the modeling results. Static capsule experiments and lead-out capsule experiments are discussed. The source of temperature variation in capsule experiments and ways to mitigate these variations are also explained. Two examples of instrumented lead-out capsule experiments, TMIST-1 and UCSB-2, are presented. A comparison of measured and calculated temperatures is used to validate the thermal models and to ascertain the accuracy of the calculated temperature.

  20. Limits on cold dark matter cosmologies from new anisotropy bounds on the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Meinhold, Peter; Lubin, Philip; Muciaccia, Pio Francesco; Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    A self-consistent method is presented for comparing theoretical predictions of and observational upper limits on CMB anisotropy. New bounds on CDM cosmologies set by the UCSB South Pole experiment on the 1 deg angular scale are presented. An upper limit of 4.0 x 10 to the -5th is placed on the rms differential temperature anisotropy to a 95 percent confidence level and a power of the test beta = 55 percent. A lower limit of about 0.6/b is placed on the density parameter of cold dark matter universes with greater than about 3 percent baryon abundance and a Hubble constant of 50 km/s/Mpc, where b is the bias factor, equal to unity only if light traces mass.

  1. Cold dark matter and degree-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy statistics after COBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Stompor, Radoslaw; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1993-01-01

    We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy in the UCSB South Pole 1991 degree-scale experiment. We examine cold dark matter cosmology with large-scale structure seeded by the Harrison-Zel'dovich hierarchy of Gaussian-distributed primordial inhomogeneities normalized to the COBE-DMR measurement of large-angle CMB anisotropy. We find it statistically implausible (in the sense of low cumulative probability F lower than 5 percent, of not measuring a cosmological delta-T/T signal) that the degree-scale cosmological CMB anisotropy predicted in such models could have escaped a detection at the level of sensitivity achieved in the South Pole 1991 experiment.

  2. Workshops on Enhancing the Impact of University Research on Critical Technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberger, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    This proposal was designed to initiate a series of workshops in which participants from universities, government and industry would look strategically at selected areas of technological and societal importance. One of these workshops, dedicated to the discussion of how materials modeling can solve critical problems in industry, held at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, January 7 through 11, 1996. ''Modeling of Industrial Materials: Connecting Atomistic and Continuum Scales'' was the first of a coordinated series of workshops, spanning over two years, being organized by a group of academic scientists at UCSB, MIT, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH). On the premise that materials research focused on technology also presents fundamental scientific challenges, the Workshop sought to identify specific areas of industrial needs and opportunities for materials modeling, interpreted as theory and simulation across all the relevant length scales, and to stimulate meaningful university-industry partnerships.

  3. Using observed warming to identify hazards to Mozambique maize production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Harrison, Laura; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    New Perspectives on Crop Yield Constraints because of Climate Change. Climate change impact assessments usually focus on changes to precipitation because most global food production is from rainfed cropping systems; however, other aspects of climate change may affect crop growth and potential yields.A recent (2011) study by the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group, determined that climate change may be affecting Mozambique's primary food crop in a usually overlooked, but potentially significant way (Harrison and others, 2011). The study focused on the direct relation between maize crop development and growing season temperature. It determined that warming during the past three decades in Mozambique may be causing more frequent crop stress and yield reductions in that country's maize crop, independent of any changes occurring in rainfall. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of that study.

  4. MUSIC for sub/millimeter astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    MUSIC (the Multiwavelength Submillimeter kinetic Inductance Camera) is an instrument being developed for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory by Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado, and UCSB. MUSIC uses microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) - superconducting micro-resonators - as photon detectors. The readout is almost entirely at room temperature and is highly multiplexed. MUSIC will have 576 spatial pixels in four bands at 850, 1100, 1300 and 2000 microns. MUSIC is scheduled for deployment at the CSO in the winter of 2010/2011. We present an overview of the camera design and readout and describe the current status of the instrument and some results from the highly successful May/June 2010 observing run at the CSO with the prototype camera, which verified the performance of the complete system (optics, antennas/filters, resonators, and readout) and produced the first simultaneous 3-color observations with any MKID camera.

  5. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 11; SeaWIFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); OReilly, John E.; Maritorena, Stephane; OBrien, Margaret C.; Siegel, David A.; Toole, Dierdre; Mueller, James L.; Mitchell, B. Greg; Kahru, Mati; Chavez, Francisco P.; Strutton, P.

    2000-01-01

    Volume 11 continues the sequential presentation of postlaunch data analysis and algorithm descriptions begun in Volume 9. Chapters 1 and 2 present the OC2 (version 2) and OC4 (version 4) chlorophyll a algorithms used in the SeaWiFS data second and third reprocessings, August 1998 and May 2000, respectively. Chapter 3 describes a revision of the K(490) algorithm designed to use water-leaving radiances at 490 nm which was implemented for the third reprocessing. Finally, Chapter 4 is an analysis of in situ radiometer calibration data over several years at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) to establish the temporal consistency of their in-water optical measurements.

  6. GeoTrack: bio-inspired global video tracking by networks of unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooah, Prabir; Collins, Gaemus E.; Hespanha, João P.

    2009-05-01

    Research from the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has identified swarming algorithms used by flocks of birds and schools of fish that enable these animals to move in tight formation and cooperatively track prey with minimal estimation errors, while relying solely on local communication between the animals. This paper describes ongoing work by UCSB, the University of Florida (UF), and the Toyon Research Corporation on the utilization of these algorithms to dramatically improve the capabilities of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to cooperatively locate and track ground targets. Our goal is to construct an electronic system, called GeoTrack, through which a network of hand-launched UAS use dedicated on-board processors to perform multi-sensor data fusion. The nominal sensors employed by the system will EO/IR video cameras on the UAS. When GMTI or other wide-area sensors are available, as in a layered sensing architecture, data from the standoff sensors will also be fused into the GeoTrack system. The output of the system will be position and orientation information on stationary or mobile targets in a global geo-stationary coordinate system. The design of the GeoTrack system requires significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in distributed control for a swarm of UAS to accomplish autonomous coordinated tracking; target geo-location using distributed sensor fusion by a network of UAS, communicating over an unreliable channel; and unsupervised real-time image-plane video tracking in low-powered computing platforms.

  7. A Web-Based Borehole Strong-motion Data Dissemination Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Seale, S.; Ratzesberger, H.; Civilini, F.; Vaughan, N.

    2009-12-01

    Accelerometric and pore pressure data from instrumented boreholes in southern California are producing very interesting observations from a large data set that includes 100’s of earthquake observations each month. While the majority of these are very small events, they provide the control data that represents the linear behavior of the site. In addition, the largest motions recorded to date, ~10%g, are getting to the regime where nonlinear soil behavior effects become important. In order to make these data more accessible to the seismology and earthquake engineering research community, software development of a web-based data dissemination portal has taken place under the George E. Brown Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program. This development includes processing and analysis tools, and web-based data dissemination available through the NEES@UCSB website [http://nees.ucsb.edu]. Of interest to the research community are the tools developed to provide search, waveform viewing, and download capabilities for access to data acquired through the various borehole-monitoring programs at UC Santa Barbara. Researchers interested in obtaining data recorded at the various field sites can use the map-based search tool to select a particular station and instrument(s). The user is then provided another map-based interface that allows the user to select events with choice of magnitude, distance, and time period. Once the user has selected an event of interest, the ability to view the data is provided, along with some waveform parameters like peak velocity and acceleration. The records can then be downloaded in a number of common formats, including MSEED, SAC, and an ASCII text-based real-time data viewer (RDV) format. The last format allows the data to be viewed in the NEES RDV tool, a platform independent JAVA program developed to display both real-time streaming data, or playback data that has been downloaded through the web-based event search tool.

  8. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  9. γH2AX and p53 responses in TK6 cells discriminate promutagens and nongenotoxicants in the presence of rat liver S9.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Derek T; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Kirkland, David; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-08-01

    Previous work with a diverse set of reference chemicals suggests that an in vitro multiplexed flow cytometry-based assay (MultiFlow™ DNA Damage Kit-p53, γH2AX, Phospho-Histone H3) can distinguish direct-acting clastogens and aneugens from nongenotoxicants (Bryce SM et al. []: Environ Mol Mutagen 57:171-189). This work extends this line of investigation to include compounds that require metabolic activation to form reactive electrophiles. For these experiments, TK6 cells were exposed to 11 promutagens and 37 presumed nongenotoxicants in 96 well plates. Unless precipitation or foreknowledge about cytotoxicity suggested otherwise, the highest concentration was 1 mM. Exposure occurred for 4 hr after which time cells were washed to remove S9 and test article. Immediately following the wash and again at 24 hr, cell aliquots were added to wells of a microtiter plate containing the working detergent/stain/antibody cocktail. After a brief incubation, robotic sampling was employed for walk-away flow cytometric data acquisition. Univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that γH2AX induction and p53 activation provide the greatest degree of discrimination between clastogens and nongenotoxicants. Multivariate prediction algorithms that incorporated both of these endpoints, in each combination of time points, were evaluated. The best performing models correctly predicted 9 clastogens out of 11 and 36 nongenotoxicants out of 37. These results are encouraging as they suggest that an efficient and highly scalable multiplexed assay can effectively identify clastogenic chemicals that require bioactivation. More work is planned with a broader range of chemicals, additional cell lines, and other laboratories to further evaluate the merits and limitations of this approach. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:546-558, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364561

  10. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldinger, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report, which supports NASA's PECSEE (Persistent Cognizant Software Engineering Environment) effort and complements the Kestrel Institute project "Inference System Integration via Logic Morphism". The ultimate purpose of the project is to develop a superior logical inference mechanism by combining the diverse abilities of multiple cooperating theorem provers. In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's, SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The PVS system (from SRI) in only automatic within decidable theories, but it has well-designed interactive capabilities: furthermore, it includes higher-order logic, not just first-order logic. The NuPRL system from Cornell University and the STeP system from Stanford University have facilities for constructive logic and temporal logic, respectively - both are interactive. It is often suggested - for example, in the anonymous "QED Manifesto"-that we should pool the resources of all these theorem provers into a single system, so that the strengths of one can compensate for the weaknesses of others, and so that effort will not be duplicated. However, there is no straightforward way of doing this, because each system relies on its own language and logic for its success. Thus. SNARK uses ordinary first-order logic with equality, PVS uses higher-order logic. and NuPRL uses constructive logic. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages. Kestrel's SPECWARE system has been the vehicle for the implementation.

  11. Scaling of the Specific Heat of Confined ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.; Gasparini, F. M.

    1997-03-01

    We report measurements of the specific heat of thick helium films confined between two silicon wafers. These films range in thickness from 0.107-0.692μm and possess a high degree of uniformity(S. Mehta, W.Y. Yu, A. Petrou, J. Lipa, D. Bishop and F.M. Gasparini, Czechoslovak J. Phys. 46, 133(1996).). When the data are analyzed to test predictions of correlation-length scaling(M.E. Fisher in Critical Phenomenon, Proc. 51^st) "Enrico Fermi" Summer School, Varenna, Italy, ed. M.S. Green (Academic Press, NY, 1971)., they collapse well for ν=0.6705(L.S. Goldner and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. B45, 13129(1992).) both above and below T_λ. We propose an empirical scaling function which has the correct asymptotic behavior. From this we obtain the surface specific heat. We also compare our results with theoretical calculations and earlier experiments. Work supported by NSF DMR9623831.

  12. Effect of aspect-ratio on vortex distribution and heat transfer in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overkamp, J.; Stevens, R. J. A. M.; Lohse, Detlef; Clercx, Herman J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical and experimental data for the heat transfer as function of the Rossby number Ro in rotating Rayleigh-Benard are presented for Pr = 4.38 and up to Ra = 4.52 × 109 . The aspect ratio is varied between Γ = 0.5 and Γ = 2.0. Without rotation, where the aspect ratio influences the global flow structure, we see a small aspect-ratio dependence in the Nusselt number. For stronger rotation, i.e. 1/Ro gg 1/Roc, the heat transport becomes independent of the aspect-ratio. We interpret this finding as follows: In the rotating regime the heat is mainly transported by vertically-aligned vortices. Since these vortices are local, the aspect ratio has a negligible effect on the heat transport in the rotating regime. Indeed, an analysis of the vortex statistics shows that the fraction of the horizontal area that is covered by vortices is aspect-ratio independent when 1/Ro gg 1/Roc. In agreement with the results of Weiss & Ahlers (2011) we find a vortex-depleted area close to the sidewall. Here, we show that there is also an area with enhanced vortex concentration next to the vortex-depleted edge region and that the absolute widths of both regions are independent of the aspect ratio. This proceeding is a summary of Stevens et al. (2011).

  13. Non Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection in glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Calzavarini, E.; Grossmann, S.; Lohse, D.

    2007-11-01

    We numerically analyze Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard flow in glycerol, which shows a dramatic change in the viscosity with temperature. The results are presented both as functions of the Rayleigh number Ra up to 108 (for fixed temperature difference Δ between the top and bottom plates) and as functions of Δ ("non-Oberbeck-Boussinesqness" or "NOBness") up to 50 K (for fixed Ra). For this large NOBness the center temperature Tc is more than 5 K larger than the arithmetic mean temperature Tm between top and bottom plate and only weakly depends on Ra. To physically account for the NOB deviations of the Nusselt numbers from its Oberbeck-Boussinesq values, we apply the decomposition of NuNOB/NuOB into the product of two effects, namely first the change in the sum of the top and bottom thermal BL thicknesses, and second the shift of the center temperature Tc as compared to Tm. While for water the origin of the Nu deviation is totally dominated by the second effect (cf. Ahlers G. et al., J. Fluid Mech., 569 (2006) 409) for glycerol the first effect is dominating, in spite of the large increase of Tc as compared to Tm.

  14. Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects on flow structure in Rayleigh-B'enard convection in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Calzavarini, Enrico; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-11-01

    Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects on the flow organization in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B'enard convection are numerically analyzed for water. The Rayleigh number Ra and the temperature difference δ(=Tb-Tt) between top and bottom plates are varied up to 10^8 and 60K, respectively. The simulation captures broken symmetry features, i.e., the center temperature Tc shift and the Nusselt number deviation, which are observed in the experiment of Ahlers et al. (2006, J. Fluid Mech., 569). Beyond Ra 10^6 the flow consists of a large diagonal center convection roll and two smaller rolls in the upper and lower corner, respectively. In the NOB case the center convection roll is still characterized by only one velocity scale, while the top and bottom corner flows are of different strength. We find the total energy based Reynolds number Re^E=

  15. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10-5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  16. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin E-mail: shenglin.jing@utoronto.ca E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ∼ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup −5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  17. Scaling of the Specific Heat of Bounded ^4He Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.; Gasparini, F. M.

