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Sample records for ahpc concept consists

  1. Students' application of a biological concept: Factors affecting consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated factors affecting students' ability to apply consistently the concept of adaptations (i.e., characteristics which suit an organism to its environment). Individual interviews were carried out with 74 Year 10 students, of whom only 47% showed an understanding of the concept. These students were asked to indicate on a list of living and non-living items which ones whould have adaptations. It was found that they were more likely to apply the concept to vertebrates than to other types of living things. In addition, many students appeared to be unable to separate consistently the idea of “adaptations as characteristics” from the other everyday and scientific meanings of the terms “adapt” and “adaptation”.

  2. Force Concept Inventory-Based Multiple-Choice Test for Investigating Students' Representational Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates students' ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory…

  3. Serum Helicobacter pylori KatA and AhpC antibodies as novel biomarkers for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Hai-Lin; Fan, Qing; Guo, Fang; Ren, Xi-Yun; Zhou, Hai-Bo; Zhu, Ji-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Shuang; Tian, Wen-Jing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate catalase (KatA) and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) antibodies of Helicobacter pylori as biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: This study included 232 cases and 264 controls. Recombinant KatA and AhpC proteins were constructed and the levels of antibodies were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression was applied to analyze the relationships between KatA, AhpC and GC. The χ2 trend test was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between serum KatA and AhpC antibody levels and GC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the screening accuracy of KatA and AhpC as biomarkers. Combined analysis was used to observe screening accuracy of predictors for GC. RESULTS: In all subjects, the association between KatA and AhpC and GC risk was significant (P < 0.001) with odds ratio (OR) = 12.84 (95%CI: 7.79-21.15) and OR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.55-3.73), respectively. KatA and AhpC antibody levels were strongly related to GC risk with a dose-dependent effect (P for trend < 0.001). The area under the ROC (AUC) for KatA was 0.806, providing a sensitivity of 66.81% and specificity of 86.36%; and the AUC for AhpC was 0.615, with a sensitivity of 75.65% and specificity of 45.49%. The AUC was 0.906 for KatA and flagella protein A (FlaA) combined analysis. CONCLUSION: Serum KatA and AhpC antibodies are associated with GC risk and KatA may serve as a biomarker for GC. KatA/FlaA combined analysis improved screening accuracy. PMID:27275098

  4. Dissecting Peroxiredoxin Catalysis: Separating Binding, Peroxidation, and Resolution for a Bacterial AhpC

    PubMed Central

    Parsonage, Derek; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Alley, Samantha; Karplus, P. Andrew; Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins make up a ubiquitous family of cysteine-dependent peroxidases that reduce hydroperoxide or peroxynitrite substrates through formation of a cysteine sulfenic acid (R-SOH) at the active site. In the 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, a second (resolving) cysteine reacts with the sulfenic acid to form a disulfide bond. For all peroxiredoxins, structural rearrangements in the vicinity of the active site cysteine(s) are necessary to allow disulfide bond formation and subsequent reductive recycling. In this study, we evaluated the rate constants for individual steps in the catalytic cycle of Salmonella typhimurium AhpC. Conserved Trp residues situated close to both peroxidatic and resolving cysteines in AhpC give rise to large changes in fluorescence during the catalytic cycle. For recycling, AhpF very efficiently reduces the AhpC disulfide, with a single discernible step and a rate constant of 2.3 × 107 M−1 s−1. Peroxide reduction was more complex and could be modeled as three steps, beginning with a reversible binding of H2O2 to the enzyme (k1 = 1.36 × 108 M−1 s−1, and k−1 = 53 s−1), followed by rapid sulfenic acid generation (620 s−1) and then rate-limiting disulfide bond formation (75 s−1). Using bulkier hydroperoxide substrates with higher Km values, we found that different efficiencies (kcat/Km) for turnover of AhpC with these substrates are primarily caused by their slower rates of binding. Our findings indicate that this bacterial peroxiredoxin exhibits rates for both reducing and oxidizing parts of the catalytic cycle that are among the fastest observed so far for this diverse family of enzymes. PMID:25633283

  5. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  6. Suspension of SiC Powders in Allyhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS): Control of Rheology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1998-01-01

    Inert particulate fillers can be blended with preceramic polymers prior to infiltration of composite preforms to increase pyrolysis yield and decrease shrinkage, thus reducing the number of infiltration/ pyrolysis cycles required for densification. However, particulate filler loadings and concentration of added dispersants necessary to maintain low viscosity (< 0.50 N.s/sq m) slurries vary with the characteristics of the particular AHPCS polymer batch. These batch to batch variations occur with alterations in the synthesis process and method of allyl substitution, which in turn alter polymer structure and molecular weight distribution. A number of different polymer batches were characterized by NMR, GPC and thermal analysis, and the influence of polymer structure on rheology of filled systems determined. When the high molecular weight fraction increased to too great a level, suitably fluid slurries could no longer be attained.

  7. AhpC (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 protects Escherichia coli from multiple abiotic stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Yogesh; Chaurasia, Neha; Rai, Lal Chand

    2009-04-17

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) is known to detoxify peroxides and reactive sulfur species (RSS). However, the relationship between its expression and combating of abiotic stresses is still not clear. To investigate this relationship, the genes encoding the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were introduced into E. coli using pGEX-5X-2 vector and their possible functions against heat, salt, carbofuron, cadmium, copper and UV-B were analyzed. The transformed E. coli cells registered significantly increase in growth than the control cells under temperature (47 {sup o}C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml{sup -1}), CdCl{sub 2} (4 mM), CuCl{sub 2} (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. Enhanced expression of ahpC gene as measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR under aforementioned stresses at different time points demonstrated its role in offering tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses.

  8. Relations between Representational Consistency, Conceptual Understanding of the Force Concept, and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Previous physics education research has raised the question of "hidden variables" behind students' success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students' reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students' preinstruction scores for reasoning…

  9. Is Children's Naive Knowledge Consistent?: A Comparison of the Concepts of Sound and Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautrey, Jacques; Mazens, Karine

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed some light on the organization of naive knowledge, and on the process of conceptual change in everyday physics, more specifically regarding the concepts of sound and heat. Eighty-three 8-year-old children were interviewed individually in order to see if they attributed the properties of objects (such as…

  10. Consistency and inconsistency in network meta-analysis: concepts and models for multi-arm studies‡

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, JPT; Jackson, D; Barrett, JK; Lu, G; Ades, AE; White, IR

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analyses that simultaneously compare multiple treatments (usually referred to as network meta-analyses or mixed treatment comparisons) are becoming increasingly common. An important component of a network meta-analysis is an assessment of the extent to which different sources of evidence are compatible, both substantively and statistically. A simple indirect comparison may be confounded if the studies involving one of the treatments of interest are fundamentally different from the studies involving the other treatment of interest. Here, we discuss methods for addressing inconsistency of evidence from comparative studies of different treatments. We define and review basic concepts of heterogeneity and inconsistency, and attempt to introduce a distinction between ‘loop inconsistency’ and ‘design inconsistency’. We then propose that the notion of design-by-treatment interaction provides a useful general framework for investigating inconsistency. In particular, using design-by-treatment interactions successfully addresses complications that arise from the presence of multi-arm trials in an evidence network. We show how the inconsistency model proposed by Lu and Ades is a restricted version of our full design-by-treatment interaction model and that there may be several distinct Lu–Ades models for any particular data set. We introduce novel graphical methods for depicting networks of evidence, clearly depicting multi-arm trials and illustrating where there is potential for inconsistency to arise. We apply various inconsistency models to data from trials of different comparisons among four smoking cessation interventions and show that models seeking to address loop inconsistency alone can run into problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26062084

  11. Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after Acquisition of Isoniazid Resistance: Individual Nature of katG Mutants and the Possible Role of AhpC

    PubMed Central

    Nieto R, Luisa Maria; Creissen, Elizabeth; Troudt, JoLynn; Troy, Amber; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Burgos, Marcos; Izzo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, there were 10 million new tuberculosis cases per year globally. Around 9.5% of these cases were caused by isoniazid resistant (INHr) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. Although isoniazid resistance in Mtb is multigenic, mutations in the catalase-peroxidase (katG) gene predominate among the INHr strains. The effect of these drug-resistance-conferring mutations on Mtb fitness and virulence is variable. Here, we assessed differences in bacterial growth, immune response and pathology induced by Mtb strains harboring mutations at the N-terminus of the katG gene. We studied one laboratory and one clinically isolated Mtb clonal pair from different genetic lineages. The INHr strain in each pair had one and two katG mutations with significantly reduced levels of the enzyme and peroxidase activity. Both strains share the V1A mutation, while the double mutant clinical INHr had also the novel E3V katG mutation. Four groups of C57BL/6 mice were infected with one of the Mtb strains previously described. We observed a strong reduction in virulence (reduced bacterial growth), lower induction of proinflammatory cytokines and significantly reduced pathology scores in mice infected with the clinical INHr strain compared to the infection caused by its INHs progenitor strain. On the other hand, there was a subtle reduction of bacteria growth without differences in the pathology scores in mice infected with the laboratory INHr strain. Our results also showed distinct alkyl-hydroperoxidase C (AhpC) levels in the katG mutant strains, which could explain the difference in the virulence profile observed. The difference in the AhpC levels between clonal strains was not related to a genetic defect in the gene or its promoter. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the virulence, pathology and fitness of INHr strains could be negatively affected by multiple mutations in katG, lack of the peroxidase activity and reduced AhpC levels. PMID:27893795

  12. Internal-Consistency Reliability and Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of an Academic Self-Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbons, Barry C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study involving 174 at-risk undergraduate students provided evidence of the construct validity of 5 factors corresponding to scales of the Dimensions of Self-Concept measure. Evidence was obtained for a higher order general academic self-concept, but the anxiety factor was not related to this higher order factor. (SLD)

  13. Acute Limonene Toxicity in Escherichia coli Is Caused by Limonene Hydroperoxide and Alleviated by a Point Mutation in Alkyl Hydroperoxidase AhpC

    PubMed Central

    Chubukov, Victor; Mingardon, Florence; Schackwitz, Wendy; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene, a major component of citrus peel oil, has a number of applications related to microbiology. The antimicrobial properties of limonene make it a popular disinfectant and food preservative, while its potential as a biofuel component has made it the target of renewable production efforts through microbial metabolic engineering. For both applications, an understanding of microbial sensitivity or tolerance to limonene is crucial, but the mechanism of limonene toxicity remains enigmatic. In this study, we characterized a limonene-tolerant strain of Escherichia coli and found a mutation in ahpC, encoding alkyl hydroperoxidase, which alleviated limonene toxicity. We show that the acute toxicity previously attributed to limonene is largely due to the common oxidation product limonene hydroperoxide, which forms spontaneously in aerobic environments. The mutant AhpC protein with an L-to-Q change at position 177 (AhpCL177Q) was able to alleviate this toxicity by reducing the hydroperoxide to a more benign compound. We show that the degree of limonene toxicity is a function of its oxidation level and that nonoxidized limonene has relatively little toxicity to wild-type E. coli cells. Our results have implications for both the renewable production of limonene and the applications of limonene as an antimicrobial. PMID:25934627

  14. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  15. Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yonghui; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Ruiqiang; Yang, Lin; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Hongtao; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Yangyang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Yu, Mingbin

    2011-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators (MRRs). We use two electrical signals representing the two operands of the logical operation to modulate the two MRRs through the thermo-optic effect, respectively. The final operation results are represented by the output optical signals. Both OR/NOR and AND/NAND operations at 10 kbps are demonstrated.

  16. Calculation for path-domain independent J integral with elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator concept-based boundary element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Liu; Qichao, Hong; Lihua, Liang

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents an elasto-viscoplastic consistent tangent operator (CTO) based boundary element formulation, and application for calculation of path-domain independent J integrals (extension of the classical J integrals) in nonlinear crack analysis. When viscoplastic deformation happens, the effective stresses around the crack tip in the nonlinear region is allowed to exceed the loading surface, and the pure plastic theory is not suitable for this situation. The concept of consistency employed in the solution of increment viscoplastic problem, plays a crucial role in preserving the quadratic rate asymptotic convergence of iteractive schemes based on Newton's method. Therefore, this paper investigates the viscoplastic crack problem, and presents an implicit viscoplastic algorithm using the CTO concept in a boundary element framework for path-domain independent J integrals. Applications are presented with two numerical examples for viscoplastic crack problems and J integrals.

  17. Relationships among trait, situational, and comparative optimism: clarifying concepts for a theoretically consistent and evidence-based intervention to maximize resilience.

    PubMed

    Tusaie, Kathleen R; Patterson, Kathleen

    2006-06-01

    Research evidence identifies trait optimism as the strongest individual predictor of adolescent resilience when framed within Lazarus's theory of stress and coping. As a precursor to the development of an intervention to maximize resilience, this study clarifies the concept of optimism. Relationships among trait, situational, and comparative optimism were explored. The sample (N = 132) consisted of rural adolescents between 14 and 18 years old who were attending public school. The results demonstrate weak correlations, suggesting that adolescents' perceptions of situations may be amenable to an intervention to maximize resilience but that adolescents also do not expect to experience health or environmental problems. Implications for developing an intervention are discussed.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of decameric and monomeric forms of C49S mutant thioredoxin-dependent AhpC from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Supangat; Seo, Kyung Hye; Furqoni, Ahmad; Kwon, Young-Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-05-01

    Decameric and monomeric forms of recombinant C49S mutant AhpC from H. pylori have been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 2.25 Å, respectively. Cys49Ser mutant Helicobacter pylori alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (C49S HpAhpC) was purified under reducing conditions in monomeric and decameric forms. The monomeric form was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 140.7, c = 189.5 Å, β = 127°, and contained 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. A crystal of the decameric form was obtained by the microbatch crystallization method and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, b = 417.5, c = 95.6 Å. The structure of the monomeric form of C49S HpAhpC has been solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  19. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, Achim; Greimel, Felix; Auer, Patrick; Zeman, Florian; Göttermann, Antje; Grifka, Joachim; Meissner, Winfried; von Kunow, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking. Methods All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS). A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward. Results From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0) on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2). Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0), whereas patient satisfaction significantly increased (mean 9.8, ±0.4; p<0.05). Among 49 anonymized hospitals, our clinic stayed on first rank in terms of lowest maximum pain and patient satisfaction over the period. Conclusion Results were already acceptable at the beginning of benchmarking a standardized pain management concept. But regular benchmarking, implementation of feedback mechanisms, and staff education made the pain management concept even more successful. Multidisciplinary teamwork

  20. The Structural Consistency of a Six-Factor Model of Academic Self-Concept among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents' self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some…

  1. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  2. Solid consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  3. Approach to atmospheric laser-propagation theory based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and a self-consistency concept.

    PubMed

    Bochove, Erik J; Rao Gudimetla, V S

    2017-01-01

    We propose a self-consistency condition based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, which we apply to the propagation kernel of the mutual coherence function of a partially coherent laser beam propagating through a turbulent atmosphere. The assumption of statistical independence of turbulence in neighboring propagation segments leads to an integral equation in the propagation kernel. This integral equation is satisfied by a Gaussian function, with dependence on the transverse coordinates that is identical to the previous Gaussian formulation by Yura [Appl. Opt.11, 1399 (1972)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.11.001399], but differs in the transverse coherence length's dependence on propagation distance, so that this established version violates our self-consistency principle. Our formulation has one free parameter, which in the context of Kolmogorov's theory is independent of turbulence strength and propagation distance. We determined its value by numerical fitting to the rigorous beam propagation theory of Yura and Hanson [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A6, 564 (1989)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.6.000564], demonstrating in addition a significant improvement over other Gaussian models.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  5. Consistency argued students of fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  6. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  7. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  8. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  9. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  10. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  12. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.

  13. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  14. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  15. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients.

  16. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a concept illustration of Ares I which is an in-line, two-stage rocket that will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to low earth orbit. Orion will accommodate as many as six astronauts. The first stage will consist of the five-segment solid rocket booster.

  17. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  18. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  19. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  20. Task Versus Component Consistency in the Development of Automatic Processes: Consistent Attending Versus Consistent Responding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    a visual search paradigm, Schneider and Shiffrin (1977, Experiment 2) found that reaction times in conditions where subjects could consistently attend...requires less effort, is more accurate and is faster (see for example, Corballis, 1975; Egeth, Atkinson , Gilmore, & Marcus, 1973; Kristofferson, 1972...Logan, 1978, 1979; Neisser, 1974; Schneider & Shiffrin , 1977; Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977; Schneider & Fisk, in press - a; for a review, see Schneider

  1. Surrogate measures and consistent surrogates.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2013-09-01

    Surrogates which allow one to predict the effect of the treatment on the outcome of interest from the effect of the treatment on the surrogate are of importance when it is difficult or expensive to measure the primary outcome. Unfortunately, the use of such surrogates can give rise to paradoxical situations in which the effect of the treatment on the surrogate is positive, the surrogate and outcome are strongly positively correlated, but the effect of the treatment on the outcome is negative, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as the "surrogate paradox." New results are given for consistent surrogates that extend the existing literature on sufficient conditions that ensure the surrogate paradox is not manifest. Specifically, it is shown that for the surrogate paradox to be manifest it must be the case that either there is (i) a direct effect of treatment on the outcome not through the surrogate and in the opposite direction as that through the surrogate or (ii) confounding for the effect of the surrogate on the outcome, or (iii) a lack of transitivity so that treatment does not positively affect the surrogate for all the same individuals for whom the surrogate positively affects the outcome. The conditions for consistent surrogates and the results of the article are important because they allow investigators to predict the direction of the effect of the treatment on the outcome simply from the direction of the effect of the treatment on the surrogate. These results on consistent surrogates are then related to the four approaches to surrogate outcomes described by Joffe and Greene (2009, Biometrics 65, 530-538) to assess whether the standard criteria used by these approaches to assess whether a surrogate is "good" suffice to avoid the surrogate paradox.

  2. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  3. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  4. Consistency of warm k -inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhi-Peng; Yu, Jia-Ning; Zhu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2016-11-01

    We extend k -inflation which is a type of kinetically driven inflationary model under the standard inflationary scenario to a possible warm inflationary scenario. The dynamical equations of this warm k -inflation model are obtained. We rewrite the slow-roll parameters which are different from the usual potential driven inflationary models and perform a linear stability analysis to give the proper slow-roll conditions in warm k -inflation. Two cases, a power-law kinetic function and an exponential kinetic function, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ =Γ0 and Γ =Γ (ϕ ), respectively. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both concrete cases of warm k -inflation. We find a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ =Γ0) is not a workable choice for these two cases while the two cases with Γ =Γ (ϕ ) are self-consistent warm inflationary models.

  5. Self-consistent triaxial models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-11-01

    We present self-consistent triaxial stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) expressed in terms of the actions. These provide triaxial density profiles with cores or cusps at the centre. They are the first self-consistent triaxial models with analytic DFs suitable for modelling giant ellipticals and dark haloes. Specifically, we study triaxial models that reproduce the Hernquist profile from Williams & Evans, as well as flattened isochrones of the form proposed by Binney. We explore the kinematics and orbital structure of these models in some detail. The models typically become more radially anisotropic on moving outwards, have velocity ellipsoids aligned in Cartesian coordinates in the centre and aligned in spherical polar coordinates in the outer parts. In projection, the ellipticity of the isophotes and the position angle of the major axis of our models generally changes with radius. So, a natural application is to elliptical galaxies that exhibit isophote twisting. As triaxial Stäckel models do not show isophote twists, our DFs are the first to generate mass density distributions that do exhibit this phenomenon, typically with a gradient of ≈10°/effective radius, which is comparable to the data. Triaxiality is a natural consequence of models that are susceptible to the radial orbit instability. We show how a family of spherical models with anisotropy profiles that transition from isotropic at the centre to radially anisotropic becomes unstable when the outer anisotropy is made sufficiently radial. Models with a larger outer anisotropy can be constructed but are found to be triaxial. We argue that the onset of the radial orbit instability can be identified with the transition point when adiabatic relaxation yields strongly triaxial rather than weakly spherical endpoints.

  6. Students’ conceptual understanding consistency of heat and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Harjana

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research were to explore and to describe the consistency of students’ understanding of heat and temperature concept. The sample that was taken using purposive random sampling technique consisted of 99 high school students from 3 senior high schools in Jayapura city. The descriptive qualitative method was employed in this study. The data were collected using tests and interviews regarding the subject matters of Heat and Temperature. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that 3.03% of the students was the consistency of right answer, 79.80% of the students was consistency but wrong answer and 17.17% of the students was inconsistency.

  7. Concept Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Four teaching techniques were used to enhance conceptual learning and to increase student performance in a course in physical-chemical principles at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri-Kansas City. One of the techniques, "concept overview," is described. (MLW)

  8. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  9. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  10. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  11. Self-consistency in Bicultural Persons: Dialectical Self-beliefs Mediate the Relation between Identity Integration and Self-consistency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Noels, Kimberly A.; Lalonde, Richard N.; Salas, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the role of dialectical beliefs. Because the challenge of integrating more than one culture within the self is common to biculturals of various heritage backgrounds, the effects of bicultural identity integration should not depend on whether the heritage culture is dialectical or not. In four studies across diverse groups of bicultural Canadians, we showed that having an integrated bicultural identity was associated with being more consistent across roles (Studies 1–3) and making less ambiguous self-evaluations (Study 4). Furthermore, dialectical self-beliefs mediated the effect of bicultural identity integration on self-consistency (Studies 2–4). Finally, Latino biculturals reported being more consistent across roles than did East Asian biculturals (Study 2), revealing the ethnic heritage difference between the two groups. We conclude that both the content of heritage culture and the process of integrating cultural identities influence the extent of self-consistency among biculturals. Thus, consistency within the bicultural self-concept can be understood, in part, to be a unique psychological product of bicultural experience. PMID:28326052

  12. SOCIAL COMPARISON, SELF-CONSISTENCY AND THE PRESENTATION OF SELF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORSE, STANLEY J.; GERGEN, KENNETH J.

    TO DISCOVER HOW A PERSON'S (P) SELF-CONCEPT IS AFFECTED BY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOTHER (O) WHO SUDDENLY APPEARS IN THE SAME SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, SEVERAL QUESTIONNAIRES, INCLUDING THE GERGEN-MORSE (1967) SELF-CONSISTENCY SCALE AND HALF THE COOPERSMITH SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY, WERE ADMINISTERED TO 78 UNDERGRADUATE MEN WHO HAD ANSWERED AN AD FOR WORK…

  13. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  14. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  15. Current Concepts in Conception Control

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1963-01-01

    The progressive increase in world population has become a most urgent global problem in recent years. Man has, however, been interested in controlling his reproductivity at the family level for many centuries. Historical aspects of this saga are reviewed. The modern era of conception control was ushered in by Makepeace et al. in 1937 when ovulation inhibition by progesterone was demonstrated. Confirmation of this by Pincus and associates, and development of the potent oral progestational agents, the 19-norsteroids, have made efficient reliable contraception a reality. Experience with one of these agents (Ortho-Novum, 2 mg.) in 115 patients through 805 cycles is presented. Conception control was 100% effective at this dosage. Side effects were minimal. Only three of the women discontinued the tablets because of these effects. All but five in this group of 115 preferred the oral contraceptives to methods previously employed. PMID:13973987

  16. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  17. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  18. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  19. SSF growth concepts and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    There are three primary objectives for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Growth concepts and configuration study task. The first objective is the development of evolutionary SSF concept consistent with user requirements and program constraints. The second primary objective is to ensure the feasibility of the proposed SSF evolution concepts as the systems level. This includes an assessment of SSF evolution flight control analysis, logistics assessment, maintainability, and operational considerations. The final objective is to ensure compatibility of the baseline SSF design with the derived evolution requirements at both the system and element (habitat modules, power generation equipment, etc.) levels.

  20. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  1. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will update... to update part 55 accordingly. (c) Consistency reviews triggered by receipt of an NOI. Upon...

  2. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  3. Concept-based lexical-semantic unsupervised learning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Concept learning is essential for automatic knowledge acquisition and consists in linking semantic and linguistic data together. In this work, a system of concept learning, which mimics to some extent human infant learning, is presented. This system performs visual and audial feature extraction and construction of concept database by maximizing of their mutual information. Experiments show 90% recognition rate of learnt concepts.

  4. High-performance speech recognition using consistency modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digalakis, Vassilios; Murveit, Hy; Monaco, Peter; Neumeyer, Leo; Sankar, Ananth

    1994-12-01

    The goal of SRI's consistency modeling project is to improve the raw acoustic modeling component of SRI's DECIPHER speech recognition system and develop consistency modeling technology. Consistency modeling aims to reduce the number of improper independence assumptions used in traditional speech recognition algorithms so that the resulting speech recognition hypotheses are more self-consistent and, therefore, more accurate. At the initial stages of this effort, SRI focused on developing the appropriate base technologies for consistency modeling. We first developed the Progressive Search technology that allowed us to perform large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) experiments. Since its conception and development at SRI, this technique has been adopted by most laboratories, including other ARPA contracting sites, doing research on LVSR. Another goal of the consistency modeling project is to attack difficult modeling problems, when there is a mismatch between the training and testing phases. Such mismatches may include outlier speakers, different microphones and additive noise. We were able to either develop new, or transfer and evaluate existing, technologies that adapted our baseline genonic HMM recognizer to such difficult conditions.

  5. A Study of Consistency in the Use of Students' Conceptual Frameworks Across Different Task Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Elizabeth Engel; Driver, Rosalind

    1986-01-01

    Explores the issue of the consistency of use of students' conceptions across different tasks which probed understandings of aspects of pressure, heat, and biological evolution. Findings indicate that children have alternative frameworks for all investigated areas. (ML)

  6. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  7. Consistency of Students' Conceptions of Wave Propagation: Findings from a Conceptual Survey in Mechanical Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula Devi; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

    2011-01-01

    We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009)]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year…

  8. A consistent concept for high- and low-frequency dynamics based on stochastic modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradlwarter, H. J.; Schuëller, G. I.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate expressions for the kinetic energy in substructure excited by white noise and broad-band spectra, based on classical random vibration theory and modal analysis, are presented. The approach is accurate, general and valid for all frequency ranges, since no simplifying are needed to arrive at the presented power flow relations. Strong coupling, local energies and energies in substructures can be analyzed for uncorrelated as well as for correlated excitation. The results are compared with statistical energy analysis (SEA) which is applicable for the high-frequency range. It is shown, that the SEA representations is only suitable for very weak coupling between substructures, while an inverse representation does not show the observed limitations. Energies in substructures are not sensitive to variations of the eigenfrequencies or mode shapes due to the summation over frequency ranges and over the domain of the substructure. Hence, modal analysis will lead to accurate estimates even in case FE analysis fails to provide accurate eigenfrequencies and mode shapes, since the coupling between substructures is still represented with acceptable accuracy. Uncertain structural properties will affect the coupling between substructures and therefore the power flow. It is suggested to assess this influence by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  10. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the first of two volumes, consists of 56 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work,…

  11. Consistency, Understanding and Truth in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    What do Elliot Eisner's discussions of objectivity mean for the strength of the link between consistency and truth in educational research? Following his lead, I pursue this question by comparing aspects of qualitative educational research with appraising the arts. I argue that some departures from the highest levels of consistency in assessing…

  12. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  13. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  14. Consistency and Enhancement Processes in Understanding Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Asencio, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories in the sociology of emotions assume that emotions emerge from the cognitive consistency principle. Congruence among cognitions produces good feelings whereas incongruence produces bad feelings. A work situation is simulated in which managers give feedback to workers that is consistent or inconsistent with what the workers expect to…

  15. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  16. Managing consistency in collaborative design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunyan; Yang, Zhonghua; Goh, Angela; Sun, Chengzheng; Sattar, Abdul

    1999-08-01

    In today's global economy, there is a significant paradigm shift to collaborative engineering design environments. One of key issues in the collaborative setting is the consistency model, which governs how to coordinate the activities of collaborators to ensure that they do not make inconsistent changes or updates to the shared objects. In this paper, we present a new consistency model which requires that all update operations will be executed in the casual order (causality) and all participants have the same view on the operations on the shared objects (view synchrony). A simple multicast-based protocol to implement the consistency model is presented. By employing vector time and token mechanisms, the protocol brings the shared objects from one consistent state to another, thus providing collaborators with a consistent view of the shared objects. A CORBA-based on-going prototyping implementation is outlined. Some of the related work are also discussed.

  17. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  18. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  19. Concepts in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Jimmie D.; And Others

    This book is a collection of ideas and information, gathered from various sources, which should aid college students in formulating their own methods of improving communication. The four main sections of the book are "Concepts of Communication,""Concepts of Source and Message,""Concepts of Communication Criticism," and "Concepts of Interpersonal…

  20. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  1. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  2. Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables.

    PubMed

    Montella, Alfonso; Imbriani, Lella Liana

    2015-01-01

    Highway design which ensures that successive elements are coordinated in such a way as to produce harmonious and homogeneous driver performances along the road is considered consistent and safe. On the other hand, an alignment which requires drivers to handle high speed gradients and does not meet drivers' expectancy is considered inconsistent and produces higher crash frequency. To increase the usefulness and the reliability of existing safety performance functions and contribute to solve inconsistencies of existing highways as well as inconsistencies arising in the design phase, we developed safety performance functions for rural motorways that incorporate design consistency measures. Since the design consistency variables were used only for curves, two different sets of models were fitted for tangents and curves. Models for the following crash characteristics were fitted: total, single-vehicle run-off-the-road, other single vehicle, multi vehicle, daytime, nighttime, non-rainy weather, rainy weather, dry pavement, wet pavement, property damage only, slight injury, and severe injury (including fatal). The design consistency parameters in this study are based on operating speed models developed through an instrumented vehicle equipped with a GPS continuous speed tracking from a field experiment conducted on the same motorway where the safety performance functions were fitted (motorway A16 in Italy). Study results show that geometric design consistency has a significant effect on safety of rural motorways. Previous studies on the relationship between geometric design consistency and crash frequency focused on two-lane rural highways since these highways have the higher crash rates and are generally characterized by considerable inconsistencies. Our study clearly highlights that the achievement of proper geometric design consistency is a key design element also on motorways because of the safety consequences of design inconsistencies. The design consistency measures

  3. Path-consistency: When space misses time

    SciTech Connect

    Chmeiss, A.; Jegou, P.

    1996-12-31

    Within the framework of constraint programming, particulary concerning the Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), the techniques of preprocessing based on filtering algorithms were shown to be very important for the search phase. In particular, two filtering methods have been studied, these methods exploit two properties of local consistency: arc- and path-consistency. Concerning the arc-consistency methods, there is a linear time algorithm (in the size of the problem) which is efficient in practice. But the limitations of the arc-consistency algorithms requires often filtering methods with higher order like path-consistency filterings. The best path-consistency algorithm proposed is PC-6, a natural generalization of AC-6 to path-consistency. Its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) and its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}), where n is the number of variables and d is the size of domains. We have remarked that PC-6, though it is widely better than PC-4, was not very efficient in practice, specially for those classes of problems that require an important space to be run. Therefore, we propose here a new path-consistency algorithm called PC-7, its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) but its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) i.e. worse than that of PC-6. However, the simplicity of PC-7 as well as the data structures used for its implementation offer really a higher performance than PC-6. Furthermore, it turns out that when the size of domains is a constant of the problems, the time complexity of PC-7 becomes. like PC-6, optimal i.e. O(n{sup 3}).

  4. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  5. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  6. No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits.

    PubMed

    Koele, Nina; Dickie, Ian A; Oleksyn, Jacek; Richardson, Sarah J; Reich, Peter B

    2012-11-01

    The concept that ectomycorrhizal plants have a particular foliar trait suite characterized by low foliar nutrients and high leaf mass per unit area (LMA) is widely accepted, but whether this trait suite can be generalized to all ectomycorrhizal clades is unclear. We identified 19 evolutionary clades of ectomycorrhizal plants and used a global leaf traits dataset comprising 11,466 samples across c. 3000 species to test whether there were consistent shifts in leaf nutrients or LMA with the evolution of ectomycorrhiza. There were no consistent effects of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar nutrients or LMA in the 17 ectomycorrhizal/non-ectomycorrhizal pairs for which we had sufficient data, with some ectomycorrhizal groups having higher and other groups lower nutrient status than non-ectomycorrhizal contrasts. Controlling for the woodiness of host species did not alter the results. Our findings suggest that the concepts of ectomycorrhizal plant trait suites should be re-examined to ensure that they are broadly reflective of mycorrhizal status across all evolutionary clades, rather than reflecting the traits of a few commonly studied groups, such as the Pinaceae and Fagales.

  7. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  8. Entropy-based consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    A description of software architecture is a plan of the IT system construction, therefore any architecture gaps affect the overall success of an entire project. The definitions mostly describe software architecture as a set of views which are mutually unrelated, hence potentially inconsistent. Software architecture completeness is also often described in an ambiguous way. As a result most methods of IT systems building comprise many gaps and ambiguities, thus presenting obstacles for software building automation. In this article the consistency and completeness of software architecture are mathematically defined based on calculation of entropy of the architecture description. Following this approach, in this paper we also propose our method of automatic verification of consistency and completeness of the software architecture development method presented in our previous article as Consistent Model Driven Architecture (CMDA). The proposed FBS (Functionality-Behaviour-Structure) entropy-based metric applied in our CMDA approach enables IT architects to decide whether the modelling process is complete and consistent. With this metric, software architects could assess the readiness of undergoing modelling work for the start of IT system building. It even allows them to assess objectively whether the designed software architecture of the IT system could be implemented at all. The overall benefit of such an approach is that it facilitates the preparation of complete and consistent software architecture more effectively as well as it enables assessing and monitoring of the ongoing modelling development status. We demonstrate this with a few industry examples of IT system designs.

  9. Symmetric smoothing filters from global consistency constraints.

    PubMed

    Haque, Sheikh Mohammadul; Pai, Gautam P; Govindu, Venu Madhav

    2015-05-01

    Many patch-based image denoising methods can be viewed as data-dependent smoothing filters that carry out a weighted averaging of similar pixels. It has recently been argued that these averaging filters can be improved using their doubly stochastic approximation, which are symmetric and stable smoothing operators. In this paper, we introduce a simple principle of consistency that argues that the relative similarities between pixels as imputed by the averaging matrix should be preserved in the filtered output. The resultant consistency filter has the theoretically desirable properties of being symmetric and stable, and is a generalized doubly stochastic matrix. In addition, we can also interpret our consistency filter as a specific form of Laplacian regularization. Thus, our approach unifies two strands of image denoising methods, i.e., symmetric smoothing filters and spectral graph theory. Our consistency filter provides high-quality image denoising and significantly outperforms the doubly stochastic version. We present a thorough analysis of the properties of our proposed consistency filter and compare its performance with that of other significant methods for image denoising in the literature.

  10. The concept of bond order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Robert J.; Richards, W. Graham

    A method for obtaining precise charge densities in defined regions of space from ab initio molecular wavefunctions is employed to place the concept of bond order on a firm theoretical footing. The bond orders obtained for carbon—carbon bonds in a range of organic compounds are assessed: those for buta-1,3-diene confirm that it consists of essentially localised double and single bonds.

  11. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  12. Quantifying the Consistency of Scientific Databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies. PMID:25984946

  13. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  14. Selecting Environments for Teaching Generalized Mobility Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Kevin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study evaluated the consistency of goodness-of-example ratings by 27 orientation and mobility (OM) instructors for photographs depicting five environmental concepts (curb, hallway, intersection, shoreline, sidewalk). Results, which were highly consistent across raters, are discussed in relation to design instructional and directions for future…

  15. Image recognition and consistency of response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question.
    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image.
    Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize.
    Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  16. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  17. Consistency of Students' Explanations about Combustion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, J. Rod; Prieto, Teresa; Dillon, Justin S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of 14-15 year old students' ideas about combustion. Describes patterns of students' explanations across a range of questions and analyzes them to gain insight into both the degree of consistency of their explanations and how this may affect the process of conceptual change in the students. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  19. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  20. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Cognitive Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhlov, Nikolai E.; Gonzalez E. John

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of cognitive consistency was conducted across two cultural groups. Forty-five American subjects in Southern California and 45 subjects in Northern Greece responded to a questionnaire written in their native language and which contained three classical paradigms for balance theory. It was hypothesized that significant differences in…

  1. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  2. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  3. Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro

    2009-03-15

    Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows one to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

  4. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  5. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  6. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  7. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  8. Properties and Update Semantics of Consistent Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    8217 PR.OPERTIES AND UPDATE SEMANTICS OF CONSISTENT VIEWS G. Gottlob Institute for Applied Mathematics C.N.H.., G<•nova, Italy Compnt.<•r Sden... Gottlob G., Paolini P., Zicari R., "Proving Properties of Programs ou Database Views", Dipartiuwnto di Elcttronica, Politecnko di Milano (in

  9. Gassmann-Consistency of Inclusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, M.; Wollner, U.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mathematical inclusion theories predict the effective elastic properties of a porous medium with idealized-shape inclusions as a function of the elastic moduli of the host matrix and those of the inclusions. These effective elastic properties depend on the volumetric concentration of the inclusions (the porosity of the host frame) and the aspect ratio of an inclusion (the ratio between the thickness and length). Seemingly, these models can solve the problem of fluid substitution and solid substitution: any numbers can be used for the bulk and shear moduli of the inclusions, including zero for empty inclusions (dry rock). In contrast, the most commonly used fluid substitution method is Gassmann's (1951) theory. We explore whether inclusion based fluid substitution is consistent with Gassmann's fluid substitution. We compute the effective bulk and shear moduli of a matrix with dry inclusions and then conduct Gassmann's fluid substitution, comparing these results to those from directly computing the bulk and shear moduli of the same matrix but with the inclusions having the bulk modulus of the fluid. A number of examples employing the differential effective medium (DEM) model and self-consistent (SC) approximation indicate that the wet-rock bulk moduli as predicted by DEM and SC are approximately Gassmann-consistent at high aspect ratio and small porosity. However, at small aspect ratios and high porosity, these inclusion models are not Gassmann-consistent. For all cases, the shear moduli are not Gassmann-consistent at all, meaning that the wet-rock shear modulus as given by DEM or SC is very different from the dry-rock moduli as predicted by the same theories. We quantify the difference between the two methods for a range of porosity and aspect ratio combinations.

  10. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  11. Subnational variations in conceptions.

    PubMed

    Wood, R

    1996-01-01

    Conception statistics are derived from information collected at the registration of live births, still births, and legal abortions. This article looks at how conception rates vary across England and Wales using the 1991 ONS area classification of DHAs (Population Trends 79). A comparison is made between age-specific conception rates for different area classification groups in 1993, and changes between 1983 and 1993 are examined. Correlations between certain social and economic factors and conception rates are also analysed.

  12. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  13. Temporally consistent segmentation of point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason L.; Osteen, Philip R.; Daniilidis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of generating temporally consistent point cloud segmentations from streaming RGB-D data, where every incoming frame extends existing labels to new points or contributes new labels while maintaining the labels for pre-existing segments. Our approach generates an over-segmentation based on voxel cloud connectivity, where a modified k-means algorithm selects supervoxel seeds and associates similar neighboring voxels to form segments. Given the data stream from a potentially mobile sensor, we solve for the camera transformation between consecutive frames using a joint optimization over point correspondences and image appearance. The aligned point cloud may then be integrated into a consistent model coordinate frame. Previously labeled points are used to mask incoming points from the new frame, while new and previous boundary points extend the existing segmentation. We evaluate the algorithm on newly-generated RGB-D datasets.

  14. Consistency Test and Constraint of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Gu, Je-AN; Chen, Pisin; /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-04-30

    In this paper we highlight our recent work in arXiv:0803.4504. In that work, we proposed a new consistency test of quintessence models for dark energy. Our test gave a simple and direct signature if certain category of quintessence models was not consistent with the observational data. For a category that passed the test, we further constrained its characteristic parameter. Specifically, we found that the exponential potential was ruled out at the 95% confidence level and the power-law potential was ruled out at the 68% confidence level based on the current observational data. We also found that the confidence interval of the index of the power-law potential was between -2 and 0 at the 95% confidence level.

  15. Consistency of a counterexample to Naimark's problem

    PubMed Central

    Akemann, Charles; Weaver, Nik

    2004-01-01

    We construct a C*-algebra that has only one irreducible representation up to unitary equivalence but is not isomorphic to the algebra of compact operators on any Hilbert space. This answers an old question of Naimark. Our construction uses a combinatorial statement called the diamond principle, which is known to be consistent with but not provable from the standard axioms of set theory (assuming that these axioms are consistent). We prove that the statement “there exists a counterexample to Naimark's problem which is generated by \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\aleph}_{1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} elements” is undecidable in standard set theory. PMID:15131270

  16. On consistent truncations in = 2* holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Venkat; Buchel, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Although Pilch-Warner (PW) gravitational renormalization group flow [1] passes a number of important consistency checks to be identified as a holographic dual to a large- N SU( N) = 2* supersymmetric gauge theory, it fails to reproduce the free energy of the theory on S 4, computed with the localization techniques. This disagreement points to the existence of a larger dual gravitational consistent truncation, which in the gauge theory flat-space limit reduces to a PW flow. Such truncation was recently identified by Bobev-Elvang-Freedman-Pufu (BEFP) [2]. Additional bulk scalars of the BEFP gravitation truncation might lead to destabilization of the finite-temperature deformed PW flows, and thus modify the low-temperature thermodynamics and hydrodynamics of = 2* plasma. We compute the quasinormal spectrum of these bulk scalar fields in the thermal PW flows and demonstrate that these modes do not condense, as long as the masses of the = 2* hypermultiplet components are real.

  17. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  18. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  19. General solution of the supersymmetry consistency conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, O.; Sibold, K.; Schweda, M.

    1980-11-01

    Renormalization of (broken-) supersymmetry theories depends on the existence of a local functional solution, with appropriate power counting, to a system of functional differential equations derived from the quantum action principle (QAP). Using consistency conditions which also follow from the QAP, we prove the existence of such a local solution; its dimension ensures ultraviolet renormalizability, whereas infrared behaviour must be discussed from case to case.