    1998-03-01

    We report new measurements of the specific heat of a thick helium film confined between two silicon wafers(S. Mehta, W.Y. Yu, A. Petrou, J. Lipa, D. Bishop and F.M. Gasparini, Czechoslovak J. Phys. 46, 133(1996).). The latest data are for a 0.048μm thick film, which extend our earlier measurements on similar films(S. Mehta and F.M. Gasparini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2596(1997).) by a factor of 2. The latest experimental cell has the new oxide pattern, and has allowed us to make measurements into the superfluid region. When these data are analyzed to test predictions of correlation-length scaling(M.E. Fisher in Critical Phenomenon, Proc. 51^st) Enrico Fermi Summer School, Varenna, Italy, ed. M.S. Green (Academic Press, NY, 1971)., they collapse well onto the earlier data for ν=0.6705(L.S. Goldner and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. B45, 13129(1992).) both above and below T_λ. Some issues regarding scaling still remain near the heat capacity maximum. The experimental techniques used to obtain these data will also be discussed.

  18. Using Earth Data in an Introductory Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2002-12-01

    Activities that engage students in the use and interpretation of real earth data provide an effective way of promoting an understanding of the science process. In UCSB's introductory Oceanography course, major goals are to improve student understanding of how science works and how to interpret science claims in the popular media. Activities are modeled after those of practicing scientists. These include: a) posing a solvable problem, b) choosing and acquiring relevant data, c) describing the data, d) interpreting the data, e) giving talks to peers, and f) publishing and reviewing findings. Each of these activities poses pedagogical challenges that must be addressed in carefully sequenced course assignments that build upon each other, and respond to a variety of learning styles. The use of earth data in education also presents significant challenges in creating effective data acquisition and display tools. However, only item b, above, is pertinent to these tools. The other items present similar challenges. During the course, learners must acquire enough subject knowledge to successfully interpret the data. They must understand the theory or model they are testing, how the relevant data can be used to test the model, and how to illustrate and present their findings orally and in writing. Some of the assignments that support this are: online homework, online subject area mini-quizzes (randomly created from a database of questions), "questions of the day" in lecture, online short answer thought questions, lab section guided mini-investigations, lab section group presentations, short writing exercises, and 2 longer writing assignments. Students rate the writing assignments as the most effective course component that contributes to their learning. The writing assignments focus student effort and also produce a product that we can study in an attempt to measure student learning. Prof. Gregory Kelly and Prof. Charles Bazerman (UCSB Graduate School of Education) are

  19. Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Wang, S.; Kumar, S.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Pervez, M. S.; Fall, G. M.; Karsten, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    AGU 2015 Fall Meeting Session ID#: 7598 Remote Sensing Applications for Water Resources Management Land Surface Modeling Applications for Famine Early Warning James Verdin, USGS EROS Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA GSFC Amy McNally, NASA GSFC, UMD/ESSIC Kristi Arsenault, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shugong Wang, NASA GSFC, SAIC Sujay Kumar, NASA GSFC, SAIC Shrad Shukla, UCSB Chris Funk, USGS EROS Greg Fall, NOAA Logan Karsten, NOAA, UCAR Famine early warning has traditionally required close monitoring of agro-climatological conditions, putting them in historical context, and projecting them forward to anticipate end-of-season outcomes. In recent years, it has become necessary to factor in the effects of a changing climate as well. There has also been a growing appreciation of the linkage between food security and water availability. In 2009, Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) science partners began developing land surface modeling (LSM) applications to address these needs. With support from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, an instance of the Land Information System (LIS) was developed to specifically support FEWS NET. A simple crop water balance model (GeoWRSI) traditionally used by FEWS NET took its place alongside the Noah land surface model and the latest version of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and LIS data readers were developed for FEWS NET precipitation forcings (NOAA's RFE and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS). The resulting system was successfully used to monitor and project soil moisture conditions in the Horn of Africa, foretelling poor crop outcomes in the OND 2013 and MAM 2014 seasons. In parallel, NOAA created another instance of LIS to monitor snow water resources in Afghanistan, which are an early indicator of water availability for irrigation and crop production. These successes have been followed by investment in LSM implementations to track and project water availability in Sub-Saharan Africa and Yemen, work that is now underway. Adoption of

  20. Numerical Simulation of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Based on a New Transient FEM Co-seismic Source: Comparison to Far- and Near-Field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Stephan T.; Harris, Jeffrey C.; Tajalli Bakhsh, Tayebeh S.; Masterlark, Timothy L.; Kyriakopoulos, Christodoulos; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we simulate the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki tsunami using new coseismic tsunami sources based on inverting onshore and offshore geodetic data, using 3D Finite Element Models (FEM). Such FEMs simulate elastic dislocations along the plate boundary interface separating the stiff subducting Pacific Plate from the relatively weak forearc and volcanic arc of the overriding Eurasian plate. Due in part to the simulated weak forearc materials, such sources produce significant shallow slip (several tens of meters) along the updip portion of the rupture near the trench. To assess the accuracy of the new approach, we compare observations and numerical simulations of the tsunami's far- and near-field coastal impact for: (i) one of the standard seismic inversion sources (UCSB; S hao et al. 2011); and (ii) the new FEM sources. Specifically, results of numerical simulations for both sources, performed using the fully nonlinear and dispersive Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, are compared to DART buoy, GPS tide gauge, and inundation/runup measurements. We use a series of nested model grids with varying resolution (down to 250 m nearshore) and size, and assess effects on model results of the latter and of model physics (such as when including dispersion or not). We also assess the effects of triggering the tsunami sources in the propagation model: (i) either at once as a hot start, or with the spatiotemporal sequence derived from seismic inversion; and (ii) as a specified surface elevation or as a more realistic time and space-varying bottom boundary condition (in the latter case, we compute the initial tsunami generation up to 300 s using the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE). Although additional refinements are expected in the near future, results based on the current FEM sources better explain long wave near-field observations at DART and GPS buoys near Japan, and measured tsunami inundation, while they simulate observations at distant DART buoys as well or better than the UCSB

  1. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  2. FCRD Milestone Report: M21AF050901

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, David T; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Byun, Thak Sang; Odette, George R.; Klingensmith, Doug; Gragg, David; Stergar, Eric; Fields, Kirk

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to perform mechanical testing on large scale heats of the advanced ODS 14YWT alloy to investigate the effects of processing parameters on mechanical properties. Mechanical properties tests were conducted on two heats of the advanced ODS 14YWT ferritic alloy: the 14YWT-SM11 was produced by extrusion at ORNL and OW4 was produced by HIP at UCSB. The 14YWT-SM11 showed very high tensile strength compared to OW4, but showed less ductility as a result. The fracture toughness transition temperature of 14YWT-SM11 was determined in two orientations and showed T{sub 0} = 48 C in the favorably strong L-T direction while shifting by 63 C to T{sub 0} = 111 C in the weaker T-L direction. The fracture toughness transition temperature for OW4 was not determined but appeared to be within the range observed for 14YWT-SM11. The fracture toughness of 14YWT-SM11 at room temperature was 86.8 MPa{radical}m and 93.1 MPa{radical}m, which was much higher than that of OW4 (27.4 MPa{radical}m). The strain rate jump tests conducted on OW4 indicated that the creep properties were similar to MA957 at 750 C.

  3. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  4. Osiris: accessible and reproducible phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses within the Galaxy workflow management system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic tools and ‘tree-thinking’ approaches increasingly permeate all biological research. At the same time, phylogenetic data sets are expanding at breakneck pace, facilitated by increasingly economical sequencing technologies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accessible, modular, and sharable tools for phylogenetic analysis. Results We developed a suite of wrappers for new and existing phylogenetics tools for the Galaxy workflow management system that we call Osiris. Osiris and Galaxy provide a sharable, standardized, modular user interface, and the ability to easily create complex workflows using a graphical interface. Osiris enables all aspects of phylogenetic analysis within Galaxy, including de novo assembly of high throughput sequencing reads, ortholog identification, multiple sequence alignment, concatenation, phylogenetic tree estimation, and post-tree comparative analysis. The open source files are available on in the Bitbucket public repository and many of the tools are demonstrated on a public web server (http://galaxy-dev.cnsi.ucsb.edu/osiris/). Conclusions Osiris can serve as a foundation for other phylogenomic and phylogenetic tool development within the Galaxy platform. PMID:24990571

  5. The LEAPS GK-12 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, Elisabeth; Goodchild, Fiona; Garza, Marilyn

    2005-03-01

    The NSF-funded GK-12 program at UCSB, ``Let's Explore Applied Physical Science'' (LEAPS), awards full fellowships to competitively selected graduate students in the physical sciences and engineering, to support their engagement in local 8th and 9th grade science classrooms. The Fellows' responsibilities to LEAPS total 15 hours per week during the school year. They join consistently in the same classes to collaborate with teachers on delivery of discovery-oriented science instruction. Fellows work in 3-member, interdisciplinary teams. They benefit from this team approach through interaction with colleagues in other disciplines, validation from peers who share enthusiasm for science and mentoring, increased leadership and teaching skills, and a research safety net provided by teammates who can pick up the slack when one Fellow's research requires undivided attention. For teachers, the disciplinary breadth of the Fellow teams is an enormous asset in covering the broad physical science curriculum in CA. Students benefit from hands-on labs and small-group problem-solving exercises enabled by the Fellows' presence and from mentoring by these young scientists.

  6. Estimation of broadband surface emissivity from narrowband emissivities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Li, Chuanrong; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This work analyzed and addressed the estimate of the broadband emissivities for the spectral domains 3-14μm (ε(3-14)) and 3-∞μm (ε(3-∞). Two linear narrow-to-broadband conversion models were proposed to estimate broadband emissivities ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived emissivities in three thermal infrared channels 29 (8.4-8.7μm), 31 (10.78-11.28μm) and 32 (11.77-12.27μm). Two independent spectral libraries, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral library and the MODIS UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara) emissivity library, were used to calibrate and validate the proposed models. Comparisons of the estimated broadband emissivities using the proposed models and the calculated values from the spectral libraries, showed that the proposed method of estimation of broadband emissivity has potential accuracy and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between estimated and calculated broadband emissivities is less than 0.01 for both ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞). PMID:21263556

  7. Multi-frequency synthetic-aperture imaging with a lightweight ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenjan, Steven K.; Allen, Curt M.; Gardner, Duane; Wong, Howard R.; Lee, Hua; Lockwood, Stephanie J.

    2000-03-01

    The detection of buried objects, particularly hazardous waste containers and unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the Unites States in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing concern and the application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. The US Department of Energy's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), operated by Bechtel Nevada, has developed several frequency-modulated, continuous-wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units. To meet technical requirements for higher-resolution data, STL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is investigating advanced GPR hardware, signal processing, and synthetic-aperture imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery-operated unit that does not require surface contact, can be operated by a novice user, and can achieve improved resolution. The latter is accomplished by using synthetic-aperture imaging, which forms the subsurface images by fully utilizing the data sequences collectively along a scan path. We also present the backward propagation algorithm as the basic structure of the multiple-frequency tomographic imaging technique, and the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method which can be described as a degenerated case of the model where the computation procedure is approximated under the narrow-beam assumption.

  8. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  9. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  10. Aerosol Characterization and New Instrumentation for Better Understanding Snow Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    Snow albedo is determined by snowpack thickness and grain size, but also affected by contamination with light-absorbing, microscopic (e.g., mineral dust, combustion aerosols, bio-aerosols) and macroscopic (e.g., microalgae, plant debris, sand, organisms) compounds. Most currently available instruments for measuring snow albedo utilize the natural, downward flux of solar radiation and the reflected upward flux. This reliance on solar radiation (and, thus, large zenith angles and clear-sky conditions) leads to severe constraints, preventing characterization of detailed diurnal snow albedo cycles. Here, we describe instrumentation and methodologies to address these limitations with the development and deployment of new snow radiation sensors for measuring surface spectral and in-snow radiative properties. This novel instrumentation will be tested at the CRREL/UCSB Eastern Sierra (CUES) Snow Study Site at Mammoth Mountain, which is extensively instrumented for characterizing snow properties including snow albedo and surface morphology. However, it has been lacking instrumentation for the characterization of aerosols that can be deposited on the snow surface through dry and wet deposition. Currently, we are installing aerosol instrumentation at the CUES site, which are also described. This includes instruments for the multi-wavelength measurement of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and for the characterization of aerosol size distribution. Knowledge of aerosol concentration and physical and optical properties will allow for the study of aerosol deposition and modification of snow albedo and for establishing an aerosol climatology for the CUES site.

  11. The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) Years 9-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritorena, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Nelson, Norm B.

    2004-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda. The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  12. Bermuda Bio Optics Project. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda (N. Nelson, P.I.). The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  13. The Bermuda Bio-Optics Program (BBOP). Chapter 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Bermuda Bio-Optics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux at and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data collected at Bermuda. The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  14. The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) Years 9-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda. The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle. This final report addresses specific research activities, research results, and lists of presentations and papers submitted for publication.

  15. Quantum State Tomography of a Cooper-pair Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergey; Zaretskey, V.; Suri, B.; Kim, Z.; Palmer, B. S.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2011-03-01

    A 4-8 GHz microwave pulse shaping system with 3 ns Gaussian pulse rise time, arbitrary pulse envelope and phase control has been implemented. The system utilizes a two-channel 1 GSa/s DAC board to supply control voltages to an IQ mixer. The signals to the mixer have been optimized to obtain an on-off ratio of > 85 dB and phase deviations < 5 % . The setup has been used to manipulate an Al /AlOx / Al Cooper-pair box (CPB) qubit coupled to a lumped-element microwave resonator (f0 = 5 . 446 GHz). The CPB has a charging energy EC / h = 6 . 25 GHz and a maximum EJ / h = 19 GHz which was decreased to an effective EJ / h = 6 . 1 GHz by an external magnetic field. By measuring the microwave transmission at f0 in a pulsed-probe scheme, we perform a dispersive readout of the qubit. We present tomography data on the | g > , | e > , (| g > + | e >) /√{ 2 } and (| g > + i | e >) /√{ 2 } states. We find good agreement with theory, confirming that we have achieved the desired microwave pulse control. Designed by J. Martinis at UCSB and fabricated by HSCC.

  16. Infrared study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2008-03-01

    We present a systematic infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (FET). These experiments have revealed new unexpected aspects of both polymers and molecular crystals. IR spectromicroscopy was employed to image the charges in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) FETs. The charge density profile in the conducting channel uncovers a density-dependent mobility in P3HT due to disorder effects. Our IR studies of single crystal rubrene based FETs show that charge transport in these devices at room temperature is governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands. This result is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids. The above experiments have demonstrated the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for investigating physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices. This work is in collaboration with G. M. Wang, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger (UCSB), V. Podzorov, M.E. Gershenson (Rutgers), Z. Hao, M. C. Martin (ALS), N. Sai, A. D. Meyertholen, M. M. Fogler, M. Di Ventra and D. N. Basov (UCSD).

  17. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-22

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year`s summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices.