  20. Consistency test on the cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new and robust method to test the consistency of the cosmic evolution given by a cosmological model. It is realized by comparing the combined quantity rdCMB/DVSN , which is derived from the comoving sound horizon rd from cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and the effective distance DV derived from low-redshift type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data, with direct and independent rd/DV obtained by baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at median redshifts. We apply this test method for the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) and w CDM models, and investigate the consistency of the derived value of rd/DV from Planck 2015 and the SN Ia data sets of Union2.1 and joint light-curve analysis (JLA) (z <1.5 ), and the rd/DV directly given by BAO data from six-degree-field galaxy survey (6dFGS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 Main Galaxy Survey (SDSS-DR7 MGS), DR11 of SDSS-III, WiggleZ and Ly α forecast surveys from baryon oscillation spectroscopic data (BOSS) DR-11 over 0.1 consistent with the BAO and CMB measurements within 1 σ C.L. Future surveys will further tighten up the constraints significantly, and provide a stronger test on the consistency.

  1. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  2. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  3. Concept Image Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…

  4. NHWAVE: Consistent boundary conditions and turbulence modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale σ-coordinate ocean circulation models neglect the horizontal variation of σ in the calculation of stress terms and boundary conditions. Following this practice, the effects of surface and bottom slopes in the dynamic surface and bottom boundary conditions have been usually neglected in the available non-hydrostatic wave-resolving models using a terrain-following grid. In this paper, we derive consistent surface and bottom boundary conditions for the normal and tangential stress fields as well as a Neumann-type boundary condition for scalar fluxes. Further, we examine the role of surface slopes in the predicted near-surface velocity and turbulence fields in surface gravity waves. By comparing the predicted velocity field in a deep-water standing wave in a closed basin, we show that the consistent boundary conditions do not generate unphysical vorticity at the free surface, in contrast to commonly used, simplified stress boundary conditions developed by ignoring all contributions except vertical shear in the transformation of stress terms. In addition, it is shown that the consistent boundary conditions significantly improve predicted wave shape, velocity and turbulence fields in regular surf zone breaking waves, compared with the simplified case. A more extensive model-data comparison of various breaking wave properties in different types of surface breaking waves is presented in companion papers (Derakhti et al., 2016a,b).

  5. Toward consistent snapshot of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Susanta P.; Richardson, Paul; Sieh, Larry

    1999-07-01

    A battlefield can be viewed as a collection of entities, enemy and friendly, during combat, each entity scans its surrounding with local sensors to be aware of the current situation. Through digitation of the battlefield, it is possible to share this locally sensed information among all the friendly entities. Significant war-fighting advantages can be realized, if this shared information is consistent. During one of the soldier-in-the-loop simulation exercises invovling ground-based enemy and friendly entities, it was found that achieving consistent snapshot at each friendly node is not a trivial problem. A few contributing factors are: suitable method for combining individual perspective to a global one, mode of communication, movement of all entities, different local perspective of each entity, sensor calibration, fault, and clock synchronization. At the US Army VETRONICS Technology Center, we are in the process of developing a family of algorithms capable of obtaining a consistent global picture invovling one of the critical properties, ground position of entities. In the first stage we have established that for point to point communicating entities, a vector clock based scheme uses fewer number of messages and arrives at the global picture earlier. However, this result does not scale to broadcast situations.

  6. Bayesian AVO inversion with consistent angle parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinmiao; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2017-04-01

    Amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion has been extensively used in seismic exploration. Many different elastic parameters can be inverted by incorporating corresponding reflection coefficient approximations. Although efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of AVO inversions for years, there is still one problem that has long been ignored. In most methods, the angle in the approximation and the angle used in seismic angle gather extractions are not the same one. This inconsistency leads to inaccurate inversion results. In this paper, a Bayesian AVO inversion method with consistent angles is proposed to solve the problem and improve inversion accuracy. Firstly, a linearized P-wave reflection coefficient approximation with consistent angles is derived based on angle replacements. The equivalent form of the approximation in terms moduli and density is derived so that moduli can be inverted for reservoir characterization. Then, by convoluting it with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a probabilistic prestack seismic inversion method with consistent angles is presented in a Bayesian scheme. The synthetic test proves that the accuracy of this method is higher than the traditional one. The real data example shows that the inversion result fits better with well log interpretation data, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. CMB lens sample covariance and consistency relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motloch, Pavel; Hu, Wayne; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Gravitational lensing information from the two and higher point statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fields are intrinsically correlated because they are lensed by the same realization of structure between last scattering and observation. Using an analytic model for lens sample covariance, we show that there is one mode, separately measurable in the lensed CMB power spectra and lensing reconstruction, that carries most of this correlation. Once these measurements become lens sample variance dominated, this mode should provide a useful consistency check between the observables that is largely free of sampling and cosmological parameter errors. Violations of consistency could indicate systematic errors in the data and lens reconstruction or new physics at last scattering, any of which could bias cosmological inferences and delensing for gravitational waves. A second mode provides a weaker consistency check for a spatially flat universe. Our analysis isolates the additional information supplied by lensing in a model-independent manner but is also useful for understanding and forecasting CMB cosmological parameter errors in the extended Λ cold dark matter parameter space of dark energy, curvature, and massive neutrinos. We introduce and test a simple but accurate forecasting technique for this purpose that neither double counts lensing information nor neglects lensing in the observables.

  8. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  9. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  10. Academics' Conceptions of Assessment and Their Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postareff, Liisa; Virtanen, Viivi; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses; firstly, on analysing academics' conceptions of the purpose of assessment; secondly, on their assessment practices; and thirdly, on the relationship between their conceptions and practices. The data consisted of interviews with 28 pharmacy teachers. The analysis resulted in a continuum of categories of conceptions, from…

  11. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2013-01-15

    Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations.

  12. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations. PMID:23317395

  13. Information, Consistent Estimation and Dynamic System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Data fnfetd) --t 90gg- I .No-ýnber 1976 Report ESL-R-718 INFORMATION, CONSISTENT ESTIMATION AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION by Yoram Bara W This report...8217 • L .. +• " -’ .... .. .... .. .. ’• ’• "- ’"l ’"ll ~ll~ 2 l 1NFURMAT10N~, CUNSISTENT LST1IMATION JaN DYiNAMIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION byI Yoramn...one? 1. particular problem of considerable practical significance is that qI -3-3 of dynamic system identification . The situation described above, and

  14. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  15. Consistent Predictions of Future Forest Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We examined empirical and model based estimates of current and future forest mortality of conifers in the northern hemisphere. Consistent water potential thresholds were found that resulted in mortality of our case study species, pinon pine and one-seed juniper. Extending these results with IPCC climate scenarios suggests that most existing trees in this region (SW USA) will be dead by 2050. Further, independent estimates of future mortality for the entire coniferous biome suggest widespread mortality by 2100. The validity and assumptions and implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Essentialism, word use, and concepts.

    PubMed

    Braisby, N; Franks, B; Hampton, J

    1996-06-01

    The essentialist approach to word meaning has been used to undermine the fundamental assumptions of the cognitive psychology of concepts. Essentialism assumes that a word refers to a natural kind category in virtue of category members possessing essential properties. In support of this thesis, Kripke and Putnam deploy various intuitions concerning word use under circumstances in which discoveries about natural kinds are made. Although some studies employing counterfactual discoveries and related transformations appear to vindicate essentialism, we argue that the intuitions have not been investigated exhaustively. In particular, we argue that discoveries concerning the essential properties of whole categories (rather than simply of particular category members) are critical to the essentialist intuitions. The studies reported here examine such discovery contexts, and demonstrate that words and concepts are not used in accordance with essentialism. The results are, however, consistent with "representational change" views of concepts, which are broadly Fregean in their motivation. We conclude that since essentialism is not vindicated by ordinary word use, it fails to undermine the cognitive psychology of concepts.

  17. Conceptions of Creativity and Relations with Judges' Intelligence and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe naive conceptions of creativity and offer some explanation for their variability. Two methods are used to analyze conceptions of creativity. The first one consists of analyzing adjectives that are associated by naive judges with the notion of creativity of an advertisement. The second one consists of predicting…

  18. Kinematically consistent models of viscoelastic stress evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-05-01

    Following large earthquakes, coseismic stresses at the base of the seismogenic zone may induce rapid viscoelastic deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle. As stresses diffuse away from the primary slip surface in these lower layers, the magnitudes of stress at distant locations (>1 fault length away) may slowly increase. This stress relaxation process has been used to explain delayed earthquake triggering sequences like the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw = 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California. However, a conceptual difficulty associated with these models is that the magnitudes of stresses asymptote to constant values over long time scales. This effect introduces persistent perturbations to the total stress field over many earthquake cycles. Here we present a kinematically consistent viscoelastic stress transfer model where the total perturbation to the stress field at the end of the earthquake cycle is zero everywhere. With kinematically consistent models, hypotheses about the potential likelihood of viscoelastically triggered earthquakes may be based on the timing of stress maxima, rather than on any arbitrary or empirically constrained stress thresholds. Based on these models, we infer that earthquakes triggered by viscoelastic earthquake cycle effects may be most likely to occur during the first 50% of the earthquake cycle regardless of the assumed long-term and transient viscosities.

  19. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-12-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

  20. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1), we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability. PMID:23305080

  1. Towards Consistent Models of Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, Boris; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav; Shematovich, Valery; Wiebe, Dimitri; Henning, Thomas; Semenov, Dimitri; Launhardt, Ralf

    The complete theory of the earliest stages of star formation can be developed only on the basis of self-consistent coupled dynamical and chemical models for the evolution of protostellar clouds. The models including multidimensional geometry ""full"" chemistry and 2D/3D radiation transfer still do not exist. We analyze limitations of the existing approaches and main directions of the model improvements: revision of chemical reaction data bases reduction of chemical reaction network reasonable choice of model geometry radiation transfer. The most important goal of modeling of the real objects is to reveal unambiguous signatures of their evolutionary status. Starless cores are believed to be compact objects at very early stages of star formation. We use our results on 1D self-consistent evolution of starless cores to illustrate problems of modeling and interpretation. Special attention is drawn to the radiation transfer problem. New 2D code URAN(IA) for simulation of radiation transfer in molecular lines was developed. This code was used to analyze spectra of starless cores L1544 and CB17. The deduced parameters of these cores are discussed.

  2. ASTM/NBS base stock consistency study

    SciTech Connect

    Frassa, K.A.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the scope of a cooperative ASTM/NBS program established in June 1979. The contemplated study will ascertain the batch-to-batch consistency of re-refined and virgin base stocks manufactured by various processes. For one year, approximately eight to ten different base stocks samples, will be obtained by NBS every two weeks. One set of bi-monthly samples will be forwarded to each participant, on a coded basis monthly. Seven to eight samples will be obtained from six different re-refining processes and two virgin oil samples from a similar manufacturing process. The participants will report their results on a monthly basis. The second set of samples will be retained by NBS for an interim monthly sample study, if required, based on data analysis. Each sample's properties will be evaluated using various physical tests, chemical tests, and bench tests. The total testing program should define the batch-to-batch base stock consistency short of engine testing.

  3. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  4. Concepts for Intuitive and Abbreviated Planning Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    developing a military planning process that is easier to perform, more effective, and more consistent with natural human reasoning capabilities than...eleven specific concepts that should be considered in development of an abbreviated, intuitive planning process . This report also presents a...prototype process to serve as a framework in which to consider how intuitive planning concepts might be synthesized with existing planning procedures

  5. Learning structurally consistent undirected probabilistic graphical models.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sushmita; Lane, Terran; Werner-Washburne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In many real-world domains, undirected graphical models such as Markov random fields provide a more natural representation of the statistical dependency structure than directed graphical models. Unfortunately, structure learning of undirected graphs using likelihood-based scores remains difficult because of the intractability of computing the partition function. We describe a new Markov random field structure learning algorithm, motivated by canonical parameterization of Abbeel et al. We provide computational improvements on their parameterization by learning per-variable canonical factors, which makes our algorithm suitable for domains with hundreds of nodes. We compare our algorithm against several algorithms for learning undirected and directed models on simulated and real datasets from biology. Our algorithm frequently outperforms existing algorithms, producing higher-quality structures, suggesting that enforcing consistency during structure learning is beneficial for learning undirected graphs.

  6. Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  7. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  8. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  9. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  10. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  11. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  12. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and -B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through one year of simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the longwave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both Polar and Tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO datasets indicate that, the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 comparison spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining 4 spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  13. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark data sets for both intercalibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and MetOp-B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations in 2013, to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the long-wave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both polar and tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO data sets indicate that the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining four spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  14. Thermodynamically consistent modeling of granular-fluid mixtures incorporating pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Julian; Wang, Yongqi; Hutter, Kolumban

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new, thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures, derived with the entropy principle of Müller and Liu. Including a pressure diffusion equation combined with the concept of extra pore pressure, and hypoplastic material behavior, thermodynamic restrictions are imposed on the constitutive quantities. The model is applied to a granular-fluid flow, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the fluid pressure. While the focal point of the work is the conceptional part, i.e. the thermodynamic consistent modeling, numerical simulations with physically reasonable results for simple shear flow are also carried out.

  15. Student conception and perception of Newton's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Soeparmi, A.; Sunarno, Widha

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to reveal the student's conception and perception of Newton's Law. Method of this research is qualitative with the sample is taken using purposive sampling consist of second semester (25 students), fourth semester (26 students), sixth semester VI (25 students), and eight semester (18 students) IKIP PGRI MADIUN, which have taken the first basic physics and mechanics courses The data was collected with essay questions, interview, and FCI test. It can be concluded that Mathematical language (symbol and visual) perception and intuition influence students conception. The results of analysis showed that an incorrect conception arises because students do not understand the language of physics and mathematics correctly.

  16. On the Concept of Culture Goods Sales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong

    The article on the consumer psychology, consumer behavior, cultural concepts of the market so their products relating to the concept of corporate culture and business aspects of the image was further explained that the merchandise sold is a commercial act, a cultural transmission consumers to make consumption choices in the same time, he believed that the use of such products with their values and way of life is consistent, for the maintenance of their social status and self-recognition of the need for a sales role in the cultural concept of human group psychology, and affect people's consumption behavior.

  17. Resilience - A Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience—A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil Resilience as a term has as many definitions as...people who talk about it. What if resiliency is treated as a concept? How do you measure a concept? In reviewing many definitions , “each [ definition

  18. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  19. Retrocausation, Consistency, and the Bilking Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobyns, York H.

    2011-11-01

    Retrocausation seems to admit of time paradoxes in which events prevent themselves from occurring and thereby create a physical instance of the liar's paradox, an event which occurs iff it does not occur. The specific version in which a retrocausal event is used to trigger an intervention which prevents its own future cause is called the bilking paradox (the event is bilked of its cause). The analysis of Echeverria, Klinkhammer, and Thorne (EKT) suggests time paradoxes cannot arise even in the presence of retrocausation. Any self-contradictory event sequence will be replaced in reality by a closely related but noncontradictory sequence. The EKT analysis implies that attempts to create bilking must instead produce logically consistent sequences wherein the bilked event arises from alternative causes. Bilking a retrocausal information channel of limited reliability usually results only in failures of signaling. An exception applies when the bilking is conducted in response only to some of the signal values that can be carried on the channel. Theoretical analysis based on EKT predicts that, since some of the channel outcomes are not bilked, the channel is capable of transmitting data with its normal reliability, and the paradox-avoidance effects will instead suppress the outcomes that would lead to forbidden (bilked) transmissions. A recent parapsychological experiment by Bem displays a retrocausal information channel of sufficient reliability to test this theoretical model of physical reality's response to retrocausal effects. A modified version with partial bilking would provide a direct test of the generality of the EKT mechanism.

  20. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  1. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  2. Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, D. N.; Philippi, P. C.; Mattila, K. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.

  3. Consistent perturbations in an imperfect fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, Ignacy; Amendola, Luca; Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin E-mail: i.saltas@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch

    2013-01-01

    We present a new prescription for analysing cosmological perturbations in a more-general class of scalar-field dark-energy models where the energy-momentum tensor has an imperfect-fluid form. This class includes Brans-Dicke models, f(R) gravity, theories with kinetic gravity braiding and generalised galileons. We employ the intuitive language of fluids, allowing us to explicitly maintain a dependence on physical and potentially measurable properties. We demonstrate that hydrodynamics is not always a valid description for describing cosmological perturbations in general scalar-field theories and present a consistent alternative that nonetheless utilises the fluid language. We apply this approach explicitly to a worked example: k-essence non-minimally coupled to gravity. This is the simplest case which captures the essential new features of these imperfect-fluid models. We demonstrate the generic existence of a new scale separating regimes where the fluid is perfect and imperfect. We obtain the equations for the evolution of dark-energy density perturbations in both these regimes. The model also features two other known scales: the Compton scale related to the breaking of shift symmetry and the Jeans scale which we show is determined by the speed of propagation of small scalar-field perturbations, i.e. causality, as opposed to the frequently used definition of the ratio of the pressure and energy-density perturbations.

  4. Volume Haptics with Topology-Consistent Isosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Corenthy, Loc; Otaduy, Miguel A; Pastor, Luis; Garcia, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Haptic interfaces offer an intuitive way to interact with and manipulate 3D datasets, and may simplify the interpretation of visual information. This work proposes an algorithm to provide haptic feedback directly from volumetric datasets, as an aid to regular visualization. The haptic rendering algorithm lets users perceive isosurfaces in volumetric datasets, and it relies on several design features that ensure a robust and efficient rendering. A marching tetrahedra approach enables the dynamic extraction of a piecewise linear continuous isosurface. Robustness is achieved using a continuous collision detection step coupled with state-of-the-art proxy-based rendering methods over the extracted isosurface. The introduced marching tetrahedra approach guarantees that the extracted isosurface will match the topology of an equivalent isosurface computed using trilinear interpolation. The proposed haptic rendering algorithm improves the consistency between haptic and visual cues computing a second proxy on the isosurface displayed on screen. Our experiments demonstrate the improvements on the isosurface extraction stage as well as the robustness and the efficiency of the complete algorithm.

  5. Consistent quadrupole-octupole collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolski, A.; Mazurek, K.; Góźdź, A.

    2016-11-01

    Within this work we present a consistent approach to quadrupole-octupole collective vibrations coupled with the rotational motion. A realistic collective Hamiltonian with variable mass-parameter tensor and potential obtained through the macroscopic-microscopic Strutinsky-like method with particle-number-projected BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) approach in full vibrational and rotational, nine-dimensional collective space is diagonalized in the basis of projected harmonic oscillator eigensolutions. This orthogonal basis of zero-, one-, two-, and three-phonon oscillator-like functions in vibrational part, coupled with the corresponding Wigner function is, in addition, symmetrized with respect to the so-called symmetrization group, appropriate to the collective space of the model. In the present model it is D4 group acting in the body-fixed frame. This symmetrization procedure is applied in order to provide the uniqueness of the Hamiltonian eigensolutions with respect to the laboratory coordinate system. The symmetrization is obtained using the projection onto the irreducible representation technique. The model generates the quadrupole ground-state spectrum as well as the lowest negative-parity spectrum in 156Gd nucleus. The interband and intraband B (E 1 ) and B (E 2 ) reduced transition probabilities are also calculated within those bands and compared with the recent experimental results for this nucleus. Such a collective approach is helpful in searching for the fingerprints of the possible high-rank symmetries (e.g., octahedral and tetrahedral) in nuclear collective bands.

  6. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  7. Mining GO annotations for improving annotation consistency.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Schlicker, Andreas; Pesquita, Catia; Bastos, Hugo; Ferreira, António E N; Albrecht, Mario; Falcão, André O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the structure and objectivity provided by the Gene Ontology (GO), the annotation of proteins is a complex task that is subject to errors and inconsistencies. Electronically inferred annotations in particular are widely considered unreliable. However, given that manual curation of all GO annotations is unfeasible, it is imperative to improve the quality of electronically inferred annotations. In this work, we analyze the full GO molecular function annotation of UniProtKB proteins, and discuss some of the issues that affect their quality, focusing particularly on the lack of annotation consistency. Based on our analysis, we estimate that 64% of the UniProtKB proteins are incompletely annotated, and that inconsistent annotations affect 83% of the protein functions and at least 23% of the proteins. Additionally, we present and evaluate a data mining algorithm, based on the association rule learning methodology, for identifying implicit relationships between molecular function terms. The goal of this algorithm is to assist GO curators in updating GO and correcting and preventing inconsistent annotations. Our algorithm predicted 501 relationships with an estimated precision of 94%, whereas the basic association rule learning methodology predicted 12,352 relationships with a precision below 9%.

  8. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  9. Structural concepts for large solar concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Miller, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    Solar collectors for space use are examined, including both early designs and current concepts. In particular, attention is given to stiff sandwich panels and aluminum dishes as well as inflated and umbrella-type membrane configurations. The Sunflower concentrator is described as an example of a high-efficiency collector. It is concluded that stiff reflector panels are most likely to provide the long-term consistent accuracy necessary for low-orbit operation. A new configuration consisting of a Pactruss backup structure, with identical panels installed after deployment in space, is presented. It is estimated that concentration ratios in excess of 2000 can be achieved with this concept.

  10. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  11. Sound practices for consistent human visual inspection.

    PubMed

    Melchore, James A

    2011-03-01

    Numerous presentations and articles on manual inspection of pharmaceutical drug products have been released, since the pioneering articles on inspection by Knapp and associates Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Drug Assoc 34:14, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (Bull Parenter Drug Assoc 34:369, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 35:176, 1981); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 37:170, 1983). This original work by Knapp and associates provided the industry with a statistical means of evaluating inspection performance. This methodology enabled measurement of individual inspector performance, performance of the entire inspector pool and provided basic suggestions for the conduct of manual inspection. Since that time, numerous subject matter experts (SMEs) have presented additional valuable information for the conduct of manual inspection Borchert et al. (J Parenter Sci Technol 40:212, 1986); Knapp and Abramson (J Parenter Sci Technol 44:74, 1990); Shabushnig et al. (1994); Knapp (1999); Knapp (2005); Cherris (2005); Budd (2005); Barber and Thomas (2005); Knapp (2005); Melchore (2007); Leversee and Ronald (2007); Melchore (2009); Budd (2007); Borchert et al. (1986); Berdovich (2005); Berdovich (2007); Knapp (2007); Leversee and Shabushing (2009); Budd (2009). Despite this abundance of knowledge, neither government regulations nor the multiple compendia provide more than minimal guidance or agreement for the conduct of manual inspection. One has to search the literature for useful information that has been published by SMEs in the field of Inspection. The purpose of this article is to restate the sound principles proclaimed by SMEs with the hope that they serve as a useful guideline to bring greater consistency to the conduct of manual inspection.

  12. Precession/Nutation Solution Consistent With

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planetary Theory, The, , General

    2006-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS, St.Petersburg, Russia In the present paper the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the Poisson equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters are reduced to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution). Hence, the theory of the Earth's rotation is presented by means of the series in powers of the evolutionary variables with quasi-periodic coefficients. The behaviour of the evolutionary variables is governed by an autonomous secular system. For the Poisson equations of the Earth's rotation the trigonometric solution of the secular system is of interest to study evolution of motion and rotation (in astronomical climatology, for instance).Our main conclusion is that there is no principal difficulty to find solution of the Earth's rotation problem consistent with the general planetary theory (V.A.Brumberg, 1995) adequate to the present observation accuracy. For this purpose the general case of the rigid-body Earth's rotation adequate to SMART solution (Bretagnon et al., 1998).should be considered. All actual calculations were performed using a Poisson series processor (Ivanova, 1995). References 1. Bretagnon P., Francou G., Rocher P., and Simon J.L.: 1998,`SMART97: A new solution for the rotation of the rigid Earth', Astron. Astrophys, 329, 329 2. Brumberg V.A.: 1995, `Analytical Techniques of Celestial Mechanics', Springer, Heidelberg 3. Ivanova T.V.: 1996, `PSP: A New Poisson Series Processor',In: Dynamics, Ephemerides and Astrometry of the Solar System (eds.S. Ferraz-Mello, B. Morando and J.-E. Arlot), Kluwer, 283

  13. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  14. Comparative exoplanetology with consistent retrieval methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, Joanna Katy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Sing, David

    2016-10-01

    The number of hot Jupiters with broad wavelength spectroscopic data has finally become large enough to make comparative planetology a reasonable proposition. New results presented by Sing et al. (2016) showcase ten hot Jupiters with spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry from Spitzer, providing insights into the presence of clouds and hazes.Spectral retrieval methods allow interpretation of exoplanet spectra using simple models, with minimal prior assumptions. This is particularly useful for exotic exoplanets, for which we may not yet fully understand the physical processes responsible for their atmospheric characteristics. Consistent spectral retrieval of a range of exoplanets can allow robust comparisons of their derived atmospheric properties.I will present a retrieval analysis using the NEMESIS code (Irwin et al. 2008) of the ten hot Jupiter spectra presented by Sing et al. (2016). The only distinctive aspects of the model for each planet are the mass and radius, and the temperature range explored. All other a priori model parameters are common to all ten objects. We test a range of cloud and haze scenarios, which include: Rayleigh-dominated and grey clouds; different cloud top pressures; and both vertically extended and vertically confined clouds.All ten planets, with the exception of WASP-39b, can be well represented by models with at least some haze or cloud. Our analysis of cloud properties has uncovered trends in cloud top pressure, vertical extent and particle size with planet equilibrium temperature. Taken together, we suggest that these trends indicate condensation and sedimentation of at least two different cloud species across planets of different temperatures, with condensates forming higher up in hotter atmospheres and moving progressively further down in cooler planets.Sing, D. et al. (2016), Nature, 529, 59Irwin, P. G. J. et al. (2008), JQSRT, 109, 1136

  15. Geometrically consistent approach to stochastic DBI inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Larissa; Martin, Jerome; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-07-15

    Stochastic effects during inflation can be addressed by averaging the quantum inflaton field over Hubble-patch-sized domains. The averaged field then obeys a Langevin-type equation into which short-scale fluctuations enter as a noise term. We solve the Langevin equation for an inflaton field with a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term perturbatively in the noise and use the result to determine the field value's probability density function (PDF). In this calculation, both the shape of the potential and the warp factor are arbitrary functions, and the PDF is obtained with and without volume effects due to the finite size of the averaging domain. DBI kinetic terms typically arise in string-inspired inflationary scenarios in which the scalar field is associated with some distance within the (compact) extra dimensions. The inflaton's accessible range of field values therefore is limited because of the extra dimensions' finite size. We argue that in a consistent stochastic approach the inflaton's PDF must vanish for geometrically forbidden field values. We propose to implement these extra-dimensional spatial restrictions into the PDF by installing absorbing (or reflecting) walls at the respective boundaries in field space. As a toy model, we consider a DBI inflaton between two absorbing walls and use the method of images to determine its most general PDF. The resulting PDF is studied in detail for the example of a quartic warp factor and a chaotic inflaton potential. The presence of the walls is shown to affect the inflaton trajectory for a given set of parameters.

  16. Movement consistency during repetitive tool use action

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The consistency and repeatability of movement patterns has been of long-standing interest in locomotor biomechanics, but less well explored in other domains. Tool use is one of such a domain; while the complex dynamics of the human-tool-environment system have been approached from various angles, to date it remains unknown how the rhythmicity of repetitive tool-using action emerges. To examine whether the spontaneously adopted movement frequency is a variable susceptible to individual execution approaches or emerges as constant behaviour, we recorded sawing motion across a range of 14 experimental conditions using various manipulations. This was compared to free and pantomimed arm movements. We found that a mean (SD) sawing frequency of 2.0 (0.4) Hz was employed across experimental conditions. Most experimental conditions did not significantly affect the sawing frequency, signifying the robustness of this spontaneously emerging movement. Free horizontal arm translation and miming of sawing was performed at half the movement frequency with more than double the excursion distance, showing that not all arm movements spontaneously emerge at the observed sawing parameters. Observed movement frequencies across all conditions could be closely predicted from movement time reference data for generic arm movements found in the Methods Time Measurement literature, highlighting a generic biomechanical relationship between the time taken for a given distance travelled underlying the observed behaviour. We conclude that our findings lend support to the hypothesis that repetitive movements during tool use are executed according to generic and predictable musculoskeletal mechanics and constraints, albeit in the context of the general task (sawing) and environmental constraints such as friction, rather than being subject to task-specific control or individual cognitive schemata. PMID:28278273

  17. Semantic quality through semantic definition: refining the Read Codes through internal consistency.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, E. B.; Barrett, J. W.; Price, C.

    1997-01-01

    Checks of internal consistency in controlled medical vocabularies facilitate their development and assist refinement of the underlying terminological model. Two simple checks of consistency between knowledge in the subtype hierarchy and that in semantic definitions of concepts are described. It is proposed that these checks are a helpful adjunct to, but not a replacement for, large-scale involvement of domain experts in construction of controlled vocabularies. PMID:9357699

  18. Core Concepts of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    1995-01-01

    Core concepts of kinesiology are the basis of communication about movement that facilitate progression of skill levels. The article defines and exemplifies each of 10 core concepts: range of motion, speed of motion, number of segments, nature of segments, balance, coordination, compactness, extension at release/contact, path of projection, and…

  19. The Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Ann

    The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the self concept as a variable, to indicate what is known about the self concept from existing research, to discuss its importance to the school and its effect on learning, and to offer a method of assessment which is tied to a definition arbitrarily made as a starting point for researchers. A…

  20. Avionics technology - system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Avionics System Concepts to meet technology needs of advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are identified. Specific avionics system concepts which should be conducted and/or support by NASA to most effectively aid industry in advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are also identified. Candidate Missions and Mission Requirements to meet technology needs are considered.

  1. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  2. New Concepts of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The two-day Canadian conference focused on the topics: "Why are new concepts of work emerging?" and "How can we encourage desirable new work concepts in our society?" Following an introductory summary by David P. Ross, Stephen Peitchinis (Dean, School of Business Administration, University of Calgary) presented the economic…

  3. Learning Our Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Stanley Peters appreciates the centrality of concepts for everyday life, however, he fails to recognize their pedagogical dimension. He distinguishes concepts employed at the first-order (our ordinary language-use) from second-order conceptual clarification (conducted exclusively by academically trained philosophers). This distinction…

  4. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  5. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  6. Thinking to Learn Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.

    1988-01-01

    States that programs which link the teaching of thinking with content have the greatest instructional value. Presents a concept formation lesson, based on the works of Taba (1967) and Ehrenberg (1978), which requires students to learn a concept by studying several examples and noting their similarities and differences. Includes a sample…

  7. Teach Concepts, Not Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    Since concepts are the mental divisions man makes among the concrete and abstract phenomena of his environment so he may generate, maneuver, and control their relationships in a manner ot satisfy his physical, emotional, social, and aesthetic needs, concepts should be the vortex of intelligence. Too often students are taught as if they lack a…

  8. Multigrid methods and the surface consistent equations of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, John

    . A finite difference approximation to Laplaces equation is solved to outline some of the methods used later in the thesis. This includes defining what is meant by long wavelength errors, which is a principal concept in this study. Chapter 3 begins with a standard definition of the surface consistent equations. The ability of each method to estimate a solution to a synthetic surface consistent system is tested. The error remaining due to limitations in the solving method is shown to reduce the signal quality of a seismic gather. How the errors manifest in the data is demonstrated using static, amplitude and deconvolution corrections. The results from a multigrid method are compared to those of a Gauss-Seidel and bi-conjugate gradient method. Finally, a surface consistent deconvolution of the CREWES Blackfoot data set is presented. The multigrid solutions to the equations are shown to provide deconvolution operators that improve the resolution of the seismic trace over Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient methods.

  9. A Four Step Approach to Evaluate Mixtures for Consistency with Dose Addition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in environmental health risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (EPA 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (...

  10. Establishing Interpretive Consistency When Mixing Approaches: Role of Sampling Designs in Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to recommend quality criteria to guide evaluators' selections of sampling designs when mixing approaches. First, we contextualize our discussion of quality criteria and sampling designs by discussing the concept of interpretive consistency and how it impacts sampling decisions. Embedded in this discussion are…

  11. Consistency and Inconsistency in A Level Students' Understandings of a Number of Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwen, Boo Hong

    1996-01-01

    Explores A level students' conceptions of some common chemical reactions. Findings indicate that students apply frameworks consistently across groups of events that they perceive to be similar. What was found to be lacking was the scientists' view of all the reactions being regarded as realizations of the same underlying conceptual model. Contains…

  12. Using Item Data for Evaluating Criterion Reference Measures with an Empirical Investigation of Index Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Keith E.; Sabers, Darrell L.

    Data required for evaluating a Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) is described with a matrix. The information within the matrix consists of the "pass-fail" decisions of two CRMs. By differentially defining these two CRMs, different concepts of reliability and validity can be examined. Indices suggested for analyzing the matrix are listed with…

  13. Similarities between Prescott Lecky's theory of self-consistency and Carl Rogers' self-theory.

    PubMed

    Merenda, Peter F

    2010-10-01

    The teachings of Prescott Lecky on the self-concept at Columbia University in the 1920s and 1930s and the posthumous publications of his book on self-consistency beginning in 1945 are compared with the many publications of Carl Rogers on the self-concept beginning in the early 1940s. Given that Rogers was a graduate student at Columbia in the 1920s and 1930s, the striking similarities between these two theorists, as well as claims attributed to Rogers by Rogers' biographers and writers who have quoted Rogers on his works relating to self-theory, strongly suggest that Rogers borrowed from Lecky without giving him the proper credit. Much of Rogers' writings on the self-concept included not only terms and concepts which were original with Lecky, but at times these were actually identical.

  14. Size-consistent self-consistent configuration interaction from a complete active space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel

    1998-04-01

    The size-consistent self-consistent (SC) 2 method is based on intermediate Hamiltonians and ensures size-extensivity of any configuration interaction (CI) by correcting its diagonal elements. In this work, an (SC) 2 dressing is proposed on a complete active space SDCI. This approach yields a more efficient code which can treat larger multireference problems. Tests are proposed on the potential energy curve of F 2, the bond stretching of water and the inclusion of an Be atom in the H 2 molecule. Comparisons with approximate methods such as average quadratic coupled cluster (AQCC) are presented. AQCC appears as a good approximation to (SC) 2.

  15. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    descriptions. of subsystems and components, and the Transportation System Requirements Document. Other program and system documents, plans, instructions, and detailed designs will be consistent with and informed by the Transportation System Concept of Operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is a living document, enduring throughout the OCRWM systems engineering lifecycle. It will undergo formal approval and controlled revisions as appropriate while the Transportation System matures. Revisions will take into account new policy decisions, new information available through system modeling, engineering investigations, technical analyses and tests, and the introduction of new technologies that can demonstrably improve system performance.

  16. Emerging SPS Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four technologies were evaluated to determine their effect on Satellite Power System concepts. Two of these technologies, solid-state power amplifiers and magnetrons, are replacements for the Klystrons used for dc to RF conversion on the satellite. A third technology, laser power transmission, transmits the energy at laser frequencies rather than microwave frequencies. The fourth technology, multibandgap solar cells, has the promise of significantly increased solar to dc conversion efficienty as compared to the reference-concept silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells. The design characteristics of concepts resulting from application of these technologies are summarized.

  17. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  18. Modeling self-consistent multi-class dynamic traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lo, Shih-Ching

    2002-09-01

    In this study, we present a systematic self-consistent multiclass multilane traffic model derived from the vehicular Boltzmann equation and the traffic dispersion model. The multilane domain is considered as a two-dimensional space and the interaction among vehicles in the domain is described by a dispersion model. The reason we consider a multilane domain as a two-dimensional space is that the driving behavior of road users may not be restricted by lanes, especially motorcyclists. The dispersion model, which is a nonlinear Poisson equation, is derived from the car-following theory and the equilibrium assumption. Under the concept that all kinds of users share the finite section, the density is distributed on a road by the dispersion model. In addition, the dynamic evolution of the traffic flow is determined by the systematic gas-kinetic model derived from the Boltzmann equation. Multiplying Boltzmann equation by the zeroth, first- and second-order moment functions, integrating both side of the equation and using chain rules, we can derive continuity, motion and variance equation, respectively. However, the second-order moment function, which is the square of the individual velocity, is employed by previous researches does not have physical meaning in traffic flow. Although the second-order expansion results in the velocity variance equation, additional terms may be generated. The velocity variance equation we propose is derived from multiplying Boltzmann equation by the individual velocity variance. It modifies the previous model and presents a new gas-kinetic traffic flow model. By coupling the gas-kinetic model and the dispersion model, a self-consistent system is presented.

  19. Unified Technical Concepts. Physics for Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary programs. This UTC classroom textbook, consisting of 14 chapters, deals with physics for technicians. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work, rate, momentum, resistance, power, potential and…

  20. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  1. Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…

  2. THE CHILD'S CONCEPTION OF PHYSICAL CAUSALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIAGET, JEAN

    THE CHILD'S CONCEPTION OF PHYSICAL CAUSALITY WAS INVESTIGATED. THREE METHODS OF INVESTIGATION WERE USED. THE FIRST METHOD WAS PURELY VERBAL, AND CONSISTED OF A SERIES OF QUESTIONS DIRECTED TO CHILDREN, REGARDING SOME NATURAL PHENOMENON. THE SECOND METHOD INVOLVED A HALF-VERBAL, HALF-PRACTICAL APPROACH, WHEREIN A SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO NATURAL…

  3. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  4. [Concept maps of the graduate programme in nursing: experience report].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia Torres; Furtado, Luciana Gomes

    2013-06-01

    The conceptual map is considered a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this article was to evaluate concept maps produced by students to obtain an understanding of research projects. This is an experience report based on the Special Topic: concept map of the Graduate Program in Nursing/Federal University of Paraiba in February/2012. Methodology comprised interactive reading of concept maps, installation and use of Cmap Tools software and construction of concept maps. Concept evaluation included coherence, propositions, clarity of ideas and logical relation between concepts. This evaluation of maps revealed consistency among concepts, significant relationships, clarity of ideas and logical relationship between the stages of a research project. Results showed that the concept map is a valid strategy to evaluate the learning-teaching process and can be used for education, research and reflection in the nursing practice.

  5. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  6. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Video Gallery

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  7. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  8. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  10. The AERA Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  11. Concept analysis: resilience.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Ona, Leila; Jakubowski, Rita; O'Flaherty, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    This paper will systematically analyze the concept of resilience using an integrated review of literature. The historical perspective, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of resilience will be reviewed. A theoretical and operational definition will be provided. The Walker and Avant method will be used to describe the cases. Finally, the use of concept map will capture the relationships among the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical indicators through clustering and chaining.

  12. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  13. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  14. Progression in primary school children's conceptions of burning: Toward an understanding of the concept of substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Sri; Tytler, Russell

    1999-09-01

    Children's conceptions of burning were explored through observation and discussion or a number of challenging phenomena. Analysis of written responses showed that children's conceptions are both specific and contextually based, and that there is little coherence in the use of any one conception across phenomena. Progression across the primary school years can be described, however, in terms of children's growing confidence with the idea of transformation of substances and the analysis relates this to a model based on changing commitments to the notion of substance defined by properties, rather than history. The conceptual trajectories described in the study are broadly consistent with previous studies of secondary school children.

  15. A Key Concept: Spatial Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy

    1975-01-01

    The application of geography to spatial planning is discussed. Concepts presented include the regional concept, the typological concept, and spatial structure, spatial processes, and spatial organization. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

  16. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  17. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  18. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  19. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  20. The concept of compartmentalisation.

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Zepeda, C; Garber, L; Smith, J; Swayne, D; Rhorer, A; Kellar, J; Shimshony, A; Batho, H; Caporale, V; Giovannini, A

    2006-12-01

    The rationale for establishing trade 'regions' and 'zones' is based on principles of epidemiological science and risk analysis that assess and manage animal disease risks so that the safety of trade can be ensured. However, the boundaries of geographical regions and zones may readily be breached through numerous epidemiological pathways. The concept of a 'compartment' extends the application of a 'risk boundary' beyond that of a geographical interface and considers all epidemiological factors that can contribute to the creation of an effective boundary. The fundamental requirement for application of either concept (regions/zones or compartments) is that the population considered for trade is maintained within management or geographical boundaries which allow clear epidemiological differentiation to be made between those animals and surrounding populations of higher risk. Seven factors are presented that an exporting country might use to guide the identification and documentation of a compartment. Additionally, the steps that would be undertaken to implement trade based on the compartmentalisation concept are discussed.

  1. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  2. [Appraisal: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Ma, Shu-Ching

    2007-04-01

    Appraisal is a cognitive response by an individual facing an event within a given environment. When the individual has passed through a thought process that gives the event meaning, the coping process is finally completed. Coping heightens an individual's well-being. Negative appraisal will induce an emotional coping response and affect one's quality of life, mental state and health. Several researchers applied the concept of appraisal to their disciplines. The concept of appraisal, however, is poorly defined. This article applies the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (1995) to analyze the concept of appraisal. The definition of appraisal, examples, and empirical references provided in this paper will be useful in nursing practice in relation to the role of appraisal in coping.

  3. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  4. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  5. A Scalogram Analysis of Two Measures of Concept Generalizability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two hierarchically related measures of concept generalizability. The two concepts were "Insect" and "Animal." The tests were organized in a novel format consisting of three degrees of stimulus complexity. The three degrees of complexity contained sets of pictures of each…

  6. Turkish Science Student Teachers' Conceptions on the States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah; Altuk, Yasemin Gödek

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine science students teachers' conceptions on the concepts related to "the matter and the states of the matter". 112 Turkish science student teachers participated at this research. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen open-ended items was designed to collect the data. The questionnaire aimed to reveal the…

  7. The Twisting Path of Concept Development in Learning to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Cook, Leslie Susan; Johnson, Tara Star

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that teacher education programs should emphasize pedagogical concepts that interweave theory and practice so that preservice teachers learn consistent, unified approaches to teaching, noting that the theory-practice dichotomy lacks the richness of Vygotsky's notion of concepts and recommending that teacher educators strive to teach…

  8. Quality by design: concepts for ANDAs.

    PubMed

    Lionberger, Robert A; Lee, Sau Lawrence; Lee, Laiming; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence X

    2008-06-01

    Quality by design is an essential part of the modern approach to pharmaceutical quality. There is much confusion among pharmaceutical scientists in generic drug industry about the appropriate element and terminology of quality by design. This paper discusses quality by design for generic drugs and presents a summary of the key terminology. The elements of quality by design are examined and a consistent nomenclature for quality by design, critical quality attribute, critical process parameter, critical material attribute, and control strategy is proposed. Agreement on these key concepts will allow discussion of the application of these concepts to abbreviated new drug applications to progress.