  18. Free surface microfluidic/SERS for detection of gas-phase DNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Brian D.; Lee, Seung Joon; Judy, Nick; Meinhart, Carl D.; Moskovits, Martin; Fountain, Augustus; Christesen, Steven; Guicheteau, Jason

    2010-04-01

    A novel microfluidic/SERS platform has been developed for real time sensing of 2,4-DNT. The fundamental research is being conducted at UCSB, commercialized by SpectraFluidics, and validated at ECBC. The system leverages phenomena at multiple length scales, ranging from tens of micrometers to several nanometers. The key enabling technology is a newly developed invention termed Free-Surface Fluidics (FSF), where one or more fluidic surfaces are confined by surface tension forces, and exposed to the surrounding atmosphere. The free-surface fluidic architecture is combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for detection of 2,4-DNT. Once 2,4-DNT analyte molecules are absorbed into the flow, they can interact with gold or silver colloidal particles. This architecture allows for analysis and deterministic control of SERS 'hot spot' aggregation, which can increase Raman scattering signal strength by up to 10 orders in magnitude. We have successfully measured DNT vapor at concentrations as low as ~1 ppb. This sensitivity value is confirmed by orthogonal measurements using GC-mass spectroscopy at ECBC.

  19. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  20. Surface Wave Dispersion Analysis Using Time-Frequency Filtering and an Interactive Normal Move Out (NMO) Tool with Uncorrelated Garner Valley Vibroseis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, N. E.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Baldwin, J. A.; Nigbor, R. L.; Chalari, A.; Castongia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency swept seismic sources (vibroseis) recorded by seismic arrays can be used to directly measure the surface wave apparent velocity as a function of frequency. Time-frequency filtering (TFF) passes only a narrow frequency band centered on the time varying frequency of the seismic source. This greatly improves the quality of the uncorrelated seismic data by removing noise outside of the narrow band filter. Sources of noise include traffic, harmonics generated by the seismic source and the propagating seismic waves. TFF also allows the separate analysis of the source fundamental frequency and each harmonic. The filtered data is used with an interactive normal move out (NMO) tool to adjust the time and apparent velocity parameters to extract a surface wave dispersion curve. This technique was used on the vibroseis data collected in the September 2013 seismic experiment conducted at the NEES@UCSB Garner Valley field site. Three vibroseis sources were used: a 45 KN shear shaker, a 450 N portable mass shaker, and a 26 KN vibroseis truck. They were recorded by two lines of 1 and 3 component accelerometers and geophones, and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (Silixa-iDAS™) system connected to 762 m of trenched fiber optical cable in a larger rectangular area.

  1. Accelerating the search for globally stable block polymer microphases using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Carol; Delaney, Kris; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    The diverse array of block copolymer (BCP) applications is possible because in the melt state, various morphologies that are periodic structures on the nanoscale emerge depending on the particular composition and architecture of the BCPs used. However, knowing which compositional parameters to use to obtain materials with desired properties is a Herculean task: there is an enormous parameter space to search. Furthermore, the problem is exacerbated by the fact that even at a fixed set of compositional parameters, it is difficult to determine the globally stable morphology and low-lying metastable states that will emerge, as complications arise from a rough free-energy landscape: a self-consistent field search may become trapped in high-energy metastable states, resulting in long and computationally expensive searches. We show that genetic algorithms, which are a biologically-inspired global search heuristic, may be a promising way to ameliorate this problem when used in conjunction with local optimizations performed by SCFT. NSF-GRFP, NSF DEMREF DMR-1332842, UCSB CNSI CSC.

  2. Automatic registration and mosaicking system for remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Kenney, Charles; Manjunath, Bangalore S.

    2003-03-01

    Image registration is an important operation in remote sensing applications that basically involves the identification of many control points in the images. As the manual identification of control points may be time-consuming and tedious several automatic techniques have been developed. This paper describes a system for automatic registration and mosaic of remote sensing images under development at the Division of Image Processing (National Institute for Space Research - INPE) and the Vision Lab (Electrical & Computer Engineering department, UCSB). Three registration algorithms, which showed potential for multisensor or temporal image registration, have been implemented. The system is designed to accept different types of data and information provided by the user which speed up the processing or avoid mismatched control points. Based on a statistical procedure used to characterize good and bad registration, the user can stop or modify the parameters and continue the processing. Extensive algorithm tests have been performed by registering optical, radar, multi-sensor, high-resolution images and video sequences. Furthermore, the system has been tested by remote sensing experts at INPE using full scene Landsat, JERS-1, CBERS-1 and aerial images. An online demo system, which contains several examples that can be carried out using web browser, is available.

  3. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT to the DOE NABIR PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Patricia A

    2009-08-31

    This project was funded to Dr. Mary Neu (LANL) and to Dr. Patricia Holden (UCSB) during the period 10/01/04-09/30/07 with the overall objective of, as stated in the proposal, to investigate how key reactions, which are known to affect major redox-active transition metals such as Fe and Mn, can affect Pu speciation and environmental mobility. The goals included investigating a) bacterial accumulation and immobilization of Pu species by Pseudomonas putida biofilm formation, and b) bacterial mineralization and immobilization via direct enzymatic and indirect biogeochemical reduction of Pu species by Geobacter metallireducens. Through a combination of aqueous chemical, radioanalytical, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses, Pu speciation and solution/solid phase distributions were to be characterized. The combination of biotransformation and biogeochemical research was aimed at filling significant gaps in the scientific basis for monitored natural attenuation and in situ stabilization of widespread and problematic Pu contamination, as well as providing immediately useful data to modeling and risk assessment efforts.

  4. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  5. Building a Science Software Institute: Synthesizing the Lessons Learned from the ISEES and WSSI Software Institute Conceptualization Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idaszak, R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Jones, M. B.; Ahalt, S.; Schildhauer, M.; Hampton, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF, in an effort to support the creation of sustainable science software, funded 16 science software institute conceptualization efforts. The goal of these conceptualization efforts is to explore approaches to creating the institutional, sociological, and physical infrastructures to support sustainable science software. This paper will present the lessons learned from two of these conceptualization efforts, the Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES - http://isees.nceas.ucsb.edu) and the Water Science Software Institute (WSSI - http://waters2i2.org). ISEES is a multi-partner effort led by National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). WSSI, also a multi-partner effort, is led by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI). The two conceptualization efforts have been collaborating due to the complementarity of their approaches and given the potential synergies of their science focus. ISEES and WSSI have engaged in a number of activities to address the challenges of science software such as workshops, hackathons, and coding efforts. More recently, the two institutes have also collaborated on joint activities including training, proposals, and papers. In addition to presenting lessons learned, this paper will synthesize across the two efforts to project a unified vision for a science software institute.

  6. Fully integrated hybrid silicon free-space beam steering source with 32-channel phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, J. C.; Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Bovington, J. T.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phased arrays is a promising method for implementing free-space communication links and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) without the sensitivity to inertial forces and long latencies which characterize moving parts. Implementing this approach on a silicon-based photonic integrated circuit adds the additional advantage of working with highly developed CMOS processing techniques. In this work we discuss our progress in the development of a fully integrated 32 channel PIC with a widely tunable diode laser, a waveguide phased array, an array of fast phase modulators, an array of hybrid III-V/silicon amplifiers, surface gratings, and a graded index lens (GRIN) feeding an array of photodiodes for feedback control. The PIC has been designed to provide beam steering across a 15°x5° field of view with 0.6°x0.6° beam width and background peaks suppressed 15 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions. Fabrication follows the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB with modifications to incorporate silicon diodes and a GRIN lens.

  7. Hybrid silicon free-space source with integrated beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Bovington, J. T.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2013-02-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phase arrays are desirable as a means of implementing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and free-space communication links without the need for moving parts, thus alleviating vulnerabilities due to vibrations and inertial forces. Implementing such an approach in silicon photonic integrated circuits is particularly desirable in order to take advantage of established CMOS processing techniques while reducing both device size and packaging complexity. In this work we demonstrate a free-space diode laser together with beam steering implemented on-chip in a silicon photonic circuit. A waveguide phased array, surface gratings, a hybrid III-V/silicon laser and an array of hybrid III/V silicon amplifiers were fabricated on-chip in order to achieve a fully integrated steerable free-space optical source with no external optical inputs, thus eliminating the need for fiber coupling altogether. The chip was fabricated using a modified version of the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB, with modifications in order to incorporate diodes within the waveguide layer as well as within the III-V gain layer. Beam steering across a 12° field of view with +/-0.3° accuracy and 1.8°x0.6° beam width was achieved, with background peaks suppressed 7 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions.

  8. Effect of Thermal History on the Deformation and Fracture of a Semicrystalline-Glassy Block Copolymer*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, C. Y.; Ruokolainen, J.; Fredrickson, G. H.; Kramer, E. J.; Hahn, S. F.; Magonov, S.

    2001-03-01

    We investigate the influence of thermal history on the deformation and fracture of a poly(vinyl cyclohexane)-poly(ethylene)-poly(vinyl cyclohexane) (PCHE-PE-PCHE) CEC triblock copolymer (M=107,000 g/mol; wt(PE)=0.29). Ordered thin films of CEC are bonded to ductile copper grids, deformed in tension and then examined by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. We find that the deformation and fracture mechanisms of CEC depend significantly on the thermal history. The CEC thin films undergo crazing and the crazes break down to form cracks at low strains when the films are prepared by slow cooling (- 0.5 C/min) from 190 C, where both PCHE and PE domains are rubbery. On the contrary, after being quenched to room temperature from 190 C, the CEC films become ductile with a change in deformation mechanism to competing shear deformation zones and crazing. Both physical aging of the PCHE domains and different semi-crystalline microstructures of the PE domains may play a role in determining these mechanisms and the resultant ductility or brittleness. *Supported in part by the NSF-DMR-MRSEC Program under the UCSB MRL.

  9. Influence of phonon emission on intersubband lifetimes in wide GaAs/AlGaAs and Si/SiGe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Murdin, B.N.; Pidgeon, C.R.; Lee, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    We have previously used the picosecond far-infrared free electron laser FELIX, at Rijnhuizen, to make the first direct excite-probe determination of the intersubband relaxation rate in wide GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with the subband separation smaller than the optical phonon energy. This measurement yielded short (40ps) lifetimes while acoustic phonon emission occurs on a 200ps scale. This is also in contrast with, among others, saturation measurements of swide wells with the UCSB FEL which gave lifetimes of 600ps. We discuss here the interpretation of the range of published results by calculation of the LO-phonon scattering rate, including the effects of finite electron temperature, T{sub e}. We have shown that relaxation can be dominated by LO-phonon emission even in wide wells, through the high energy tail of the distribution. The rate is very sensitive to T{sub e} between 30-70K, and also to carrier concentration, making it possible to account for the wide variety of published results with a single mechanism. We have extended our measurements to wide Si/SiGe quantum Wells, and find similarly short times (20-30ps). However, in non-polar materials such as SiGe the deformation potential scattering is much weaker and acoustic phonon emission (order 10ps in n-silicon) is expected to dominate.

  10. Integrating observation and statistical forecasts over sub-Saharan Africa to support Famine Early Warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J.P.; Husak, G.

    2007-01-01

    Famine early warning in Africa presents unique challenges and rewards. Hydrologic extremes must be tracked and anticipated over complex and changing climate regimes. The successful anticipation and interpretation of hydrologic shocks can initiate effective government response, saving lives and softening the impacts of droughts and floods. While both monitoring and forecast technologies continue to advance, discontinuities between monitoring and forecast systems inhibit effective decision making. Monitoring systems typically rely on high resolution satellite remote-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall imagery. Forecast systems provide information on a variety of scales and formats. Non-meteorologists are often unable or unwilling to connect the dots between these disparate sources of information. To mitigate these problem researchers at UCSB's Climate Hazard Group, NASA GIMMS and USGS/EROS are implementing a NASA-funded integrated decision support system that combines the monitoring of precipitation and NDVI with statistical one-to-three month forecasts. We present the monitoring/forecast system, assess its accuracy, and demonstrate its application in food insecure sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Tools for Implementing Science Practice in a Large Introductory Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists must have in-depth background knowledge of their subject area and know where current knowledge can be advanced. They perform experiments that gather data to test new or existing theories, present their findings at meetings, publish their results, critically review the results of others, and respond to the reviews of their own work. In the context of a course, these activities correspond to learning the background material by listening to lectures or reading a text, formulating a problem, exploring data using student friendly data access and plotting software, giving brief talks to classmates in a small class or lab setting, writing a science paper or lab report, reviewing the writing of their peers, and receiving feedback (and grades) from their instructors and/or peers. These activities can be supported using course management software and online resources. The "LearningWithData" software system allows solid Earth (focused on plate tectonics) data exploration and plotting. Ocean data access, display, and plotting are also supported. Background material is delivered using animations and slide show type displays. Students are accountable for their learning through included homework assignments. Lab and small group activities provide support for data exploration and interpretation. Writing is most efficiently implemented using the "Calibrated Peer Review" method. This methodology is available at http://cpr.molsci.ucla.edu/. These methods have been successfully implemented in a large oceanography class at UCSB.

  12. CMB Anisotropies Two Years after Cobe: Observations, Theory and the Future - Proceedings of the 1994 Cwru Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.

    1995-01-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * I. The Experimental Situation Two Years After COBE: Anisotropies, and the CMB Power Spectrum * COBE DMR Data, Signal and Noise: Color Plates * CMB Two Years After the COBE Discovery of Anisotropies * Comparison of Spectral Index Determinations * Two-Point Correlations in the COBE-DMR Two-Year Anisotropy Maps * A Preliminary Analysis of UCSB's South Pole 1993-94 Results * CMB Anisotropy Measurements During the Fourth Flight of MAX * Observations of the Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background by the Firs, SK93, and MSAM-I Experiments * The Python Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment * II. Theoretical Implications and Cosmology: The Early Universe, Large Scale Structure and Dark Matter * Testing Inflationary Cosmology and Measuring Cosmological Parameters Using the Cosmic Microwave Background * Inflation Confronts the CMB: An Analysis Including the Effects of Foreground * Testing Inflation with MSAM, MAX Tenerife and COBE * CMBR Anisotropy Due to Gravitational Radiation in Inflationary Cosmologies * Black Holes From Blue Spectra * Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies and the Geometry of the Universe * Ω and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies * CDM Cosmogony in an Open Universe * Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Anisotropy Induced by Cosmic Strings * Temperature Anisotropies in a Universe with Global Defects * The Nature Versus Nurture of Anisotropies * The Existence of Baryons at z = 1000 * Polarization-Temperature Correlations in the Microwave Background * III. Related Issues: BBN Limits on ΩB, and Comparing Theoretical Predictions and Observations * Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and ΩB: A Guide for CMB Interpreters * Quoting Experimental Information

  13. Unique stability of neutral interstitial hydrogen in cubic BN and diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John L.; van de Walle, Chris G.

    In virtually all semiconductors and insulators, hydrogen interstitial impurities act as negative-U centers, implying that hydrogen is never stable in the neutral charge state. Using hybrid density functional calculations, which are crucial for obtaining accurate properties of defects in semiconductors, we find a different behavior for hydrogen interstitials in diamond and cubic BN. In diamond, we find that hydrogen is a very strong positive-U center, and the neutral charge state of the interstitial is stable over a Fermi-level range of more than 2 eV. In cubic BN, a III-V compound semiconductor with properties similar to diamond, we also find positive-U behavior, though over a much smaller Fermi-level range. We will discuss the electronic-structure origins of this negative-U behavior, and compare with the properties of hydrogen in other materials. Research done in part at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, which is a U.S. DOE Office of Science Facility, at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. Work at UCSB was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Aesthetic Physics Education: A Symmetry Based, Physics and Fine Arts Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Jatila; Lubin, P. M.; Cook-Gumperz, J.; Raley, J. D.; Mazur, E.