  9. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  10. Revisiting the matricellular concept.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E; Sage, E Helene

    2014-07-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine.

  11. Revisiting the matricellular concept

    PubMed Central

    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Sage, E. Helene

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a matricellular protein was first proposed by Paul Bornstein in the mid-1990s to account for the non-lethal phenotypes of mice with inactivated genes encoding thrombospondin-1, tenascin-C, or SPARC. It was also recognized that these extracellular matrix proteins were primarily counter or de-adhesive. This review reappraises the matricellular concept after nearly two decades of continuous investigation. The expanded matricellular family as well as the diverse and often unexpected functions, cellular location, and interacting partners/receptors of matricellular proteins are considered. Development of therapeutic strategies that target matricellular proteins are discussed in the context of pathology and regenerative medicine. PMID:25064829

  12. [Concept of polymerization and oligomerization in morphology].

    PubMed

    Zamorskiĭ, A D

    1980-06-01

    The animal body consists of a large number of parts (organs, organoids, parts of organs etc.). This is reflected in names of different taxa including the words "poly" and "oligo" and has been laid into the bases of V.A. Dogiel's conception on polymerization and oligomerization. The least developed part of the conception dedicated to the hosts of organs is critically considered. The organs are divided into two principally different forms: diffuse hosts of similar organs and close hosts of similar elements in the same organ. A great importance of V.A. Dogiel's conception for foundation of a new section in morphology is demonstrated--the notion on hosts of organs. Failures in terminology and that in keeping the principle of homology together with ignoring the close hosts resulted in certain disadvantages of V.A. Dogiel's conception mentioned in the literature. Analysis of both forms mentioned above and that of their evolutional development helped to eradicate the disadvantages pointed above from V.A. Dogiel's conception. Biochemical terminology corresponding to biological tradition is the most suitable for V.A. Dogiel's conception. Besides hosts of organs, another components of the animal body are separate organs or parts of organs. Therefore, it is possible to divide all the animals according to their body structure into polymeres and heteromeres; this approach is also applicable in organs' anatomy.

  13. On the self-consistency of the principle of profile consistency results for sawtoothing tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Bretz, N.L.; Efthimion, P.C.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.W.; Murakami, M.; McGuire, K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Stauffer, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    The principle of profile consistency states that for fixed limiter safety factor q/sub a/, there exists unique natural equilibrium profile shapes for the current density j(r), and the electron temperature T/sub e/(r) for any tokamak plasma independent of the shapes of the heating power deposition profiles. The mathematical statement of the three basic consequences of this principle for sawtoothing discharges are: (r/sub 1//a) = F/sub 1/ (1/q/sub a/), /T/sub eo/ = F/sub 2/(1/q/sub a/), and a unique scaling law for the central electron temperature T/sub eo/, where r/sub 1/ is the sawtooth inversion radius and is the volume average T/sub e/. Since for a given T/sub e/(r), the ohmic current j(r) can be deduced from Ohm's law, given the function F/sub 1/, the function F/sub 2/ is uniquely fixed and vice versa. Also given F/sub 1/(1/q/sub a/), the central current density j/sub o/ = (V/sub L//2..pi..bRZ/sub eff/) T/sub eo//sup 3/2/ = (I/sub p//..pi..a/sup 2/) F/sub 3/(q/sub a/), where the function F/sub 3/ = (q/sub a//q/sub o/) is uniquely fixed by F/sub 1/. Here b approx. 6.53 /times/ 10/sup 3/ ln..lambda.., and I/sub p/, V/sub L/, Z/sub eff/, R, a, and q/sub o/ are the plasma current, loop voltage, effective ion charge, major and minor radius, and the central safety factor, respectively. Thus for a fixed j(r) or T/sub e/(r), the set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ is uniquely fixed. Further, the principle of profile consistency dictates that this set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ remain the same for all sawtoothing discharges in any tokamak regardless of its size, I/sub p/, V/sub L/, B/sub T/, etc. Here, we present a rather complete and detailed theoretical examination of this self-consistency of the measured values of T/sub e/(r), F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ for sawtoothing TFTR discharges. 55 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  15. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program....

  16. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program....

  17. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  18. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  19. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  20. Ares I concept illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a concept illustration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, left, and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to space. Ares V will serve as NASA's primary vehicle for delivery of large-scale hardware to space.

  1. Learning Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Yasmeen, Farah

    2004-01-01

    In order to learn the concept of statistical techniques one needs to run real experiments that generate reliable data. In practice, the data from some well-defined process or system is very costly and time consuming. It is difficult to run real experiments during the teaching period in the university. To overcome these difficulties, statisticians…

  2. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  3. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the concept of culture as a factor in the well-being of children. Holding students accountable for their behavior, holding schools accountable for activities and achievements of students, and inducing parents to support their children in school require a cultural change in how we look at schooling. (SLD)

  4. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  5. Using Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabell, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept cartoons are cognitive drawings or "visual disagreements" that use a cartoon-style design to present mathematical conversations inside speech bubbles. The viewpoints portrayed are all different and it is this difference that acts as a catalyst for further conversations, as learners talk together to discuss their thinking. They make…

  6. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  7. Embodying Policy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces some of the key concepts that we have used in our research to help illuminate the multiple and different ways in which apparently ubiquitous health policies relating to obesity, exercise, diet and health are mediated and shaped both globally and nationally, as well as within regional, school and other contexts. The analyses…

  8. Children's Conceptions of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Turiel, Elliot

    Aware that children conceive of different types of trust, a study examined 60 children's conception of trust. The subjects comprised three age groups: 6-7 years old, 8-9 years old, and 10-11 years old. Each subject was interviewed on the basis of three stories. The stories depicted a hypothesized violation of trust in a moral context (lying),…

  9. The Concept of "Teachability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  10. Naive Conceptions of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system of beliefs that make up the naive impetus theory of motion and to determine what effects physics instruction has on students' conceptions of motion. Thirteen college students were asked to solve several quantitative problems and were interviewed about their answers in the first experiment.…

  11. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  12. I Teach Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Januszewski, Alan

    This paper describes the author's views on and approach to teaching about educational technology. The author teaches concepts, with an emphasis on "teaching about" rather than "teaching how". The author's educational background and experiences, and their influence on his current views are described. While the definitions of educational technology…

  13. Creativity: Concepts and Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookey, T. Jerome

    The lack of a universal definition of creativity has led to the assessment of creativity according to the definition favored by the evaluator. These assessments fall into four groups. The first centers around the concept of the creative product; it assesses a tangible event or relationship that results from the creative process, which is implied…

  14. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  15. Changing Conceptions of Nonprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Linda; Powell, Thomas J.

    The authors distinguish between the therapeutically-oriented and the socializationally-oriented nonprofessionals, and maintain that both are valuable in a comprehensive program and neither one is uniquely effective. Hence, task assignments should represent the differing orientations as should training programs. A realistic conception of the types…

  16. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  17. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  18. Entropy, a Protean Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balian, Roger

    We review at a tutorial level the many aspects of the concept of entropy and their interrelations, in thermodynamics, information theory, probability theory and statistical physics. The consideration of relevant entropies and the identification of entropy with missing information enlighten the paradoxes of irreversibility and of Maxwell's demon.

  19. Mass Producing Concept Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin-Doxas, K.; Klymkowsky, M.; Doxas, I.

    2005-12-01

    Concept Inventories are research based assessment instruments which derive their validity and reliability from well researched distracters that represent students' dominant misconceptions in the field. They have formed the backbone of research based reform efforts in Physics by providing valid, reliable common assessment instruments with which to evaluate different teaching approaches and materials, and many disciplines are in the process of developing large numbers of Concept Inventories for their own subject areas. Unfortunately, Concept Inventories are labour and time intensive, with instruments taking anywhere from 2-8 years to develop, and correspondingly high price tags. The time and cost is directly related to the fact that valid, reliable instruments require mapping the dominant misconceptions in a field, which is usually a time consuming and labour intensive task. This paper will describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) with unsupervised clustering of the LSA vectors to identify and classify misconceptions in various science disciplines, considerably speeding up the process of misconception discovery and classification. The paper will present results from Astronomy and Biology, and will describe current efforts to develop a Concept Inventory for Space Physics.

  20. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  1. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  2. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  3. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  4. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  5. Mapping Sociological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepagnier, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the use of cognitive mapping within sociology. Describes an assignment where students created a cognitive map that focused on names of theorists and concepts related to them. Discusses sociological imagination in relation to cognitive mapping and the assessment of the assignment. (CMK)

  6. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  7. Consistency of Students' Ideas across Evaporation, Condensation, and Boiling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

    2013-01-01

    Existing research on students' conceptions contain competing philosophical positions concerning the nature of students' ideas--whether those ideas are coherent, systematic and theory-like, or fragmented and incoherent. Existing research has also focused primarily on studies of individual conceptions rather than investigating multiple, related…

  8. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  9. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  10. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  11. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  12. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  13. Use of analogy in learning scientific concepts.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C M; McDaniel, M A

    1993-07-01

    Four experiments compared learning of scientific concepts as expressed in either traditional literal form or through an analogy. Comprehension of basic-level details and inferential implications was measured through multiple-choice testing. In Experiment 1, literal or analogical renditions were presented in textual form only. In Experiment 2, text was accompanied by a dynamic video. In Experiment 3, the video and text literal rendition was compared with a text-only analogical rendition. In Experiment 4, subjects read only about a familiar domain. Subjects consistently answered basic-level questions most accurately when concepts were expressed literally, but answered inferential questions most accurately when concepts were expressed analogically. Analysis of individual differences (Experiment 2) indicated that this interaction strongly characterized the conceptual learning of science novices. The results are discussed within the framework of schema induction.

  14. The Necessity of Making Visible Concepts with Multiple Meanings in Science Education: The Use of the Gene Concept in a Biology Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flodin, Veronica S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze variations in how the gene concept is used and conceived in different sub-disciplines in biology. An examination of the development of subject matter and the use of the gene concept in a common college biology textbook shows that the gene concept is far from presented in a consistent way. The study describes…

  15. Trimble Vrs Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, C.

    Presenting the Trimble Virtual Reference Station (VRS) concept. High accuracy Real-Time Kinematic Positioning with GPS is one of todaySs most widely used surveying techniques. But, its use is restricted by the effects of the iono- sphere and troposphere which create systematic errors in the raw data. In practice, these mean that the distance between a rover (mobile) receiver and its reference sta- tion has to be quite short in order to work efficiently. The concept of Virtual Reference Stations offers a new opportunity. When used, the systematic errors in the reference station data are either reduced, or eliminated. This not only allows a user to increase the distance at which the rover receiver is located from the reference, it also increases the reliability of the system and reduces the OTF initialization time. The presentation describes the setup of a VRS system, as well the used model to reduce the error influence in such a permanente reference station network.

  16. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  17. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  18. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  19. Modular Reflector Concept Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    capability provides discretionary backup for direct monitoring and troubleshooting. DCMi MODULE, DEPLOYED DCM MODULE CREW COMPARTMENT MAN IPULATOR MANIPULATOR...are equivalent in size, shape, and function to DCM modules. META modules differ from DCMI modules by having three intermediate struts per module...excluding static loading, which will vary according to mission). As with the DCMI concept, META modules are limited in size by the available diameter

  20. Firefly system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Firefly' project has developed and implemented an infrared (IR) remote sensing prototype system based on the concept presented. The Firefly system produces images through smoke that will provide near real-time wildland fire information for fire management and suppression. The prototype will be tested through the 1991 fire season. Results of the testing will be incorporated into the final system design for operational use at the end of 1992.

  1. Some core contested concepts.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  2. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  3. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  4. Design concepts for large reflector antenna structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Adams, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Practical approaches for establishing large, precise antenna reflectors in space are described. Reflector surfaces consisting of either solid panels or knitted mesh are considered. The approach using a deep articulated truss structure to support a mesh reflector is selected for detailed investigations. A new sequential deployment concept for the tetrahedral truss is explained. Good joint design is discussed, and examples are described both analytically and by means of demonstration models. The influence of curvature on the design and its vibration characteristics are investigated.

  5. Wideband embedded/conformal antenna subsystem concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalanskas, Joseph P.; Valentine, Gary W.; Wolfson, Ronald I.

    1991-10-01

    The concept for a wideband, embedded/conformal antenna subsystem is presented. A multilayer radome not only protects the antenna from hostile environments, but also is designed to sustain aircraft dynamic loading. The radiating element consists of a planar, dual- flared slot capable of high-performance, multioctave operation. Advanced materials are currently being developed to enhance the low profile and efficient, wideband performance of the radiating element.

  6. Structural concepts for future space transportation orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Davis, R. C.; Cerro, J. A.; Scotti, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two structural concepts for a fully reusable STS orbiter are compared with respect to weight and the ability to satisfy structural goals. The cryogenic propellant tanks for both concepts use welded, blade-stiffened aluminum skins for leak-free containment and compatibility with LOX and LH2. The tanks are sized primarily by pressure, although some areas are sized by bending and fracture mechanics considerations. The tank concept is regarded as state-of-the-art, even though it requires a closed cell foam insulation with a dry air purge to prevent air liquefaction and ice formation. It is noted that the foam will require testing to verify its design life for use in the STS. One concept has nonintegral tanks suspended inside an insulated aluminum airframe and thrust structure. Here, a durable thermal protection system external insulation is mechanically attached to the airframe, allowing a buckled skin design. The other concept uses a novel structural arrangement consisting of a separate tank/thrust structure that supports a hot advanced-carbon-carbon aeroshell structure.

  7. Children's conceptions of conventional and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the development of the conceptions of conventional and nuclear war in the preadolescent and adolescent child. Subjects consisted of children in three age groups: 5-6, 9-10, and 13-14 year olds (N = 63) drawn from public and private schools in the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Children were administered an interview and supplementary measures. Parents were administered questionnaires examining related areas. The principal findings were as follows: (1) The development of the war concepts. Regarding the concept of conventional war, by the age of five or six, the child usually can recognize the word war and indicate that the word has to do with fighting between two or more parties. However, the notion of nationality is evidently not solidly grasped until around the ages of 8-11 years old. In this study, 45% of the 5 and 6 year olds were minimally aware of the concept of nuclear war. By the time the child reaches the age of 9 or 10, the proportion of those with minimal awareness rises to about 80%. By 13 and 14 years old, 100% are familiar with the concept. (2) Levels of Worry. Of the children aware of the subject of nuclear war, 76% indicated that they were very worried by its possibility.

  8. Nursing professionalism: An evolutionary concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirian, Fataneh; Salsali, Mahvash; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Professionalism is an important feature of the professional jobs. Dynamic nature and the various interpretations of this term lead to multiple definitions of this concept. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the nursing professionalism. Materials and Methods: We followed Rodgers’ evolutionary method of concept analysis. Texts published in scientific databases about nursing professionalism between 1980 and 2011 were assessed. After applying the selection criteria, the final sample consisting of 4 books and 213 articles was selected, examined, and analyzed in depth. Two experts checked the process of analysis and monitored and reviewed them. Results: The analysis showed that nursing professionalism is determined by three attributes of cognitive, attitudinal, and psychomotor. In addition, the most important antecedents concepts were demographic, experiential, educational, environmental, and attitudinal factors. Conclusion: Nursing professionalism is an inevitable, complex, varied, and dynamic process. In this study, the importance, scope, and concept of professionalism in nursing, the concept of a beginning for further research and development, and expanding the nursing knowledge are explained and clarified. PMID:24554953

  9. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  10. Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, M.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

  11. Generalizing about Genre: New Conceptions of an Old Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, Amy J.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the new conception of literary genre as it is being devised in the fields of literary studies, linguistics, and rhetoric. Suggests how this new conception has affected the thinking of teachers on writing and writing instruction. (HB)

  12. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    PubMed

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market.

  13. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  14. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  15. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  16. RADAR "SAIL" satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguttes, Jean Paul; Sombrin, Jacques; Conde, Eric

    1996-11-01

    The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna deformation thus allowing structural relaxation. Less obviously, the geometry favours the RADAR design too, by allowing grating lobes and therefore a lower density of built-in electronic in the active antenna. The antenna can be thin and packed for launch inside a cylinder-shaped bus having pyrotechnic doors for the antenna deployement and bearing the rest of the payload and the service equipment. With respect to a standard design of performant missions, cost savings come from the bus, whose functions (AOCS, power supply) are simplified, from the launch since the mass budget and the stowing configuration become compatible with medium size rockets (LLV2/3, DELTA-LITE, LM-4.), and from the active antenna built-in electronics. The RADAR SAIL concept is all the more cost effective when the mission requires a large, high and short antenna, i.e. high resolution (<5m), low frequency band (L or S or even P), high revisiting, multiple frequencies. Mission implementation and funding can be favored by the new capability to share the satellite between autonomous regional operators. Combined with ground DBF (digital beam forming) technique, the concept allows extremely simple and low cost missions providing a fixed wide swath (10 to 15 m resolution within 500km to 1000 km swath) for systematic surveillance or monitoring.

  17. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  18. GLAST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2001-01-01

    Cominsky served as the chair of the GLAST Public Affairs Working Group during the mission concept study. The major accomplishments of this group, which were carried out under her direction include: (1) GLAST Outreach website; (2) Brochure for scientists; (3) Brochure for public; (4) Developed the five key science goal 'bullets' to explain GLAST to the public, as well as the motto used on the GLAST brochures 'Quest for the Ultimate Sources of Energy in the Universe'; (5) Defined the EPO program for GLAST for the proposal phase. Developed initial program outline and budget; and (6) Assisted in the development of the GLAST exhibit, which was used at several scientific conferences.

  19. On the gestalt concept.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Jost, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    We define a gestalt as the invariants of a collection of patterns that can mutually be transformed into each other through a class of transformations encoded by, or conversely, determining that gestalt. The class of these transformations needs to satisfy structural regularities like the ones of the mathematical structure of a group. This makes an analysis of a gestalt possible in terms of relations between its representing patterns. While the gestalt concept has its origins in cognitive psychology, it has also important implications for morphology.

  20. The concept behind sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Epemolu, O; Bom, A

    2014-05-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. It allows rapid reversal of any degree of neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex acts by encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent. This prevents the drug from acting on prejunctional and postjunctional nicotinic receptors, allowing acetylcholine to activate these receptors, and resulting in reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. Objective monitoring of the degree of neuromuscular blockade is strongly recommended to determine the optimal dose of sugammadex. A good understanding of the concept behind sugammadex is essential in order to use this reversal agent in clinical practice.

  1. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  2. Mars rover 1988 concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley; Penn, Thomas J.; Dias, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of FY88 studies of a sample-collecting Mars rover are presented. A variety of rover concepts are discussed which include different technical approaches to rover functions. The performance of rovers with different levels of automation is described and compared to the science requirement for 20 to 40 km to be traversed on the Martian surface and for 100 rock and soil samples to be collected. The analysis shows that a considerable amount of automation in roving and sampling is required to meet this requirement. Additional performance evaluation shows that advanced RTG's producing 500 W and 350 WHr of battery storage are needed to supply the rover.

  3. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  4. Spotting Erroneous Rules of Operation by the Individual Consistency Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1983-01-01

    This study introduces the individual consistency index (ICI), which measures the extent to which patterns of responses to parallel sets of items remain consistent over time. ICI is used as an error diagnostic tool to detect aberrant response patterns resulting from the consistent application of erroneous rules of operation. (Author/PN)

  5. Preparing the DSN operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, A. J.; Bailey, M. D.; Kuo, N. R.; Wilkinson, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Operations concepts are prepared to support a specific application and can, therefore, be classified accordingly. Studies of NASA and military operations concepts suggest three major types: data services, customer services, and systems oriented. Data services concepts concentrate on data types (e.g., telemetry and command) and how these data are processed and delivered to the user. Such concepts are normally used by data-processing centers to describe data-coding schemes and data formats. Customer services concepts concentrate on the customers' requirements and describe how these requirements are met using the systems available to the operation. Project centers use such concepts to describe the various types of data as they flow from the source (e.g., a spacecraft) to the end user (i.e., the customer). Systems oriented concepts concentrate on the use of systems for processing and delivering customer data. This paper examines the latter type and the 'concepts' that are inherent within them.

  6. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  7. Internal consistency reliability of the WISC-IV among primary school students'.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M

    2009-06-01

    Internal consistency reliabilities of the WISC-IV subtest and index scores were estimated for a sample of 76 primary school students from a small Midwestern community. Means for age and Full Scale IQ were 8.2 yr. (SD = 23) and 110.5 (SD = 11.7), respectively. Internal consistency reliabilities were compared with those for the WISC-IV standardization sample of 200. The range of reliabilities for the subtests was from .76 for Picture Concepts to .94 for Arithmetic and from .92 for Perceptual Reasoning Index to .96 for Verbal Comprehension Index and Full Scale IQ. The Full Scale IQ internal consistency reliability is comparable to that of the standardization sample. However, in all but one instance the reliabilities were greater than those of the normative sample.