    2006-12-01

    Physics education research in the past two decades has focused almost entirely on pedagogical methods, but the curriculum content remains unchanged. In a recent editorial in Physics Today (July, 2006, p. 10) the ability of physicists to “imagine new realities” is correlated with what are traditionally considered non-scientific skills, including imagination and creativity, qualities which are usually associated with fine arts. In view of the new developments in physics of the 21st Century, the importance of developing creativity and imagination through education is gaining recognition. We are investigating the effectiveness of teaching introductory physics from the viewpoint of symmetry, including the foundations of General Relativity and modern cosmology, without the need for the full tensor treatment. We will pilot a new course at UCSB in Winter Quarter, 2007 entitled Symmetry and Aesthetics in Introductory Physics. Our pedagogical model is based on three premises: that the introductory curriculum needs to be modernized; that mathematics should be presented as a language; and that theoretical physics has, at its core, a great deal in common with music, art, and dance. In this talk we will present the contents of our new course, and the means by which we plan to evaluate it in comparison to “regular” introductory courses. It is our hope that this modernized and integrated approach to introductory physics can also serve as a course for future teachers of primary and secondary school. This work is supported by NASA grant #20070268 and the Planck Explorer Mission.

  15. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  16. Tsunami source parameters estimated from slip distribution and their relation to tsunami intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, Anna; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the level of tsunami hazard on the basis of earthquake moment magnitude often fails. The most important reason for this is that tsunamis are related to earthquakes in a complex and ambiguous way. In order to reveal a measure of tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake that would be better than moment magnitude of earthquake we introduce a set of tsunami source parameters that can be calculated from co-seismic ocean-bottom deformation and bathymetry. We consider more than two hundred ocean-bottom earthquakes (1923-2014) those for which detailed slip distribution data (Finite Fault Model) are available on USGS, UCSB, Caltech, and eQuake-RC sites. Making use of the Okada formulae the vector fields of co-seismic deformation of ocean bottom are estimated from the slip distribution data. Taking into account bathymetry (GEBCO_08) we determine tsunami source parameters such as double amplitude of bottom deformation, displaced water volume, potential energy of initial elevation, etc. The tsunami source parameters are examined as a function of earthquake moment magnitude. The contribution of horisontal component of ocean bottom deformation to tsunami generation is investigated. We analyse the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity as a function of tsunami source parameters. The possibility of usage of tsunami source parameters instead of moment magnitude in tsunami warning is discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 14-05-31295

  17. A Simple Test for Non-Gaussianity in Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Paul; Turok, Neil; Lubin, P. M.; Schuster, J. A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose a set of statistics for detecting non-Gaussianity in one-dimensional cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) anisotropy data sets. These statistics are both simple and, according to calculations over a space of linear combinations of three-point functions, nearly optimal at detecting certain types of nonGaussian features. We use this statistic to analyze the anisotropy detected by the UCSB SP91 experiment. According to this statistic the mean of the four frequency channels is significantly non-Gaussian. If this signal represents primordial CMBR fluctuations, it would be highly unlikely in a Gaussian theory with a small coherence angle, such as "standard" (n = 1,Ωb = 0.05, h = 0.5, Δ = 0) inflation. We cannot tell whether the observed non-Gaussian signal is cosmological in origin, but if we assume it due instead to foreground emission, and remove the points responsible for the non-Gaussian behavior, the rms of the remaining fluctuations is improbably low for the "standard" inflation theory. Further data are clearly needed before any definitive conclusions may be drawn. We also generalize the ideas behind this statistic to non-Gaussian features that might be detected in other experimental schemes.

  18. Optical Properties of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Kenneth

    2006-03-01

    Ferromagnetic semiconductors hold great promise for numerous magneto-optics applications. In this talk I detail recent optical spectroscopic studies of as grown and annealed thin films and digitally doped superlattices of Ga1-xMnxAs, prepared in the group of D.D. Awschalom (UCSB) and annealed in the group of N.Samarth (PSU). Annealing induces a large strengthening of the optical conductivity (σ1(φ)), while the frequency dependence of σ1(φ) remains unchanged. This indicates that the scattering rate and Fermi level have not been effected by annealing, despite the large increase in hole density. Our Infrared work on Digital Ferromagnetic Heterostructures reveals a unique ability to tune their optical properties as well as their intrinsic electronic structure without changing the doping/defect level. This work is in collaboration with D.B. Shrekenhamer, E.J. Singley, D.N. Basov (University of California, San Diego) J. Stephens, R.K. Kawakami, D.D. Awschalom(University of California, Santa Barbara), B.L. Sheu, and N. Samarth (Pennsylvania State University).

  19. Breakdown of the large-scale circulation in Γ=1/2 rotating Rayleigh-Bénard flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-11-01

    Experiments and simulations of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in cylindrical samples have revealed an increase in heat transport with increasing rotation rate. This heat transport enhancement is intimately related to a transition in the turbulent flow structure from a regime dominated by a large-scale circulation (LSC), consisting of a single convection roll, at no or weak rotation to a regime dominated by vertically aligned vortices at strong rotation. For a sample with an aspect ratio Γ=D/L=1 (D is the sample diameter and L is its height) the transition between the two regimes is indicated by a strong decrease in the LSC strength. In contrast, for Γ=1/2, Weiss and Ahlers [J. Fluid Mech.JFLSA70022-112010.1017/jfm.2011.392 688, 461 (2011)] revealed the presence of a LSC-like sidewall temperature signature beyond the critical rotation rate. They suggested that this might be due to the formation of a two-vortex state, in which one vortex extends vertically from the bottom into the sample interior and brings up warm fluid while another vortex brings down cold fluid from the top; this flow field would yield a sidewall temperature signature similar to that of the LSC. Here we show by direct numerical simulations for Γ=1/2 and parameters that allow direct comparison with experiment that the spatial organization of the vertically aligned vortical structures in the convection cell do indeed yield (for the time average) a sinusoidal variation of the temperature near the sidewall, as found in the experiment. This is also the essential and nontrivial difference with the Γ=1 sample, where the vertically aligned vortices are distributed randomly.

  20. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white

  1. Field Trial of Distributed Acoustic Sensing Using Active Sources at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.; Chalari, A.; Lancelle, C.; Baldwin, J. A.; Castongia, E.; Fratta, D.; Nigbor, R. L.; Karaulanov, R.

    2014-12-01

    An optical fiber Distributed Acoustic Sensor array was deployed in a shallow trench at the site of the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) in southern California. The site was operated as a collaborator of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) by UCSB. The fiber-optic cable layout approximated a rectangle whose dimensions were roughly 160 meters by 80 meters. The layout included two subdiagonals to provide a variety of orientations of the cable relative to source locations. The study included different seismic sources deployed at a number of surveyed positions: a 45 kN shear shaker operated at the site by NEES@UCLA, a portable 450 N shaker, a small Vibroseis truck, and hammer blows on a steel plate to map cable locations. Several dozen separate tests were recorded in which each test typically included ten repeats. The data were utilized for several studies. First, the characteristics of the recorded signals were analyzed for directivity and sensitivity of the cable response (Lancelle et al., 2014, this meeting). The DAS system recorded dynamic ground events in the direction of the cable and hence comparisons with geophones required signal processing. The one-meter spacing of DAS traces could be well correlated over distances of a few meters. Second, swept-sine sources were used to obtain surface-wave velocity dispersion to determine near-surface shear-wave velocity distribution using Multispectral Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) (Baldwin et al., 2014, this meeting). The results were in good agreement with previous Vibroseis results at the site (Stokoe et al. 2004). Third, a new method for time-frequency filtering was developed for extracting the surface-wave phase velocities from uncorrelated receiver traces (Lord et al., 2014, this meeting).

  2. Inverse Bloch-oscillator: Strong Thz-photocurrent resonances at the Bloch frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Unterrainer, K.; Keay, B.J.; Wanke, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    We have observed resonant changes in the current-voltage characteristics of miniband semiconductor superlattices when the Bloch frequency is resonant with a terahertz field and its harmonics: the inverse Bloch oscillator effect. The resonant feature consists of a peak in the current which grows with increasing laser intensity accompanied by a decrease of the current at the low bias side. The peak position moves linearly with the laser frequency. When the intensity is increased further the first peak starts to decrease and a second peak at about twice the voltage of the first peak is observed due to a two photon resonance. At the highest intensities we observe up to a four photon resonance. A superlattice is expected to show negative differential conductance due to the strong nonparabolicity of the miniband. In this situation the carriers should undergo Bloch oscillations with a frequency {omega}{sub B} = eEd/h. Transient Bloch oscillations of photo excited carriers have been observed in time resolved Thz emission measurements. However, the possibility of Thz generation form a DC voltage biased superlattice is still under discussion. We have approached this problem by exploring the inverse Bloch oscillator effect in a superlattice excited by the Thz radiation form the UCSB FEL. The superlattice consists of 40 periods of 80{angstrom} GaAs wells and 20{angstrom} Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As barriers. To couple the electric field of the Terahertz radiation parallel to the growth direction a coplanar bowtie antenna has been employed. Our results show clearly that the external radiation couples to Bloch oscillations in contrary to theoretical suggestions that Thz radiation would not couple to a uniform Wannier Stark ladder. We conclude that this result is intimately related to dissipation and line broadening of the otherwise identical states in the ladder: absorption appears above the Wannier Stark splitting ({omega}{sub B}<{omega}) and gain below ({omega}{sub B}>{omega}).

  3. A linear coherent integrated receiver based on a broadband optical phase-locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Anand

    Optical Phase-Locked Loops (OPLL) have diverse applications in future communication systems. They can be used in high sensitivity homodyne phase-shift keying receivers for phase noise reduction, provided sufficient loop bandwidth is maintained. Alternative phase-locked loop applications include coherent synchronization of laser arrays and frequency synthesis by offset locking. In this work, a broadband OPLL based coherent receiver is used for linear phase demodulation. Phase modulated (PM) analog optical links have the potential to outperform conventional direct detection links. However, their progress has been stymied by the lack of a linear phase demodulator. We describe how feedback can be used to suppress non-linearities arising from the phase demodulation process. The receiver concept is demonstrated at low frequencies and is found to improve the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of an experimental analog link by over 20dB. In order to extend the operation of the receiver to microwave frequencies, latencies arising from physical delays in the feedback path need to be dramatically reduced. To facilitate this, monolithic and hybrid versions of the receiver based on compact integration of InP photonic integrated circuits (PIC) with InP and SiGe electronic integrated circuits (EIC) have been developed at UCSB. In this work, we develop novel measurement techniques to characterize the linearity of the individual components of the PIC, namely, the semiconductor photodiodes and optical phase modulators. We then demonstrate the operation of the receiver in a high power analog link. The OPLL based receiver has a bandwidth of 1.5GHz. The link gain and shot-noise limited SFDR at 300MHz are -2dB and 125dB-Hz2/3, respectively. Further, optical sampling downconversion is demonstrated as a viable technique to increase the operating frequency of the receiver beyond the baseband range.

  4. Development and assessment of two-phase porous matrices for use in all-oxide ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroki

    The study focuses on a class of all-oxide continuous-fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) in which damage tolerance is derived from a highly-porous matrix, without an interphase at the fiber-matrix boundary. It includes experiments and analyses on both a representative oxide CFCC (developed earlier at UCSB) and a series of alumina-mullite matrices. The first part of the thesis addresses the stability of the porosity against densification and the associated implications for long-term durability at elevated temperatures. For this purpose, changes in the mechanical properties of the CFCC following 1000 hour exposure at 1000--1200°C were examined. Despite evidence of some strengthening of the matrix, the tensile properties in the 0°/90° orientation, including strength and failure strain, are unchanged. This strengthening is manifested to a more significant extent in the composite properties in the +/-45° orientation. The remainder of the thesis focuses on the assessment of weakly bonded mixtures of mullite and alumina as candidate matrices. Stability against densification is accomplished by using mullite particles as the major phase. This stability arises from the sluggish sintering kinetics of mullite. The matrix is strengthened by adding alumina, either as small particulates in the starting slurry or by subsequent impregnation and pyrolysis of a precursor solution. The modulus and the toughness of both types of mixtures as well as the changes in these properties following aging at 1200°C are examined. Models based on bonded particle aggregates are presented, assessed and calibrated. When coupled with a crack deflection parameter, the models are useful in determining the conditions under which damage tolerance is lost, because of excessive strengthening of the matrix. The implications of these results in matrix design are discussed.

  5. Keeping our focus: a perspective on distance learning and the large introductory science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, William A.

    2000-07-01

    The internet and worldwide web provide powerful new education and information delivery capabilities which can be used to achieve educational goals. However, it is important to review overall trends in science teaching practice and attempt to identify areas where network learning is likely to make strong contributions and where it may be weak. It is generally agreed that science knowledge is most effectively acquired when students apply a range of cognitive processes during the learning process. Trends in science education are directed toward an emphasis in active learning and group learning, increased reliance on writing, increased use of computers to provide students with access to large datasets for open-ended problems, and depth of treatment is emphasized over coverage of many subjects. Experience gained in large introductory classes is useful in designing effective network environments. The UCSB Oceanography Class is typical with 200-300 students per quarter, 3 h of lecture, and 2 h of lab per week. The focus of a portion of the class is on learning about science by doing science. Students must pose a problem related to plate tectonics to investigate, use the "Our Dynamic Planet" CD-ROM to acquire data from its datasets, and write a scientific paper based on their investigation. Network technology is used extensively for homework entry and automatic grading, and student access to their grades for individual activities. A class is framed in terms of content, presence, and social context. Except for presence, network approaches could provide substantial improvements. Technology developments in peer review software and simple (technically) posting of student work to the network, combined with bulletin board, chat and listserves, could support the development of a social context. Experience suggests that the success of network approaches will depend strongly on individual student capabilities, needs and goals.