  8. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.

  9. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  10. Rocketdyne RBCC Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Brown, C.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (BBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation systems under the Advanced Reusable Transportation Technologies contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to the range of Mach 10 to 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with hydrocarbon fuel systems. A subscale engine ground test program is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude rocket tests will only be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow air augmented rocket and all rocket test results have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is currently being fabricated for test during the early part of 1998.

  11. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  12. ATR performance modeling concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  13. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  14. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  15. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  16. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  17. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  18. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  19. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  20. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  1. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  2. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the…

  3. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  4. Practical review of pharmacology concepts.

    PubMed

    Janda, Sue M; Fagan, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacology concepts are used routinely in nursing practice. These concepts may be as simple as drug names and side effects, or as complex as pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. All play major roles in drug efficacy and safety. A practical review of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts, will be presented.

  5. Concept Mapping as a Follow-Up Strategy to Learning from Texts: What Characterizes Good and Poor Mappers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Tatjana S.; Renkl, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Concept maps consist of nodes that represent concepts and links that represent relationships between concepts. Various studies have shown that concept mapping fosters meaningful learning. However, little is known about the specific cognitive processes that are responsible for such mapping effects. In a thinking-aloud study, we analyzed the…

  6. Toward a Fuller Conception of Machismo: Development of a Traditional Machismo and Caballerismo Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciniega, G. Miguel; Anderson, Thomas C.; Tovar-Blank, Zoila G.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Machismo is an important concept describing men's behavior in Mexican culture, yet it is not well defined. Most conceptions of machismo focus on a restricted, negative view of hypermasculinity. The authors posit that a fuller conception consists of 2 parts: traditional machismo and caballerismo, which is a focus on emotional connectedness. The…

  7. Effects of Multidimensional Concept Maps on Fourth Graders' Learning in Web-Based Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hwa-Shan; Chiou, Chei-Chang; Chiang, Heien-Kun; Lai, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Chiun-Yen; Chou, Yin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of multidimensional concept mapping instruction on students' learning performance in a web-based computer course. The subjects consisted of 103 fourth graders from an elementary school in central Taiwan. They were divided into three groups: multidimensional concept map (MCM) instruction group, Novak concept map (NCM)…

  8. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  9. Rocketdyne RBCC Engine Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratckin, G.; Goldman, A.; Ortwerth, P.; Weisberg, S.

    1999-01-01

    Boeing Rocketdyne is pursuing the development of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems as demonstrated by significant contract work in the hypersonic arena (ART, NASP, SCT, system studies) and over 12 years of steady company discretionary investment. The Rocketdyne concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. The baseline engine structural configuration uses an integral structure that eliminates panel seals. seal purge gas, and closeout side attachments. Rocketdyne's experimental RBCC engine (Engine A5) was constructed under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Engine A5 models the complete flight engine flowpath consisting of an inlet, isolator, airbreathing combustor and nozzle. High performance rocket thrusters are integrated into the engine to enable both air-augmented rocket (AAR) and pure rocket operation. Engine A5 was tested in CASL's new FAST facility as an air-augmented rocket, a ramjet and a pure rocket. Measured performance demonstrated vision vehicle performance levels for Mach 3 AAR operation and ramjet operation from Mach 3 to 4. Rocket mode performance was above predictions. For the first time. testing also demonstrated transition from AAR operation to ramjet operation. This baseline configuration has also been shown, in previous testing, to perform well in the scramjet mode.

  10. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways.

  11. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  12. The folk conception of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Starmans, Christina; Friedman, Ori

    2012-09-01

    How do people decide which claims should be considered mere beliefs and which count as knowledge? Although little is known about how people attribute knowledge to others, philosophical debate about the nature of knowledge may provide a starting point. Traditionally, a belief that is both true and justified was thought to constitute knowledge. However, philosophers now agree that this account is inadequate, due largely to a class of counterexamples (termed "Gettier cases") in which a person's justified belief is true, but only due to luck. We report four experiments examining the effect of truth, justification, and "Gettiering" on people's knowledge attributions. These experiments show that: (1) people attribute knowledge to others only when their beliefs are both true and justified; (2) in contrast to contemporary philosophers, people also attribute knowledge to others in Gettier situations; and (3) knowledge is not attributed in one class of Gettier cases, but only because the agent's belief is based on "apparent" evidence. These findings suggest that the lay concept of knowledge is roughly consistent with the traditional account of knowledge as justified true belief, and also point to a major difference between the epistemic intuitions of laypeople and those of philosophers.

  13. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  14. The Saturn management concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  15. Avicenna's concept of pain.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I

    2010-09-08

    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  16. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  17. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  18. The evolving microlesion concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul

    The ``microlesion concept'', introduced by D. Grahn in the 1970's, was further explored using published quantitative carcinogenesis data. Laboratory experiments performed by T.C.H. Yang and co-workers and by R.J.M. Fry and co-workers using the Fe ion beam of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have resulted in quantitative data on in vitro and in vivo (respectively) carcinogenesis in mouse systems. These data sets were interpreted on the basis of track calculations, and it was found that the action cross section for tumor induction in cultured cells is approximately 0.032 μm2 and that it is about 1/1000th as great in mouse Harderian gland cells. This great difference in carcinogenic sensitivity is a reflection of the biological differences between these two highly promoted systems, neither of which may be quantitatively applicable to humans in space.

  19. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  20. When reprimand consistency may and may not matter.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, J T; O'Leary, S G; Albertson-Kelly, J A; Keneziora, K T

    1996-04-01

    The present study examined the importance of discipline consistency by varying not only the probability of punishment but also the nature of the discipline agent's response to nonpunished transgressions. Eighteen first through third graders attending a remedial summer school were assigned to one of four feedback conditions in a 2 (Low vs. High Reprimand Consistency) x 2 (Ignore vs. Attend) design. An analysis of the simple effects of reprimand consistency indicated that consistency was important only when the teacher's alternative response was attending. Thus the nature of the adult's response to nonpunished transgressions is important for understanding how discipline consistency affects children's behavior. The importance of conceptualizing discipline consistency as a multivariate construct and of understanding the variables and parameters that may interact with the probability of punishment are discussed.

  1. A robotic framework for semantic concept learning.

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Kevin M.; Levinson, Stephen E.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2004-09-01

    This report describes work carried out under a Sandia National Laboratories Excellence in Engineering Fellowship in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our research group (at UIUC) is developing a intelligent robot, and attempting to teach it language. While there are many aspects of this research, for the purposes of this report the most important are the following ideas. Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax. To truly learn meaning, the language engine must be part of an embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those concepts symbolically. In the work described here, we explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in this capacity. HMMs are capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We describe a composite model consisting of a cascade of HMMs that can be embedded in a small mobile robot and used to learn correlations among sensory inputs to create symbolic concepts. These symbols can then be manipulated linguistically and used for decision making. This is the project final report for the University Collaboration LDRD project, 'A Robotic Framework for Semantic Concept Learning'.

  2. Spiritual nursing care: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Monareng, Lydia V

    2012-10-08

    Although the concept 'spiritual nursing care' has its roots in the history of the nursing profession, many nurses in practice have difficulty integrating the concept into practice. There is an ongoing debate in the empirical literature about its definition, clarity and application in nursing practice. The study aimed to develop an operational definition of the concept and its application in clinical practice. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe how professional nurses render spiritual nursing care. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the sample. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness was ensured through strategies of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Data were analysed using the NUD*IST power version 4 software, constant comparison, open, axial and selective coding. Tech's eight steps of analysis were also used, which led to the emergence of themes, categories and sub-categories. Concept analysis was conducted through a comprehensive literature review and as a result 'caring presence' was identified as the core variable from which all the other characteristics of spiritual nursing care arise. An operational definition of spiritual nursing care based on the findings was that humane care is demonstrated by showing caring presence, respect and concern for meeting the needs not only of the body and mind of patients, but also their spiritual needs of hope and meaning in the midst of health crisis, which demand equal attention for optimal care from both religious and nonreligious nurses.

  3. Holistic Nursing Simulation: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bonni S; Boni, Rebecca

    2016-11-28

    Simulation as a technology and holistic nursing care as a philosophy are two components within nursing programs that have merged during the process of knowledge and skill acquisition in the care of the patients as whole beings. Simulation provides opportunities to apply knowledge and skill through the use of simulators, standardized patients, and virtual settings. Concerns with simulation have been raised regarding the integration of the nursing process and recognizing the totality of the human being. Though simulation is useful as a technology, the nursing profession places importance on patient care, drawing on knowledge, theories, and expertise to administer patient care. There is a need to promptly and comprehensively define the concept of holistic nursing simulation to provide consistency and a basis for quality application within nursing curricula. This concept analysis uses Walker and Avant's approach to define holistic nursing simulation by defining antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents. The concept of holism and the practice of holistic nursing incorporated into simulation require an analysis of the concept of holistic nursing simulation by developing a language and model to provide direction for educators in design and development of holistic nursing simulation.

  4. Highly parallel consistent labeling algorithm suitable for optoelectronic implementation.

    PubMed

    Marsden, G C; Kiamilev, F; Esener, S; Lee, S H

    1991-01-10

    Constraint satisfaction problems require a search through a large set of possibilities. Consistent labeling is a method by which search spaces can be drastically reduced. We present a highly parallel consistent labeling algorithm, which achieves strong k-consistency for any value k and which can include higher-order constraints. The algorithm uses vector outer product, matrix summation, and matrix intersection operations. These operations require local computation with global communication and, therefore, are well suited to a optoelectronic implementation.

  5. 11th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding about Torque Concept: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostan Sarioglan, Ayberk; Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to reveal the effect of instruction on students' ideas about torque before instruction, after instruction and fifteen weeks after instruction. The working group consists of twenty five high school eleventh grade students. To reveal these students' ideas about the concept of torque a concept test consisting of seven…

  6. Validation of a New Measure of the Concept of Good Death among Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lai, Sih-yi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure dimensions of the concept of a good death held by Taiwanese children. The sample consisted of 1,698 Taiwanese children, approximately 12-14 years of age. Participants completed the self-administered Good Death Concept Scale (GDCS), which consists of 30 statements…

  7. [The psychophysiological founding of the analogy concept by Ernst Mach].

    PubMed

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2010-01-01

    Ernst Mach's (1838-1916) epistemology demands that concepts be consistent with every possible known empirical fact. Ideas are brought into conformity with one another as well as with facts. In the long run, however, facts take precedence. Otherwise, Mach preceived the danger that concepts would not be subjected to any kind of empirical controls and would thus become arbitrary, i.e., 'metaphysical' in the Machian sense. Mach consistently deduced his concept of analogy from Darwin's theory of evolution, hence from the biological, psychophysiological and cultural foundations of our human thought. Facts from biology, psychology or anthropology, for example, form the bases of a monistic concept of 'analogy'. Mach's considerations had substantial impact not only on scientific research but also on the training of aspiring scientists.

  8. Ability Estimates That Order Individuals with Consistent Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Latent trait models introduced the concept of the latent trait, or ability, as distinct from the test score. There is a recent tendency to treat the test score as through it were a substitute for ability, largely because the test score is a convenient way to place individuals in order. F. Samejima (1969) has shown that, in general, the amount of…

  9. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  10. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  11. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. Each of these activities is summarized below. 6 references, 3 figures.

  12. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. 6 references, 3 figures.

  13. The concept of territory in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Juarez Pereira; Oda, Wagner Yoshizaki; Borysow, Igor da Costa; Kapp, Silke

    2016-10-10

    The term "territory" and its correlates have become commonplace in the field of Mental Health since the psychiatric reform, a potentially emancipatory milestone in non-hospital-centered ideals. However, in a previous empirical study, we found a lack of consistent concepts and practices (corresponding to the use of this term) in the territorial reinsertion of persons with mental illness. To clarify the term's various uses and its possible correlations in practice, we have conducted a systematic survey of scientific articles and official documents, comparing them to each other and with the concept of territory from Critical Geography. We conclude that in the Mental Health field in Brazil, despite numerous and repeated critical efforts, a functional notion of territory has prevailed, overlooking power relations and symbolic appropriations, increasing the tendency of subjecting the reinsertion of persons with mental illness to a given territory rather than favoring socio-spatial transformations for the coexistence of differences.

  14. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe.

    Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity.

    Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky.

    But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk.

    Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the

  15. A thrust-sheet propulsion concept using fissionable elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeckel, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    A space propulsion concept is proposed and analyzed which consists of a thin sheet coated on one side with fissionable material, so that nuclear power is converted directly into propulsive power. Thrust is available both from ejected fission fragments and from thermal radiation. Optimum thicknesses are determined for the active and substrate layers. This concept is shown to have potential mission capability (in terms of velocity increments) superior to that of all other advanced propulsion concepts for which performance estimates are available. A suitable spontaneously fissioning material such as Cf254 could provide an extremely high-performance first stage beyond earth orbit. In contrast with some other advanced nuclear propulsion concepts, there is no minimum size below which this concept is infeasible.

  16. A thrust-sheet propulsion concept using fissionable elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeckel, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    A space propulsion concept is proposed and analyzed which consists of a thin sheet coated on one side with fissionable material, so that nuclear power is converted directly into propulsive power. Thrust is available both from ejected fission fragments and from thermal radiation. Optimum thicknesses are determined for the active and substrate layers. This concept is shown to have potential mission capability (in terms of velocity increments) superior to that of all other advanced propulsion concepts for which performance estimates are available. A suitable spontaneously fissioning material such as Cf-254 could provide an extremely high-performance first stage beyond earth orbit. In contrast with some other advanced nuclear propulsion concepts, there is no minimum size below which this concept is infeasible.

  17. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  18. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  19. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  20. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  1. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  2. Error Consistency and the Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Williams, Mandy J.; Lewis, Kerry E.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency/variability of error substitution patterns may hold important implications for subgrouping children with speech disorders, as well as for relationships between learning and generalization patterns. There is a need to quantify and examine the range of consistency/variability within the speech disordered population as it relates to…

  3. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  4. 42 CFR 435.901 - Consistency with objectives and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 435.901 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods of Administration § 435.901 Consistency with objectives and statutes. The Medicaid agency's standards and methods for determining eligibility must be consistent with the objectives of the program...

  5. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  6. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  7. Mothers' Ability To Identify Infants' Communicative Acts Consistently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Denis; Elias, Gordon; Bain, John

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the ability of 35 mothers to identify consistently what they perceived to be communicative acts by infants at three ages (6 months, 9 months, and 1 year). Comparisons of the mothers coded records indicated that they were able to identify infants' communicative acts consistently at each age. (Author/VWL)

  8. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  9. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  10. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  11. Estimating Consistency and Accuracy Indices for Multiple Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Hanson, Bradley A.; Brennan, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes procedures for estimating various indices of classification consistency and accuracy for multiple category classifications using data from a single test administration. The estimates of the classification consistency and accuracy indices are compared under three different psychometric models: the two-parameter beta binomial,…

  12. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  13. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  14. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  15. A new graph model and algorithms for consistent superstring problems.

    PubMed

    Na, Joong Chae; Cho, Sukhyeun; Choi, Siwon; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Kunsoo; Sim, Jeong Seop

    2014-05-28

    Problems related to string inclusion and non-inclusion have been vigorously studied in diverse fields such as data compression, molecular biology and computer security. Given a finite set of positive strings P and a finite set of negative strings N, a string α is a consistent superstring if every positive string is a substring of α and no negative string is a substring of α. The shortest (resp. longest) consistent superstring problem is to find a string α that is the shortest (resp. longest) among all the consistent superstrings for the given sets of strings. In this paper, we first propose a new graph model for consistent superstrings for given P and N. In our graph model, the set of strings represented by paths satisfying some conditions is the same as the set of consistent superstrings for P and N. We also present algorithms for the shortest and the longest consistent superstring problems. Our algorithms solve the consistent superstring problems for all cases, including cases that are not considered in previous work. Moreover, our algorithms solve in polynomial time the consistent superstring problems for more cases than the previous algorithms. For the polynomially solvable cases, our algorithms are more efficient than the previous ones.

  16. A new graph model and algorithms for consistent superstring problems†

    PubMed Central

    Na, Joong Chae; Cho, Sukhyeun; Choi, Siwon; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Kunsoo; Sim, Jeong Seop

    2014-01-01

    Problems related to string inclusion and non-inclusion have been vigorously studied in diverse fields such as data compression, molecular biology and computer security. Given a finite set of positive strings and a finite set of negative strings , a string α is a consistent superstring if every positive string is a substring of α and no negative string is a substring of α. The shortest (resp. longest) consistent superstring problem is to find a string α that is the shortest (resp. longest) among all the consistent superstrings for the given sets of strings. In this paper, we first propose a new graph model for consistent superstrings for given and . In our graph model, the set of strings represented by paths satisfying some conditions is the same as the set of consistent superstrings for and . We also present algorithms for the shortest and the longest consistent superstring problems. Our algorithms solve the consistent superstring problems for all cases, including cases that are not considered in previous work. Moreover, our algorithms solve in polynomial time the consistent superstring problems for more cases than the previous algorithms. For the polynomially solvable cases, our algorithms are more efficient than the previous ones. PMID:24751868

  17. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  18. Consistency between Peer Reviewers for a Clinical Specialty Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, David J.; Macaulay, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of reliability among peer reviews of 422 unsolicited articles for the "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia" found that most articles' reviews were consistent or near consistent. However, articles reviewed by two of the editorial board members were much less likely to be accepted than those read by two nonmembers. (Author/MSE)

  19. Robust Classification of Information Networks by Consistent Graph Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Shi; Han, Jiawei; Gu, Quanquan

    2015-09-01

    Graph regularization-based methods have achieved great success for network classification by making the label-link consistency assumption, i.e., if two nodes are linked together, they are likely to belong to the same class. However, in a real-world network, there exist links that connect nodes of different classes. These inconsistent links raise a big challenge for graph regularization and deteriorate the classification performance significantly. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm, namely Consistent Graph Learning, which is robust to the inconsistent links of a network. In particular, given a network and a small number of labeled nodes, we aim at learning a consistent network with more consistent and fewer inconsistent links than the original network. Since the link information of a network is naturally represented by a set of relation matrices, the learning of a consistent network is reduced to learning consistent relation matrices under some constraints. More specifically, we achieve it by joint graph regularization on the nuclear norm minimization of consistent relation matrices together with ℓ1-norm minimization on the difference matrices between the original relation matrices and the learned consistent ones subject to certain constraints. Experiments on both homogeneous and heterogeneous network datasets show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. 43 CFR 2742.5 - Consistency with other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with other laws. 2742.5... Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Omitted Lands and Unsurveyed Islands § 2742.5 Consistency with other laws... under any other law does not apply to conveyances under this subpart....

  1. The Self-Consistency Model of Subjective Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2012-01-01

    How do people monitor the correctness of their answers? A self-consistency model is proposed for the process underlying confidence judgments and their accuracy. In answering a 2-alternative question, participants are assumed to retrieve a sample of representations of the question and base their confidence on the consistency with which the chosen…

  2. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, C A

    1997-01-01

    This study presents the results of a blinded test of the performance of five commercial thickners. Experimental variables considered are brand of commercial thickener, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time. Success of outcome is defined by a numerical rating scale comparing the consistency and taste to actual liquid samples. The findings suggest that no one commercial thickener consistently produces a desired consistency or was consistently superior regarding taste. Success in producing certain liquid consistencies and "good taste" varied according to brand, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time used. It is suggested that specific recipes be developed for each brand and liquid to be thickened. Flavorings should be tested to enhance taste.

  3. On the use of consistent approximations for the optimal design of beams

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, E.; Neto, C.K.

    1994-12-31

    Most optimal design problems can only be solved through discretization. One solution strategy is to expand the original problem into an infinite sequence of finite dimensional, approximating nonlinear programming problems, which can be solved using standard algorithms. In this paper, an expansion strategy based on the concept of consistent approximations is proposed for certain optimal beam design problems, where the beam is modelled using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. It is shown that any accumulation point of the sequence of the stationary points of the family of approximating problems is a stationary point of the original, infinite-dimensional problem. Numerical results are presented for problems of optimal design of fixed beams.

  4. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  5. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  6. Trajectory Design for a Single-String Impactor Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dono Perez, Andres; Burton, Roland; Stupl, Jan; Mauro, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a trajectory design for a secondary spacecraft concept to augment science return in interplanetary missions. The concept consist of a single-string probe with a kinetic impactor on board that generates an artificial plume to perform in-situ sampling. The trajectory design was applied to a particular case study that samples ejecta particles from the Jovian moon Europa. Results were validated using statistical analysis. Details regarding the navigation, targeting and disposal challenges related to this concept are presented herein.