  6. FRAMING Linguistics: ``SEANCES"(!!!) Martin-Bradshaw-Siegel ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering For:Fun, Profit, Survival, Ego": Rampant UNethics Sociological-DYSfunctionality!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, John; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    ``Sciences''/SEANCES(!!!) rampant UNethics!!! WITNESS: Yau v Perelman Poincare-conj.-pf. [Naser, NewYorker(8/06)]; digits log- law Siegel[AMS Nat.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] inversion to ONLY BEQS: Newcomb(1881)<<UCSB) (so MIS- called) ``spintronics'' copy of Overhauser(54)-(Slichter)-effect: 54<<<90s!!!; Siegel [AMS Nat.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126] proof: Fermat's: Last-Theorem = Least-Action Ppl:64<<<94(Wiles); ``Bak''/BNL (so called) ``SOC''= F=ma REdiscovery, copying Siegel [PSS(71);...] acoustic-emission:71<<<88: ``Per Bak''?, PRE Bak!!!; ``Bednorz''(v Raveau-Chu) high-Tc cuprate SC Nobel; ``Emery''(˜93)/ BNL high-Tc SC 3-band Hubbard-model v Siegel generic multi-(2- 10)-band spin-orbital-degeneracy(SOD)[Ph.D.,MSU(70);PSS(72;73); JMMM(76-80);World Cong.SC,Munich(92)]:70<<<93!!!; Anderson [1/3<1] failed cuprate high-Tc SC ``RVB'' v Overhauser correct cuprates/pnictides SSDWs:[(60s)<<<(87)];(so called) ``Anderson'' [1/3<1;PRL(58)] localization REdiscovery v Rayleigh(1881)``short- CUT'' graph-theory method[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks/Electric-Nets (81)]: 1881<<<58; ``Fert''[PRL(88)] 07-Nobel copying v Siegel[at flickr.com,search on ``GMR''; google: ``If Leaks Could Kill'']: [(78)<<<(88)]!!!: Marti[google: ``Brian Martin'']-Bradshaw [Healing the SHAME that BINDS You(80s)]: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

  7. A framework for assessing the impact of land use policy on community exposure to air toxics.

    PubMed

    Willis, Melvin R; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-04-01

    Our research focuses on the linkage between land use planning policy and the spatial pattern of exposure to air toxics emissions. Our objective is to develop a modeling framework for assessment of the community health risk implications of land use policy. The modeling framework is not intended to be a regulatory tool for small-scale land use decisions, but a long-range planning tool to assess the community health risk implications of alternative land use scenarios at a regional or subregional scale. This paper describes the development and application of an air toxic source model for generating aggregate emission factors for industrial and commercial zoning districts as a function of permitted uses. To address the uncertainty of estimating air toxics emission rates for planned general land use or zoning districts, the source model uses an emissions probability mass function that weights each incremental permitted land use activity by the likelihood of occurrence. We thus reduce the uncertainty involved in planning for development with no prior knowledge of the specific industries that may locate within the land use district. These air toxics emission factors can then be used to estimate pollutant atmospheric mass flux from land use zoning districts, which can then be input to air dispersion and human health risk assessment models to simulate the spatial pattern of air toxics exposure risk. The model database was constructed using the California Air Toxics Inventory, 1997 US Economic Census, and land assessment records from several California counties. The database contains information on more than 200 air toxics at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. We present a case study to illustrate application of the model. LUAIRTOX, the interactive spreadsheet model that applies our methodology to the California data, is available at http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~mwillis/LUAIRTOX.htm. PMID:16842900

  8. Validation and Application of PHYDOTax In The Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, C. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phytoplankton Functional Types(PFTs) are conceptual groupings of phytoplankton based on physical or functional characteristics. Understanding phytoplankton is essential in our study of how ecosystems function and in monitoring carbon flow. PHYDOTax is a PFT algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass in images from airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors. The PHYDOTax algorithm uses a spectral library and an inverse matrix approach to deconvolve pure phytoplankton spectral end-members from spectra of natural waters. The spectral library used in development was created from phytoplankton taxa found in Monterey Bay, CA and the California Current System (CCS). PHYDOTax has only been validated in Monterey Bay and for only one airborne sensor, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON). The objectives of this research were to apply PHYDOTax to a different region of the CCS, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), and to test the usability of PHYDOTax with a different airborne imager, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). PHYDOTax was modified to accommodate the reduced spectral resolution of AVIRIS, which has fewer wavelengths than the SAMSON imagery that was used to validate the model for Monterey Bay. PHYDOTax's predictions were consistent with cell-count data from whole water samples on June 5, 2013, courtesy of the Plumes and Blooms Cruise (UCSB). PHYDOTax's ability to perform in another area of the CCS shows promise that it may be accurately applied to the west coast of the US. PHYDOTax's ability to perform with lower spectral resolution imagery, suggests that it may it may be robust enough to be down-sampled to multi-spectral resolution inputs. This opens the possibility of applying PHYDOTax to historical (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS), existing (VIIRS, HICO), and future (PACE, GEO-CAPE) sensors to describe temporal trends in phytoplankton distribution and carbon flow in the ocean and to build continuity among the sensor

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval using simultaneous GOES-East and GOES-West reflected radiances over the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Hoff, R. M.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Lyapustin, A.

    2012-10-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the Western United States is observed independently by both the GOES-East and GOES-West imagers. The GASP (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product) aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm treats each satellite as a unique sensor and thus NOAA obtains two separate aerosol optical depth values at the same time for the same location. The TOA radiances and the associated derived optical depths can be quite different due to the different viewing geometries with large difference in solar-scattering angles. In order to fully exploit the simultaneous observations and generate consistent AOD retrievals from the two satellites, the authors develop a new aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm that uses data from both satellites. The algorithm uses combined GOES-East and GOES-West visible channel TOA reflectance and daily average AOD from GOES Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (GOES-MAIAC) on clear days (AOD less than 0.3), when diurnal variation of AOD is low, to retrieve surface BRDF. The known BRDF shape is applied on subsequent days to retrieve BRDF and AOD. The algorithm is validated at three AERONET sites over the Western US. The AOD retrieval accuracy from the hybrid technique using the two satellites is similar to that from one satellite over UCSB and Railroad Valley. Improvement of the accuracy is observed at Boulder. The correlation coefficients between the GOES AOD and AERONET AOD are in the range of 0.67 to 0.81 over the three sites. The hybrid algorithm has more data coverage compared to the single satellite retrievals over surfaces with high reflectance. The number of coincidences with AERONET observations increases from the use of two-single satellite algorithms by 5-80% for the three sites. With the application of the new algorithm, consistent AOD retrievals and better retrieval coverages can be obtained using the data from the two GOES satellite imagers.

  10. A multi-angle aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm for geostationary satellite data over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Ciren, P.; Hoff, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from geostationary satellites have high temporal resolution compared to the polar orbiting satellites and thus enable us to monitor aerosol motion. However, current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have only one visible channel for retrieving aerosols and hence the retrieval accuracy is lower than those from the multichannel polar-orbiting satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The operational GOES AOD retrieval algorithm (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product, GASP) uses 28-day composite images from the visible channel to derive surface reflectance, which can produce large uncertainties. In this work, we develop a new AOD retrieval algorithm for the GOES imager by applying a modified Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. The algorithm assumes the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) in the channel 1 of GOES is proportional to seasonal average MODIS BRDF in the 2.1 μm channel. The ratios between them are derived through time series analysis of the GOES visible channel images. The results of AOD and surface reflectance retrievals are evaluated through comparisons against those from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), GASP, and MODIS. The AOD retrievals from the new algorithm demonstrate good agreement with AERONET retrievals at several sites across the US with correlation coefficients ranges from 0.71 to 0.85 at five out of six sites. At the two western sites Railroad Valley and UCSB, the MAIAC AOD retrievals have correlations of 0.8 and 0.85 with AERONET AOD, and are more accurate than GASP retrievals, which have correlations of 0.7 and 0.74 with AERONET AOD. At the three eastern sites, the correlations with AERONET AOD are from 0.71 to 0.81, comparable to the GASP retrievals. In the western US where surface reflectance is higher than 0.15, the new algorithm also produces larger AOD retrieval coverage

  11. Symmetry and aesthetics in introductory physics: An experiment in interdisciplinary physics and fine arts education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Janet Krause

    In a recent editorial in Physics Today (July, 2006, p. 10) the ability of physicists to "imagine new realities" was correlated with what have been traditionally considered non-scientific qualities of imagination and creativity, which are usually associated with fine arts. In view of the current developments in physics of the 21st Century, including the searches for cosmic dark energy and evidence from the Large Hadron Collider which, it is hoped, will verify or refute the proposals of String Theory, the importance of developing creativity and imagination through education is gaining recognition. Two questions are addressed by this study: First, How can we bring the sense of aesthetics and creativity, which are important in the practice of physics, into the teaching and learning of physics at the introductory college level, without sacrificing the mathematical rigor which is necessary for proper understanding of physics? Second, How can we provide access to physics for a diverse population of students which includes physics majors, arts majors, and future teachers? An interdisciplinary curriculum which begins with teaching math as a language of nature, and utilizes arts to help visualize the connections between mathematics and the physical universe, may provide answers to these questions. In this dissertation I describe in detail the case study of the eleven students - seven physics majors and four arts majors - who participated in an experimental course, Symmetry and Aesthetics in Introductory Physics, in Winter Quarter, 2007, at UCSB's College of Creative Studies. The very positive results of this experiment suggest that this model deserves further testing, and could provide an entry into the study of physics for physics majors, liberal arts majors, future teachers, and as a foundation for media arts and technology programs.

  12. Active Travel-Time Tomography using a Distributed Acoustic Sensing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelle, C.; Fratta, D.; Lord, N. E.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a sensor array used for monitoring ground motion by utilizing the interaction of light pulses with sections of a fiber-optic cable. In September 2013 a field test was conducted at the NEES@UCSB Garner Valley field site in Southern California incorporating DAS technology. A 762-meter-long fiber-optic cable was trenched to a depth of about 0.3 m in a rectangular design with two interior diagonal segments. The fiber was excited by a number of sources, including a 45 kN shear shaker and a smaller 450 N portable mass shaker, both of which were available through NEES@UCLA. In addition to these sources, signals were recorded from a minivib source and hammer blows on a steel plate, as well as 8 hours of overnight ambient noise recording. One goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of DAS for tomographic studies. The large number of measurement points inherent to DAS lends itself well to this type of study. Tomograms were constructed using two of the active-sources at multiple locations. There were 8 minivib locations within the array and 13 hammer locations along the boundary of the array. Travel-time data were collected with the DAS array. Two-dimensional velocity tomograms were constructed for different resolutions from the two active sources and compared. In all the images, the lowest velocities lie near the center of the array with higher velocities surrounding this area. The impact results, however, may contain an artifact due to multiple propagation modes. This research is part of the DOE's PoroTomo project.

  13. Satellite Ocean Color Data Merging Using a Bio-optical model: A Path for Earth Science Data Records ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritorena, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Hembise Fanton D'Andon, O.; Mangin, A.; Frew, J.; Nelson, N.

    2009-12-01

    The characteristics and benefits of ocean color merged data sets created using a semi-analytical model and the normalized water-leaving radiance observations from the SeaWiFS, MODIS-AQUA and MERIS ocean color missions are presented. Merged data products are coalesced from multiple mission observations into a single data product with better spatial and temporal coverage than the individual missions. Using the data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-AQUA and MERIS for the 2002-2009 time period, the average daily coverage of a merged product is ~25% of the world ocean which is nearly twice that of any single mission’s observations. The frequency at which a particular area is sampled from space is also greatly improved in merged data as some areas can be sampled as frequently as 64% of the time (in days). The merged data are validated through matchup analyses and by comparing them to the data sets obtained from individual missions. Further, a complete error budget was developed which accounts for uncertainty associated with input water-leaving radiances, the bio-optical model and uncertainty estimates for the output products (i.e. the chlorophyll concentration, the combined dissolved and detrital absorption coefficient and the particulate backscattering coefficient). These merged products and their uncertainties at each pixel were developed within the NASA MEASURES (http://wiki.icess.ucsb.edu/measures/index.php/Main_Page) and ESA GlobColour (http://www.globcolour.info/) projects and are available to the scientific community. The merging approach has many potential benefits for the creation of Earth Science Data Records from satellite ocean color observations.

  14. COMMITTEES: Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F T Avignone, University of South Carolina B C Barish, CALTECH E Bellotti, University of Milano, INFN J Bernabeu, University of Valencia A Bottino (Chair), University of Torino, INFN N Fornengo, University of Torino, INFN T Kajita, ICRR University of Tokyo C W Kim, Johns Hopkins University, KIAS V Matveev, INR Moscow J Morales, University of Zaragoza G Raffelt, MPI Munchen D Sinclair, University of Carleton M Spiro, IN2P3 TAUP 2009 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J J Aubert, CNRS Marseille M Baldo-Ceolin, University of Padova, INFN G Bellini, University of Milano, INFN L Bergstrom, University of Stockholm R Bernabei, University of Roma Tor Vergata, INFN A Bettini, University of Padova, INFN, LSC S Bilenky, JINR Dubna D O Caldwell, UCSB J Cronin, University of Chicago A Dar, Technion Haifa G Domogatsky, INR Moscow J Ellis, CERN E Fernandez, IFAE Barcelona E Fiorini, University of Milano, INFN T Gaisser, University of Delaware G Gelmini, UCLA G Gerbier, CEA Saclay A Giazotto, INFN Pisa F Halzen, University of Wisconsin W Haxton, University of Washington T Kirsten MPI Heidelberg L Maiani, University of Roma La Sapienza, INFN A McDonald, Queen's University K Nakamura, KEK R Petronzio, INFN, University of Roma Tor Vergata L Resvanis, University of Athens F Ronga INFN, LNF C Rubbia INFN, LNGS A Smirnov, ICTP Trieste C Spiering, DESY N Spooner, University of Sheffield A Suzuki, KEK S Ting MIT, CERN M S Turner, FNAL, University of Chicago J W F Valle, IFIC Valencia D Vignaud, APC Paris G Zatsepin, INR Moscow TAUP 2009 ORGANIZING COMMITTEE R Aloisio, LNGS R Antolini, LNGS F Arneodo, LNGS Z Berezhiani, University of L'Aquila, INFN V Berezinsky, LNGS R Cerulli, LNGS E Coccia [Chair], LNGS/INFN, U of Roma Tor Vergata N D'Ambrosio, LNGS N Fornengo, University of Torino, INFN M Laubenstein, LNGS O Palamara, LNGS L Pandola [Scientific Secretary], LNGS

  15. Garner Valley Vibroseis Data Processing Using Time-Frequency Filtering Techniques to Remove Unwanted Harmonics and External Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, N. E.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Chalari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Time-frequency filtering techniques can greatly improve data quality when combined with frequency swept seismic sources (vibroseis) recorded by seismic arrays by removing unwanted source harmonics or external noise sources (e.g., cultural or ambient noise). A source synchronous filter (SSF) is a time-frequency filter which only passes a specified width frequency band centered on the time varying frequency of the seismic source. A source delay filter (SDF) is a time-frequency filter which only passes those frequencies from the source within a specified delay time range. Both of these time-frequency filters operate on the uncorrelated vibroseis data and allow separate analysis of the source fundamental frequency and each harmonic. In either technique, the time-frequency function of the source can be captured from the source encoder or specified using two or more time-frequency points. SSF and SDF were both used in the processing of the vibroseis data collected in the September 2013 seismic experiment conducted at the NEES@UCSB Garner Valley field site. Three vibroseis sources were used: a 45 kN shear shaker, a 450 N portable mass shaker, and a 26 kN vibroseis truck. Seismic signals from these sources were recorded by two lines of 1 and 3 component accelerometers and geophones, and the Silixa Ltd's intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensing (iDASTM ) system connected to 762 m of trenched fiber optical cable in a larger rectangular area. SSF and SDF improved vibroseis data quality, simplified data interpretation, and allowed new analysis techniques. This research is part of the larger DOE's PoroTomo project (URL: http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  16. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  17. Hybrid III-V Silicon Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, John

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A number of important breakthroughs in the past decade have focused attention on Si as a photonic platform. We review here recent progress in this field, focusing on efforts to make lasers, amplifiers, modulators and photodetectors on or in silicon. We also describe optimum quantum well design and distributed feedback cavity design to reduce the threshold and increase the efficiency and power output. The impact active silicon photonic integrated circuits could have on interconnects, telecommunications and on silicon electronics is reviewed. Biography: John Bowers holds the Fred Kavli Chair in Nanotechnology, and is the Director of the Institute for Energy Efficiency and a Professor in the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials at UCSB. He is a cofounder of Aurrion, Aerius Photonics and Calient Networks. Dr. Bowers received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University and worked for AT&T Bell Laboratories and Honeywell before joining UC Santa Barbara. Dr. Bowers is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the IEEE, OSA and the American Physical Society. He is a recipient of the OSA/IEEE Tyndall Award, the OSA Holonyak Prize, the IEEE LEOS William Streifer Award and the South Coast Business and Technology Entrepreneur of the Year Award. He and coworkers received the EE Times Annual Creativity in Electronics (ACE) Award for Most Promising Technology for the hybrid silicon laser in 2007. Bowers' research is primarily in optoelectronics and photonic integrated circuits. He has published ten book chapters, 600 journal papers, 900 conference papers and has received 54 patents. He has published 180 invited papers and conference papers, and given 16 plenary talks at conferences. As well as Chong Zhang.

  18. A meta-analysis reveals a positive correlation between genetic diversity metrics and environmental status in the long-lived seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marlene; Olsen, Jeanine L; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2015-05-01

    The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a key engineering species structuring coastal marine systems throughout much of the Mediterranean basin. Its decline is of concern, leading to the search for short- and long-term indicators of seagrass health. Using ArcGIS maps from a recent, high-resolution (1-4 km) modelling study of 18 disturbance factors affecting coastal marine systems across the Mediterranean (Micheli et al. 2013, http://globalmarine.nceas.ucsb.edu/mediterranean/), we tested for correlations with genetic diversity metrics (allelic diversity, genotypic/clonal diversity and heterozygosity) in a meta-analysis of 56 meadows. Contrary to initial predictions, weak but significantly positive correlations were found for commercial shipping, organic pollution (pesticides) and cumulative impact. This counterintuitive finding suggests greater resistance and resilience of individuals with higher genetic and genotypic diversity under disturbance (at least for a time) and/or increased sexual reproduction under an intermediate disturbance model. We interpret the absence of low and medium levels of genetic variation at impacted locations as probable local extinctions of individuals that already exceeded their resistance capacity. Alternatively, high diversity at high-impact sites is likely a temporal artefact, reflecting the mismatch with pre-environmental impact conditions, especially because flowering and sexual recruitment are seldom observed. While genetic diversity metrics are a valuable tool for restoration and mitigation, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of correlative patterns as found in this study, because the exceptional longevity of individuals creates a temporal mismatch that may falsely suggest good meadow health status, while gradual deterioration of allelic diversity might go unnoticed. PMID:25819368

  19. Correlations and Statistics of the Discrete Spectra of Multielectron Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Charles M.

    1998-03-01

    This talk concerns the effects of electron-electron interactions on the ground state and excited state spectra of multielectron quantum dots. Recent experiments are described in which linear and nonlinear magnetoconductance measurements of Coulomb blockade peaks in low-temperature regime, kT<Δ << Ec (Δ is the mean level spacing, Ec is the charging energy), are used to ``fingerprint'' individual quantum levels, as ground states as well as excited states. Quantum levels maintain their magnetofingerprint for up to 4 consecutive peaks, moving sequentially from higher excited states to the ground state as electrons are added to the dot.(D.R. Stewart, D.S. Sprinzak, C.M. Marcus, C. I. Duruoz, J.S. Harris, Jr., Science 278), 17 84 (1997). This observation is (perhaps surprisingly) in accordance with a simple single-particle constant-interaction picture of quantum Coulomb blockade transport, except for a notable absence of spin degeneracy in the spectrum. In a related measurement (S. R. Patel, S. M. Cronenwett, D. R. Stewart, A. G. Huibers, C. M. Marcus, C. I. Duruoz, J. S. Harris, K. Campman, A. C. Gossard, "Statistics of Peak Spacing Fluctuations" (preprint) condmat/9708090), the distribution of spacings between Coulomb blockade peaks measured over ~ 10^4 peaks also fails to show spin degeneracy, which would show up as a bimodal spacing distribution. Both experiments suggest that multielectron chaotic or disordered dots show a breaking of spin pairing similar to Hund's rule effects in atoms and few-electron parabolic dots. Related papers can be found at http:// www.stanford.edu/group/MarcusLab/grouppubs.html. Support for the Marcus Group from ARO (DAAH04-95-1-0331), ONR (N00014-94-1-0622) and NSF-NYI and PECASE programs, for the Harris Group (Stanford) from JSEP (DAAH04-94-G-0058), and for the Gossard Group (UCSB) from the AFOSR (F49620-94-1-0158) and QUEST is greatfully acknowledged.

  20. Integrated Photonic Comb Generation: Applications in Coherent Communication and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John S.

    Integrated photonics combines many optical components including lasers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors in close proximity via homogeneous (monolithic) or heterogeneous (using multiple materials) integration. This improves stability for interferometers and lasers, reduces the occurrence of unwanted reflections, and it avoids coupling losses between different components as they are on the same chip. Thus, less power is needed to compensate for these added losses, and less heat needs to be removed due to these power savings. In addition, integration allows the many components that comprise a system to be fabricated together, thereby reducing the cost per system and allowing rapid scaling in production throughput. Integrated optical combs have many applications including: metrology, THz frequency generation, arbitrary waveform generation, optical clocks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, sensing (imaging), spectroscopy, and data communication. A comb is a set of optical sources evenly spaced in frequency. Several methods of comb generation including mode-locking and optical parametric oscillation produce phase-matched optical outputs with a fixed phase relationship between the frequency lines. When the absolute frequency of a single comb line is stabilized along with the frequency spacing between comb lines, absolute phase and frequency precision can be achieved over the entire comb bandwidth. This functionality provides tremendous benefits to many applications such as coherent communication and optical sensing. The goals for this work were achieving a broad comb bandwidth and noise reduction, i.e., frequency and phase stability. Integrated mode-locked lasers on the InGaAsP/InP material platform were chosen, as they could be monolithically integrated with the wide range of highly functional and versatile photonic integrated circuits (PICs) previously demonstrated on this platform at UCSB. Gain flattening filters were implemented to increase the comb

  1. Microbial decomposition of dead grassland roots and its influence on the carbon cycle under changing precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, C.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and as such, represents a potential sink for carbon dioxide.The decomposition products of dead roots buried in the soil is a contributor to soil organic carbon. However, changing precipitation patterns may affect its fate by influencing the microbial community responsible for decomposing dead roots. To assess the impact of changing precipitation patterns, we constructed microcosms with grassland soil collected from the UCSB Sedgwick Reserve, an active and long-term research site, and dead roots from greenhouse-grown grass, Bromus diandrus. Microcosms were wetted continuously, every seven days, or every twenty days. Sets of microcosms were periodically deconstructed to assess the soil versus the roots-associated microbial community and its function. Differences in respiration rates of microcosms continuously wetted or wetted every 7 days versus microcosms wetted every 20 days existed for the first 70 days. After which, no differences in respiration rates were seen with microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. Relatedly, after a 70% roots mass loss by day 50, there was no difference in the respiration rate of microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. More than half of the roots mass loss had occurred by 30 days. By the end of the incubation period, the roots mass loss in continuously wet and 7-day wetted microcosms were over 80% compared to 67% for the microcosms wetted every 20 days. Microbial biomass in the soil were constant over time and showed no difference in treatment except with the no roots control during the first half of the incubation period. Hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-1,4-glucosidase; α-1,4-glucosidase; β-1,4-xylosidase; β-1,4-cellobiosidase) on the roots versus the soil attached to the roots were over an order greater and decreased faster with the exception of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and acid phosphatase. Oxidative enzyme activities (phenol

  2. New Tools for Viewing Spectrally and Temporally-Rich Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Toomey, M. P.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    High frequency, temporally extensive remote sensing datasets (GOES: 30 minutes, Santa Cruz Island webcam: nearly 5 years at every 10 min.) and airborne imaging spectrometry (AVIRIS with 224 spectral bands), present exciting opportunities for education, synthesis, and analysis. However, the large file volume / size can make holistic review and exploration difficult. In this research, we explore two options for visualization (1) a web-based portal for time-series analysis, PanOpt, and (2) Google Earth-based timestamped image overlays. PanOpt is an interactive website (http://zulu.geog.ucsb.edu/panopt/), which integrates high frequency (GOES) and multispectral (MODIS) satellite imagery with webcam ground-based repeat photography. Side-by-side comparison of satellite imagery with webcam images supports analysis of atmospheric and environmental phenomena. In this proof of concept, we have integrated four years of imagery for a multi-view FogCam on Santa Cruz Island off the coast of Southern California with two years of GOES-11 and four years of MODIS Aqua imagery subsets for the area (14,000 km2). From the PHP-based website, users can search the data (date, time of day, etc.) and specify timestep and display size; and then view the image stack as animations or in a matrix form. Extracted metrics for regions of interest (ROIs) can be viewed in different formats, including time-series and scatter plots. Through click and mouseover actions over the hyperlink-enabled data points, users can view the corresponding images. This directly melds the quantitative and qualitative aspects and could be particularly effective for both education as well as anomaly interpretation. We have also extended this project to Google Earth with timestamped GOES and MODIS image overlays, which can be controlled using the temporal slider and linked to a screen chart of ancillary meteorological data. The automated ENVI/IDL script for generating KMZ overlays was also applied for generating same

  3. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for

  4. STRIDES: Galaxy Evolution over Cosmic Time from new samples of Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnello, Adriano; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-08-01

    When a quasar is gravitationally lensed by a galaxy, its multiple images show light-curves that are offset by awell defined time delay, which depends on the mass profile of the lens and on cosmological distances to the lens and the source. By measuring the time-delay and accurately modelling the deflector's mass profile, this provides one-step measurements of cosmological distances to objects at redshift $z\\sim1,$ whence the cosmological parameters (primarily $H_0$). One can turn this argument around and learn about galaxies instead, or even perform a joint (and less biased) inference. The joint modelling of the lens, the source structure and time-variability implies that the DM halos of lens galaxies at z~0.4-1 and the source properties of quasars and their hosts at z~1-2are inferred, besides information on cosmology that is complementary to other low-redshift probes such as SN Ia and BAO.A large (N~100) sample of lensed quasars will be transformative in this sense, as these systems are rare on the sky.I will describe our STRIDES[*] searches in the Dark Energy Survey, aiming at 120 previously unknown lensed quasars brighter than i=21. Candidates have been selected with a variety of data mining techniques and flagged for follow-up (on spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging and lightcurve variability), which will take place in the following months. I will also cover recent modelling development of already monitored lenses within our collaboration, including a sharp multi-band reconstruction of the sources and use of stellar kinematics to ensure unbiased uncertainties on the lens mass profiles.This will lead to: (i) percent-level uncertainties on cosmological parameters(ii) insight on the coevolution of quasars and their host galaxies throughout cosmic time, up to z~2(iii) a quantative description of dark matter density profiles and the substructure content in massive galaxies up to z~1.[*] strides.physics.ucsb.edu

  5. EarthEd Online: Open Source Online Software to Support Large Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2003-12-01

    from the course web server. Students rate the writing assignments as the most effective learning activity in the course. This project is in an evaluation and dissemination phase. An open source model is planned for distribution. For documentation and information about the EarthEd team, see: http://oceanography.geol.ucsb.edu/Collab/software.html

  6. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval using simultaneous GOES-East and GOES-West reflected radiances over the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Hoff, R. M.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Lyapustin, A.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the western United States is observed independently by both the (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) GOES-East and GOES-West imagers. The GASP (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product) aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm treats each satellite as a unique sensor and thus obtains two separate aerosol optical depth values at the same time for the same location. The TOA (the top of the atmosphere) radiances and the associated derived optical depths can be quite different due to the different viewing geometries with large difference in solar-scattering angles. In order to fully exploit the simultaneous observations and generate consistent AOD retrievals from the two satellites, the authors develop a new "hybrid" aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm that uses data from both satellites. The algorithm uses both GOES-East and GOES-West visible channel TOA reflectance and daily average AOD from GOES Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (GOES-MAIAC) on low AOD days (AOD less than 0.3), when diurnal variation of AOD is low, to retrieve surface BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function). The known BRDF shape is applied on subsequent days to retrieve BRDF and AOD. The algorithm is validated at three AERONET sites over the western US. The AOD retrieval accuracy from the "hybrid" technique using the two satellites is similar to that from one satellite over UCSB (University of California Santa Barbara) and Railroad Valley, Nevada. Improvement of the accuracy is observed at Boulder, Colorado. The correlation coefficients between the GOES AOD and AERONET AOD are in the range of 0.67 to 0.81. More than 74% of AOD retrievals are within the error of ±(0.05 + 0.15 τ) compared to AERONET AOD. The hybrid algorithm has more data coverage compared to the single satellite retrievals over surfaces with high surface reflectance. For single observation areas the number of valid AOD data increases from the use of two

  7. Si/Ge photodiodes for coherent and analog communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piels, Molly

    allows optimization of the absorption profile independently from the RC-limited frequency response and compression current and ultimately enables larger saturation current-bandwidth products. This thesis includes the first theory, fabrication, and measurement of a uni-traveling carrier photodiode on the Si/Ge platform. Key contributions include an accurate nonlinear device model and a complete set of processes and design rules for fabricating Ge devices in the UCSB nanofab. The UTC structure is shown to be useful in extending the bandwidth and power handling capabilities of waveguide-integrated photodiodes, especially at high frequencies.

  8. PREFACE: Nanosafe 2012: International Conferences on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, François

    2013-04-01

    , FR) Co-chair: Georgios KATALAGARIANAKIS (EC, BE) Mélanie AUFFAN (CEREGE, FR) Jorge BOCZKOWSKI (INSERM, FR) Jean-Yves BOTTERO (CEREGE, FR) Jacques BOUILLARD (INERIS, FR) Derk BROUWER (TNO, NL) Marie CARRIERE (CEA, FR) Claude EMOND (U. MONTREAL, CA) Cassandra ENGEMAN (UCSB, USA) Eric GAFFET (CNRS, FR) François GENSDARMES (IRSN, FR) Alexei GRINBAUM (CEA, FR) Antje GROBE (U.STUTTGART, DE) Peter HOET (KUL, BE) Eric QUEMENEUR (CEA, FR) Olivier LE BIHAN (INERIS, FR) Robert MUIR (NANEUM, UK) Tinh NGUYEN (NIST, USA) Bernd NOWACK (EMPA, CH) Günter OBERDÖRSTER (U. ROCHESTER, USA) David PUI (U. MINNESOTA, USA) Michael RIEDIKER (IST, CH) Yves SAMSON (CEA, FR) Ken TAKEDA (U. TOKYO, JP) Olivier WITSCHGER (INRS, FR) The PDF contains a list of sponsor logos, the conference programme and planning documents.