  7. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  8. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  9. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  10. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  11. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  12. Toward a new conception of conceptions: Interplay of talk, gestures, and structures in the setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givry, Damien; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-12-01

    Most studies about students' conceptions and conceptual change are based exclusively on the analysis language, which is treated as a tool to make private contents of the mind public to researchers. Following recent studies that focused on (a) language and discursive practice and (b) the pragmatics of communication that draws on talk, gestures, and semiotic resources in the setting, we propose a redefinition of the nature of conception. Conceptions are understood as the dialectical relation of simultaneously available speech, gestures, and contextual structures that cannot be reduced to verbal rendering because gestures and contextual structures constitute different modalities in the communication. Drawing on data collected during a physics unit about gas taught in French tenth grade classrooms, we show why an appropriate account of conceptions requires: (a) gestures simultaneously produced with talk; and (b) identification of the relevant structures in the setting used by the participants as meaning-making (semiotic) resources. We propose to: (a) reconceptualize the notion of conception as consisting of a dialectical unit of all relevant semiotic (meaning-making) resources publicly made available by a speaker (talk, gesture, context); and (b) consider conceptual change through the temporal evolution of the dialectical unit defined in this manner.

  13. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  14. Health Hybrid Concept Analysis in Old People

    PubMed Central

    Noghabi, Ahamadali Asadi; Alhani, Fatemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: It seems necessary to study the health status of this age group to promote their health and prevent disease as well as care planning. In order to achieve this goal, a clear definition of the concept of elderly health is essential. Method: Hybrid concept analysis, our research design, utilizes both theoretical analysis of literature and empirical observation to define a concept. We chose the hybrid concept analysis method because its inclusion of old people perspectives enriches the limited health research literature. The method consists of three phases theory, fieldwork, and analysis. Results: In comparison, we can conclude that health in the elderly people is something more than the absence of illness and 4 physical, mental, social and spiritual domains which are referred to in the definition of a theoretical stage are supported by the findings. The relative health was also proposed against the complete welfare and comfort for the elderly and it showed that their expectations are less than their ages. In addition, the elderly have expressed the family as a preference and the researcher believes that this theme is context based because it has emerged following the interview. Since the family has a special place according to the Iranian culture and religion and the family health is a priority in their health. In addition, the daily activities have been raised as a major theme that can be considered as the physical health but the elderly have expressed it apart from the physical health. Conclusion: Health among the old is a concept that is affected by genetic, environmental, healthcare services and lifestyle-related factors and involves proportional physical, mental, social, familial, spiritual, and economical welfare along with the ability to handle daily life activities which is measurable through medical and functional approaches. PMID:24171892

  15. Mathematical Concepts and Maple Animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Mohammad; Mitchell, Kristy

    2010-09-01

    Maple is a mathematics software package, which contains graphic, computation, and programming tools. Maple animation is a powerful tool that can help in comprehending many fundamental concepts in mathematics and other sciences. This paper deals with the use of maple animation to demonstrate many fundamental concepts in mathematics that are difficult to explain verbally or through static figures. We show Maple animations effectively convey different concepts. We present problems taken from the literature to exemplify and explain Maple animation procedures. Using Maple in teaching mathematics facilitates the students with a tool to experiment and visualize complicated mathematical concepts and thus, strengthen their grasp of the subject.

  16. Students' Alternative Conceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David

    2001-01-01

    Identifies students' conceptions that could be categorized as scientifically acceptable and investigates the nature of any possible relationship between these concepts. Investigates 6th and 10th grade students' ideas on whether gravity acted upon a series of moving or non-moving objects in everyday situations. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. A consistent-mode indicator for the eigensystem realization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Schenk, Axel

    1992-01-01

    A new method is described for assessing the consistency of model parameters identified with the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Identification results show varying consistency in practice due to many sources, including high modal density, nonlinearity, and inadequate excitation. Consistency is considered to be a reliable indicator of accuracy. The new method is the culmination of many years of experience in developing a practical implementation of the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using data from NASA Langley's Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary Model.

  18. Consistent quantum prediction in spin-foam quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David

    2015-04-01

    A complete ``consistent histories'' framework is given for a covariant ``spin-foam'' quantum cosmological model, a highly symmetry-reduced (FLRW) model of covariant loop quantum gravity. A decoherence functional is constructed through which probabilities may be consistently extracted from quantum amplitudes. Branch wave functions corresponding to different possible quantum histories of the universe are described, such as whether the universe ``bounces'' at small volume or becomes singular. We discuss the construction and calculation of such branch wave functions, with an emphasis on the crucial role played by the decoherence of histories in arriving at self-consistent quantum predictions for these closed quantum systems. [Based on joint work with Parampreet Singh].

  19. Two blowing concepts for roll and lateral control of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D. A.; Wood, N. J.; Lee, C. S.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two schemes to modulate aerodynamic forces for roll and lateral control of aircraft have been investigated. The first scheme, called the lateral blowing concept, consists of thin jets of air exiting spanwise, or at small angle with the spanwise direction, from slots at the tips of straight wings. For this scheme, in addition to experimental measurements, a theory was developed showing the analytical relationship between aerodynamic forces and jet and wing parameters. Experimental results confirmed the theoretically derived scaling laws. The second scheme, which was studied experimentally, is called the jet spoiler concept and consists of thin jets exiting normally to the wing surface from slots aligned with the spanwise direction.

  20. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  1. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  2. LIDAR Remote Sensing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) is to develop technology for use on future operational missions. The Program consists of two thrust areas, one oriented towards developing technologies for Deep Space Probes and one oriented towards developing technology for Earth Observing Probes. Each thrust area intends to fly several technology demonstrator space designated DS-X and EO-X respectively where X is the mission number. Each mission has an approximately $100 million cap on total mission cost. The EO-1 mission has been selected and is under development. The instrument discussed here was submitted by NASA MSFC as a potential candidate for the EO-2 or EO-3 missions due to launch in 2001 and late 2002 or early 2003 respectively. This report summarizes and follows the format of the material provided to NMP.

  3. Transgender youth: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  4. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours.

  5. Self-Consistent-Field Calculation on Lithium Hydride for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Frank; Harriss, Donald K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a self-consistent-field-linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital calculation on the valence electrons of lithium hydride using the method of Roothaan. This description is intended for undergraduate physics students.

  6. The strobe algorithms for multi-source warehouse consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuge, Yue; Garcia-Molina, H.; Wiener, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    A warehouse is a data repository containing integrated information for efficient querying and analysis. Maintaining the consistency of warehouse data is challenging, especially if the data sources are autonomous and views of the data at the warehouse span multiple sources. Transactions containing multiple updates at one or more sources, e.g., batch updates, complicate the consistency problem. In this paper we identify and discuss three fundamental transaction processing scenarios for data warehousing. We define four levels of consistency for warehouse data and present a new family of algorithms, the Strobe family, that maintain consistency as the warehouse is updated, under the various warehousing scenarios. All of the algorithms are incremental and can handle a continuous and overlapping stream of updates from the sources. Our implementation shows that the algorithms are practical and realistic choices for a wide variety of update scenarios.

  7. Internal Consistency Reliabilities for 14 Computer Attitude Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Examines the internal consistency reliabilities for 14 previously-published computer attitude scales based on responses from preservice teachers, practicing K-12 teachers, and teacher educators. Describes the Teachers' Attitude toward Computers Questionnaire (TAC) that included 32 subscales. (LRW)

  8. 15 CFR 930.126 - Consistency appeal processing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Appeal to the Secretary for Review Related to the Objectives of the Act and National Security Interests § 930.126...

  9. The origin of consistent protein structure refinement from structural averaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Hahnbeom; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2015-06-02

    Recent studies have shown that explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by structural averaging can consistently improve protein structure models. We find that improvement upon averaging is not limited to explicit water MD simulation, as consistent improvements are also observed for more efficient implicit solvent MD or Monte Carlo minimization simulations. To determine the origin of these improvements, we examine the changes in model accuracy brought about by averaging at the individual residue level. We find that the improvement in model quality from averaging results from the superposition of two effects: a dampening of deviations from the correct structure in the least well modeled regions, and a reinforcement of consistent movements towards the correct structure in better modeled regions. These observations are consistent with an energy landscape model in which the magnitude of the energy gradient toward the native structure decreases with increasing distance from the native state.

  10. UNDS Phase II Batch One: National Consistency Determination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Coastal Zone Management Act, federal actions that are national or regional in scope must issue an accompanying National Consistency Determination, to ensure that the action does not overly conflict with state/territory-level coastal programs.

  11. Consistency in experiments on multistable driven delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Neus; Larger, Laurent; Fischer, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the consistency properties in the responses of a nonlinear delay optoelectronic intensity oscillator subject to different drives, in particular, harmonic and self-generated waveforms. This system, an implementation of the Ikeda oscillator, is operating in a closed-loop configuration, exhibiting its autonomous dynamics while the drive signals are additionally introduced. Applying the same drive multiple times, we compare the dynamical responses of the optoelectronic oscillator and quantify the degree of consistency among them via their correlation. Our results show that consistency is not restricted to conditions close to the first Hopf bifurcation but can be found in a broad range of dynamical regimes, even in the presence of multistability. Finally, we discuss the dependence of consistency on the nature of the drive signal.

  12. Conditions for self-consistent aggregation by chemotactic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masayo; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-04-01

    We have numerically studied chemotactic aggregation of microorganisms by introducing a model consisting of elements with intracellular dynamics, random walks with a state-dependent turnover rate, and secretion of attractant. Three phases with and without aggregation, as well as partial aggregation, were obtained as to the diffusion and degradation rates of the attractant, and conditions for cellular aggregation were analyzed. The size of aggregated clusters was shown to be independent of cell density, as is consistent with experiment.

  13. Consistent Yokoya-Chen Approximation to Beamstrahlung(LCC-0010)

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M

    2004-04-22

    I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.

  14. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Markiv, B.; Tokarchuk, M.

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  15. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  16. Cosmological consistency tests of gravity theory and cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among the important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use statistical measures, the rate of cosmic expansion, the growth rate of large scale structure, and the physical consistency of these probes with one another.

  17. Inferring consistent functional interaction patterns from natural stimulus FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiehuan; Hu, Xintao; Huang, Xiu; Liu, Yang; Li, Kaiming; Li, Xiang; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Zhang, Jing

    2012-07-16

    There has been increasing interest in how the human brain responds to natural stimulus such as video watching in the neuroimaging field. Along this direction, this paper presents our effort in inferring consistent and reproducible functional interaction patterns under natural stimulus of video watching among known functional brain regions identified by task-based fMRI. Then, we applied and compared four statistical approaches, including Bayesian network modeling with searching algorithms: greedy equivalence search (GES), Peter and Clark (PC) analysis, independent multiple greedy equivalence search (IMaGES), and the commonly used Granger causality analysis (GCA), to infer consistent and reproducible functional interaction patterns among these brain regions. It is interesting that a number of reliable and consistent functional interaction patterns were identified by the GES, PC and IMaGES algorithms in different participating subjects when they watched multiple video shots of the same semantic category. These interaction patterns are meaningful given current neuroscience knowledge and are reasonably reproducible across different brains and video shots. In particular, these consistent functional interaction patterns are supported by structural connections derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, suggesting the structural underpinnings of consistent functional interactions. Our work demonstrates that specific consistent patterns of functional interactions among relevant brain regions might reflect the brain's fundamental mechanisms of online processing and comprehension of video messages.

  18. Why the Phylogenetic Species Concept?—Elementary

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Quentin D.

    1999-01-01

    Although species play a number of unique and necessary roles in biology, none are more important than as the elements of phylogeny, nomenclature, and biodiversity study. Species are not divisible into any smaller units among which shared derived characters can be recognized with fidelity. Biodiversity inventory, assessment, and conservation are dependent upon a uniformly applicable species concept. Species are the fundamental units in formal Linnaean classification and zoological nomenclature. The Biological Species Concept, long given nominal support by most zoologists, forced an essentialy taxonomic problem (what are species?) into a population genetics framework (why are there species?). Early efforts at a phylogenetic species concept focused on correcting problems in the Biological Species Concept associated with ancestral populations, then applying phylogenetic logic to species themselves. Subsequently, Eldredge and Cracraft, and Nelson and Platnick, each proposed essentially identical and truly phylogenetic species concepts that permitted the rigorous recognition of species prior to and for the purposes of phylogenetic analysis, yet maintained the integrity of the Phylogenetic Species Concept outside of cladistic analysis. Such phylogenetic elements have many benefits, including giving to biology a unit species concept applicable across all kinds of living things including sexual and asexual forms. This is possible because the Phylogenetic Species Concept is based on patterns of character distributions and is therefore consistent with the full range of possible evolutionary processes that contribute to species formation, including both biotic and abiotic (even random) factors. PMID:19270883

  19. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  20. Conceptions of Workplace University Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    A study examined how academic staff involved in workplace supervision of students conceive of the workplace experience in four professional areas: engineering, business administration, health sciences, and social science. Five concepts are identified, and a relationship is seen between the conceptions and the quality of student learning. Staff…

  1. Mental Models of Boolean Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Negation, conjunction, and disjunction are major building blocks in the formation of concepts. This article presents a new model-based theory of these Boolean components. It predicts that individuals simplify the models of instances of concepts. Evidence corroborates the theory and challenges alternative accounts, such as those based on minimal…

  2. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  3. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  4. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  5. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  6. A concept analysis of otherness.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jane Greene

    2012-01-01

    Otherness is an important concept in understanding the health provider-patient relationship and in creating insights into how to be more present with patients and families. This is an analysis of the concept of Otherness that leads to a definition of the construct.

  7. Learning to Use Scientific Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is…

  8. Developing the Concept of Metalearning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman

    2004-01-01

    The idea of metalearning was originally used by John Biggs (1985) to describe the state of 'being aware of and taking control of one's own learning'. This paper explores the concept through collaborative enquiry involving researchers and higher education teachers. An evolved conception is proposed in which metalearning is a subconcept within…

  9. Mnemonic Instruction of Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight behavior disordered students (ages 7-11) in a self-contained class were given two units of instruction in science concepts in a crossover design, with each student receiving both mnemonic and traditional instruction. Student learning was significantly improved under mnemonic instruction, and high levels of concept retention were…

  10. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  11. Prison Rehabilitation: Concept Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    A self-help project called Concept Associates, Inc., was started at Parish Prison in New Orleans. While most penal rehabilitation programs educate inmates and teach them a trade, the work of Concept is more thorough. The inmates aid each other with their problems by concentrating on inner changes and the power of positive thinking through four…

  12. Concept Empiricism: A Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machery, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to Barsalou's, Damasio's, Glenberg's, Prinz' and others' work, neo-empiricism is gaining a deserved recognition in the psychology and philosophy of concepts. I argue, however, that neo-empiricists have underestimated the difficulty of providing evidence against the amodal approach to concepts and higher cognition. I highlight three key…

  13. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  14. Fijian Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayal, Hem Chand; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's conceptions are important as they could have a strong influence on their professional practices. This study set out to explore Fijian teacher's conceptions of assessment. Seventy teachers enrolled in an assessment course at a university in Fiji were involved in this study. Data was collected by asking teachers to write a reflection on…

  15. The Greek Concept of "Techne."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    The Greek concept of techne can aid in understanding technological society and the way it can generate a separation of business and personal lives. As used by the early Greeks, techne mean the knowledge required to get the job done. The "manager" of today epitomizes this early concept. He is trained to get the job done efficiently,…

  16. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  17. New Concepts in Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    The 30th annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Minneapolis in 1968. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "A Fresh Look at Industrial Arts," (2) "New Curricular Concepts," (3) "Making Education Relevant," (4) "Industrial Arts in an Educational System for the Seventies," (5) "New Concepts in…

  18. Does object view influence the scene consistency effect?

    PubMed

    Sastyin, Gergo; Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Traditional research on the scene consistency effect only used clearly recognizable object stimuli to show mutually interactive context effects for both the object and background components on scene perception (Davenport & Potter in Psychological Science, 15, 559-564, 2004). However, in real environments, objects are viewed from multiple viewpoints, including an accidental, hard-to-recognize one. When the observers named target objects in scenes (Experiments 1a and 1b, object recognition task), we replicated the scene consistency effect (i.e., there was higher accuracy for the objects with consistent backgrounds). However, there was a significant interaction effect between consistency and object viewpoint, which indicated that the scene consistency effect was more important for identifying objects in the accidental view condition than in the canonical view condition. Therefore, the object recognition system may rely more on the scene context when the object is difficult to recognize. In Experiment 2, the observers identified the background (background recognition task) while the scene consistency and object views were manipulated. The results showed that object viewpoint had no effect, while the scene consistency effect was observed. More specifically, the canonical and accidental views both equally provided contextual information for scene perception. These findings suggested that the mechanism for conscious recognition of objects could be dissociated from the mechanism for visual analysis of object images that were part of a scene. The "context" that the object images provided may have been derived from its view-invariant, relatively low-level visual features (e.g., color), rather than its semantic information.

  19. Seeing the System through the End Users' Eyes: Shadow Expert Technique for Evaluating the Consistency of a Learning Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Stickel, Christian; Fassold, Markus; Ebner, Martin

    Interface consistency is an important basic concept in web design and has an effect on performance and satisfaction of end users. Consistency also has significant effects on the learning performance of both expert and novice end users. Consequently, the evaluation of consistency within a e-learning system and the ensuing eradication of irritating discrepancies in the user interface redesign is a big issue. In this paper, we report of our experiences with the Shadow Expert Technique (SET) during the evaluation of the consistency of the user interface of a large university learning management system. The main objective of this new usability evaluation method is to understand the interaction processes of end users with a specific system interface. Two teams of usability experts worked independently from each other in order to maximize the objectivity of the results. The outcome of this SET method is a list of recommended changes to improve the user interaction processes, hence to facilitate high consistency.

  20. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"--A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Jakobsson Ung, Eva; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  1. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"-A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  2. Continuity means “preserving a consistent whole”—A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants’ daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants’ experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier

  3. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  4. Structural concepts for large solar concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.; Miller, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    The Sunflower large solar concentrator, developed in the early 1970's, is a salient example of a high-efficiency concentrator. The newly emphasized needs for solar dynamic power on the Space Station and for large, lightweight thermal sources are outlined. Existing concepts for high efficiency reflector surfaces are examined with attention to accuracy needs for concentration rates of 1000 to 3000. Concepts using stiff reflector panels are deemed most likely to exhibit the long-term consistent accuracy necessary for low-orbit operation, particularly for the higher concentration ratios. Quantitative results are shown of the effects of surface errors for various concentration and focal-length diameter ratios. Cost effectiveness is discussed. Principal sources of high cost include the need for various dished panels for paraboloidal reflectors and the expense of ground testing and adjustment. A new configuration is presented addressing both problems, i.e., a deployable Pactruss backup structure with identical panels installed on the structure after deployment in space. Analytical results show that with reasonable pointing errors, this new concept is capable of concentration ratios greater than 2000.

  5. Development of the Embedded Membrane Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Nick R. Mann; R. S. Herbst; T. L. Trowbridge

    2004-04-01

    Recent evaluations in the field of biomass separations have resulted in a novel concept termed the “embedded membrane.” Biomass solutions, which typically consist of a sludge-like material, contain a wide range of particle types and concentrations. These highly abusive solutions have the potential to cause reduced flux and even catastrophic failure through erosion mechanisms within the membrane. The embedded membrane concept relies on embedding finer, filtration inducing particles (e.g. ceramic such as TiO2) into the interstices of a macroporous support (e.g., sintered metal such as sintered stainless steel). It is believed that the embedded membrane would be resistant to erosion processes, since only the macroporous support material would be subjected to the harsh hydrodynamic properties of the flowing bulk process fluid. Moreover, the finer, filtration inducing embedded particles that provide the necessary filtration efficiency are protected from the bulk process fluid. In an effort to investigate the embedded membrane concept, samples of sintered stainless steel membranes embedded with ceramic particles have been prepared.

  6. X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An initial concept study for the X-ray Surveyor mission was carried-out by the Advanced Concept Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), with a strawman payload and related requirements that were provided by an Informal Mission Concept Team, comprised of MSFC and Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory (SAO) scientists plus a diverse cross-section of the X-ray community. The study included a detailed assessment of the requirements, a preliminary design, a mission analysis, and a preliminary cost estimate. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades, such as Con-X, AXSIO and IXO, and in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  7. Consistency test for simple specifications of automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chebotarev, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    This article continues the topic of functional synthesis of automaton systems for discrete-information processing. A language of functional specification of automaton systems based on the logic of one-place predicates of an integer argument has been described. A specification in this language defines a nondeterministic superword X-Y-function, i.e., a function that maps superwords in the alphabet X into sets of superwords in the alphabet Y (the alphabets X and Y are specification-dependent), which corresponds to an initialized nondeterministic X-Y-automaton. The specification G is consistent if the function defined by the specification corresponds to an automaton A{sub G} with a nonempty state set. Consistency tests for the initial specification and for various intermediate specifications obtained in the process of functional synthesis of the automaton system are of fundamental importance for the verificational method of automaton system design developed in the framework of the proposed topic. We need sufficiently efficient algorithms to test consistency of specifications. An algorithm proposal constructs the coresponding automaton A{sub G} for any simple specifications G. The consistency of a specification is thus decided constructively. However, this solution is not always convenient, because it usually involves a highly time-consuming procedure to construct a nondeterministic automaton with a very large number of states. In this paper, we propose a convenient approach that combines automaton and logic methods and established consistency or inconsistency of a specification without constructing the corresponding autmaton.

  8. Consistency of response and image recognition, pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M A Q; Galvan, E; Bassett, R; Murphy, W A; Matamoros, A; Marom, E M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of recognition of a previously encountered radiograph on consistency of response in localized pulmonary nodules. Methods: 13 radiologists interpreted 40 radiographs each to locate pulmonary nodules. A few days later, they again interpreted 40 radiographs. Half of the images in the second set were new. We asked the radiologists whether each image had been in the first set. We used Fisher's exact test and Kruskal–Wallis test to evaluate the correlation between recognition of an image and consistency in its interpretation. We evaluated the data using all possible recognition levels—definitely, probably or possibly included vs definitely, probably or possibly not included by collapsing the recognition levels into two and by eliminating the “possibly included” and “possibly not included” scores. Results: With all but one of six methods of looking at the data, there was no significant correlation between consistency in interpretation and recognition of the image. When the possibly included and possibly not included scores were eliminated, there was a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.04) with slightly greater consistency in interpretation of recognized than that of non-recognized images. Conclusion: We found no convincing evidence that radiologists' recognition of images in an observer performance study affects their interpretation on a second encounter. Advances in knowledge: Conscious recognition of chest radiographs did not result in a greater degree of consistency in the tested interpretation than that in the interpretation of images that were not recognized. PMID:24697724

  9. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  10. Pulsed laser photoacoustic monitoring of paper pulp consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Törmänen, Matti; Myllylä, Risto

    2008-06-01

    This study involves measurements of pulp consistency in cuvette and by an online apparatus, by innovatively scattering photoacoustic (SPA) method. The theoretical aspects were described at first. Then, a few kinds of wood fiber suspensions with consistencies from 0.5% to 5% were studied in cuvette. After that, a pilot of online apparatus was built to measure suspensions with fiber consistency lower than 1% and filler content up to 3%. The results showed that although there were many fiber flocks in cuvette which strongly affected the measurement accuracy of samples consistencies, the apparatus can sense fiber types with different optical and acoustic properties. The measurement accuracy can be greatly improved in the online style apparatus, by pumping suspension fluids in a circulating system to improve the suspension homogeneity. The results demonstrated that wood fibers cause larger attenuation of acoustic waves but fillers do not. On the other hand, fillers cause stronger scattering of incident light. Therefore, our SPA apparatus has a potential ability to simultaneously determine fiber and filler fractions in pulp suspensions with consistency up to 5%.

  11. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  12. Quality and Consistency of the NASA Ocean Color Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) recently reprocessed the multimission ocean color time-series from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua, and MODIS-Terra using common algorithms and improved instrument calibration knowledge. Here we present an analysis of the quality and consistency of the resulting ocean color retrievals, including spectral water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration, and diffuse attenuation. Statistical analysis of satellite retrievals relative to in situ measurements will be presented for each sensor, as well as an assessment of consistency in the global time-series for the overlapping periods of the missions. Results will show that the satellite retrievals are in good agreement with in situ measurements, and that the sensor ocean color data records are highly consistent over the common mission lifespan for the global deep oceans, but with degraded agreement in higher productivity, higher complexity coastal regions.

  13. Testing and extending the inflationary consistency relation for tensor modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Latham; Smith, Kendrick M.; Dvorkin, Cora; Turok, Neil

    2015-08-01

    If observations confirm BICEP2's claim of a tensor-scalar ratio r ≈0.2 on CMB scales, then the inflationary consistency relation nt=-r /8 predicts a small negative value for the tensor spectral index nt. We show that future CMB polarization experiments should be able to confirm this prediction at several sigma. We also show how to properly extend the consistency relation to solar system scales, where the primordial gravitational wave density Ωgw could be measured by proposed experiments such as the Big Bang Observer. This would provide a far more stringent test of the consistency relation and access much more detailed information about the early Universe.

  14. 'Constraint consistency' at all orders in cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Debottam; Shankaranarayanan, S. E-mail: shanki@iisertvm.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    We study the equivalence of two—order-by-order Einstein's equation and Reduced action—approaches to cosmological perturbation theory at all orders for different models of inflation. We point out a crucial consistency check which we refer to as 'Constraint consistency' condition that needs to be satisfied in order for the two approaches to lead to identical single variable equation of motion. The method we propose here is quick and efficient to check the consistency for any model including modified gravity models. Our analysis points out an important feature which is crucial for inflationary model building i.e., all 'constraint' inconsistent models have higher order Ostrogradsky's instabilities but the reverse is not true. In other words, one can have models with constraint Lapse function and Shift vector, though it may have Ostrogradsky's instabilities. We also obtain single variable equation for non-canonical scalar field in the limit of power-law inflation for the second-order perturbed variables.

  15. A measure of within-participant response consistency.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Justin A; Trafimow, David

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we introduce a measure of within-participant response consistency for use in the analysis of performance in decision-making tasks. The measure is an estimate of the correlation between the responses associated with two identical blocks of trials, the second of which has yet to be conducted. We derive a formula for the measure that can be applied to data from any two-choice decision task, including yes/no detection and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). The estimate is easily calculated from the observed frequencies of hits, misses, false alarms, and correct rejections. We utilized data from an actual 2AFC experiment to compare estimated and observed consistency values; the estimates accounted for more than 90 % of the variability in observed consistency scores. We also discuss potential applications of the measure.

  16. Consistency of daily cigarette smoking amount in dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Jao, Nancy C; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-09-01

    Self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) is a very common screening as well as dependent or independent measure in clinical and nonclinical research on smoking, but the consistency of CPD across days in dependent smokers is uncertain. Adult dependent smokers (N = 357; 170 men, 187 women) retrospectively reported "usual" CPD at screening and then prospectively self-monitored CPD on 3 consecutive days of 1 week during an ad libitum baseline period. Participants were those recruited for later tests of brief medication effects in those with high (n = 170) versus low (n = 187) interest in quitting smoking soon (within 3 months). Consistency was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Prospective daily CPD was generally consistent (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI of 0.74-0.81), but CPD changed (increased or decreased) by 5 cigarettes/day or more in 40% of participants and by at least 10/day in 10%. Consistency in CPD was greater in higher dependent smokers and in women with low (vs. high) quit interest, but consistency tended to be greater in men with high (vs. low) quit interest. Although retrospectively reported CPD at screening was consistent with the overall mean for prospectively monitored daily CPD, 15% of participants differed by at least 5/day between methods, and digit bias was twice as likely with retrospective versus prospective CPD, which was at chance levels. Understanding variability in CPD may improve knowledge of dependence and factors that foster or discourage daily smoking amount, but precise assessment of daily CPD likely requires prospective monitoring.

  17. Plasma Sail Concept Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Delamere, P.; Kabin, K.; Linde, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    The mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion (M2P2) device, originally proposed by Winglee et al., predicts that a 15-km standoff distance (or 20-km cross-sectional dimension) of the magnetic bubble will provide for sufficient momentum transfer from the solar wind to accelerate a spacecraft to unprecedented speeds of 50 C80 km/s after an acceleration period of 3 mo. Such velocities will enable travel out of the solar system in period of 7 yr almost an order of magnitude improvement over present chemical-based propulsion systems. However, for the parameters of the simulation of Winglee et al., a fluid model for the interaction of M2P2 with the solar wind is not valid. It is assumed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid model, normally applied to planetary magnetospheres, that the characteristic scale size is much greater than the Larmor radius and ion skin depth of the solar wind. In the case of M2P2, the size of the magnetic bubble is actually less than or comparable to the scale of these characteristic parameters. Therefore, a kinetic approach, which addresses the small-scale physical mechanisms, must be used. A two-component approach to determining a preliminary estimate of the momentum transfer to the plasma sail has been adopted. The first component is a self-consistent MHD simulation of the small-scale expansion phase of the magnetic bubble. The fluid treatment is valid to roughly 5 km from the source and the steady-state MHD solution at the 5 km boundary was then used as initial conditions for the hybrid simulation. The hybrid simulations showed that the forces delivered to the innermost regions of the plasma sail are considerably ( 10 times) smaller than the MHD counterpart, are dominated by the magnetic field pressure gradient, and are directed primarily in the transverse direction.

  18. A consistent measure for lattice Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of a consistent measure for Yang-Mills is a precondition for an accurate formulation of nonperturbative approaches to QCD, both analytical and numerical. Using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice to the structure group, a consistent interaction measure and an infinite-dimensional calculus have been constructed for a theory of non-Abelian generalized connections on a hypercubic lattice. Here, after reviewing and clarifying past work, new results are obtained for the mass gap when the structure group is compact.

  19. Model consistency in large eddy simulation of turbulent channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Ferziger, Joel H.; Moin, Parviz

    1988-01-01

    Combinations of filters and subgrid scale stress models for large eddy simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are examined by a priori tests and numerical simulations. The structure of the subgrid scales is found to depend strongly on the type of filter used, and consistency between model and filter is essential to ensure accurate results. The implementation of consistent combinations of filter and model gives more accurate turbulence statistics than those obtained in previous investigations in which the models were chosen independently from the filter. Results and limitations of the a priori test are discussed. The effect of grid refinement is also examined.

  20. Spin-Isospin Resonances: A Self-Consistent Covariant Description

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Haozhao; Nguyen Van Giai; Meng Jie

    2008-09-19

    For the first time a fully self-consistent charge-exchange relativistic RPA based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach is established. The self-consistency is verified by the so-called isobaric analog state (IAS) check. The excitation properties and the nonenergy weighted sum rules of two important charge-exchange excitation modes, the Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR) and the spin-dipole resonance (SDR), are well reproduced in the doubly magic nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb without readjustment of the particle-hole residual interaction. The dominant contribution of the exchange diagrams is demonstrated.

  1. Consistency of heterogeneous synchronization patterns in complex weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagarriga, D.; Villa, A. E. P.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Pons, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization within the dynamical nodes of a complex network is usually considered homogeneous through all the nodes. Here we show, in contrast, that subsets of interacting oscillators may synchronize in different ways within a single network. This diversity of synchronization patterns is promoted by increasing the heterogeneous distribution of coupling weights and/or asymmetries in small networks. We also analyze consistency, defined as the persistence of coexistent synchronization patterns regardless of the initial conditions. Our results show that complex weighted networks display richer consistency than regular networks, suggesting why certain functional network topologies are often constructed when experimental data are analyzed.

  2. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Parks, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  3. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; ...

    2017-01-03

    In this paper, we present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier–Stokes, Poisson–Boltzmann, and advection–diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. Lastly, the new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  4. Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James M.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Nieberding, Megan; Antonellis, Jessie C.

    2014-11-01

    Radiation is an essential topic to the physical sciences yet is often misunderstood by the general public. The last time most people have formal instruction about radiation is as students in high school and this knowledge will be carried into adulthood. Peoples’ conceptions of radiation influence their attitude towards research regarding radiation, radioactivity, and other work where radiation is prevalent. In order to understand students’ ideas about radiation after having left high school, we collected science surveys from nearly 12,000 undergraduates enrolled in introductory science courses over a span of 25 years. This research investigates the relationship between students’ conceptions of radiation and students’ personal beliefs and academic field of study.Our results show that many students in the sample were unable to adequately describe radiation. Responses were typically vague, brief, and emotionally driven. Students’ field of study was found to significantly correlate with their conceptions. Students pursuing STEM majors were 60% more likely to describe radiation as an emission and/or form of energy and cited atomic or radioactive sources of radiation twice as often as non-STEM students. Additionally, students’ personal beliefs also appear to relate to their conceptions of radiation. The most prominent misconception shown was that radiation is a generically harmful substance, which was found to be consistent throughout the duration of the study. In particular, non-science majors in our sample had higher rates of misconceptions, often generalized the idea of radiation into a broad singular topic, and had difficulty properly identifying sources.Generalized ideas of radiation and the inability to properly recognize sources of radiation may contribute to the prevalent misconception that radiation is an inexplicably dangerous substance. A basic understanding of both electromagnetic and particulate radiation and the existence of radiation at various

  5. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  6. Decreased Self-Concept Clarity in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, David C.; Martin, Elizabeth A; Becker, Theresa M.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in the perception of self are thought to be central to the development of psychosis. Self-concept clarity (SCC) is the extent to which one’s beliefs about oneself are internally consistent, stable, and clear. Participants with schizophrenia (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 32) completed the Me Not-Me Decision Task (MNMDT), in which they decided whether 60 adjectives (30 pairs of antonyms), did or did not describe themselves. SCC is conceptualized as the number of consistent responses. Participants also completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS). Compared to healthy controls, participants with schizophrenia scored lower on the MNMDT and SCCS, and scores were negatively correlated with positive and negative symptoms. In a simultaneous regression, SCCS scores were uniquely associated with positive symptoms, while MNMDT scores were uniquely associated with negative symptoms. This suggests that people with schizophrenia have decreased self-concept claritythat is related to positive and negative symptoms. PMID:26669980

  7. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  8. The Influence of Consistent Assignment on Nursing Home Deficiency Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The association of consistent assignment of nurse aides (NAs) with quality of care and quality of life of nursing home residents is examined (using 5 groups of deficiency citations). Methods: Data used came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The…

  9. [Consistent presentation of medical images based on CPI integration profile].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; An, Ji-ye; Chen, Zhong-yong; Lu, Xu-dong; Duan, Hui-long

    2007-11-01

    Because of different display parameters and other factors, digital medical images present different display states in different section offices of a hospital. Based on CPI integration profile of IHE, this paper implements the consistent presentation of medical images, and it is helpful for doctors to carry out medical treatments of teamwork.

  10. Indexing Consistency: The Input/Output Function of Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Phyllis; Biever, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted to determine how well subject authority lists, or thesauri, control indexing vocabulary. Indexer consistency using the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) thesaurus was tested by comparing indexing done by CAB and by National Agricultural Library (NAL) indexers. (six references) (LRW)

  11. A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…

  12. Internal Consistencies of the Original and Revised Beck Depression Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron, T.; Steer, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Compared versions of the Beck Depression Inventory in psychiatric patients. The alpha coefficient for 598 inpatients and outpatients on the 1961 version was .88, and the alpha coefficient for 248 outpatients on the 1978 version was .86. Concluded that the internal consistencies of both versions were comparable. (JAC)

  13. The Developmental Turnpoint of Orthographic Consistency Effects in Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's online auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 4 to the end of Grade 9 by examining the orthographic consistency effect in auditory lexical decision. Fourth-graders showed evidence of a widespread influence of orthography in their spoken word recognition system; words with rimes that…

  14. Brief Report: Consistency of Search Engine Rankings for Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the…

  15. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  16. The Consistency of Peer Review in Student Writing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Simkin, Mark G.

    1995-01-01

    Each paper written by 60 sophomores in computer classes received 3 peer evaluations using a structured evaluation process. Overall, students were able to grade efficiently and consistently in terms of overall score and selected criteria (subject matter, content, and mechanics). (SK)

  17. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  18. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  19. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  20. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  1. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  2. A consistent set of trial functions for conical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1980-01-01

    A consistent approach is developed for the determination of trial functions for a class of shells of revolution. The trial functions satisfy the in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions at the shell ends and include the effects of tangential inertia. The resulting expressions converge rapidly for the problem of linear free vibration

  3. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams-Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  4. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, Gary

    2005-07-01

    A valid fluid equation of state must satisfy the thermodynamic differential conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Typical software interfaces to tabular equations of state based on polynomial or rational interpolants compute derivatives of pressure and energy and may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives, which is important for the computation of dimensionless quantities associated with more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a new type of table interface derived from a constrained local least squares regression technique. Application to several SESAME tables shows the consistency condition can be satisfied to round-off with third-order accuracy. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the new method is two orders of magnitude slower, due to solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. The new approach can be used to construct consistent and stable tables of derivatives, however.

  5. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

    PubMed

    Dilts, Gary A

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative.

  6. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, Gary A.

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative.

  7. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  8. Evaluation of Controlled Vocabularies by Inter-Indexer Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Concha Soler; Gil-Leiva, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several controlled vocabularies are used for indexing three journal articles to check if better or equal consistency rates are achieved with a list of descriptors than with a standard thesaurus and augmented thesaurus. Method: A terminology set for library and information Science was used to build a list of descriptors with…

  9. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency requirements. 1610.3-2 Section 1610.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  10. On the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dowker, F. |; Kent, A.

    1996-03-01

    We review the consistent histories formulations of quantum mechanics developed by Griffiths, Omnes, Gell-Man, and Hartle, and we describe the classifications of consistent sets. We illustrate some general features of consistent sets by a few lemmas and examples. We also consider various interpretations of the formalism, and we examine the new problems which arise in reconstructing the past and predicting the future. It is shown that Omnes characterization of true statements---statements that can be deduced unconditionally in his interpretation---is incorrect. We examine critically Gell-Mann and Hartle`s interpretation of the formalism, and in particular, their discussions of communication, prediction, and retrodiction, and we conclude that their explanation of the apparent persistence of quasiclassicality relies on assumptions about an as-yet-unknown theory of experience. Our overall conclusion is that the consistent histories approach illustrates the need to supplement quantum mechanics by some selection principle in order to produce a fundamental theory capable of unconditional predictions.

  11. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zamick

    2008-11-07

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with "anomoulous" magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them.The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  12. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams–Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  13. Discrete anomalies in supergravity and consistency of string backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasian, Ruben; Sasmal, Soumya; Savelli, Raffaele

    2017-02-01

    We examine SL(2, ℤ) anomalies in ten and eight-dimensional supergravities, the induced local counterterms and their realization in string theory. Composite connections play an important rôle in the cancellation mechanism. At the same time their global properties lead to novel non-trivial consistency constraints on compactifications.

  14. Regolith breccia consisting of H and LL chondrite mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Kojima, Hideyasu

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Yamato-8424 (Y-8424) is a regolith breccia that is homogenized mixture of H and LL chondrite components. The breccia consists mainly of a fine-grained material with mineral fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and Fe-Ni metal with traces of plagioclase.

  15. Improving consistency in student evaluation at affiliated family practice centers.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, H K

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Family Medicine at Jefferson Medical College has since 1974 been successful in administering a required third-year family medicine clerkship, providing students with a structured, didactic, and experiential curriculum in six affiliated family practice centers. Prior analysis (1976-1981) had indicated, however, that variation existed in evaluating similar students, depending on the clerkship training site, i.e., three sites graded students in a significantly different fashion than the three other sites. Utilizing these data to focus on the evaluation process, a comprehensive and specific six-point plan was developed to improve consistency in evaluations at the different training sites. This plan consisted of a yearly meeting of affiliate faculty, assigning predoctoral training administrative responsibility to one faculty member at each training site, increased telephone communication, affiliate-faculty attendance at the university site evaluation session, faculty rotation to spend time at other training sites, and financial reimbursement to the affiliate training sites. After intervention, analysis (1981-1983) indicated that five of the six clerkship sites now grade students in a consistent fashion, with only one affiliate using different grading standards. The intervention was therefore judged to be successful for five of the six training sites, allowing for better communication and more critical and consistent evaluation of medical students.

  16. The Teenage Nonviolence Test: Internal Consistency and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Weedman, Jonathon; Sonnen, Jennifer; Grubb, Celeste; Hirose, Masa

    This research study was designed to establish the reliability of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT). The consistency and factor structure of the TNT using a sample of 376 adolescents were evaluated. The stability of the TNT was assessed over time by administering the TNT twice with a two week intervening interval to 87 adolescents. The TNT appears…

  17. Evaluating reflective writing for appropriateness, fairness, and consistency.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Monica Metrick; Misselwitz, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    Nurse educators are divided about how to best evaluate nursing students' reflective writings for evidence of critical thinking. This article reports on a study of consistency among faculty in grading writing in reflective journals. The results indicate a lack of consensus with regard to evaluation and differences among faculty with regard to how they view the purpose of such exercises.

  18. Consistency of Response Patterns in Different Estimation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tang, Joey

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at addressing two issues concerning children's estimation performance: (1) to investigate whether the log-to-linear framework or the proportional judgment framework provided a better explanation of children's estimation patterns, and (2) to examine the consistency of response patterns in different estimation tasks. A sample…

  19. Quantum state space as a maximal consistent set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    2012-02-01

    Measurement statistics in quantum theory are obtained from the Born rule and the uniqueness of the probability measure it assigns through quantum states is guaranteed by Gleason's theorem. Thus, a possible systematic way of exploring the geometry of quantum state space expresses quantum states in terms of outcome probabilities of a symmetric informationally complete measurement. This specific choice for representing quantum states is motivated by how the associated probability space provides a natural venue for characterizing the set of quantum states as a geometric construct called a maximal consistent set. We define the conditions for consistency and maximality of a set, provide some examples of maximal consistent sets and attempt to deduce the steps for building up a maximal consistent set of probability distributions equivalent to Hilbert space. In particular, we demonstrate how the reconstruction procedure works for qutrits and observe how it reveals an elegant underlying symmetry among five SIC-POVMs and a complete set of mutually unbiased bases, known in finite affine geometry as the Hesse configuration.

  20. Consistency of Response Style Across Types of Response Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, J.W.; Yeager, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    In examining response style effects on various commonly used fixed-response formats, Likert-type formats were relatively consistently affected regardless of the number of format categories. Nonanchored numbers were less affected. Across types, strong correlations for the linear formats and human faces made their use problematic. (Author/CM)