  9. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  10. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  11. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    documentation, and may reside in the same archive or in another. Cross-archive references capture whole-archive dependencies (summarized by whole-archive descriptors located at the root of each archive), allowing us to describe the familiar situation of an entire archive referencing a format registry, or a source data center. We describe as a case study the archiving of the Earth science data records (ESDRs) being produced by the UCSB NASA-funded Ocean MEaSUREs project. The data's context includes complex formats, scientific literature, and software (both commercial and locally-developed). The data's provenance includes dependencies on multiple versions, parameter settings, and satellite data sources. By addressing how much context is required to preserve these data, we hope to begin to answer the question: What does it mean for a library to assume responsibility for a science dataset?

  12. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance

  13. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  14. Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Regev, J.

    2004-12-01

    In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must also be able to express their understanding, both to help them frame their understanding for themselves, and for assessment purposes. Research in learning unequivocally shows that writing about a subject increases understanding of that subject. In UCSB's general education oceanography class, a series of increasingly demanding activities culminates in two science papers that use earth data. These activities are: 1) homework problems, 2) in-class short writing activities, 3) lab section exploration activities and presentations, and 4) the science paper. The subjects of the two papers are: Plate Tectonics and Ocean and Climate. Each student is a member of a group that adopts a country and must relate their paper to the environment of their country. Data are accessed using the "Our Dynamic Planet" and "Global Ocean Data Viewer" (GLODV) CD's. These are integrated into EarthEd Online, a software package which supports online writing, review, commenting, and return to the student. It also supports auto-graded homework assignments, grade calculation, and other class management functions. The writing assignments emphasize the construction of a scientific argument. This process is explained explicitly, requiring statements that: 1) include an observation or description of an observation (e.g. elevation profiles, quakes), 2) name features based on the observation (e.g. trench, ridge), 3) describe of features (e.g. trends NW, xxxkm long), 4) describe relationships between features (e.g. quakes are parallel to trench), 5) describe a model or theory (e.g. cartoon type

  15. Ammonothermal Growth of Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, Siddha

    Bulk, single crystal Gallium Nitride (GaN) crystals are essential for enabling high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices by providing arbitrarily oriented, high quality, large, single crystal GaN substrates. Methods of producing single crystals of sufficient size and quality at a rate that would enable successful commercialization has been a major focus for research groups and companies worldwide. Recent advances have demonstrated remarkable improvements, though high cost and lack of high volume production remain key challenges. Major investments in bulk GaN growth were made at UCSB with particular focus on the ammonothermal method. The existing lab was upgraded and a new facility was designed and built with improved experimental setups for ammonothermal growth of GaN. The facilities can simultaneously operate up to 15 reactors of differing designs and capabilities with the ability to grow crystals up to 2 inches in diameter. A novel in-situ technique was devised to investigate the growth chemistry which occurs at typical operating conditions of 3,000 atm and 600 °C. Improvements in ammonothermal GaN include improved growth rates for c-plane by a factor of four to 344 μm/day with an overall record growth rate of 544 μm/day achieved for the (112¯2) plane. Crystal qualities comparable to that of the seed crystal were achieved. Impurity concentrations for transition metals were consistently reduced by a factor of 100 to concentrations below 1017 atoms/cm3. Optical transparency was improved by significantly reducing the yellow coloration typically seen for ammonothermal GaN. Single crystal GaN was successfully grown on large seeds and a 1 inch x ½ inch x ½ inch GaN crystal was demonstrated. To better understand the growth chemistry, models were created for the decomposition of ammonia under growth conditions, with initial experiments performed using the designed in-situ setup to verify the model's accuracy. To investigate the surface morphology and

  16. In-Situ X-ray Spectroscopic Studies of the Fundamental Chemistry of Pb and Pb-Bi Corrosion Processes at High Temperatures: Development and Assessment of Composite Corrosion Resistant Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlo Segre

    2009-12-30

    Over the course of this project, we have a number of accomplishments. The following list is presented as a summary statement for the project. Specific details from previous Quarterly Reports are given. (1) We established that it is possible to use EXAFS to study the interface layer between a material and the liquid Pb overlayer. We have discovered that molybdenum grows a selflimiting oxide layer which does not spall even at the highest temperatures studied. There have been 2 publications resulting from these studies. (2) We have fabricated a high temperature environmental chamber capable of extending the Pb overlayer studies by varying the incident x-ray beam angle to perform depth profiling of the Pb layer. This chamber will continue to be available to nuclear materials program researchers who wish to use the MRCAT beam line. (3) We have developed a collaboration with researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute to study corrosion layers on zircalloy. One publication has resulted from this collaboration and another is in progress. (4) We have developed a collaboration with Prof. G.R. Odette of UCSB in which we studied the local structure of Ti and Y in nanoclusters found in oxygen dispersion strengthened steels. There are two publications in progress form this collaboration and we have extended the project to anomalous small angle x-ray scattering as well as EXAFS. (5) We have promoted the use of EXAFS for the study of nuclear materials to the community over the past 4 years and we have begun to see an increase in demand for EXAFS from the community at the MRCAT beam line. (6) This grant was instrumental in nucleating interest in establishing a new Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, the Nuclear and Radiological Research CAT (NRR-CAT). The co-PI (Jeff Terry) is the lead investigator on this project and it has been approved by the APS Scientific Advisory Committee for further planning. The status of the NRR-CAT project is being discussed in a

  17. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Alan; Bazan, Guillermo; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Wudl, Fred

    2015-02-27

    are the following: • Photo-excitation of the donor (or the acceptor). • Charge transfer with holes in the donor domain and electrons in the acceptor domain. • Sweep-out to electrodes prior to recombination by the internal electric field. • Energy delivered to the external circuit. Each of these four steps was studied in detail using a wide variety of organic semiconductors with different molecular structures. This UC Santa Barbara group was the first to clarify the origin and the mechanism involved in the ultrafast charge transfer process. The ultrafast charge transfer (time scale approximately 100 times faster than the first step in the photo-synthesis of green plants) is the fundamental reason for the potential for high power conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity from plastic solar cells. The UCSB group was the first to emphasize, clarify and demonstrate the need for sweep-out to electrodes prior to recombination by the internal electric field. The UCSB group was the first to synthesize small molecule organic semiconductors capable of high power conversion efficiencies. The results of this research were published in high impact peer-reviewed journals. Our published papers (40 in number) provide answers to fundamental questions that have been heavily discussed and debated in the field of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells; scientific questions that must be resolved before this technology can be ready for commercialization in large scale for production of renewable energy. Of the forty publications listed, nineteen were co-authored by two or more of the PIs, consistent with the multi-investigator approach described in the original proposal. The specific advantages of this “plastic” solar cell technology are the following: a. Manufacturing by low-cost printing technology using soluble organic semiconductors; this approach can be implemented in large scale by roll-to-roll printing on plastic substrates. b. Low energy cost in manufacturing; all steps

  18. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this

  19. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    implemented in the prepared specimen to validate the numerical simulation model and explore the use of conductivity probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, estimate degree of saturation achieved due to injection of chemical solution, and evaluate final zone of partial saturation. The conductivity probe and the simulation results agreed well. To study the effect of IPS on liquefaction response of the sand specimen, IPS was implemented in a large (2-story high) sand specimen prepared in the laminar box of NEES Buffalo and then the specimen was subjected to harmonic shaking. Electric conductivity probes were used in the specimen treatment by controlling the duration and spacing of injection of the chemical solution, in monitoring the transport of chemical solution, in the estimation of zone of partial saturation achieved, and in the estimation of degree of saturation achieved due to implementation of IPS. The conductivity probes indicated partial saturation of the specimen. The shaking tests results confirmed the partial saturation state of the sand specimen. In addition, to the laboratory works, electric conductivity probes were used in field implementation of IPS in a pilot test at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) of NEES UCSB site. The conductivity probes in the field test helped decide the optimum injection pressure, the injection tube spacing, and the degree of saturation that could be achieved in the field. The various laboratory and field tests confirmed that electric conductivity and the probes devised and used can be invaluable in the implementation of IPS, by providing information regarding transport of the chemical solution, the spacing of injection tubes, duration of injection, and the zone and degree of partial saturation caused by IPS.

  20. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Singh, Tejinder

    2014-03-01

    painstaking task of proofreading and copyediting the accepted papers. We also thank the SOC, and the Workshop Chairs for their help in putting together an excellent scientific programme, the LOC for the wonderful organization, and the referees of papers for their help in improving the quality of the papers. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors who have made the publication of these proceedings possible, through their contribution. B S Sathyaprakash and Tejinder P Singh Scientific Organizing Committee Pijushpani Bhattacharjee (SINP, India) J Richard Bond (CITA, Canada) Manuela Campanelli (RIT, USA) Debajyoti Choudhury (Delhi University, India) Richard Ellis (Caltech, USA) Gary Gibbons (DAMTP, UK) Pankaj Joshi (TIFR, India) Romesh Kaul (IMSc, India) Subhabrata Majumdar (TIFR, India) Don Marolf (UCSB, USA) Ramesh Narayan (CfA, Harvard University, USA) Lyman Page (Princeton University, USA) Misao Sasaki (YITP, Japan) B S Sathyaprakash (Cardiff University, UK) Ashoke Sen (HRI, India) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) [Chair] P S Sreekumar (ISRO, India) Alexei Starobinsky (Landau Institute, Russia) Sumati Surya (RRI, India) C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, India) Spenta Wadia (TIFR, India) Local Organzing Committee Ghanashyam Date A Gopakumar Subhabrata Majumdar D Narasimha T P Singh (Chair) Supporting Staff V Chellathurai [Scientific Programmes Coordinator] Ashok Deshpande [Accounts Officer] Margaret D'Souza [Secretary] Shobha Jagtap [Secretary] Nishikant Kadam [Secretary] Vijay Kadam [Assistant] A list of participants is available in the PDF

  1. Preliminary results of field mapping of methane plumes offshore of Coal Oil Point, California with a RESON 7125 multibeam sonar in water-column mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, D. P.; Hatcher, G.; Lorenson, T. D.; Greinert, J.; Maillard, E.; Weirathmueller, M.; Leifer, I.

    2010-12-01

    From June 17 - 23 2010, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement(BOEMRE), the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) , RESON Inc. and the University of California, Santa Barbara(UCSB) conducted a comprehensive marine-seep gas-plume mapping study offshore of Coal Oil Point, California. The ultimate goal of the experiment is to quantify the amount of methane emitted from natural seeps using multibeam sonar, with results calibrated using field measurements of aqueous and atmospheric methane in the seep fields. Success will lead to better estimates of natural marine methane contributions to the global methane budget. We mapped selected seeps, some twice, with a pole-mounted RESON 7125 multibeam with a 10-degree forward rake. Other equipment included a Benthos Stingray ROV equipped with high-definition video cameras and in situ gas sampling apparatus, Niskin bottles for water column sampling of dissolved methane, and a Picarro G1301 cavity ringdown spectrometer for mapping atmospheric methane concentrations. This paper focuses primarily on the data reduction and data visualization strategies employed while processing the more than 1.2 TB of raw water column data collected by the multibeam system over several high-output oil and gas seep areas. Water depths ranged from about 30 to 80m. Turnkey software solutions for processing these data are currently unavailable so most of the processing code was developed in-house by the USGS. The main challenge in processing the sonar water-column data is ray-tracing the large volume of data, with each ping containing more than 4500 times as many samples as a conventional multibeam ping. We employed two strategies to make processing tractable on conventional workstations: (1) decimate the raw data based on desired output resolution before ray-tracing; and (2) design the ray-tracing program to run in parallel on multi-core workstations

  2. Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.

    2001-12-01

    for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html

  3. Learning Science Process Through Data Exploration and Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most effective ways of teaching science process is to have students take part in the same activities that practicing scientists engage in. These activities include studying the current research in the field, discussing ideas with colleagues, formulating a research problem, making a proposal defining the problem and plan of attack, presenting and writing about the results of the study, and critically reviewing the work of others. An inquiry curriculum can use these activities to guide the scaffolding of assignments and learning experiences that help students learn science process. At UCSB, students in a large general education oceanography class use real Earth data to study plate tectonics, the Indian Monsoon, climate change, and the health of the world fisheries. The end product for each subject has been a science paper based on Earth data. Over a period of approximately 15 years, the scaffolding of activities to prepare each student for the written assignments has been modified and improved, in response to student feedback and their success with the assignments. I have found that the following resources and sequence of activities help the oceanography students write good science papers. 1. Lecture: motivation and the opportunity for feedback and questions. 2. Textbook: background information. It is also possible to get the information from the internet, but unless the scope of reading is strictly defined, students don't know when to stop reading and become unhappy. 3. Online assignments: automatically graded assignments that force the student to keep up with reading. 4. Questions of the day: in-class handouts, with diagrams that the students either complete, or answer questions about. They are handed in and tallied, but not graded. They also inform the instructor of misconceptions. 5. Thought questions: student answers are posted on a threaded discussion list, and are due prior to lecture. The answers provide instructor feedback and guide the lecture

  4. The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) with Stations (CHIRPS): Development and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Pedreros, D. H.; Landsfeld, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Shukla, S.

    2013-12-01

    CHIRP and CHIRPS are new quasi-global precipitation products with daily to seasonal time scales, a 0.05° resolution, and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. Developed by the Climate Hazards Group at UCSB and scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center specifically for drought early warning and environmental monitoring, CHIRPS provides moderate latency precipitation estimates that place observed hydrologic extremes in their historic context. Three main types of information are used in the CHIRPS: (1) global 0.05° precipitation climatologies, (2) time-varying grids of satellite-based precipitation estimates, and (3) in situ precipitation observations. CHIRP: The global grids of long-term (1980-2009) average precipitation were estimated for each month based on station data, averaged satellite observations, and physiographic parameters. 1981-present time-varying grids of satellite precipitation were derived from spatially varying regression models based on pentadal cold cloud duration (CCD) values and TRMM V7 training data. The CCD time-series were derived from the CPC and NOAA B1 datasets. Pentadal CCD-percent anomaly values were multiplied by pentadal climatology fields to produce low bias pentadal precipitation estimates. CHIRPS: The CHG station blending procedure uses the satellite-observed spatial covariance structure to assign relative weights to neighboring stations and the CHIRP values. The CHIRPS blending procedure is based on the expected correlation between precipitation at a given target location and precipitation at the locations of the neighboring observation stations. These correlations are estimated using the CHIRP fields. The CHG has developed an extensive archive of in situ daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation totals. The CHG database has over half a billion daily rainfall observations since 1980 and another half billion before 1980. Most of these observations come from four sets of global

  5. Physics-Based Spectra of Accretion Disks around Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to begin the process of deriving the light output of accretion disks around black holes directly from the actual processes that inject heat into the accreting matter, rather than from guessed dependences of heating rate on physical parameters. At JHU, the effort has focussed so far on models of accretion onto "intermediate mass black holes", a possible class of black holes, examples of which may have recently been discovered in nearby galaxies. There, Krolik and his student (Yawei Hui) have computed stellar atmospheres for uniformly-heated disks around this class of black holes. Their models serve two purposes: they are the very first serious attempts to compute the spectrum from accreting black holes in this mass range; and a library of such models can be used later in this program as contrasts for those computed on the basis of real disk dynamics. The output from these local disk calculations has also been successfully coupled to a program that applies the appropriate relativistic transformations and computes photon trajectories in order to predict the spectrum received by observers located at different polar angles. The principal new result of these calculations is the discovery of potentially observable ionization edges of H-like C and O at frequencies near the peak in flux from these objects. Most of the grant money at UCSB was spent on supporting graduate student Shane Davis. In addition. some money was spent on supporting two other students: Ari Socrates (now a Hubble Fellow at Princeton), and Laura Melling. Davis spent the year constructing stellar atmosphere models of accretion disks appropriate for the high/soft (thermal) state of black hole X-ray binaries. As with AGN models published previously by our collaboration with NASA support. our models include a complete general relativistic treatment of both the disk structure and the propagation of photons from the disk to a distant observer. They also include all important

  6. TeraShake-2: Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J.; Olsen, K.; Day, S.; Cui, Y.; Faerman, M.; Moore, R.; Okaya, D.; Jordan, T.; Archuleta, R.; Hu, Y.; Ely, G.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC ITR collaboration achieved a series of earthquake simulations on the southern segment of the San Andreas fault that brought to light an heretofore unsuspected pattern of seismic hazard, linked to fault geometry, rupture directivity, and wave propagation through the three-dimensional SCEC Community velocity model. This set of simulations, labeled TeraShake-1 relied on a kinematic fault rupture model scaled from inversion results for the 1999 Denali earthquake. That model is quite severely constrained, and questions remain about the level of uncertainty we should attach to these results. We report on the next stage of development that incorporates a spontaneous rupture model, using one or more of several codes being compared as part of the SCEC spontaneous rupture mode validation effort. There exist about a dozen such codes. We are initially restricting our focus on four such codes: (1) the 2nd-order Dynamic Fault Model (DFM) FD code that has passed numerous tests; (2) the 4th order FD Anelastic Wave Propagation Model (AWM) code, used in the SCEC TeraShake-I and Cybershake projects; (3) the UCSB Finite Element spontaneous rupture and wave propagation code; (4) the SIO 'mimetic' Support-Operator Rupture Dynamic (SORD) code. All these have quite different levels of maturity. A major challenge is that the range of scales involved in such simulations is enormous: the inner scale associated with rupture characteristics is in the range of 1-100 meters, while the outer scale associated with geology, wave propagation, and hazard assessment reaches 600 kilometers. Time scales cover an equally broad range of magnitudes. This combination raises a numerical 'grand challenge' that pushes the limits of available computing systems. Additional considerations include desired capabilities to model nonplanar faults, and to include surface topography in the calculation. Recent SCEC research results show that such complications are indeed potentially important for accurate

  7. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    The mission of the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM) was to serve the Department of Energy and the nation as a center of excellence dedicated to advancing basic research in nano-structured materials and devices for applications to solar electricity, thermoelectric conversion of waste heat to electricity, and solidstate lighting. The foundation of CEEM was based on the unique capabilities of UCSB and its partner institutions to control, synthesize, characterize, model, and apply materials at the nanoscale for more efficient sustainable energy resources. This unique expertise was a key source of the synergy that unified the research of the Center. Although the Center’s focus was basic research, It’s longer-term objective has been to transfer new materials and devices into the commercial sector where they will have a substantial impact on the nation’s need for efficient sustainable energy resources. As one measure of the impact of the Center, two start-up companies were formed based on its research. In addition, Center participants published a total of 210 archival journal articles, of which 51 were exclusively sponsored by the DOE grant. The work of the Center was structured around four specific tasks: Organic Solar Cells, Solid-State Lighting, Thermoelectrics, and High Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic devices. A brief summary of each follows – detailed descriptions are in Sections 4 & 5 of this report. Research supported through CEEM led to an important shift with respect to the choice of materials used for the fabrication of solution deposited organic solar cells. Solution deposition opens the opportunity to manufacture solar cells via economically-viable high throughput tools, such as roll to roll printing. Prior to CEEM, most organic semiconductors utilized for this purpose involved polymeric materials, which, although they can form thin films reliably, suffer from batch to batch variations due to the statistical nature of the chemical

  8. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  9. Scaling Mesa Indium Phosphide DHBTs to Record Bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobisser, Evan

    investigated with UCSB grown epitaxial material and the fabrication of transmission line model structures. Electron beam lithography processes were developed and employed for both emitter and base layers. Epitaxial designs were scaled and revised, and grown by a commercial vendor. These process developments are detailed in Chapter 3. Transistor electrical characteristics were measured using a semiconductor parameter analyzer at DC and network analyzers for RF measurements at frequencies up to 220 GHz. Both on- and off-wafer network analyzer calibration structures were designed and fabricated, and the calibration techniques were compared. New structures for transmission line model measurements of contact resistivity have been designed and used in the measurement of new ohmic contact processes. Measurement techniques are detailed in Chapter 4. Two transistor results are presented in Chapter 5. For each device, epitaxial designs are presented, and band diagrams, both without current flow and under peak bias conditions are shown. The processes used to fabricate each transistor are detailed. For the first result, referred to as DHBT 43, ftau = 360 GHz and fmax > 800 GHz was obtained with 200 nm wide emitter-base junctions and 150 nm thick collectors. For the second result, referred to as DHBT 60, ftau = 530 GHz and fmax = 750 GHz was obtained with 150 nm wide emitter-base junctions and 70 nm thick collectors. Both transistors feature a refractory emitter contact, and the second result uses electron-beam lithography to narrow the emitter-base and base-collector junction widths. DC measurements of common-emitter I-V curves and Gummel plots are used to extract device parameters like breakdown voltage, current gain, and base and collector ideality constants. On-wafer TLM structures are used to extract device base and collector resistance. S-parameter measurements at RF frequencies are used to extract cutoff frequencies ftau and fmax, as well as device parameters necessary to generate

  10. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    and posters goes to the teams of researchers, the success of this year's conference is due to the strong efforts and support from members of the 2009 SciDAC Program Committee and Organizing Committee, and I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to them for helping to make the 2009 meeting the largest and most successful to date. Program Committee members were: David Bader, LLNL; Pete Beckman, ANL; John Bell, LBNL; John Boisseau, University of Texas; Paul Bonoli, MIT; Hank Childs, LBNL; Bill Collins, LBNL; Jim Davenport, BNL; David Dean, ORNL; Thom Dunning, NCSA; Peg Folta, LLNL; Glenn Hammond, PNNL; Maciej Haranczyk, LBNL; Robert Harrison, ORNL; Paul Hovland, ANL; Paul Kent, ORNL; Aram Kevorkian, SPAWAR; David Keyes, Columbia University; Kwok Ko, SLAC; Felice Lightstone, LLNL; Bob Lucas, ISI/USC; Paul Mackenzie, Fermilab; Tony Mezzacappa, ORNL; John Negele, MIT; Jeff Nichols, ORNL; Mike Norman, UCSD; Joe Oefelein, SNL; Jeanie Osburn, NRL; Peter Ostroumov, ANL; Valerio Pascucci, University of Utah; Ruth Pordes, Fermilab; Rob Ross, ANL; Nagiza Samatova, ORNL; Martin Savage, University of Washington; Tim Scheibe, PNNL; Ed Seidel, NSF; Arie Shoshani, LBNL; Rick Stevens, ANL; Bob Sugar, UCSB; Bill Tang, PPPL; Bob Wilhelmson, NCSA; Kathy Yelick, NERSC/LBNL; Dave Zachmann, Vista Computational Technology LLC. Organizing Committee members were: Communications: Jon Bashor, LBNL. Contracts/Logistics: Mary Spada and Cheryl Zidel, ANL. Posters: David Bailey, LBNL. Proceedings: John Hules, LBNL. Proceedings Database Developer: Beth Cerny Patino, ANL. Program Committee Liaison/Conference Web Site: Yeen Mankin, LBNL. Tutorials: David Skinner, NERSC/LBNL. Visualization Night: Hank Childs, LBNL; Valerio Pascucci, Chems Touati, Nathan Galli, and Erik Jorgensen, University of Utah. Again, my thanks to all. Horst Simon San Diego, California June 18, 2009

  11. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    ) Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka, Japan (Division Head: Dr K Nishihara) Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, USA (College of Science and Letters, Department of Applied Mathematics: Dr S I Abarji) and thanks them for making this event possible. The Organizing Committee appreciates the assistance of Suzie Radosic (administrator and assistant, ICTP) Daniil Ilyin (web-master, Chicago) Elena Magnus (assistant, Chicago) We express our gratitude for the help with the Conference Program to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee S I Abarzhi (The University of Chicago, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA) G Ahlers (University of California at Santa Barbara, USA) M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Texas A & M University, USA) S I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) E Bodenschatz (Max Plank Institute, Gottingen, Germany) S Dalziel (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) R Ecke (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) H J Fernando (Arizona State University, USA) S Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) G A Glatzmaier (University of California at Santa Cruz, USA) W A Goddard III (California Institute of Technology, USA) L P Kadanoff (The University of Chicago, USA) D Q Lamb (The University of Chicago, USA) D P Lathrop (University of Maryland, USA) S Lebedev (Imperial College, UK) P Manneville (Ecole Polytechnique, France) D I Meiron (California Institute of Technology, USA) H Nagib (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA) J Niemela (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy) K Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) S A Orszag (Yale University, USA) E Ott (University of Maryland, USA) N Peters (RWTS, Aachen, Germany) S B Pope (Cornell, USA) B A Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) R Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago, USA) A Schmidt (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) K R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics

  12. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    Microsoft Research at a new conference facility in Redmond, Washington. Over 90 people attended the tutorials, which covered topics ranging from an introduction to BG/P programming to advanced numerical libraries. The SciDAC and INCITE programs and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research core program investments in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational and networking facilities provide a nearly optimum framework for advancing computational science for DOE's Office of Science. At a broader level this framework also is benefiting the entire American scientific enterprise. As we look forward, it is clear that computational approaches will play an increasingly significant role in addressing challenging problems in basic science, energy, and environmental research. It takes many people to organize and support the SciDAC conference, and I would like to thank as many of them as possible. The backbone of the conference is the technical program; and the task of selecting, vetting, and recruiting speakers is the job of the organizing committee. I thank the members of this committee for all the hard work and the many tens of conference calls that enabled a wonderful program to be assembled. This year the following people served on the organizing committee: Jim Ahrens, LANL; David Bader, LLNL; Bryan Barnett, Microsoft; Peter Beckman, ANL; Vincent Chan, GA; Jackie Chen, SNL; Lori Diachin, LLNL; Dan Fay, Microsoft; Ian Foster, ANL; Mark Gordon, Ames; Mohammad Khaleel, PNNL; David Keyes, Columbia University; Bob Lucas, University of Southern California; Tony Mezzacappa, ORNL; Jeff Nichols, ORNL; David Nowak, ANL; Michael Papka, ANL; Thomas Schultess, ORNL; Horst Simon, LBNL; David Skinner, LBNL; Panagiotis Spentzouris, Fermilab; Bob Sugar, UCSB; and Kathy Yelick, LBNL. I owe a special thanks to Mike Papka and Jim Ahrens for handling the electronic theater. I also thank all those who submitted videos. It was a highly successful experiment. Behind the

  13. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    job should be left with computers. No Bessel functions, please!' This point of view was advocated by my office mate at KITP, Rob Philips, Professor of Applied Physics and Molecular Biophysics at Caltech, who found his new love—biology: from solid state theory. We had heated arguments about it. And my strongest one was that it was the maths of the now famous paper by Cochran et al [1] that allowed Watson and Crick to decipher the DNA x-ray patterns of Rosalind Franklin. The CCV formula for the x-ray scattering intensity fully explained the structure of the famous cross of the scattering maxima on the (kz, K)-map, where kz and K are, respectively, the components of the scattering wave-vector transfer in the direction along the main axis of the columnar array of the DNA molecules and in the perpendicular plane. From the distance and the position of the darkest spots on that pattern it was possible to deduce that the studied DNA has a shape of a double helix, to find its radius, the width of the minor and major groove, the vertical rise between base pairs, and the helical pitch. There were still some features in that pattern which have not been noticed, which were only understood half a century later after the corresponding extension of the CCV theory [2, 3], but those were not essential for solving the structure of DNA itself at that time, but rather for the understanding of DNA-DNA interactions and their effect on more subtle aspects of DNA structure, which are an issue today. The 'Bessel function' was the key player in the CCV equation and the extensions that followed. Dogma 3:'This happened once. It is unlikely to ever happen again' (from a conversation with a respectable editor of a high-profile biological journal about the revolution made by physics in biology). This is a common opinion, at least in the biological community. Note, that of the four discoverers of the DNA structure, three were physicists and only Watson was a biologist, and the key secret in that

  14. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2008-02-01

    .SteckerC.DoneM.H.SalamonP.SommersPhys. Rev. Lett.6619912697(Erratum-ibid. 69 (1992) 2738)F.W.SteckerPhys. Rev. D722005107301A.AtoyanC.D.DermerPhys. Rev. Lett.872001221102L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B6002004202E.WaxmanJ.N.BahcallPhys. Rev. Lett.7819972292C.D.DermerA.AtoyanPhys. Rev. Lett.912003071102D.GuettaD.HooperJ.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenE.ReuveniAstropart. Phys.202004429J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenD.W.HooperPhys. Rev. D622000093015A.LoebE.WaxmanJCAP06052006003S. Inoue, G. Sigl, F. Miniati, E. Armengaud, arXiv:astro-ph/0701167.E.WaxmanJ.N.BahcallPhys. Rev. D591999023002Phys. Rev. D642001023002K.MannheimR.J.ProtheroeJ.P.RachenPhys. Rev. D632001023003arXiv:astro-ph/9908031M.AhlersL.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenA.RingwaldT.J.WeilerPhys. Rev. D722005023001E.WaxmanAstrophys. J.4521995L1Note that the neutrino spectral shape can deviate from that for protons if the Feynman plateau is not flat in pseudo-rapidity space;L.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergC.NunezPhys. Rev. D712005065014This is in fact suggested by Tevatron data;F.AbeCDF CollaborationPhys. Rev. D4119902330J.G.LearnedS.PakvasaAstropart. Phys.31995267F.HalzenD.SaltzbergPhys. Rev. Lett.8119984305J.F.BeacomN.F.BellD.HooperS.PakvasaT.J.WeilerPhys. Rev. D682003093005(Erratum-ibid. D 72 (2005) 019901)L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B593200442L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B621200518A.M.HillasAnn. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.221984425For a general discussion on the acceleration time-scale in these sources see, e.g.,D.F.TorresL.A.AnchordoquiRep. Prog. Phys.6720041663M.C.BegelmanB.RudakM.SikoraAstrophys. J.362199038M.J.ChodorowskiA.A.ZdziarskiM.SikoraAstrophys. J.4001992181S.MichalowskiD.AndrewsJ.EickmeyerT.GentileN.MistryR.TalmanK.UenoPhys. Rev. Lett.391977737J.L.PugetF.W.SteckerJ.H.BredekampAstrophys. J.2051976638D.HooperS.SarkarA.M.TaylorAstropart. Phys.272007199The non-thermal energy release in GRBs is much smaller than that output by AGN.P.L.BiermannP.A.StrittmatterAstrophys. J.3221987643R

  15. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt